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Title:
MACROCYCLIC SULFONYLUREA DERIVATIVES USEFUL AS NLRP3 INHIBITORS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2021/032591
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to macrocyclic compounds, such as macrocyclic sulfonyl ureas. The present invention further relates to associated salts, solvates, prodrugs and pharmaceutical compositions and to the use of such compounds in the treatment and prevention of medical disorders and diseases, most especially by NLRP 3 inhibition.

Inventors:
COOPER MATTHEW (GB)
MILLER DAVID (GB)
MACLEOD ANGUS (GB)
ALANINE THOMAS (GB)
THOM STEPHEN (GB)
SHANNON JONATHAN (GB)
CARRILLO ARREGUI JOKIN (GB)
ST-GALLAY STEPHEN (GB)
Application Number:
EP2020/072759
Publication Date:
February 25, 2021
Filing Date:
August 13, 2020
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
INFLAZOME LTD (IE)
International Classes:
C07D515/08; A61K31/439; A61P29/00; C07D515/18; C07D515/22
Domestic Patent References:
WO2019068772A12019-04-11
WO2016131098A12016-08-25
WO2016131098A12016-08-25
WO2017129897A12017-08-03
WO2017140778A12017-08-24
WO2017184623A12017-10-26
WO2017184624A12017-10-26
WO2018015445A12018-01-25
WO2018136890A12018-07-26
WO2018215818A12018-11-29
WO2019008025A12019-01-10
WO2019008029A12019-01-10
WO2019034686A12019-02-21
WO2019034688A12019-02-21
WO2019034690A12019-02-21
WO2019034692A12019-02-21
WO2019034693A12019-02-21
WO2019034696A12019-02-21
WO2019034697A12019-02-21
WO2019043610A12019-03-07
WO2019092170A12019-05-16
WO2019092171A12019-05-16
WO2019092172A12019-05-16
WO2019166619A12019-09-06
WO2019166621A12019-09-06
WO2019166623A12019-09-06
WO2018225018A12018-12-13
WO2019023145A12019-01-31
WO2019023147A12019-01-31
WO2019068772A12019-04-11
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Attorney, Agent or Firm:
JOHNSON, Stephen et al. (GB)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims 1. A compound of formula (I): wherein: J is -SO-, -SO2- or -SO(=NRj)-; Q is O or S; X is -NR2-; L is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbylene group, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally be substituted, and wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally include one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S in its carbon skeleton; -J-N(R1)-C(=Q)-X- and -L- together form a ring, such that the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-, -N(R1)-, -C(=Q)-, -X- and -L- is from 8 to 30 atoms; and each Rj, R1 and R2 is independently selected from hydrogen or a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the hydrocarbyl group may be straight- chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein the hydrocarbyl group may optionally be substituted, and wherein the hydrocarbyl group may optionally include one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S in its carbon skeleton. 2. A compound as claimed in claim 1, wherein J is -SO2-. 3. A compound as claimed in claim 1 or claim 2, wherein Q is O. 4. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein R1 is hydrogen and X is -NH-.

5. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein L is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbylene group, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may be straight- chained or branched, wherein the hydrocarbylene group includes an aromatic cyclic group directly attached to X, wherein the ring atom of the aromatic cyclic group that is directly attached to X is a carbon atom, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally include one or more further cyclic groups, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally be substituted, and wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally include one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S in its carbon skeleton. 6. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 5, having the formula (Ia): Q wherein: J, R1, Q and X are as previously defined; -J-N(R1)-C(=Q)-X- and -L1-L2-L3-L4- together form a ring, such that the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-, -N(R1)-, -C(=Q)-, -X-, -L1-, -L2-, -L3- and -L4- is from 8 to 30 atoms; L1 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 12- membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p- bonded substituents; L2 is an alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group, wherein the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S, and wherein the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and/or one or more p-bonded substituents; L3 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 12- membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p- bonded substituents; and L4 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 12- membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p- bonded substituents. 7. A compound as claimed in claim 6, wherein L1 is a bond. 8. A compound as claimed in claim 6, wherein L1 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, either of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. 9. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 6 to 8, wherein L2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or include a single monocyclic group, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and/or one or more p-bonded substituents. 10. A compound as claimed in claim 9, wherein L2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group is straight-chained or branched, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and/or one or more p-bonded substituents. 11. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 6 to 10, wherein L3 is a bond. 12. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 6 to 10, wherein L3 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered monocyclic heteroaryl group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents.

13. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 6 to 12, wherein the ring of the divalent monocyclic, bicyclic or tricyclic group of L4 that is directly attached to X is aromatic. 14. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 13, having the formula (Ib): wherein: J is -SO-, -SO2- or -SO(=NH)-; X is -NH-; -J-NH-C(=O)-X- and -L1-L2-L3-L4- together form a ring, such that the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-NH-C(=O)-X-, -L1-, -L2-, -L3- and -L4- is from 8 to 30 atoms; L1 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, wherein the divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group or divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents RL; L2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N and O, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups; L3 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more substituents RL; L4 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more substituents RL; the ring atom of L4 that is directly attached to L3 is at the a-position relative to the ring atom of L4 that is directly attached to X; each RL is independently selected from a C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 haloalkenyl, -R11-R12, -R11-CN, -R11-N3, -R11-NO2, -R11-N(R13)2, -R11-OR13, -R11-COR13, -R11-COOR13, -R11-CON(R13)2, -R11-C(=NR13)R13, -R11-C(=NR13)N(R13)2, -R11-C(=NOR13)R13, -R11-SO2R13 or -R11-SO2N(R13)2 group, and/or any two RL attached to the same divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L3 or L4 may, together with the atoms of the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group to which they are attached, form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 haloalkenyl, -R11-R12, -R11-CN, -R11-N3, -R11-NO2, -R11-N(R13)2, -R11-OR13, -R11-COR13, -R11-COOR13, -R11-CON(R13)2, -R11-C(=NR13)R13, -R11-C(=NR13)N(R13)2, -R11-C(=NOR13)R13, -R11-SO2R13 or -R11-SO2N(R13)2 group; each R11 is independently selected from a bond or a C1-C4 alkylene group, wherein the C1-C4 alkylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include a C3-C4 cycloalkylene group, and wherein the C1-C4 alkylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups; each R12 is independently selected from a 3- to 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from -CN, -NO2, -R14, -OH, -OR14, -NH2, -NHR14 and -N(R14)2; each R13 is independently selected from hydrogen or a C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 haloalkenyl, or 3- to 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from -CN, -NO2, -R14, -OH, -OR14, -NH2, -NHR14 and -N(R14)2, or any two R13 attached to the same nitrogen atom may together form a C2-C5 alkylene or C2-C5 haloalkylene group; and each R14 is independently selected from a C1-C4 alkyl or C1-C4 haloalkyl group. 15. A compound as claimed in claim 14, wherein L1 is a bond.

16. A compound as claimed in claim 14, wherein L1 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, wherein the divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group or divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents RL. 17. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 14 to 16, wherein L2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or include a single monocyclic group, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N and O, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and wherein L2 contains in total from 2 to 15 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. 18. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 14 to 17, wherein: (i) the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L4 is substituted at the a'-position, relative to the ring atom of L4 that is directly attached to X, with a C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 haloalkenyl, or 3- to 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 6- membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups; or (ii) the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L4 is ortho- fused to a 5- or 6-membered cyclic group across the a',b'-positions, relative to the ring atom of L4 that is directly attached to X, wherein the ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is optionally substituted with one or more halo groups. 19. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 13, having the formula (Ib): wherein: J is -SO-, -SO2- or -SO(=NH)-; X is -NH-; -J-NH-C(=O)-X- and -L1-L2-L3-L4- together form a ring, such that the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-NH-C(=O)-X-, -L1-, -L2-, -L3- and -L4- is from 8 to 30 atoms; L1 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, wherein the divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group or divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents RL; L2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N and O, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups; L3 is a bond; L4 is a phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein a ring atom of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is directly attached to X, wherein a first 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group across the a,b positions of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, relative to the ring atom that is directly attached to X, wherein a ring atom of the first fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is directly attached to L2, wherein optionally a second 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be further substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more substituents RL, and wherein either fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents RL; each RL is independently selected from a C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 haloalkenyl, -R11-R12, -R11-CN, -R11-N3, -R11-NO2, -R11-N(R13)2, -R11-OR13, -R11-COR13, -R11-COOR13, -R11-CON(R13)2, -R11-C(=NR13)R13, -R11-C(=NR13)N(R13)2, -R11-C(=NOR13)R13, -R11-SO2R13 or -R11-SO2N(R13)2 group; each R11 is independently selected from a bond or a C1-C4 alkylene group, wherein the C1-C4 alkylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include a C3-C4 cycloalkylene group, and wherein the C1-C4 alkylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups; each R12 is independently selected from a 3- to 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from -CN, -NO2, -R14, -OH, -OR14, -NH2, -NHR14 and -N(R14)2; each R13 is independently selected from hydrogen or a C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 haloalkenyl, or 3- to 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from -CN, -NO2, -R14, -OH, -OR14, -NH2, -NHR14 and -N(R14)2, or any two R13 attached to the same nitrogen atom may together form a C2-C5 alkylene or C2-C5 haloalkylene group; and each R14 is independently selected from a C1-C4 alkyl or C1-C4 haloalkyl group. 20. A compound as claimed in claim 19, wherein L1 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, wherein the divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group or divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents RL. 21. A compound as claimed in claim 19 or claim 20, wherein L2 is an alkylene group, wherein the alkylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or include a single monocyclic group, wherein the alkylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups, and wherein L2 contains in total from 2 to 15 carbon atoms. 22. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 19 to 21, wherein the ring atom of the first fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group of L4 that is directly attached to L2 is also directly attached to the ring atom at the a-position of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L4. 23. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 22, wherein the minimum single ring size that encompasses: (i) all or part of each of -J-, -N(R1)-, -C(=Q)-, -X- and -L-; or (ii) all or part of each of -J-, -N(R1)-, -C(=Q)-, -X-, -L1-, -L2-, -L3- and -L4-; or (iii) all or part of each of -J-NH-C(=O)-X-, -L1-, -L2-, -L3- and -L4-; is from 12 to 24 atoms.

24. A compound as claimed in claim 23, wherein the minimum single ring size that encompasses: (i) all or part of each of -J-, -N(R1)-, -C(=Q)-, -X- and -L-; or (ii) all or part of each of -J-, -N(R1)-, -C(=Q)-, -X-, -L1-, -L2-, -L3- and -L4-; or (iii) all or part of each of -J-NH-C(=O)-X-, -L1-, -L2-, -L3- and -L4-; is from 14 to 20 atoms. 25. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 24, having the formula (Ic): wherein: A1 and A3 are each independently selected from C and N, and A2, A4 and A5 are each independently selected from N, C-H, C-Hal and N-H, such that ring AC is a 5- membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; B1, B2, B3 and B4 are each independently selected from N, C-H and C-Hal, such that ring B is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; m is 0, 1 or 2; n is 0, 1 or 2; each RA is independently selected from -OH, -NH2, -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each RA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two RA attached to A4 and A5 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and RAA; each RAA is independently selected from -OH, -NH2, -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each RAA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; each RB is independently selected from a -CN, -NO2, -RB1, -OH, -ORB1, -NH2, -NHRB1 or -N(RB1)2 group, wherein each RB1 is independently selected from a C1-C4 alkyl or C1-C4 fluoroalkyl group; each Hal is independently selected from F, Cl or Br; L2 is a straight-chained alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the straight- chained alkylene or alkenylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups RL2, wherein each RL2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C1-C4 alkyl, -O-(C1-C4 alkyl), C1-C4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C1-C4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two RL2 may together with the atom(s) of the alkylene or alkenylene group to which they are attached form a 3- to 7-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 7-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups; R4 is selected from a C1-C4 alkyl, C1-C4 fluoroalkyl, C3-C6 cycloalkyl or C3-C6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R5 is selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R20)3 or -C(R20)2-OC(R20)3 group, or R4 and R5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH2CH2CH2-, -CH=CHCH2-, -CH2CH=CH-, -CH2CH2O- and -OCH2CH2-, wherein the divalent group formed by R4 and R5 may optionally be fluoro-substituted; R6 and R7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R20)3 or -C(R20)2-OC(R20)3 group; and each R20 is independently selected from hydrogen or F.

26. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 24, having the formula (Id): wherein: B1, B2, B3 and B4 are each independently selected from N, C-H and C-Hal, such that ring B is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; n is 0, 1 or 2; each RB is independently selected from a -CN, -NO2, -RB1, -OH, -ORB1, -NH2, -NHRB1 or -N(RB1)2 group, wherein each RB1 is independently selected from a C1-C4 alkyl or C1-C4 fluoroalkyl group; each Hal is independently selected from F, Cl or Br; L2 is a straight-chained alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the straight- chained alkylene or alkenylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups RL2, wherein each RL2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C1-C4 alkyl, -O-(C1-C4 alkyl), C1-C4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C1-C4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two RL2 may together with the atom(s) of the alkylene or alkenylene group to which they are attached form a 3- to 7-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 7-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups; R4 is selected from a C1-C4 alkyl, C1-C4 fluoroalkyl, C3-C6 cycloalkyl or C3-C6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R5 is selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R20)3 or -C(R20)2-OC(R20)3 group, or R4 and R5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH2CH2CH2-, -CH=CHCH2-, -CH2CH=CH-, -CH2CH2O- and -OCH2CH2-, wherein the divalent group formed by R4 and R5 may optionally be fluoro-substituted; R6 and R7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R20)3 or -C(R20)2-OC(R20)3 group; and each R20 is independently selected from hydrogen or F. 27. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 24, having the formula (Ie): wherein: A7, A8, A9 and A10 are each independently selected from N, C-H and C-Hal, such that ring Ae is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; B1, B2, B3 and B4 are each independently selected from N, C-H and C-Hal, such that ring B is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; q is 0, 1 or 2; n is 0, 1 or 2; each RA is independently selected from -OH, -NH2, -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each RA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two RA attached to A8 and A9 or to A9 and A10 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and RAA; each RAA is independently selected from -OH, -NH2, -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each RAA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; each RB is independently selected from a -CN, -NO2, -RB1, -OH, -ORB1, -NH2, -NHRB1 or -N(RB1)2 group, wherein each RB1 is independently selected from a C1-C4 alkyl or C1-C4 fluoroalkyl group; each Hal is independently selected from F, Cl or Br; L2 is a straight-chained alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the straight- chained alkylene or alkenylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups RL2, wherein each RL2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C1-C4 alkyl, -O-(C1-C4 alkyl), C1-C4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C1-C4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two RL2 may together with the atom(s) of the alkylene or alkenylene group to which they are attached form a 3- to 7-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 7-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups; R4 is selected from a C1-C4 alkyl, C1-C4 fluoroalkyl, C3-C6 cycloalkyl or C3-C6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R5 is selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R20)3 or -C(R20)2-OC(R20)3 group, or R4 and R5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH2CH2CH2-, -CH=CHCH2-, -CH2CH=CH-, -CH2CH2O- and -OCH2CH2-, wherein the divalent group formed by R4 and R5 may optionally be fluoro-substituted; R6 and R7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R20)3 or -C(R20)2-OC(R20)3 group; and each R20 is independently selected from hydrogen or F. 28. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 24, having the formula (If):

wherein: A1 and A3 are each independently selected from C and N, and A2, A4 and A5 are each independently selected from N, C-H, C-Hal and N-H, such that ring Af is a 5- membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; B1, B2, B3 and B4 are each independently selected from N, C-H and C-Hal, such that ring B is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; D1 is selected from C-R4 and N-R44, D2 is selected from N, O, S, C-R5 and N-R55, D3 is selected from N, O, S, C-R6 and N-R66, and D4 is selected from C and N, such that ring Df is a 5-membered heteroaryl ring containing at least two carbon atoms in its ring structure; m is 0, 1 or 2; n is 0, 1 or 2; each RA is independently selected from -OH, -NH2, -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each RA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two RA attached to A4 and A5 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and RAA; each RAA is independently selected from -OH, -NH2, -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each RAA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; each RB is independently selected from a -CN, -NO2, -RB1, -OH, -ORB1, -NH2, -NHRB1 or -N(RB1)2 group, wherein each RB1 is independently selected from a C1-C4 alkyl or C1-C4 fluoroalkyl group; each Hal is independently selected from F, Cl or Br; L2 is a straight-chained alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the straight- chained alkylene or alkenylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups RL2, wherein each RL2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C1-C4 alkyl, -O-(C1-C4 alkyl), C1-C4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C1-C4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two RL2 may together with the atom(s) of the alkylene or alkenylene group to which they are attached form a 3- to 7-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 7-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups; R4 and R44 are each selected from a C1-C4 alkyl, C1-C4 fluoroalkyl, C3-C6 cycloalkyl or C3-C6 fluorocycloalkyl group, R5 is selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R20)3 or -C(R20)2-OC(R20)3 group, and R55 is selected from hydrogen or a methyl, fluoromethyl or -C(R20)2-OC(R20)3 group, or R4 and R5 together, or R4 and R55 together, or R44 and R5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH2CH2CH2-, -CH=CHCH2-, -CH2CH=CH-, -CH2CH2O- and -OCH2CH2-, wherein the divalent group may optionally be fluoro-substituted, and wherein any oxygen atom of the divalent group is not directly attached to a nitrogen atom; R6 is selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R20)3 or -C(R20)2-OC(R20)3 group; R66 is selected from hydrogen or a methyl, fluoromethyl or -C(R20)2-OC(R20)3 group; and each R20 is independently selected from hydrogen or F. 29. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 24, having the formula (Ig):

wherein: A1 and A3 are each independently selected from C and N, and A2, A4 and A5 are each independently selected from N, C-H, C-Hal and N-H, such that ring Ag is a 5- membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; m is 0, 1 or 2; each RA is independently selected from -OH, -NH2, -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each RA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two RA attached to A4 and A5 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and RAA; each RAA is independently selected from -OH, -NH2, -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each RAA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; E1 is N, C-H or C-Hal, and E2 and E3 are each independently selected from O, N-H, N-Re, CH2, CH(Hal), CH(Re), C(Hal)2, C(Hal)(Re) and C(Re)2, such that E1, E2 and E3 together contain at most one nitrogen or oxygen atom; each Re is independently selected from a methyl or fluoromethyl group; each Hal is independently selected from F, Cl or Br; L2 is a straight-chained alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the straight- chained alkylene or alkenylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups RL2, wherein each RL2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C1-C4 alkyl, -O-(C1-C4 alkyl), C1-C4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C1-C4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two RL2 may together with the atom(s) of the alkylene or alkenylene group to which they are attached form a 3- to 7-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 7-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups; R4 is selected from a C1-C4 alkyl, C1-C4 fluoroalkyl, C3-C6 cycloalkyl or C3-C6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R5 is selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R20)3 or -C(R20)2-OC(R20)3 group, or R4 and R5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH2CH2CH2-, -CH=CHCH2-, -CH2CH=CH-, -CH2CH2O- and -OCH2CH2-, wherein the divalent group formed by R4 and R5 may optionally be fluoro-substituted; R6 is hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R20)3 or -C(R20)2-OC(R20)3 group; and each R20 is independently selected from hydrogen or F. 30. A compound selected from the group consisting of:

, 31. A pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug of a compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 30. 32. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 30, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug as claimed in claim 31, and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient. 33. A compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 30, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug as claimed in claim 31, or a pharmaceutical composition as claimed in claim 32, for use in medicine.

34. A compound, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, prodrug or pharmaceutical composition as claimed in claim 33, for use in the treatment or prevention of a disease, disorder or condition, wherein the disease, disorder or condition is responsive to NLRP3 inhibition. 35. A compound, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, prodrug or pharmaceutical composition as claimed in claim 33 or 34, for use in the treatment or prevention of a disease, disorder or condition, wherein the disease, disorder or condition is selected from: (i) inflammation; (ii) an auto-immune disease; (iii) cancer; (iv) an infection; (v) a central nervous system disease; (vi) a metabolic disease; (vii) a cardiovascular disease; (viii) a respiratory disease; (ix) a liver disease; (x) a renal disease; (xi) an ocular disease; (xii) a skin disease; (xiii) a lymphatic condition; (xiv) a psychological disorder; (xv) graft versus host disease; (xvi) pain; (xvii) a condition associated with diabetes; (xviii) a condition associated with arthritis; (xix) a headache; (xx) a wound or burn; and (xxi) any disease where an individual has been determined to carry a germline or somatic non-silent mutation in NLRP3. 36. A compound, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, prodrug or pharmaceutical composition as claimed in claim 33 or 34, for use in the treatment or prevention of a disease, disorder or condition, wherein the disease, disorder or condition is selected from: (i) cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS); (ii) Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS); (iii) familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS); (iv) neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID); (v) familial Mediterranean fever (FMF); (vi) pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum and acne syndrome (PAPA); (vii) hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS); (viii) Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptor-Associated Periodic Syndrome (TRAPS); (ix) systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis; (x) adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD); (xi) relapsing polychondritis; (xii) Schnitzler’s syndrome; (xiii) Sweet’s syndrome; (xiv) Behcet’s disease; (xv) anti-synthetase syndrome; (xvi) deficiency of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (DIRA); and (xvii) haploinsufficiency of A20 (HA20). 37. A method of inhibiting NLRP3, the method comprising the use of a compound as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 30, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug as claimed in claim 31, or a pharmaceutical composition as claimed in claim 32, to inhibit NLRP3.

Description:
Novel Compounds Field of the Invention The present invention relates to macrocyclic compounds, such as macrocyclic sulfonyl ureas. The present invention further relates to associated salts, solvates, prodrugs and pharmaceutical compositions, and to the use of such compounds in the treatment and prevention of medical disorders and diseases, most especially by NLRP3 inhibition. Background of the Invention The NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, pyrin domain–containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a component of the inflammatory process, and its aberrant activity is pathogenic in inherited disorders such as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) and complex diseases such as multiple sclerosis, type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease and atherosclerosis. NLRP3 is an intracellular signalling molecule that senses many pathogen-derived, environmental and host-derived factors. Upon activation, NLRP3 binds to apoptosis- associated speck-like protein containing a caspase activation and recruitment domain (ASC). ASC then polymerises to form a large aggregate known as an ASC speck. Polymerised ASC in turn interacts with the cysteine protease caspase-1 to form a complex termed the inflammasome. This results in the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves the precursor forms of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1b and IL-18 (termed pro-IL-1b and pro-IL-18 respectively) to thereby activate these cytokines. Caspase-1 also mediates a type of inflammatory cell death known as pyroptosis. The ASC speck can also recruit and activate caspase-8, which can process pro-IL-1b and pro-IL-18 and trigger apoptotic cell death. Caspase-1 cleaves pro-IL-1b and pro-IL-18 to their active forms, which are secreted from the cell. Active caspase-1 also cleaves gasdermin-D to trigger pyroptosis. Through its control of the pyroptotic cell death pathway, caspase-1 also mediates the release of alarmin molecules such as IL-33 and high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1). Caspase-1 also cleaves intracellular IL-1R2 resulting in its degradation and allowing the release of IL-1a. In human cells caspase-1 may also control the processing and secretion of IL-37. A number of other caspase-1 substrates such as components of the cytoskeleton and glycolysis pathway may contribute to caspase-1-dependent inflammation. NLRP3-dependent ASC specks are released into the extracellular environment where they can activate caspase-1, induce processing of caspase-1 substrates and propagate inflammation. Active cytokines derived from NLRP3 inflammasome activation are important drivers of inflammation and interact with other cytokine pathways to shape the immune response to infection and injury. For example, IL-1b signalling induces the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF. IL-1b and IL-18 synergise with IL-23 to induce IL-17 production by memory CD4 Th17 cells and by gd T cells in the absence of T cell receptor engagement. IL-18 and IL-12 also synergise to induce IFN-g production from memory T cells and NK cells driving a Th1 response. The inherited CAPS diseases Muckle–Wells syndrome (MWS), familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS) and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID) are caused by gain-of-function mutations in NLRP3, thus defining NLRP3 as a critical component of the inflammatory process. NLRP3 has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of complex diseases, notably including metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, obesity and gout. A role for NLRP3 in diseases of the central nervous system is emerging, and lung diseases have also been shown to be influenced by NLRP3. Furthermore, NLRP3 has a role in the development of liver disease, kidney disease and aging. Many of these associations were defined using Nlrp3 -/- mice, but there have also been insights into the specific activation of NLRP3 in these diseases. In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), the deposition of islet amyloid polypeptide in the pancreas activates NLRP3 and IL-1b signalling, resulting in cell death and inflammation. Several small molecules have been shown to inhibit the NLRP3 inflammasome. Glyburide inhibits IL-1b production at micromolar concentrations in response to the activation of NLRP3 but not NLRC4 or NLRP1. Other previously characterised weak NLRP3 inhibitors include parthenolide, 3,4-methylenedioxy-b-nitrostyrene and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), although these agents have limited potency and are nonspecific. Current treatments for NLRP3-related diseases include biologic agents that target IL-1. These are the recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra, the neutralizing IL-1b antibody canakinumab and the soluble decoy IL-1 receptor rilonacept. These approaches have proven successful in the treatment of CAPS, and these biologic agents have been used in clinical trials for other IL-1b-associated diseases. Some diarylsulfonylurea-containing compounds have been identified as cytokine release inhibitory drugs (CRIDs) (Perregaux et al., J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 299: 187-197, 2001). CRIDs are a class of diarylsulfonylurea-containing compounds that inhibit the post-translational processing of IL-1b. Post-translational processing of IL-1b is accompanied by activation of caspase-1 and cell death. CRIDs arrest activated monocytes so that caspase-1 remains inactive and plasma membrane latency is preserved. Certain sulfonylurea-containing compounds are also disclosed as inhibitors of NLRP3 (see for example, Baldwin et al., J. Med. Chem., 59(5), 1691-1710, 2016; and WO 2016/131098 A1, WO 2017/129897 A1, WO 2017/140778 A1, WO 2017/184623 A1, WO 2017/184624 A1, WO 2018/015445 A1, WO 2018/136890 A1, WO 2018/215818 A1, WO 2019/008025 A1, WO 2019/008029 A1, WO 2019/034686 A1, WO 2019/034688 A1, WO 2019/034690 A1, WO 2019/034692 A1, WO 2019/034693 A1, WO 2019/034696 A1, WO 2019/034697 A1, WO 2019/043610 A1, WO 2019/092170 A1, WO 2019/092171 A1, WO 2019/092172 A1, WO 2019/166619 A1, WO 2019/166621 A1 and WO 2019/166623 A1). Certain sulfoximine-containing compounds are also disclosed as inhibitors of NLRP3 (WO 2018/225018 A1, WO 2019/023145 A1, WO 2019/023147 A1, and WO 2019/068772 A1). There is a need to provide compounds with improved pharmacological and/or physiological and/or physicochemical properties and/or those that provide a useful alternative to known compounds. Summary of the Invention A first aspect of the invention provides a compound of formula (I):

wherein: J is -SO-, -SO 2 - or -SO(=NR j )-; Q is O or S; X is -NR 2 -; L is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbylene group, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally be substituted, and wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally include one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S in its carbon skeleton; -J-N(R 1 )-C(=Q)-X- and -L- together form a ring, such that the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-, -N(R 1 )-, -C(=Q)-, -X- and -L- is from 8 to 30 atoms; and each R j , R 1 and R 2 is independently selected from hydrogen or a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the hydrocarbyl group may be straight- chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein the hydrocarbyl group may optionally be substituted, and wherein the hydrocarbyl group may optionally include one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S in its carbon skeleton. In the context of the present specification, a “hydrocarbyl” substituent group or a hydrocarbyl moiety in a substituent group only includes carbon and hydrogen atoms but, unless stated otherwise, does not include any heteroatoms, such as N, O or S, in its carbon skeleton. A hydrocarbyl group/moiety may be saturated or unsaturated (including aromatic), and may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include cyclic groups wherein, unless stated otherwise, the cyclic group does not include any heteroatoms, such as N, O or S, in its carbon skeleton. Examples of hydrocarbyl groups include alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl and aryl groups/moieties and combinations of all of these groups/moieties. Typically a hydrocarbyl group is a C 1 -C 20 hydrocarbyl group. More typically a hydrocarbyl group is a C 1 -C 15 hydrocarbyl group. More typically a hydrocarbyl group is a C 1 -C 10 hydrocarbyl group. A “hydrocarbylene” group is similarly defined as a divalent hydrocarbyl group. An “alkyl” substituent group or an alkyl moiety in a substituent group may be linear (i.e. straight-chained) or branched. Examples of alkyl groups/moieties include methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, i-propyl, n-butyl, i-butyl, t-butyl and n-pentyl groups/moieties. Unless stated otherwise, the term “alkyl” does not include “cycloalkyl”. Typically an alkyl group is a C 1 -C 12 alkyl group. More typically an alkyl group is a C 1 -C 6 alkyl group. An “alkylene” group is similarly defined as a divalent alkyl group. An “alkenyl” substituent group or an alkenyl moiety in a substituent group refers to an unsaturated alkyl group or moiety having one or more carbon-carbon double bonds. Examples of alkenyl groups/moieties include ethenyl, propenyl, 1-butenyl, 2-butenyl, 1- pentenyl, 1-hexenyl, 1,3-butadienyl, 1,3-pentadienyl, 1,4-pentadienyl and 1,4- hexadienyl groups/moieties. Unless stated otherwise, the term “alkenyl” does not include “cycloalkenyl”. Typically an alkenyl group is a C 2 -C 12 alkenyl group. More typically an alkenyl group is a C 2 -C 6 alkenyl group. An “alkenylene” group is similarly defined as a divalent alkenyl group. An “alkynyl” substituent group or an alkynyl moiety in a substituent group refers to an unsaturated alkyl group or moiety having one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds. Examples of alkynyl groups/moieties include ethynyl, propargyl, but-1-ynyl and but-2- ynyl groups/moieties. Typically an alkynyl group is a C 2 -C 12 alkynyl group. More typically an alkynyl group is a C 2 -C 6 alkynyl group. An “alkynylene” group is similarly defined as a divalent alkynyl group. A “cyclic” substituent group or a cyclic moiety in a substituent group refers to any hydrocarbyl ring, wherein the hydrocarbyl ring may be saturated or unsaturated (including aromatic) and may include one or more heteroatoms, e.g. N, O or S, in its carbon skeleton. Examples of cyclic groups include cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocyclic, aryl and heteroaryl groups as discussed below. A cyclic group may be monocyclic, bicyclic (e.g. bridged, fused or spiro), or polycyclic. Typically, a cyclic group is a 3- to 12-membered cyclic group, which means it contains from 3 to 12 ring atoms. More typically, a cyclic group is a 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, which means it contains from 3 to 7 ring atoms. As used herein, where it is stated that a monovalent cyclic group is monocyclic, it is to be understood that the monovalent cyclic group is not substituted with a divalent bridging substituent (e.g. -O-, -S-, -NH-, -N(R b )-, -N(O)(R b )-, -N + (R b ) 2 - or -R a -) so as to form a bridged, fused or spiro substituent. However, unless stated otherwise, a substituted monovalent monocyclic group may be substituted with one or more further monovalent cyclic groups. Similarly, where it is stated that a monovalent cyclic group is bicyclic, it is to be understood that the monovalent cyclic group including any bridged, fused or spiro divalent bridging substituents attached to the monovalent cyclic group, but excluding any monovalent cyclic substituents, is bicyclic. Likewise, where it is stated that a divalent cyclic group is monocyclic, it is to be understood that while one or more bridged, fused or spiro ring structures may be formed via the two positions of attachment of the divalent cyclic group to the remainder of the molecule, the divalent cyclic group is not substituted at other positions with a divalent bridging substituent (e.g. -O-, -S-, -NH-, -N(R b )-, -N(O)(R b )-, -N + (R b ) 2 - or -R a -) so as to form a further bridged, fused or spiro substituent. However, unless stated otherwise, a substituted divalent monocyclic group may be substituted with one or more further monovalent cyclic groups. Similarly, where it is stated that a divalent cyclic group is bicyclic, it is to be understood that the divalent cyclic group including any bridged, fused or spiro divalent bridging substituents attached to the cyclic group, but excluding any monovalent cyclic substituents or any structures formed via the two positons of attachment of the divalent cyclic group to the remainder of the molecule, is bicyclic. A “heterocyclic” substituent group or a heterocyclic moiety in a substituent group refers to a cyclic group or moiety including one or more carbon atoms and one or more (such as one, two, three or four) heteroatoms, e.g. N, O or S, in the ring structure. Examples of heterocyclic groups include heteroaryl groups as discussed below and non-aromatic heterocyclic groups such as azetinyl, azetidinyl, oxetanyl, thietanyl, pyrrolidinyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, tetrahydrothiophenyl, pyrazolidinyl, imidazolidinyl, dioxolanyl, oxathiolanyl, piperidinyl, tetrahydropyranyl, thianyl, piperazinyl, dioxanyl, morpholinyl and thiomorpholinyl groups. A “cycloalkyl” substituent group or a cycloalkyl moiety in a substituent group refers to a saturated hydrocarbyl ring containing, for example, from 3 to 7 carbon atoms, examples of which include cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl and cyclohexyl. Unless stated otherwise, a cycloalkyl substituent group or moiety may include monocyclic, bicyclic or polycyclic hydrocarbyl rings. A “cycloalkenyl” substituent group or a cycloalkenyl moiety in a substituent group refers to a non-aromatic unsaturated hydrocarbyl ring having one or more carbon- carbon double bonds and containing, for example, from 3 to 7 carbon atoms, examples of which include cyclopent-1-en-1-yl, cyclohex-1-en-1-yl and cyclohex-1,3-dien-1-yl. Unless stated otherwise, a cycloalkenyl substituent group or moiety may include monocyclic, bicyclic or polycyclic hydrocarbyl rings. An “aryl” substituent group or an aryl moiety in a substituent group refers to an aromatic hydrocarbyl ring. The term “aryl” includes monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic fused ring aromatic hydrocarbons wherein all of the fused ring systems (excluding any ring systems which are part of or formed by optional substituents) are aromatic. Examples of aryl groups/moieties include phenyl, naphthyl, anthracenyl and phenanthrenyl. Unless stated otherwise, the term “aryl” does not include “heteroaryl”. A “heteroaryl” substituent group or a heteroaryl moiety in a substituent group refers to an aromatic heterocyclic group or moiety. The term “heteroaryl” includes monocyclic aromatic heterocycles and polycyclic fused ring aromatic heterocycles wherein all of the fused ring systems (excluding any ring systems which are part of or formed by optional substituents) are aromatic. Examples of heteroaryl groups/moieties include the following: wherein G = O, S or NH. Particular examples of 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl groups include furanyl, thiophenyl, pyrrolyl, imidazolyl, pyrazolyl, oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, thiazolyl, isothiazolyl, triazolyl, furazanyl, oxadiazolyl, thiadiazolyl, tetrazolyl, pyridinyl, pyridazinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl and triazinyl groups. Unless stated otherwise, where a cyclic group or moiety is stated to be non-aromatic, such as a cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl or non-aromatic heterocyclic group, it is to be understood that the group or moiety, excluding any ring systems which are part of or formed by substituents, is non-aromatic. Similarly, where a cyclic group or moiety is stated to be aromatic, such as an aryl or a heteroaryl group, it is to be understood that the group or moiety, excluding any ring systems which are part of or formed by substituents, is aromatic. A cyclic group or moiety is considered non-aromatic, when it does not have any tautomers that are aromatic. When a cyclic group or moiety has a tautomer that is aromatic, it is considered aromatic, even if it has tautomers that are not aromatic. By way of example, the following are considered aromatic heterocyclic groups, because they have an aromatic tautomer: For the avoidance of doubt, the term “non-aromatic heterocyclic group” does not exclude heterocyclic groups or moieties which may possess aromatic character only by virtue of mesomeric charge separation. For example, the following is considered a non- aromatic heterocyclic group, because it does not have an aromatic tautomer: because the last shown structure is not taken into consideration because of mesomeric charge separation. For the avoidance of doubt, where is is stated that a bicyclic or polycyclic group is “saturated” it is to be understood that all of the ring systems within the bicyclic or polycyclic group (excluding any ring systems which are part of or formed by optional substituents) are saturated. For the purposes of the present specification, where a combination of moieties is referred to as one group, for example, arylalkyl, arylalkenyl, arylalkynyl, alkylaryl, alkenylaryl or alkynylaryl, the last mentioned moiety contains the atom by which the group is attached to the rest of the molecule. An example of an arylalkyl group is benzyl. For the purposes of the present specification, in an optionally substituted group or moiety, such as L: (i) each hydrogen atom may optionally be replaced by a monovalent substituent independently selected from halo; -CN; -NO 2 ; -N3; -R b ; -OH; -OR b ; -R a -halo; -R a -CN; -R a -NO 2 ; -R a -N3; -R a -R b ; -R a -OH; -R a -OR b ; -SH; -SR b ; -SOR b ; -SO 2 H; -SO 2 R b ; -SO 2 NH 2 ; -SO 2 NHR b ; -SO 2 N(R b ) 2 ; -R a -SH; -R a -SR b ; -R a -SOR b ; -R a -SO 2 H; -R a -SO 2 R b ; -R a -SO 2 NH 2 ; -R a -SO 2 NHR b ; -R a -SO 2 N(R b ) 2 ; -Si(R b ) 3 ; -O-Si(R b ) 3 ; -R a -Si(R b ) 3 ; -R a -O-Si(R b ) 3 ; -NH 2 ; -NHR b ; -N(R b ) 2 ; -N(O)(R b ) 2 ; -N + (R b ) 3 ; -R a -NH 2 ; -R a -NHR b ; -R a -N(R b ) 2 ; -R a -N(O)(R b ) 2 ; -R a -N + (R b ) 3 ; -CHO; -COR b ; -COOH; -COOR b ; -OCOR b ; -R a -CHO; -R a -COR b ; -R a -COOH; -R a -COOR b ; -R a -OCOR b ; -C(=NH)R b ; -C(=NH)NH 2 ; -C(=NH)NHR b ; -C(=NH)N(R b ) 2 ; -C(=NR b )R b ; -C(=NR b )NHR b ; -C(=NR b )N(R b ) 2 ; -C(=NOH)R b ; -C(=NOR b )R b ; -C(N2)R b ; -R a -C(=NH)R b ; -R a -C(=NH)NH 2 ; -R a -C(=NH)NHR b ; -R a -C(=NH)N(R b ) 2 ; -R a -C(=NR b )R b ; -R a -C(=NR b )NHR b ; -R a -C(=NR b )N(R b ) 2 ; -R a -C(=NOH)R b ; -R a -C(=NOR b )R b ; -R a -C(N 2 )R b ; -NH-CHO; -NR b -CHO; -NH-COR b ; -NR b -COR b ; -NH-COOR b ; -NR b -COOR b ; -NH-C(=NH)R b ; -NR b -C(=NH)R b ; -NH-C(=NH)NH 2 ; -NR b -C(=NH)NH 2 ; -NH-C(=NH)NHR b ; -NR b -C(=NH)NHR b ; -NH-C(=NH)N(R b ) 2 ; -NR b -C(=NH)N(R b ) 2 ; -NH-C(=NR b )R b ; -NR b -C(=NR b )R b ; -NH-C(=NR b )NHR b ; -NR b -C(=NR b )NHR b ; -NH-C(=NR b )N(R b ) 2 ; -NR b -C(=NR b )N(R b ) 2 ; -NH-C(=NOH)R b ; -NR b -C(=NOH)R b ; -NH-C(=NOR b )R b ; -NR b -C(=NOR b )R b ; -CONH 2 ; -CONHR b ; -CON(R b ) 2 ; -NH-CONH 2 ; -NR b -CONH 2 ; -NH-CONHR b ; -NR b -CONHR b ; -NH-CON(R b ) 2 ; -NR b -CON(R b ) 2 ; -R a -NH-CHO; -R a -NR b -CHO; -R a -NH-COR b ; -R a -NR b -COR b ; -R a -NH-COOR b ; -R a -NR b -COOR b ; -R a -NH-C(=NH)R b ; -R a -NR b -C(=NH)R b ; -R a -NH-C(=NH)NH 2 ; -R a -NR b -C(=NH)NH 2 ; -R a -NH-C(=NH)NHR b ; -R a -NR b -C(=NH)NHR b ; -R a -NH-C(=NH)N(R b ) 2 ; -R a -NR b -C(=NH)N(R b ) 2 ; -R a -NH-C(=NR b )R b ; -R a -NR b -C(=NR b )R b ; -R a -NH-C(=NR b )NHR b ; -R a -NR b -C(=NR b )NHR b ; -R a -NH-C(=NR b )N(R b ) 2 ; -R a -NR b -C(=NR b )N(R b ) 2 ; -R a -NH-C(=NOH)R b ; -R a -NR b -C(=NOH)R b ; -R a -NH-C(=NOR b )R b ; -R a -NR b -C(=NOR b )R b ; -R a -CONH 2 ; -R a -CONHR b ; -R a -CON(R b ) 2 ; -R a -NH-CONH 2 ; -R a -NR b -CONH 2 ; -R a -NH-CONHR b ; -R a -NR b -CONHR b ; -R a -NH-CON(R b ) 2 ; -R a -NR b -CON(R b ) 2 ; -O-R a -OH; -O-R a -OR b ; -O-R a -NH 2 ; -O-R a -NHR b ; -O-R a -N(R b ) 2 ; -O-R a -N(O)(R b ) 2 ; -O-R a -N + (R b ) 3 ; -NH-R a -OH; -NH-R a -OR b ; -NH-R a -NH 2 ; -NH-R a -NHR b ; -NH-R a -N(R b ) 2 ; -NH-R a -N(O)(R b ) 2 ; -NH-R a -N + (R b ) 3 ; -NR b -R a -OH; -NR b -R a -OR b ; -NR b -R a -NH 2 ; -NR b -R a -NHR b ; -NR b -R a -N(R b ) 2 ; -NR b -R a -N(O)(R b ) 2 ; -NR b -R a -N + (R b ) 3 ; -N(O)R b -R a -OH; -N(O)R b -R a -OR b ; -N(O)R b -R a -NH 2 ; -N(O)R b -R a -NHR b ; -N(O)R b -R a -N(R b ) 2 ; -N(O)R b -R a -N(O)(R b ) 2 ; -N(O)R b -R a -N + (R b ) 3 ; -N + (R b ) 2 -R a -OH; -N + (R b ) 2 -R a -OR b ; -N + (R b ) 2 -R a -NH 2 ; -N + (R b ) 2 -R a -NHR b ; -N + (R b ) 2 -R a -N(R b ) 2 ; or -N + (R b ) 2 -R a -N(O)(R b ) 2 ; and/or (ii) any two hydrogen atoms attached to the same carbon or nitrogen atom may optionally be replaced by a p-bonded substituent independently selected from oxo (=O), =S, =NH or =NR b ; and/or (iii) any sulfur atom may optionally be substituted with one or two p-bonded substituents independently selected from oxo (=O), =NH or =NR b ; and/or (iv) any two hydrogen atoms attached to the same or different atoms, within the same optionally substituted group or moiety, may optionally be replaced by a bridging substituent independently selected from -O-, -S-, -NH-, -N=N-, -N(R b )-, -N(O)(R b )-, -N + (R b ) 2 - or -R a -; wherein each -R a - is independently selected from an alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group, wherein the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group contains from 1 to 6 atoms in its backbone, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms N, O or S, wherein one or more -CH 2 - groups in the backbone of the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more -N(O)(R b )- or -N + (R b ) 2 - groups, and wherein the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo and/or -R b groups; and wherein each -R b is independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 alkynyl or C 2 -C 6 cyclic group, or wherein any two or three -R b attached to the same nitrogen atom may, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, form a C 2 -C 7 cyclic group, and wherein any -R b may optionally be substituted with one or more C 1- C 4 alkyl, C 1- C 4 haloalkyl, C 3 -C 7 cycloalkyl, C 3 -C 7 halocycloalkyl, -O(C 1- C 4 alkyl), -O(C 1- C 4 haloalkyl), -O(C 3 -C 7 cycloalkyl), -O(C 3 -C 7 halocycloalkyl), -CO(C 1- C 4 alkyl), -CO(C 1 -C 4 haloalkyl), -CO(C 3 -C 7 cycloalkyl), -CO(C 3 -C 7 halocycloalkyl), -COO(C 1 -C 4 alkyl), -COO(C 1 -C 4 haloalkyl), -COO(C 3 -C 7 cycloalkyl), -COO(C 3 -C 7 halocycloalkyl), halo, -OH, -NH 2 , -CN, -CºCH, oxo (=O), phenyl, halophenyl, or optionally halo-substituted 4- to 6-membered heterocyclic group. Typically, the compounds of the present invention comprise at most one quaternary ammonium group such as -N + (R b ) 3 or -N + (R b ) 2 -. Where reference is made to a -R a -C(N 2 )R b group, what is intended is: Typically a substituted group comprises 1, 2, 3 or 4 substituents, more typically 1, 2 or 3 substituents, more typically 1 or 2 substituents, and more typically 1 substituent. Unless stated otherwise, any optional substituent is only attached to the group or moiety which is optionally substituted. For example, any divalent bridging substituent (e.g. -O-, -S-, -NH-, -N(R b )-, -N(O)(R b )-, -N + (R b ) 2 - or -R a -) of an optionally substituted group or moiety (e.g. R 1 ) must only be attached to the specified group or moiety and may not be attached to a second group or moiety (e.g. R 2 ), even if the second group or moiety can itself be optionally substituted. The term “halo” includes fluoro, chloro, bromo and iodo. Unless stated otherwise, where a group is prefixed by the term “halo”, such as a haloalkyl or halomethyl group, it is to be understood that the group in question is substituted with one or more halo groups independently selected from fluoro, chloro, bromo and iodo. Typically, the maximum number of halo substituents is limited only by the number of hydrogen atoms available for substitution on the corresponding group without the halo prefix. For example, a halomethyl group may contain one, two or three halo substituents. A haloethyl or halophenyl group may contain one, two, three, four or five halo substituents. Similarly, unless stated otherwise, where a group is prefixed by a specific halo group, it is to be understood that the group in question is substituted with one or more of the specific halo groups. For example, the term “fluoromethyl” refers to a methyl group substituted with one, two or three fluoro groups. Similarly, unless stated otherwise, where a group is said to be “halo-substituted”, it is to be understood that the group in question is substituted with one or more halo groups independently selected from fluoro, chloro, bromo and iodo. Typically, the maximum number of halo substituents is limited only by the number of hydrogen atoms available for substitution on the group said to be halo-substituted. For example, a halo- substituted methyl group may contain one, two or three halo substituents. A halo- substituted ethyl or halo-substituted phenyl group may contain one, two, three, four or five halo substituents. Unless stated otherwise, any reference to an element is to be considered a reference to all isotopes of that element. Thus, for example, unless stated otherwise any reference to hydrogen is considered to encompass all isotopes of hydrogen including deuterium and tritium. Unless stated otherwise, any reference to a compound or group is to be considered a reference to all tautomers of that compound or group. Where reference is made to a hydrocarbyl or other group including one or more heteroatoms N, O or S in its carbon skeleton, or where reference is made to a carbon atom of a hydrocarbyl or other group being replaced by an N, O or S atom, what is intended is that: –CH 2 – is replaced by –NH–, –O– or –S–; –CH3 is replaced by –NH 2 , –OH or –SH; –CH= is replaced by –N=; CH 2 = is replaced by NH=, O= or S=; or CHº is replaced by Nº; provided that the resultant group comprises at least one carbon atom. For example, methoxy, dimethylamino and aminoethyl groups are considered to be hydrocarbyl groups including one or more heteroatoms N, O or S in their carbon skeleton. Where reference is made to a -CH 2 - group in the backbone of a hydrocarbyl or other group being replaced by a -N(O)(R b )- or -N + (R b ) 2 - group, what is intended is that: –CH 2 – is replaced by –CH 2 – is replaced by In the context of the present specification, unless otherwise stated, a C x -C y group is defined as a group containing from x to y carbon atoms. For example, a C 1 -C 4 alkyl group is defined as an alkyl group containing from 1 to 4 carbon atoms. Optional substituents and moieties are not taken into account when calculating the total number of carbon atoms in the parent group substituted with the optional substituents and/or containing the optional moieties. For the avoidance of doubt, replacement heteroatoms, e.g. N, O or S, are not to be counted as carbon atoms when calculating the number of carbon atoms in a C x -C y group. For example, a morpholinyl group is to be considered a C 4 heterocyclic group, not a C 6 heterocyclic group. For the purposes of the present specification, where it is stated that a first atom or group is “directly attached” to a second atom or group it is to be understood that the first atom or group is covalently bonded to the second atom or group with no intervening atom(s) or group(s) being present. So, for example, for the group -(C=O)N(CH 3 ) 2 , the carbon atom of each methyl group is directly attached to the nitrogen atom and the carbon atom of the carbonyl group is directly attached to the nitrogen atom, but the carbon atom of the carbonyl group is not directly attached to the carbon atom of either methyl group. For the avoidance of doubt, where it is stated that a compound or a group, such as R 1 , R 2 or L, contains from x to y atoms other than hydrogen or halogen, it is to be understood that the compound or group as a whole, including any optional substituents, contains from x to y atoms other than hydrogen or halogen. Such a compound or group may contain any number of hydrogen or halogen atoms. Similarly, where it is stated that a compound or a group, such as R 1 , R 2 or L, contains from x to y atoms other than hydrogen, it is to be understood that the compound or group as a whole, including any optional substituents, contains from x to y atoms other than hydrogen. Such a compound or group may contain any number of hydrogen atoms. As stated, J is -SO-, -SO 2 - or -SO(=NR j )-. More typically, J is -SO 2 - or -SO(=NR j )-. As stated, R j is selected from hydrogen or a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the hydrocarbyl group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein the hydrocarbyl group may optionally be substituted, and wherein the hydrocarbyl group may optionally include one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S in its carbon skeleton. In one embodiment, R j is selected from hydrogen, -CN or a saturated C 1 -C 6 hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated C 1 -C 6 hydrocarbyl group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include a cyclic group, wherein the saturated C 1 -C 6 hydrocarbyl group may optionally include one or two heteroatoms independently selected from N and O in its carbon skeleton, and wherein the saturated C 1 -C 6 hydrocarbyl group may optionally be substituted with one or more groups independently selected from halo, -CN, -OH, -NH 2 and oxo (=O). More typically, R j is selected from hydrogen, -CN or a C 1- C 4 alkyl, C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 4 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 4 fluorocycloalkyl group. For example, R j may be selected from hydrogen, -CN, or a methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl or cyclopropyl group, wherein any methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl or cyclopropyl group may optionally be substituted with one or more fluoro groups. Yet more typically, R j is selected from hydrogen or -CN. Most typically, R j is hydrogen. In one embodiment, J is -SO-, -SO 2 - or -SO(=NH)-. More typically in such an embodiment, J is -SO 2 - or -SO(=NH)-. Most typically, J is -SO 2 -. As stated, Q is O or S. Most typically, Q is O. As stated, R 1 and R 2 are each independently selected from hydrogen or a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the hydrocarbyl group may be straight- chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein the hydrocarbyl group may optionally be substituted, and wherein the hydrocarbyl group may optionally include one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S in its carbon skeleton. In one embodiment, R 1 and R 2 are each independently selected from hydrogen or a saturated C 1 -C 6 hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated C 1 -C 6 hydrocarbyl group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include a cyclic group, wherein the saturated C 1 -C 6 hydrocarbyl group may optionally include one or two heteroatoms independently selected from N and O in its carbon skeleton, and wherein the saturated C 1 -C 6 hydrocarbyl group may optionally be substituted with one or more groups independently selected from halo, -CN, -OH, -NH 2 and oxo (=O). More typically, R 1 and R 2 are each independently selected from hydrogen or a C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 4 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 4 fluorocycloalkyl group. For example, R 1 and R 2 may each independently be selected from hydrogen or a methyl, ethyl, n- propyl, isopropyl or cyclopropyl group, wherein any methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl or cyclopropyl group may optionally be substituted with one or more fluoro groups. Yet more typically, R 1 and R 2 are each independently selected from hydrogen or a methyl group, wherein the methyl group may optionally be substituted with one or more fluoro groups. Typically, in accordance with any of the above embodiments, at least one of R 1 and R 2 is hydrogen. Most typically, R 1 and R 2 are both hydrogen, i.e. R 1 is hydrogen and X is -NH-. As stated, L is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbylene group, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally be substituted, and wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally include one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S in its carbon skeleton. Typically, the atom of the hydrocarbylene group that is directly attached to X is a carbon atom. Typically, the atom of the hydrocarbylene group that is directly attached to J is a carbon or a nitrogen atom. In one embodiment, L is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbylene group, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally be substituted, and wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally include one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N and O in its carbon skeleton. Typically the hydrocarbylene group of L includes at least one cyclic group. For example, L may be a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbylene group, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may be straight-chained or branched, wherein the hydrocarbylene group includes a cyclic group directly attached to X, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally include one or more further cyclic groups, wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally be substituted, and wherein the hydrocarbylene group may optionally include one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S in its carbon skeleton. Typically in such an embodiment, the cyclic group directly attached to X is aromatic. Typically in such an embodiment, the ring atom of the cyclic group that is directly attached to X is a carbon atom. Typically L, including any optional substituents, contains in total from 1 to 10 nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur atoms. More typically L, including any optional substituents, contains in total from 2 to 8 nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur atoms. Yet more typically L, including any optional substituents, contains in total from 2 to 6 nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur atoms. In one embodiment, L contains only atoms selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halo, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically in such an embodiment L, including any optional substituents, contains in total from 1 to 10 nitrogen and oxygen atoms. More typically L, including any optional substituents, contains in total from 2 to 8 nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Yet more typically L, including any optional substituents, contains in total from 2 to 6 nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically L, including any optional substituents, contains in total from 10 to 40 carbon atoms. More typically L, including any optional substituents, contains in total from 15 to 30 carbon atoms. Typically L, including any optional substituents, contains in total from 4 to 50 carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur atoms. More typically L, including any optional substituents, contains in total from 10 to 40 carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur atoms. More typically still L, including any optional substituents, contains in total from 20 to 35 carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur atoms. As stated, -J-N(R 1 )-C(=Q)-X- and -L- together form a ring, such that the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-, -N(R 1 )-, -C(=Q)-, -X- and -L- is from 8 to 30 atoms. Typically, the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-, -N(R 1 )-, -C(=Q)-, -X- and -L- is from 12 to 24 atoms. More typically, the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-, -N(R 1 )-, -C(=Q)-, -X- and -L- is from 14 to 20 atoms. As will be understood, the compounds of the invention may be monocyclic ring systems, or may be bicyclic, tricyclic or polycyclic ring systems, for example due to the presence of cyclic groups within -L-. However, the compounds of formula (I) must meet the criteria that -J-N(R 1 )-C(=Q)-X- and -L- together form a ring, such that the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-, -N(R 1 )-, -C(=Q)-, -X- and -L- is from 8 to 30 atoms. It will be appreciated that for bicyclic, tricyclic or polycyclic ring systems, alternate single ring sizes that encompass all or part of each of -J-, -N(R 1 )-, -C(=Q)-, -X- and -L- may be identified; it is the smallest of these possible alternate single ring sizes that is relevant for determining the minimum ring size. By way of example, consider the bicyclic structure (A) below: Three single ring sizes within the bicyclic structure may be identified, namely a 18-atom ring illustrated in bold in structure (A1), a 14-atom ring illustrated in bold in structure (A2), and a 6-atom ring illustrated in bold in structure (A3). Of these three single ring sizes, only the two rings illustrated in bold in (A1) and (A2) encompass all or part of each of -J-, -N(R 1 )-, -C(=Q)-, -X- and -L-. Of these two rings, the ring illustrated in bold in structure (A2) is the smallest. Hence for structure (A), the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-, -N(R 1 )-, -C(=Q)-, -X- and -L- is 14 atoms. In one embodiment of the first aspect of the invention, the compound has the formula (Ia): wherein: J, R 1 , Q and X are as previously defined; -J-N(R 1 )-C(=Q)-X- and -L 1 -L 2 -L 3 -L 4 - together form a ring, such that the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-, -N(R 1 )-, -C(=Q)-, -X-, -L 1 -, -L 2 -, -L 3 - and -L 4 - is from 8 to 30 atoms; L 1 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 12- membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p- bonded substituents; L 2 is an alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group, wherein the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S, and wherein the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and/or one or more p-bonded substituents; L 3 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 12- membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p- bonded substituents; and L 4 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 12- membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p- bonded substituents. In one aspect of such an embodiment, where the compound has the formula (Ia): L 1 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 11- membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 16-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p- bonded substituents; L 3 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 11- membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 16-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p- bonded substituents; and L 4 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 11- membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 16-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p- bonded substituents. For the avoidance of doubt: where L 1 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 11- or 5- to 12-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 16- or 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group, a ring atom of the monocyclic, bicyclic or tricyclic group of L 1 is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J, and the same or a different ring atom of the monocyclic, bicyclic or tricyclic group of L 1 is directly attached to L 2 ; where L 3 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 11- or 5- to 12-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 16- or 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group, a ring atom of the monocyclic, bicyclic or tricyclic group of L 3 is directly attached to a ring atom of the monocyclic, bicyclic or tricyclic group of L 4 , and the same or a different ring atom of the monocyclic, bicyclic or tricyclic group of L 3 is directly attached to L 2 ; and a ring atom of the divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, divalent 5- to 11- or 5- to 12-membered bicyclic group, or divalent 7- to 16- or 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group of L 4 is directly attached to the nitrogen atom of X (i.e. the nitrogen atom of the urea or thiourea group), and the same or a different ring atom of the monocyclic, bicyclic or tricyclic group of L 4 is either (i) directly attached to a ring atom of the divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, divalent 5- to 11- or 5- to 12-membered bicyclic group, or divalent 7- to 16- or 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group of L 3 , or (ii), where L 3 is a bond, directly attached to L 2 . Where L 1 is a cyclic group, such as a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 11- or 5- to 12-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 16- or 7- to 18- membered tricyclic group, the ring atom of the cyclic group that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J may be a nitrogen or a carbon atom. Typically, the ring atom of the cyclic group of L 1 that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J is a carbon atom. Typically, the ring atom of the divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, divalent 5- to 11- or 5- to 12-membered bicyclic group, or divalent 7- to 16- or 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group of L 4 that is directly attached to the nitrogen atom of X is a carbon atom. As stated, -J-N(R 1 )-C(=Q)-X- and -L 1 -L 2 -L 3 -L 4 - together form a ring, such that the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-, -N(R 1 )-, -C(=Q)-, -X-, -L 1 -, -L 2 -, -L 3 - and -L 4 - is from 8 to 30 atoms. Typically, the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-, -N(R 1 )-, -C(=Q)-, -X-, -L 1 -, -L 2 -, -L 3 - and -L 4 - is from 12 to 24 atoms. More typically, the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-, -N(R 1 )-, -C(=Q)-, -X-, -L 1 -, -L 2 -, -L 3 - and -L 4 - is from 14 to 20 atoms. As stated, L 1 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 12-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. Typically, L 1 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 11-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 16-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. More typically, L 1 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 9- to 16-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one embodiment, L 1 is a bond. In one embodiment, where L 1 is a bond, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J is a nitrogen or a carbon atom. In a further embodiment, where L 1 is a bond, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J is a carbon atom. In another embodiment, L 1 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 12-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. Typically in such an embodiment, L 1 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 11-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 16-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. More typically in such an embodiment, L 1 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 9- to 16-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one embodiment, L 1 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, either of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one aspect of such an embodiment, L 1 is a divalent phenyl, naphthalene, 5- or 6- membered monocyclic heteroaryl, or 8- to 10-membered (e.g.9- or 10-membered) bicyclic heteroaryl group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents. More typically in such an embodiment, L 1 is a divalent phenyl, or 5- or 6-membered monocyclic heteroaryl group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents. In another aspect of such an embodiment, L 1 is a divalent fused 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, wherein a first ring in the bicyclic structure is aromatic and a second ring in the bicyclic structure is non-aromatic, wherein the first ring may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and wherein the second ring may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p- bonded substituents. Typically in such an embodiment, the first ring is a 5- or 6- membered ring and the second ring is a 5- or 6-membered ring. In yet another aspect of such an embodiment, L 1 is a divalent saturated 3- to 7- membered monocyclic group, or a divalent saturated 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. For example, L 1 may be a 3- to 7-membered monocyclic cycloalkylene group, a divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group, a 7- to 11-membered bicyclic cycloalkylene group, or a divalent saturated 7- to 11-membered bicyclic heterocyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one embodiment, L 1 is a divalent saturated 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one aspect of such an embodiment, L 1 is a divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group (such as a divalent azetidinyl, oxetanyl, thietanyl, pyrrolidinyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, tetrahydrothiophenyl, pyrazolidinyl, imidazolidinyl, oxazolidinyl, isoxazolidinyl, thiazolidinyl, isothiazolidinyl, dioxolanyl, dithiolanyl, piperidinyl, tetrahydropyranyl, thianyl, piperazinyl, morpholinyl, thiomorpholinyl, dioxanyl, dithianyl, azepanyl, diazepanyl, oxepanyl or thiepanyl group), which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In another embodiment, L 1 is a divalent saturated 7- to 11-membered fused bicyclic group, which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one aspect of such an embodiment, L 1 is a divalent saturated 7- to 11-membered fused bicyclic heterocyclic group, which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In yet another embodiment, L 1 is a divalent 5- to 12-membered spiro bicyclic group, which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. Typically in such an embodiment, L 1 is a divalent 7- to 11- membered spiro bicyclic group, which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. For example, L 1 may be a divalent saturated 7- to 11-membered spiro bicyclic group, which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one aspect of such an embodiment, L 1 is a divalent saturated 7- to 11-membered spiro bicyclic heterocyclic group, which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In a further embodiment, L 1 is a divalent 6- to 10-membered bridged bicyclic group, which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. For example, L 1 may be a divalent saturated 7- to 9-membered bridged bicyclic group, which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one aspect of such an embodiment, L 1 is a divalent saturated 7- to 9-membered bridged bicyclic heterocyclic group, which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. As stated, L 2 is an alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group, wherein the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S, and wherein the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and/or one or more p-bonded substituents. As will be understood, where an alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group of L 2 is or includes one or more cyclic groups, the one or more cyclic groups may be monocyclic, bicyclic or polycyclic and selected from cycloalkyl, saturated heterocyclic, cycloalkenyl, partially unsaturated heterocyclic, aryl and heteroaryl groups. Typically, the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group of L 2 is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes one or two monocyclic groups, or is or includes a single bicyclic group. More typically, the alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group of L 2 is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a single monocyclic group. In one embodiment, L 2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and/or one or more p-bonded substituents. In another embodiment, L 2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or include a single cyclic group, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and/or one or more p-bonded substituents. Typically in such an embodiment, the single cyclic group where present is monocyclic or bicyclic. More typically, the single cyclic group where present is monocyclic. More typically still, the single cyclic group where present is selected from a phenyl, 5- or 6- membered monocyclic heteroaryl, 3- to 7-membered monocyclic cycloalkyl or saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group. In yet another embodiment, L 2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group is straight-chained or branched, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and/or one or more p-bonded substituents. In a further embodiment, L 2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N and O, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and/or one or more p-bonded substituents. In another embodiment, L 2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or include a single cyclic group, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N and O, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and/or one or more p-bonded substituents. Typically in such an embodiment, the single cyclic group where present is monocyclic or bicyclic. More typically, the single cyclic group where present is monocyclic. More typically still, the single cyclic group where present is selected from a phenyl, 5- or 6- membered monocyclic heteroaryl, 3- to 7-membered monocyclic cycloalkyl or saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group. In yet another embodiment, L 2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group is straight-chained or branched, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N and O, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and/or one or more p-bonded substituents. In one embodiment, L 2 is an alkylene group, wherein the alkylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or include a single cyclic group, wherein the alkylene group optionally includes one, two or three heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, and wherein the alkylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and/or one or more p-bonded substituents. As will be understood, in such an embodiment the single cyclic group where present may be a cycloalkyl or a saturated heterocyclic group. Typically in such an embodiment, the single cyclic group where present is monocyclic. More typically, the single cyclic group where present is selected from a 3- to 7-membered monocyclic cycloalkyl or saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group (such as a divalent azetidinyl, oxetanyl, thietanyl, pyrrolidinyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, tetrahydrothiophenyl, pyrazolidinyl, imidazolidinyl, oxazolidinyl, isoxazolidinyl, thiazolidinyl, isothiazolidinyl, dioxolanyl, dithiolanyl, piperidinyl, tetrahydropyranyl, thianyl, piperazinyl, morpholinyl, thiomorpholinyl, dioxanyl, dithianyl, azepanyl, diazepanyl, oxepanyl or thiepanyl group). In another embodiment, L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene group, wherein the straight- chained alkylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, and wherein the straight-chained alkylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and/or one or more p-bonded substituents. Typically, any alkylene, alkenylene or alkynylene group of L 2 includes at least one heteroatom independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton. In one embodiment, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to L 3 is O or N. In a further embodiment, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to L 3 is O. Typically L 2 , including any optional substituents, contains in total from 0 to 5 nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur atoms. More typically L 2 , including any optional substituents, contains in total from 1 to 3 nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur atoms. In one embodiment, L 2 contains only atoms selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halo, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically in such an embodiment L 2 , including any optional substituents, contains in total from 0 to 5 nitrogen and oxygen atoms. More typically L 2 , including any optional substituents, contains in total from 1 to 3 nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically L 2 , including any optional substituents, contains in total from 1 to 15 carbon atoms. More typically L 2 , including any optional substituents, contains in total from 1 to 8 carbon atoms. Typically L 2 , including any optional substituents, contains in total from 1 to 20 carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur atoms. More typically L 2 , including any optional substituents, contains in total from 2 to 15 carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur atoms. More typically still L 2 , including any optional substituents, contains in total from 2 to 10 carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur atoms. Typically, L 2 has a chain length of from 1 to 15 atoms. More typically, L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 12 atoms. More typically still, L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms. As will be understood, the “chain length” of L 2 refers to the number of atoms of L 2 that are bonded to each other in a continuous chain between L 1 and L 3 , as measured by the shortest route. By way of example, structure (C) has a chain length of 3 atoms, whereas structure (D) has a chain length of 5 atoms: As stated, L 3 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 12-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. Typically, L 3 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 11-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 16-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. More typically, L 3 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 9- to 16-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one embodiment, L 3 is a bond. In another embodiment, L 3 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 12-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. Typically in such an embodiment, L 3 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 11-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 16-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. More typically in such an embodiment, L 3 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 9- to 16-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one embodiment, L 3 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, either of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one aspect of such an embodiment, L 3 is a divalent phenyl, naphthalene, 5- or 6-membered monocyclic heteroaryl, or 8- to 10 membered (e.g.9- or 10-membered) bicyclic heteroaryl group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents. Typically in such an embodiment, L 3 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered monocyclic heteroaryl group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents. More typically, L 3 is a divalent phenyl or 6-membered monocyclic heteroaryl group, such as a divalent phenyl, divalent pyridazinyl or divalent pyridinyl group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents. More typically still, L 3 is a divalent phenyl or a divalent pyridinyl group, either of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents. Typically, where L 3 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 12-membered (e.g.5- to 11-membered or 7- to 11-membered) bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 18-membered (e.g.7- to 16-membered or 9- to 16-membered) tricyclic group, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to L 3 is O or N. More typically in such an embodiment, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to L 3 is O. As stated, L 4 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 12- membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 18-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p- bonded substituents. Typically, L 4 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, a divalent 5- to 11-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 16-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. More typically, L 4 is a divalent 3- to 7- membered monocyclic group, a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 9- to 16-membered tricyclic group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one embodiment, the ring of the divalent monocyclic, bicyclic or tricyclic group of L 4 that is directly attached to X is aromatic. For example, L 4 may be selected from: (i) a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents; or (ii) a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, wherein a first ring in the bicyclic structure is aromatic, and a second ring in the bicyclic structure is aromatic or non- aromatic, wherein X is directly attached to a ring atom of the first ring, wherein L 3 is directly attached to a ring atom of either the first or the second ring, and wherein the divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents; or (iii) a divalent 9- to 16-membered tricyclic group, such as a divalent 9- to 16- membered fused tricyclic group, wherein a first ring in the tricyclic structure is aromatic, a second ring in the tricyclic structure is aromatic or non-aromatic, and a third ring in the tricyclic structure is aromatic or non-aromatic, wherein X is directly attached to a ring atom of the first ring, wherein L 3 is directly attached to a ring atom of any of the first, second or third rings, and wherein the divalent 9- to 16-membered tricyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one embodiment, L 4 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, either of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. Typically in such an embodiment, L 4 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 11-membered fused bicyclic group, either of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. More typically in such an embodiment, L 4 is a divalent 5- or 6-membered monocyclic group, or a divalent 8- to 10-membered fused bicyclic group, either of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. For example, L 4 may be a phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, optionally wherein a 5- or 6- membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein X is directly attached to a ring atom of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein L 3 is directly attached to a ring atom of any of the phenyl, 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl or fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic groups, wherein the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be further substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one aspect of such an embodiment, X and L 3 are directly attached to the same ring of L 4 . For example, L 4 may be a phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, optionally wherein a 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein X is directly attached to a first ring atom of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein L 3 is directly attached to a second ring atom of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein the phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group may optionally be further substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. Typically, where X and L 3 are directly attached to the same ring of L 4 , L 3 is not a bond. Typically, where X and L 3 are directly attached to the same ring of L 4 , the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to L 3 is at the a-position relative to the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to X. Typically in such an embodiment, the ring to which X and L 3 are directly attached is further substituted at the a'-position, typically wherein the substituent at the a'-position comprises at least one carbon atom and/or forms part of a ring structure that is ortho-fused to the ring to which X and L 3 are directly attached across the a',b' positions. For example, L 4 may be a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group, wherein the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to L 3 is at the a-position relative to the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to X, wherein either (i) a 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is fused to the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group across the a',b' positions, wherein the fused 5- or 6- membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents; or (ii) the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is substituted at the a'-position with a monovalent substituent comprising at least one carbon atom; and wherein the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be further substituted with one or more monovalent substituents. As used herein, the nomenclature a, b, a', b' refers to the position of the atoms of a cyclic group, such as L 4 , relative to the specified point of attachment of the cyclic group to the remainder of the molecule. For example, where L 4 is a divalent 2,3-dihydro-1H- indenyl moiety attached to X at the 4-position and to L 3 at the 5-position, the a, b, a' and b' positions relative to the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to X are as follows: For the avoidance of doubt, where it is stated that a cyclic group, such as a phenyl or a heteroaryl group, is substituted at the a and/or a' positions, it is to be understood that one or more hydrogen atoms at the a and/or a' positions respectively are replaced by one or more substituents, such as any optional substituent as defined herein. Unless stated otherwise, the term “substituted” does not include the replacement of one or more ring carbon atoms by one or more ring heteroatoms. In another embodiment, L 4 is a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, or a divalent 9- to 16-membered tricyclic group, either of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. Typically in such an embodiment, L 4 is a divalent 7- to 11-membered fused bicyclic group, or a divalent 9- to 16-membered fused tricyclic group, either of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. More typically in such an embodiment, L 4 is a divalent 8- to 10-membered fused bicyclic group or a divalent 11- to 14-membered fused tricyclic group, either of which may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. For example, L 4 may be a phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein a first 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group, optionally wherein a second 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein X is directly attached to a ring atom of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein L 3 is directly attached to a ring atom of any of the phenyl, 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl or fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic groups, wherein the phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group may optionally be further substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic groups may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. In one aspect of such an embodiment, X and L 3 are directly attached to different rings within the bicyclic or tricyclic group. For example, L 4 may be a phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group, wherein a ring atom of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is directly attached to X, wherein a first 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein a ring atom of the first fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is directly attached to L 3 , wherein optionally a second 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group, wherein the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be further substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, and wherein either fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. Typically, where X and L 3 are directly attached to different rings within the divalent bicyclic or tricyclic group of L 4 , L 3 is a bond, such that X and L 2 are directly attached to different rings within the bicyclic or tricyclic group of L 4 . Typically, X is directly attached to a ring atom of a first ring of the bicyclic or tricyclic group, a second ring of the bicyclic or tricyclic group is ortho-fused to the first ring across the a,b positions of the first ring, relative to the ring atom of the first ring that is directly attached to X, and L 3 (or L 2 where L 3 is a bond) is directly attached to a ring atom of the second ring that is not also a ring atom of the first ring. Typically, the ring atom of the second ring that is directly attached to L 3 (or directly attached to L 2 where L 3 is a bond) is also directly attached to the ring atom at the a-position of the first ring. For example, L 4 may be a phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein a ring atom of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is directly attached to X, wherein a first 5- or 6- membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group across the a,b positions of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, relative to the ring atom that is directly attached to X, wherein a ring atom of the first fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is directly attached to L 2 , wherein either (i) a second 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group across the a',b' positions; or (ii) the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is substituted at the a'- position with a monovalent substituent comprising at least one carbon atom; wherein the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be further substituted with one or two monovalent substituents, and wherein either fused 5- or 6- membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more monovalent substituents and/or p-bonded substituents. Typically, the ring atom of the first fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group that is directly attached to L 2 is also directly attached to the ring atom at the a-position of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group. Where L 1 , L 2 , L 3 or L 4 is substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, the monovalent substituents may be independently selected from any monovalent substituent as discussed above. Typically, where any moiety selected from L 1 , L 2 , L 3 or L 4 is substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, the moiety is substituted with one, two, three or four monovalent substituents. More typically, where any moiety selected from L 1 , L 2 , L 3 or L 4 is substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, the moiety is substituted with one, two, or three monovalent substituents. In one embodiment, where L 1 , L 2 , L 3 or L 4 is substituted with one or more monovalent substituents, each monovalent substituent is independently selected from a halo, C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 11 -R 12 , -R 11 -CN, -R 11 -N 3 , -R 11 -NO 2 , -R 11 -N(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -OR 13 , -R 11 -COR 13 , -R 11 -COOR 13 , -R 11 -CON(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )N(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -C(=NOR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -SO 2 R 13 or -R 11 -SO 2 N(R 13 ) 2 group, wherein: each R 11 is independently selected from a bond, or a C 1- C 4 alkylene group, wherein the C 1- C 4 alkylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include a C 3 -C 4 cycloalkylene group, and wherein the C 1 -C 4 alkylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups; each R 12 is independently selected from a 3- to 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from -CN, -NO 2 , -R 14 , -OH, -OR 14 , -NH 2 , -NHR 14 and -N(R 14 ) 2 ; each R 13 is independently selected from hydrogen or a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, or 3- to 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from -CN, -NO 2 , -R 14 , -OH, -OR 14 , -NH 2 , -NHR 14 and -N(R 14 ) 2 , or any two R 13 attached to the same nitrogen atom may together form a C 2 -C 5 alkylene or C 2 -C 5 haloalkylene group; and each R 14 is independently selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl or C 1 -C 4 haloalkyl group. Where L 1 , L 2 , L 3 or L 4 is substituted with one or more p-bonded substituents, the p- bonded substituents may be independently selected from any p-bonded substituent as discussed above. Typically, where any moiety selected from L 1 , L 2 , L 3 or L 4 is substituted with one or more p-bonded substituents, the moiety is substituted with one or two p-bonded substituents. More typically, where any moiety selected from L 1 , L 2 , L 3 or L 4 is substituted with one or more p-bonded substituents, the moiety is substituted with a single p-bonded substituent. In one embodiment, where L 1 , L 2 , L 3 or L 4 is substituted with one or more p-bonded substituents, each p-bonded substituent is independently selected from =O or =NR 13 , wherein R 13 is as defined above. In one embodiment of the first aspect of the invention, the compound has the formula (Ib):

wherein: J is -SO-, -SO 2 - or -SO(=NH)-; X is -NH-; -J-NH-C(=O)-X- and -L 1 -L 2 -L 3 -L 4 - together form a ring, such that the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-NH-C(=O)-X-, -L 1 -, -L 2 -, -L 3 - and -L 4 - is from 8 to 30 atoms; and L 1 , L 2 , L 3 and L 4 are as previously defined. Typically, where the compound has the formula (Ib), J is -SO 2 -. Typically, the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-NH-C(=O)-X-, -L 1 -, -L 2 -, -L 3 - and -L 4 - is from 12 to 24 atoms. More typically, the minimum single ring size that encompasses all or part of each of -J-NH-C(=O)-X-, -L 1 -, -L 2 -, -L 3 - and -L 4 - is from 14 to 20 atoms. In a first exemplary embodiment, where the compound has the formula (Ib): L 1 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, wherein the divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group or divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L ; L 2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N and O, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups; L 3 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more substituents R L ; L 4 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more substituents R L ; the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to L 3 is at the a-position relative to the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to X; each R L is independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 11 -R 12 , -R 11 -CN, -R 11 -N3, -R 11 -NO 2 , -R 11 -N(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -OR 13 , -R 11 -COR 13 , -R 11 -COOR 13 , -R 11 -CON(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )N(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -C(=NOR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -SO 2 R 13 or -R 11 -SO 2 N(R 13 ) 2 group, and/or any two R L attached to the same divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L 3 or L 4 may, together with the atoms of the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group to which they are attached, form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 11 -R 12 , -R 11 -CN, -R 11 -N3, -R 11 -NO 2 , -R 11 -N(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -OR 13 , -R 11 -COR 13 , -R 11 -COOR 13 , -R 11 -CON(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )N(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -C(=NOR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -SO 2 R 13 or -R 11 -SO 2 N(R 13 ) 2 group; and R 11 , R 12 and R 13 are as previously defined. Typically in accordance with the first exemplary embodiment, each R L is independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 15 -R 16 , -R 15 -CN, -R 15 -N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -OR 17 , -R 15 -COR 17 , -R 15 -COOR 17 , -R 15 -CON(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -C(=NOR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -SO 2 R 17 or -R 15 -SO 2 N(R 17 ) 2 group, and/or any two R L attached to the same divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L 3 or L 4 may, together with the atoms of the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group to which they are attached, form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 15 -R 16 , -R 15 -CN, -R 15 -N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -OR 17 , -R 15 -COR 17 , -R 15 -COOR 17 , -R 15 -CON(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -C(=NOR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -SO 2 R 17 or -R 15 -SO 2 N(R 17 ) 2 group, wherein: each R 15 is independently selected from a bond, or a C 1- C 4 alkylene group, wherein the C 1 -C 4 alkylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include a C 3 -C 4 cycloalkylene group, and wherein the C 1 -C 4 alkylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups; each R 16 is independently selected from a 3- to 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from -CN, -R 18 , -OH, -OR 18 , -NH 2 , -NHR 18 and -N(R 18 ) 2 ; each R 17 is independently selected from hydrogen or a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, or 3- to 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from -CN, -R 18 , -OH, -OR 18 , -NH 2 , -NHR 18 and -N(R 18 ) 2 , or any two R 17 attached to the same nitrogen atom may together form a C 2 -C 5 alkylene or C 2 -C 5 haloalkylene group; and each R 18 is independently selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl or C 1 -C 4 haloalkyl group. In one aspect of the first exemplary embodiment, L 1 is a bond. In another aspect of the first exemplary embodiment, L 1 is a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, wherein the divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group or divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L . In one aspect of the first exemplary embodiment, L 1 is a divalent phenyl, or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group, wherein the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more substituents R L . Typically, where L 1 is a divalent phenyl, or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group, it is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two substituents R L . In another aspect of the first exemplary embodiment, L 1 is a divalent phenyl, or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group, wherein the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is ortho-fused to a 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be further substituted with one or two substituents independently selected from halo groups and R L , and wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L . Typically, the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is (aside from the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group) unsubstituted or further substituted with one or two halo groups and/or a single substituent R L . Typically, the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two substituents independently selected from oxo (=O) and R L . In one embodiment, the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is non-aromatic, such as a fused non-aromatic 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic group. In another embodiment, the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is aromatic, such as a fused 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group. In yet another aspect of the first exemplary embodiment, L 1 is a divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group, wherein the divalent saturated 4- to 7- membered monocyclic heterocyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L . For example, L 1 may be a divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group, wherein the divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from nitrogen and oxygen in its ring structure, and wherein the divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L . Typically, the divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group includes at least one nitrogen atom in its ring structure. For example, L 1 may be selected from a divalent azetidinyl, pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, piperazinyl or morpholinyl group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L . Typically, where L 1 is a divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group, such as a divalent azetidinyl, pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, piperazinyl or morpholinyl group, it is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or one or two substituents R L . In one embodiment, where the divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group includes at least one nitrogen atom in its ring structure, the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J is a nitrogen atom. Typically, where L 1 is a divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group, the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to L 2 is at the a-, b- or g-position relative to the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J. In one embodiment, where L 1 is a divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group, the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to L 2 is at the b-position relative to the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J. Typically in accordance with the first exemplary embodiment, where L 4 is a divalent 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to the nitrogen atom of X is a carbon atom. In one aspect of the first exemplary embodiment, the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group of L 4 is substituted at the a'-position, relative to the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to X, with a substituent R L , wherein R L is as defined above. Typically, the substituent at the a'-position is selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 15 -R 16 , -R 15 -CN, -R 15 -N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -OR 17 , -R 15 -COR 17 , -R 15 -COOR 17 or -R 15 -CON(R 17 ) 2 group, wherein R 15 , R 16 and R 17 are as previously defined. More typically, the substituent at the a'-position is selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, or 3- to 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups. In another aspect of the first exemplary embodiment, the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group of L 4 is ortho-fused to a 5- or 6-membered cyclic group across the a',b'-positions, relative to the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to X, wherein the ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is optionally substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 11 -R 12 , -R 11 -CN, -R 11 -N 3 , -R 11 -NO 2 , -R 11 -N(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -OR 13 , -R 11 -COR 13 , -R 11 -COOR 13 , -R 11 -CON(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )N(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -C(=NOR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -SO 2 R 13 or -R 11 -SO 2 N(R 13 ) 2 group, wherein R 11 , R 12 and R 13 are as previously defined. Typically, the ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is non- aromatic. For example, the ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may be an ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cycloalkyl group or an ortho-fused non-aromatic 5- or 6- membered heterocyclic group. Typically, the ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is unsubstituted or is substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one oxo (=O) group and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 15 -R 16 , -R 15 -CN, -R 15 -N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -OR 17 , -R 15 -COR 17 , -R 15 -COOR 17 , -R 15 -CON(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -C(=NOR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -SO 2 R 17 or -R 15 -SO 2 N(R 17 ) 2 group, wherein R 15 , R 16 and R 17 are as previously defined. More typically, the ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is unsubstituted or is substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one oxo (=O) group and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a -OH, -CN, C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 haloalkyl, -O(C 1 -C 4 alkyl) or -O(C 1 -C 4 haloalkyl) group. More typically still, the ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups. As will be understood, in either of the above two aspects of the first exemplary embodiment, the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L 4 may optionally be further substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more further substituents R L . Typically, the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L 4 may optionally be further substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two substituents each independently selected from a -CN, methyl, halomethyl, -OC(R 19 ) 3 or -C(R 19 ) 2 -OC(R 19 ) 3 group, wherein each R 19 is independently selected from hydrogen or a halo group. More typically, the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L 4 may optionally be further substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two substituents each independently selected from a -CN, methyl, halomethyl, -OMe or -O-(halomethyl) group. In a second exemplary embodiment, where the compound has the formula (Ib): L 1 is a bond or a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group; L 2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N and O, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups; L 3 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group; L 4 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group; the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to L 3 is at the a-position relative to the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to X; any divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more substituents R L , wherein each R L is independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 11 -R 12 , -R 11 -CN, -R 11 -N 3 , -R 11 -NO 2 , -R 11 -N(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -OR 13 , -R 11 -COR 13 , -R 11 -COOR 13 , -R 11 -CON(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )N(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -C(=NOR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -SO 2 R 13 or -R 11 -SO 2 N(R 13 ) 2 group, and/or any two R L attached to the same divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may, together with the atoms of the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group to which they are attached, form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6- membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 11 -R 12 , -R 11 -CN, -R 11 -N 3 , -R 11 -NO 2 , -R 11 -N(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -OR 13 , -R 11 -COR 13 , -R 11 -COOR 13 , -R 11 -CON(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )N(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -C(=NOR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -SO 2 R 13 or -R 11 -SO 2 N(R 13 ) 2 group; and R 11 , R 12 and R 13 are as previously defined. Typically in accordance with the second exemplary embodiment, each R L is independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 15 -R 16 , -R 15 -CN, -R 15 -N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -OR 17 , -R 15 -COR 17 , -R 15 -COOR 17 , -R 15 -CON(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -C(=NOR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -SO 2 R 17 or -R 15 -SO 2 N(R 17 ) 2 group, and/or any two R L attached to the same divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may, together with the atoms of the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group to which they are attached, form a fused 5- or 6- membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 15 -R 16 , -R 15 -CN, -R 15 -N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -OR 17 , -R 15 -COR 17 , -R 15 -COOR 17 , -R 15 -CON(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -C(=NOR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -SO 2 R 17 or -R 15 -SO 2 N(R 17 ) 2 group, wherein R 15 , R 16 and R 17 are as previously defined. In one aspect of the second exemplary embodiment, L 1 is a bond. In another aspect of the second exemplary embodiment, L 1 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more substituents R L , as set out above. Typically, where L 1 is a divalent phenyl, or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, it is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two substituents R L . Typically in accordance with the second exemplary embodiment, where L 4 is a divalent 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to the nitrogen atom of X is a carbon atom. In one aspect of the second exemplary embodiment, the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group of L 4 is substituted at the a'-position, relative to the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to X, with a substituent R L , wherein R L is as defined above. Typically, the substituent at the a'-position is selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 11 -R 12 , -R 11 -CN, -R 11 -N(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -OR 13 , -R 11 -COR 13 , -R 11 -COOR 13 or -R 11 -CON(R 13 ) 2 group, wherein R 11 , R 12 and R 13 are as previously defined. More typically, the substituent at the a'-position is selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 15 -R 16 , -R 15 -CN, -R 15 -N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -OR 17 , -R 15 -COR 17 , -R 15 -COOR 17 or -R 15 -CON(R 17 ) 2 group, wherein R 15 , R 16 and R 17 are as previously defined. More typically still, the substituent at the a'- position is selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, or 3- to 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups. In another aspect of the second exemplary embodiment, the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group of L 4 is ortho-fused to a 5- or 6-membered cyclic group across the a',b'-positions, relative to the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to X, wherein the ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is optionally substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 11 -R 12 , -R 11 -CN, -R 11 -N 3 , -R 11 -NO 2 , -R 11 -N(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -OR 13 , -R 11 -COR 13 , -R 11 -COOR 13 , -R 11 -CON(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )N(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -C(=NOR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -SO 2 R 13 or -R 11 -SO 2 N(R 13 ) 2 group, wherein R 11 , R 12 and R 13 are as previously defined. Typically, the ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is non-aromatic. For example, the ortho- fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may be an ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cycloalkyl group or an ortho-fused non-aromatic 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic group. In one embodiment, the ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 15 -R 16 , -R 15 -CN, -R 15 -N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -OR 17 , -R 15 -COR 17 , -R 15 -COOR 17 , -R 15 -CON(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -C(=NOR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -SO 2 R 17 or -R 15 -SO 2 N(R 17 ) 2 group, wherein R 15 , R 16 and R 17 are as previously defined. In another embodiment, the ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a -OH, -CN, -NO 2 , C 1- C 4 alkyl, C 1- C 4 haloalkyl, -O(C 1- C 4 alkyl) or -O(C 1- C 4 haloalkyl) group. Typically, the ortho-fused 5- or 6- membered cyclic group is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a -OH, -CN, C 1- C 4 alkyl, C 1- C 4 haloalkyl, -O(C 1- C 4 alkyl) or -O(C 1- C 4 haloalkyl) group. More typically, the ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups. As will be understood, in accordance with either of the above two aspects of the second exemplary embodiment, the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L 4 may optionally be further substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more further substituents R L . Typically, the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L 4 may optionally be further substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two substituents each independently selected from a -CN, methyl, halomethyl, -OC(R 19 ) 3 or -C(R 19 ) 2 -OC(R 19 ) 3 group, wherein each R 19 is independently selected from hydrogen or a halo group. More typically, the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group of L 4 may optionally be further substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two substituents each independently selected from a -CN, methyl, halomethyl, -OMe or -O-(halomethyl) group. More typically still, the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L 4 may optionally be further substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two methyl and/or halomethyl substituents. Typically in accordance with either the first or second exemplary embodiment, L 2 contains in total (i.e. including any optional substituents) from 2 to 15 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. More typically, L 2 contains in total from 2 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically, L 2 includes at least one heteroatom independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton. Typically, L 2 contains in total from 1 to 3 nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to L 3 is O or N. More typically, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to L 3 is O. Typically in accordance with either the first or second exemplary embodiment, L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 12 atoms. More typically, L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms. In one aspect of either the first or second exemplary embodiment, L 2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N and O, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups. As will be understood, in such an embodiment the alkylene or alkenylene group of L 2 may be straight-chained or branched. In another aspect of either the first or second exemplary embodiment, L 2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or include a single monocyclic group, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N and O, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and wherein L 2 contains in total from 2 to 15 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically, the single monocyclic group where present is selected from a phenyl, 5- or 6-membered monocyclic heteroaryl, 3- to 7-membered monocyclic cycloalkyl or saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group. In yet another aspect of either the first or second exemplary embodiment, L 2 is an alkylene group, wherein the alkylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or include a single monocyclic group, wherein the alkylene group includes one, two or three heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the alkylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups, and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein L 2 contains in total from 2 to 15 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically, the single monocyclic group where present is selected from a 3- to 7-membered monocyclic cycloalkyl or saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group. In one aspect of either the first or second exemplary embodiment, where L 1 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to L 2 is at the a- or b-position relative to the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J. In a further embodiment, where L 1 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to L 2 is at the b-position relative to the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J. In another aspect of either the first or second exemplary embodiment, where L 3 is a divalent phenyl, or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, it is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two substituents R L . In one embodiment, where L 3 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, the ring atom of L 3 that is directly attached to L 2 is at the a- or b-position relative to the ring atom of L 3 that is directly attached to L 4 . In a further embodiment, where L 3 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, the ring atom of L 3 that is directly attached to L 2 is at the b-position relative to the ring atom of L 3 that is directly attached to L 4 . In yet another aspect of either the first or second exemplary embodiment, L 3 is a divalent phenyl or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein the divalent phenyl or 6- membered heteroaryl group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more substituents R L . Typically in such an aspect, the divalent phenyl or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L 3 is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two substituents R L . Typically in such an aspect, the ring atom of L 3 that is directly attached to L 2 is at the a- or b-position relative to the ring atom of L 3 that is directly attached to L 4 . More typically in such an aspect, the ring atom of L 3 that is directly attached to L 2 is at the b-position relative to the ring atom of L 3 that is directly attached to L 4 . In a third exemplary embodiment, where the compound has the formula (Ib): L 1 is a bond, a divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, wherein the divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group or divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L ; L 2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, wherein one or more carbon atoms in the backbone of the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be replaced by one or more heteroatoms independently selected from N and O, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups; L 3 is a bond; L 4 is a phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein a ring atom of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is directly attached to X, wherein a first 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group across the a,b positions of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, relative to the ring atom that is directly attached to X, wherein a ring atom of the first fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is directly attached to L 2 , wherein optionally a second 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be further substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more substituents R L , and wherein either fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L ; each R L is independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 11 -R 12 , -R 11 -CN, -R 11 -N 3 , -R 11 -NO 2 , -R 11 -N(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -OR 13 , -R 11 -COR 13 , -R 11 -COOR 13 , -R 11 -CON(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )N(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -C(=NOR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -SO 2 R 13 or -R 11 -SO 2 N(R 13 ) 2 group; and R 11 , R 12 and R 13 are as previously defined. Typically in accordance with the third exemplary embodiment, each R L is independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 15 -R 16 , -R 15 -CN, -R 15 -N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -OR 17 , -R 15 -COR 17 , -R 15 -COOR 17 , -R 15 -CON(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -C(=NOR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -SO 2 R 17 or -R 15 -SO 2 N(R 17 ) 2 group, wherein R 15 , R 16 and R 17 are as previously defined. In one aspect of the third exemplary embodiment, L 1 is a bond. In another aspect of the third exemplary embodiment, L 1 is a divalent 3- to 7- membered monocyclic group, or a divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group, wherein the divalent 3- to 7-membered monocyclic group or divalent 7- to 11-membered bicyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L . In one aspect of the third exemplary embodiment, L 1 is a divalent phenyl, or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group, wherein the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more substituents R L . Typically, where L 1 is a divalent phenyl, or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group, it is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two substituents R L . In another aspect of the third exemplary embodiment, L 1 is a divalent phenyl, or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is ortho-fused to a 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be further substituted with one or two substituents independently selected from halo groups and R L , and wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L . Typically, the divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is (aside from the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group) unsubstituted or further substituted with one or two halo groups and/or a single substituent R L . Typically, the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two substituents independently selected from oxo (=O) and R L . In one embodiment, the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is non-aromatic, such as a fused non-aromatic 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic group. In another embodiment, the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is aromatic, such as a fused 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group. Typically, in either of the above two aspects of the third exemplary embodiment, where L 1 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to L 2 is at the a- or b-position relative to the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J. More typically, where L 1 is a divalent phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to L 2 is at the b-position relative to the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J. In another aspect of the third exemplary embodiment, L 1 is a divalent saturated 4- to 7- membered monocyclic heterocyclic group, wherein the divalent saturated 4- to 7- membered monocyclic heterocyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L . For example, L 1 may be a divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group, wherein the divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from nitrogen and oxygen in its ring structure, and wherein the divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L . Typically, the divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group includes at least one nitrogen atom in its ring structure. For example, L 1 may be selected from a divalent azetidinyl, pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, piperazinyl or morpholinyl group, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L . Typically, where L 1 is a divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group, such as a divalent azetidinyl, pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, piperazinyl or morpholinyl group, it is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or one or two substituents R L . In one embodiment, where the divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group includes at least one nitrogen atom in its ring structure, the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J is a nitrogen atom. Typically, where L 1 is a divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group, the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to L 2 is at the a-, b- or g-position relative to the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J. In one embodiment, where L 1 is a divalent saturated 4- to 7-membered monocyclic heterocyclic group, the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to L 2 is at the b-position relative to the ring atom of L 1 that is directly attached to the sulfur atom of J. Typically in accordance with the third exemplary embodiment, L 2 contains in total from 2 to 15 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. More typically, L 2 contains in total from 2 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically, L 2 contains in total from 0 to 3 nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically in accordance with the third exemplary embodiment, L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 12 atoms. More typically, L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms. In one aspect of the third exemplary embodiment, L 2 is an alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or be or include one or more cyclic groups, and wherein the alkylene or alkenylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups. More typically in such an aspect, L 2 is an alkylene group, wherein the alkylene group may be straight-chained or branched, or include a single monocyclic group, wherein the alkylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups, and wherein L 2 contains in total from 2 to 15 carbon atoms. More typically still, L 2 is an alkylene group, wherein the alkylene group may be straight-chained or branched, wherein the alkylene group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups, and wherein L 2 contains in total from 2 to 15 carbon atoms. Typically in accordance with the third exemplary embodiment, where L 4 is a 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group, the ring atom of L 4 that is directly attached to the nitrogen atom of X is a carbon atom. Typically, in accordance with the third exemplary embodiment, the first fused 5- or 6- membered cyclic group of L 4 and, if present, the second fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group of L 4 are non-aromatic. For example, the first and the second fused 5- or 6- membered cyclic groups may each be independently selected from an ortho-fused 5- or 6-membered cycloalkyl group or an ortho-fused non-aromatic 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic group. In one aspect of the third exemplary embodiment, L 4 is a phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein a ring atom of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is directly attached to X, wherein a 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group across the a,b positions of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, relative to the ring atom that is directly attached to X, wherein a ring atom of the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is directly attached to L 2 , wherein the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L 4 is substituted at the a'-position with a substituent R L , wherein the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group may optionally be further substituted with one or two halo groups and/or one or two further substituents R L , and wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L . Typically, the substituent at the a'-position is selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 15 -R 16 , -R 15 -CN, -R 15 -N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -OR 17 , -R 15 -COR 17 , -R 15 -COOR 17 or -R 15 -CON(R 17 ) 2 group, wherein R 15 , R 16 and R 17 are as previously defined. More typically, the substituent at the a'-position is selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, or 3- to 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups. Typically, where the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is further substituted with one or two halo groups and/or one or two further substituents R L , the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is further substituted with one or two substituents each independently selected from a halo, -CN, methyl, halomethyl, -OC(R 19 ) 3 or -C(R 19 ) 2 -OC(R 19 ) 3 group, wherein each R 19 is independently selected from hydrogen or a halo group. More typically, where the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is further substituted with one or two halo groups and/or one or two further substituents R L , the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is further substituted with one or two substituents each independently selected from a halo, -CN, methyl, halomethyl, -OMe or -O-(halomethyl) group. In another aspect of the third exemplary embodiment, L 4 is a phenyl or 5- or 6- membered heteroaryl group, wherein a ring atom of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group is directly attached to X, wherein a first 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group across the a,b positions of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, relative to the ring atom that is directly attached to X, wherein a ring atom of the first fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is directly attached to L 2 , wherein a second 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group across the a',b'-positions of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group, wherein the phenyl group of L 4 may optionally be further substituted with a halo group or a substituent R L , and wherein either fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or more oxo (=O) groups and/or one or more substituents R L . Typically, where the phenyl group of L 4 is further substituted with a halo group or a substituent R L , the phenyl group is further substituted with a halo, -CN, methyl, halomethyl, -OC(R 19 ) 3 or -C(R 19 ) 2 -OC(R 19 ) 3 group, wherein each R 19 is independently selected from hydrogen or a halo group. More typically, where the phenyl group of L 4 is further substituted with a halo group or a substituent R L , the phenyl group is further substituted with a halo, -CN, methyl, halomethyl, -OMe or -O-(halomethyl) group. Typically, in either of the the above two aspects of the third exemplary embodiment, any 5- or 6-membered cyclic group that is fused to the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L 4 is unsubstituted or is substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 11 -R 12 , -R 11 -CN, -R 11 -N3, -R 11 -NO 2 , -R 11 -N(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -OR 13 , -R 11 -COR 13 , -R 11 -COOR 13 , -R 11 -CON(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -C(=NR 13 )N(R 13 ) 2 , -R 11 -C(=NOR 13 )R 13 , -R 11 -SO 2 R 13 or -R 11 -SO 2 N(R 13 ) 2 group, wherein R 11 , R 12 and R 13 are as previously defined. Typically, any such fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is unsubstituted or is substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one oxo (=O) group and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a C 1 -C 6 alkyl, C 1 -C 6 haloalkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 haloalkenyl, -R 15 -R 16 , -R 15 -CN, -R 15 -N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -OR 17 , -R 15 -COR 17 , -R 15 -COOR 17 , -R 15 -CON(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -C(=NR 17 )N(R 17 ) 2 , -R 15 -C(=NOR 17 )R 17 , -R 15 -SO 2 R 17 or -R 15 -SO 2 N(R 17 ) 2 group, wherein R 15 , R 16 and R 17 are as previously defined. More typically, any such fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is unsubstituted or is substituted with one or more halo groups and/or one oxo (=O) group and/or one, two or three substituents independently selected from a -OH, -CN, C 1- C 4 alkyl, C 1- C 4 haloalkyl, -O(C 1- C 4 alkyl) or -O(C 1 -C 4 haloalkyl) group. More typically still, any such fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more halo groups. Typically, in accordance with the third exemplary embodiment, the ring atom of the (first) fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group of L 4 that is directly attached to L 2 is also directly attached to the ring atom at the a-position of the phenyl or 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl group of L 4 . In a fourth exemplary embodiment of the first aspect of the invention, the compound has the formula (Ic): wherein: A 1 and A 3 are each independently selected from C and N, and A 2 , A 4 and A 5 are each independently selected from N, C-H, C-Hal and N-H, such that ring A C is a 5- membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; B 1 , B 2 , B 3 and B 4 are each independently selected from N, C-H and C-Hal, such that ring B is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; m is 0, 1 or 2; n is 0, 1 or 2; each R A is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two R A attached to A 4 and A 5 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and R AA ; each R AA is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; each R B is independently selected from a -CN, -NO 2 , -R B1 , -OH, -OR B1 , -NH 2 , -NHR B1 or -N(R B1 ) 2 group, wherein each R B1 is independently selected from a C 1- C 4 alkyl or C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl group; each Hal is independently selected from F, Cl or Br; L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the straight- chained alkylene or alkenylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C 1- C 4 alkyl, -O-(C 1- C 4 alkyl), C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two R L2 may together with the atom(s) of the alkylene or alkenylene group to which they are attached form a 3- to 7-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 7-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups; R 4 is selected from a C 1- C 4 alkyl, C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R 20 ) 3 or -C(R 20 ) 2 -OC(R 20 ) 3 group, or R 4 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CHCH 2 -, -CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group formed by R 4 and R 5 may optionally be fluoro-substituted; R 6 and R 7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R 20 ) 3 or -C(R 20 ) 2 -OC(R 20 ) 3 group; and each R 20 is independently selected from hydrogen or F. In one aspect of the fourth exemplary embodiment: each R A is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene group, wherein the straight-chained alkylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C 1 -C 4 alkyl, -O-(C 1- C 4 alkyl), C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two R L2 may together form a C1-C5 alkylene or C1-C5 fluoroalkylene group, wherein one carbon atom in the backbone of the alkylene or fluoroalkylene group may optionally be replaced by a single oxygen or nitrogen atom; R 4 is selected from a C 1- C 4 alkyl, C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OMe or -O-(fluoromethyl) group, or R 4 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CHCH 2 -, -CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group formed by R 4 and R 5 may optionally be fluoro- substituted; and R 6 and R 7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OMe or -O-(fluoromethyl) group. In another aspect of the fourth exemplary embodiment: each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally fluoro-substituted, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene group, wherein the straight-chained alkylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C 1- C 4 alkyl, -O-(C 1- C 4 alkyl), C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two R L2 may together form a C 1 -C 5 alkylene or C 1 -C 5 fluoroalkylene group, wherein one carbon atom in the backbone of the alkylene or fluoroalkylene group may optionally be replaced by a single oxygen atom; R 4 is selected from a C 1- C 4 alkyl, C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br or a methyl or fluoromethyl group, or R 4 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CHCH 2 -, -CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group formed by R 4 and R 5 may optionally be fluoro-substituted; and R 6 and R 7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br or a methyl or fluoromethyl group. In yet another aspect of the fourth exemplary embodiment: each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally fluoro-substituted, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene group, wherein the straight-chained alkylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, methyl or fluoromethyl group, or wherein any two R L2 attached to the same carbon atom may together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a cyclopropyl group, wherein the cyclopropyl group may optionally be fluoro-substituted; R 4 is selected from a C 1- C 4 alkyl, C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br or a methyl or fluoromethyl group, or R 4 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CHCH 2 -, -CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group formed by R 4 and R 5 may optionally be fluoro-substituted; and R 6 and R 7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br or a methyl or fluoromethyl group. For the purposes of the present specification, where it is stated that A 2 , A 4 or A 5 may be N-H or C-H, it is to be understood that this refers to A 2 , A 4 and A 5 before possible substitution with R A is considered. Thus, where it is stated that A 2 , A 4 or A 5 may be N-H, it is to be understood that A 2 , A 4 or A 5 may be N-H or N-R A after substitution is considered. Similarly, where it is stated that A 2 , A 4 or A 5 may be C-H, it is to be understood that A 2 , A 4 or A 5 may be C-H or C-R A after substitution is considered. Likewise, where it is stated that B 1 , B 2 , B 3 or B 4 may be C-H, it is to be understood that this refers to B 1 , B 2 , B 3 and B 4 before possible substitution with R B is considered. Thus, where it is stated that B 1 , B 2 , B 3 or B 4 may be C-H, it is to be understood that B 1 , B 2 , B 3 or B 4 may be C-H or C-R B after substitution is considered. In one aspect of the fourth exemplary embodiment, ring A c is a 5-membered heteroaryl ring containing two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure. In one aspect of the fourth exemplary embodiment, A 1 is C. In a further aspect of the fourth exemplary embodiment, A 1 is C, A 3 is independently selected from C and N, and A 2 , A 4 and A 5 are each independently selected from N, C-H, C-Hal and N-H, such that ring A c is a 5-membered heteroaryl ring containing two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure. Typically in such an aspect, ring A c is a 5- membered heteroaryl ring containing two nitrogen atoms in its ring structure. In one embodiment of such an aspect, ring A c is a pyrazole ring. In one aspect of the fourth exemplary embodiment: each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two R A attached to A 4 and A 5 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6- membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and R AA ; and each R AA is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In a further aspect of the fourth exemplary embodiment: each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two R A attached to A 4 and A 5 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6- membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and R AA ; and each R AA is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AA contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In one aspect of the fourth exemplary embodiment, m is 0 or 1. In one aspect of the fourth exemplary embodiment, each R A is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically in such an aspect, each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically in such an aspect, each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 (or, more typically, from 1 to 6) carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In another aspect of the fourth exemplary embodiment, each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes a single heteroatom O or N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or a single oxo (=O) group, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 5 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In one embodiment of such an aspect, each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes a single heteroatom O or N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally fluoro-substituted, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 4 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In a further aspect of the fourth exemplary embodiment, m is 0. In a fifth exemplary embodiment of the first aspect of the invention, the compound has the formula (Id): wherein: B 1 , B 2 , B 3 and B 4 are each independently selected from N, C-H and C-Hal, such that ring B is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; n is 0, 1 or 2; each R B is independently selected from a -CN, -NO 2 , -R B1 , -OH, -OR B1 , -NH 2 , -NHR B1 or -N(R B1 ) 2 group, wherein each R B1 is independently selected from a C 1- C 4 alkyl or C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl group; each Hal is independently selected from F, Cl or Br; L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the straight- chained alkylene or alkenylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C 1 -C 4 alkyl, -O-(C 1 -C 4 alkyl), C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two R L2 may together with the atom(s) of the alkylene or alkenylene group to which they are attached form a 3- to 7-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 7-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups; R 4 is selected from a C 1- C 4 alkyl, C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R 20 ) 3 or -C(R 20 ) 2 -OC(R 20 ) 3 group, or R 4 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CHCH 2 -, -CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group formed by R 4 and R 5 may optionally be fluoro-substituted; R 6 and R 7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R 20 ) 3 or -C(R 20 ) 2 -OC(R 20 ) 3 group; and each R 20 is independently selected from hydrogen or F. In one aspect of the fifth exemplary embodiment: L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene group, wherein the straight-chained alkylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C 1 -C 4 alkyl, -O-(C 1- C 4 alkyl), C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two R L2 may together form a C1-C5 alkylene or C1-C5 fluoroalkylene group, wherein one carbon atom in the backbone of the alkylene or fluoroalkylene group may optionally be replaced by a single oxygen or nitrogen atom; R 4 is selected from a C 1- C 4 alkyl, C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OMe or -O-(fluoromethyl) group, or R 4 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CHCH 2 -, -CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group formed by R 4 and R 5 may optionally be fluoro- substituted; and R 6 and R 7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OMe or -O-(fluoromethyl) group. In another aspect of the fifth exemplary embodiment: L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene group, wherein the straight-chained alkylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C 1 -C 4 alkyl, -O-(C 1- C 4 alkyl), C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two R L2 may together form a C1-C5 alkylene or C1-C5 fluoroalkylene group, wherein one carbon atom in the backbone of the alkylene or fluoroalkylene group may optionally be replaced by a single oxygen atom; R 4 is selected from a C 1- C 4 alkyl, C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br or a methyl or fluoromethyl group, or R 4 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CHCH 2 -, -CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group formed by R 4 and R 5 may optionally be fluoro-substituted; and R 6 and R 7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br or a methyl or fluoromethyl group. In yet another aspect of the fifth exemplary embodiment: L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene group, wherein the straight-chained alkylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, methyl or fluoromethyl group, or wherein any two R L2 attached to the same carbon atom may together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a cyclopropyl group, wherein the cyclopropyl group may optionally be fluoro-substituted; R 4 is selected from a C 1- C 4 alkyl, C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br or a methyl or fluoromethyl group, or R 4 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CHCH 2 -, -CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group formed by R 4 and R 5 may optionally be fluoro-substituted; and R 6 and R 7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br or a methyl or fluoromethyl group. In a sixth exemplary embodiment of the first aspect of the invention, the compound has the formula (Ie):

wherein: A 7 , A 8 , A 9 and A 10 are each independently selected from N, C-H and C-Hal, such that ring A e is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; B 1 , B 2 , B 3 and B 4 are each independently selected from N, C-H and C-Hal, such that ring B is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; q is 0, 1 or 2; n is 0, 1 or 2; each R A is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two R A attached to A 8 and A 9 or to A 9 and A 10 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and R AA ; each R AA is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; each R B is independently selected from a -CN, -NO 2 , -R B1 , -OH, -OR B1 , -NH 2 , -NHR B1 or -N(R B1 ) 2 group, wherein each R B1 is independently selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl or C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl group; each Hal is independently selected from F, Cl or Br; L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the straight- chained alkylene or alkenylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C 1 -C 4 alkyl, -O-(C 1 -C 4 alkyl), C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two R L2 may together with the atom(s) of the alkylene or alkenylene group to which they are attached form a 3- to 7-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 7-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups; R 4 is selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R 20 ) 3 or -C(R 20 ) 2 -OC(R 20 ) 3 group, or R 4 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CHCH 2 -, -CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group formed by R 4 and R 5 may optionally be fluoro-substituted; R 6 and R 7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R 20 ) 3 or -C(R 20 ) 2 -OC(R 20 ) 3 group; and each R 20 is independently selected from hydrogen or F. In one aspect of the sixth exemplary embodiment: each R A is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene group, wherein the straight-chained alkylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C 1- C 4 alkyl, -O-(C 1 -C 4 alkyl), C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two R L2 may together form a C 1 -C 5 alkylene or C 1 -C 5 fluoroalkylene group, wherein one carbon atom in the backbone of the alkylene or fluoroalkylene group may optionally be replaced by a single oxygen or nitrogen atom; R 4 is selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OMe or -O-(fluoromethyl) group, or R 4 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CHCH 2 -, -CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group formed by R 4 and R 5 may optionally be fluoro- substituted; and R 6 and R 7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OMe or -O-(fluoromethyl) group. For the purposes of the present specification, where it is stated that A 7 , A 8 , A 9 or A 10 may be C-H, it is to be understood that this refers to A 7 , A 8 , A 9 and A 10 before possible substitution with R A is considered. Thus, where it is stated that A 7 , A 8 , A 9 or A 10 may be C-H, it is to be understood that A 7 , A 8 , A 9 or A 10 may be C-H or C-R A after substitution is considered. In one aspect of the sixth exemplary embodiment, ring A e is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one or two nitrogen atoms in its ring structure. In a further aspect of the sixth exemplary embodiment, ring A e is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one nitrogen atom in its ring structure. As will be understood, in such an aspect ring A e is a phenyl or a pyridinyl ring. In one embodiment, A 7 , A 8 , A 9 and A 10 are each independently selected from C-H and C-Hal, such that ring A e is a 6-membered aryl ring. In one aspect of the sixth exemplary embodiment, q is 0 or 1. In one aspect of the sixth exemplary embodiment, each R A is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically in such an aspect, each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically in such an aspect, each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 (or, more typically, from 1 to 6) carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In another aspect of the sixth exemplary embodiment, each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes a single heteroatom O or N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or a single oxo (=O) group, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 5 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In one embodiment of such an aspect, each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes a single heteroatom O or N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally fluoro-substituted, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 4 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In a further aspect of the sixth exemplary embodiment, q is 0. In one aspect of any of the fourth to sixth exemplary embodiments, R 4 is selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F or a methyl or fluoromethyl group. Typically in such an aspect, R 5 is hydrogen or F. In another aspect of any of the fourth to sixth exemplary embodiments, R 4 is selected from a C 3 -C 4 alkyl, C 3 -C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 5 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 5 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F, or a methyl or fluoromethyl group. Typically in such an aspect, R 5 is hydrogen or F. In yet another aspect of any of the fourth to sixth exemplary embodiments, R 4 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group formed by R 4 and R 5 may optionally be fluoro- substituted. In one aspect of any of the fourth to sixth exemplary embodiments, R 6 is selected from hydrogen, F, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R 20 ) 3 or -C(R 20 ) 2 -OC(R 20 ) 3 group (wherein R 20 is as previously defined), and R 7 is selected from hydrogen, F, or a methyl or fluoromethyl group. Typically in such an aspect, R 6 is selected from hydrogen, F, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OMe or -O-(fluoromethyl) group, and R 7 is selected from hydrogen, F, or a methyl or fluoromethyl group. In another aspect of any of the fourth to sixth exemplary embodiments, R 6 and R 7 are each independently selected from hydrogen, F, or a methyl or fluoromethyl group. Typically in such an aspect, R 6 is hydrogen or F and R 7 is hydrogen, F, or a methyl or fluoromethyl group. Typically in accordance with any aspect of any of the fourth to sixth exemplary embodiments, at least one of R 5 , R 6 or R 7 is selected from hydrogen or F. More typically, at least one of R 6 or R 7 is selected from hydrogen or F. In a seventh exemplary embodiment of the first aspect of the invention, the compound has the formula (If):

wherein: A 1 and A 3 are each independently selected from C and N, and A 2 , A 4 and A 5 are each independently selected from N, C-H, C-Hal and N-H, such that ring A f is a 5- membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; B 1 , B 2 , B 3 and B 4 are each independently selected from N, C-H and C-Hal, such that ring B is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; D 1 is selected from C-R 4 and N-R 44 , D 2 is selected from N, O, S, C-R 5 and N-R 55 , D 3 is selected from N, O, S, C-R 6 and N-R 66 , and D 4 is selected from C and N, such that ring D f is a 5-membered heteroaryl ring containing at least two carbon atoms in its ring structure; m is 0, 1 or 2; n is 0, 1 or 2; each R A is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two R A attached to A 4 and A 5 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and R AA ; each R AA is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; each R B is independently selected from a -CN, -NO 2 , -R B1 , -OH, -OR B1 , -NH 2 , -NHR B1 or -N(R B1 ) 2 group, wherein each R B1 is independently selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl or C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl group; each Hal is independently selected from F, Cl or Br; L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the straight- chained alkylene or alkenylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C 1 -C 4 alkyl, -O-(C 1 -C 4 alkyl), C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two R L2 may together with the atom(s) of the alkylene or alkenylene group to which they are attached form a 3- to 7-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 7-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups; R 4 and R 44 are each selected from a C 1- C 4 alkyl, C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 6 fluorocycloalkyl group, R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R 20 ) 3 or -C(R 20 ) 2 -OC(R 20 ) 3 group, and R 55 is selected from hydrogen or a methyl, fluoromethyl or -C(R 20 ) 2 -OC(R 20 ) 3 group, or R 4 and R 5 together, or R 4 and R 55 together, or R 44 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CHCH 2 -, -CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group may optionally be fluoro-substituted, and wherein any oxygen atom of the divalent group is not directly attached to a nitrogen atom; R 6 is selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R 20 ) 3 or -C(R 20 ) 2 -OC(R 20 ) 3 group; R 66 is selected from hydrogen or a methyl, fluoromethyl or -C(R 20 ) 2 -OC(R 20 ) 3 group; and each R 20 is independently selected from hydrogen or F. In one aspect of the seventh exemplary embodiment: each R A is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene group, wherein the straight-chained alkylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C 1 -C 4 alkyl, -O-(C 1 -C 4 alkyl), C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two R L2 may together form a C1-C5 alkylene or C1-C5 fluoroalkylene group, wherein one carbon atom in the backbone of the alkylene or fluoroalkylene group may optionally be replaced by a single oxygen or nitrogen atom; R 4 and R 44 are each selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 6 fluorocycloalkyl group, R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OMe or -O-(fluoromethyl) group, and R 55 is selected from hydrogen or a methyl or fluoromethyl group, or R 4 and R 5 together, or R 4 and R 55 together, or R 44 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CHCH 2 -, -CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group may optionally be fluoro-substituted, and wherein any oxygen atom of the divalent group is not directly attached to a nitrogen atom; R 6 is selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OMe or -O-(fluoromethyl) group; and R 66 is selected from hydrogen or a methyl or fluoromethyl group. In one aspect of the seventh exemplary embodiment, ring A f is a 5-membered heteroaryl ring containing two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure. In one aspect of the seventh exemplary embodiment, A 1 is C. In a further aspect of the seventh exemplary embodiment, A 1 is C, A 3 is independently selected from C and N, and A 2 , A 4 and A 5 are each independently selected from N, C-H, C-Hal and N-H, such that ring A f is a 5-membered heteroaryl ring containing two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure. Typically in such an aspect, ring A f is a 5- membered heteroaryl ring containing two nitrogen atoms in its ring structure. In one embodiment of such an aspect, ring A f is a pyrazole ring. In one aspect of the seventh exemplary embodiment: each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two R A attached to A 4 and A 5 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6- membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and R AA ; and each R AA is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In a further aspect of the seventh exemplary embodiment: each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two R A attached to A 4 and A 5 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6- membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and R AA ; and each R AA is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AA contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In one aspect of the seventh exemplary embodiment, m is 0 or 1. In one aspect of the seventh exemplary embodiment, each R A is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically in such an aspect, each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically in such an aspect, each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 (or, more typically, from 1 to 6) carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In another aspect of the seventh exemplary embodiment, each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes a single heteroatom O or N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or a single oxo (=O) group, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 5 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In one embodiment of such an aspect, each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes a single heteroatom O or N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally fluoro-substituted, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 4 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In a further aspect of the seventh exemplary embodiment, m is 0. In one aspect of the seventh exemplary embodiment, D 1 is selected from C-R 4 and N-R 44 , D 2 is selected from N, C-R 5 and N-R 55 , D 3 is selected from N, C-R 6 and N-R 66 , and D 4 is selected from C and N, such that ring D f is a 5-membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure. Typically in such an aspect, ring D f is a 5-membered heteroaryl ring containing one or two nitrogen atoms in its ring structure. More typically, ring D f is a 5-membered heteroaryl ring containing two nitrogen atoms in its ring structure. In one aspect, ring D f is a pyrazole ring. For example, in one aspect, D 1 is C-R 4 , D 2 is C-R 5 , D 3 is N, and D 4 is N, such that ring D f is a pyrazole ring. Typically, in such an aspect, D 1 is C-R 4 , D 2 is C-H, D 3 is N, and D 4 is N. In one aspect of the seventh exemplary embodiment: R 4 and R 44 are each selected from a C 3 -C 4 alkyl, C 3 -C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 5 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 5 fluorocycloalkyl group, R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R 20 ) 3 or -C(R 20 ) 2 -OC(R 20 ) 3 group, and R 55 is selected from hydrogen or a methyl, fluoromethyl or -C(R 20 ) 2 -OC(R 20 ) 3 group, or R 4 and R 5 together, or R 4 and R 55 together, or R 44 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CHCH 2 -, -CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group may optionally be fluoro-substituted, and wherein any oxygen atom of the divalent group is not directly attached to a nitrogen atom; R 6 is selected from hydrogen, F, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R 20 ) 3 or -C(R 20 ) 2 -OC(R 20 ) 3 group; R 66 is selected from hydrogen or a methyl, fluoromethyl or -C(R 20 ) 2 -OC(R 20 ) 3 group; and each R 20 is independently selected from hydrogen or F. In another aspect of the seventh exemplary embodiment, R 4 and R 44 are each selected from a C 3 -C 4 alkyl, C 3 -C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 5 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 5 fluorocycloalkyl group, and D 2 is selected from N, C-F, C-H, C-Me, C-CF 3 , N-H, N-Me and N-CF 3 . Typically in such an aspect, D 2 is selected from N, C-F, C-H and N-H. In yet another aspect of the seventh exemplary embodiment, R 4 and R 5 together, or R 4 and R 55 together, or R 44 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CHCH 2 -, -CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group may optionally be fluoro-substituted, and wherein any oxygen atom of the divalent group is not directly attached to a nitrogen atom. In one aspect of the seventh exemplary embodiment, D 3 is selected from N, C-F, C-H, C-Me, C-CF 3 , N-H, N-Me and N-CF 3 . Typically in such an aspect, D 3 is selected from N, C-F, C-H and N-H. In one aspect of any of the fourth to seventh exemplary embodiments, ring B is a 6- membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing one or two nitrogen atoms in its ring structure. In one example, B 1 and B 2 are each independently selected from C-H and C-Hal, and B 3 and B 4 are each independently selected from N, C-H and C-Hal. In a further aspect of any of the fourth to seventh exemplary embodiments, ring B is a 6-membered aryl ring or a 6-membered heteroaryl ring containing a single nitrogen atom in its ring structure. In one example, B 1 , B 2 and B 3 are each independently selected from C-H and C-Hal, and B 4 is selected from N, C-H and C-Hal. In one aspect of any of the fourth to seventh exemplary embodiments, each R B is independently selected from a -CN, -R B1 , -OH, -OR B1 , -NH 2 , -NHR B1 or -N(R B1 ) 2 group, wherein each R B1 is independently selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl or C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl group. In another aspect of any of the fourth to seventh exemplary embodiments, n is o or 1. Typically in such an aspect, R B where present is selected from a -CN, -R B1 , -OH, -OR B1 , -NH 2 , -NHR B1 or -N(R B1 ) 2 group, wherein each R B1 is independently selected from a C 1 - C 4 alkyl or C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl group. More typically in such an aspect, R B where present is selected from a methyl or fluoromethyl group. In another aspect of any of the fourth to seventh exemplary embodiments, n is o. In one aspect of any of the fourth to seventh exemplary embodiments, each Hal is F. In one aspect of any of the fourth to seventh exemplary embodiments, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to ring B is O or N. In one aspect of any of the fourth to seventh exemplary embodiments, L 2 is a straight- chained alkylene group, wherein the straight-chained alkylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more (e.g. one, two, three or four) groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C 1- C 4 alkyl, -O-(C 1- C 4 alkyl), C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two R L2 may together with the atom(s) of the alkylene group to which they are attached form a monocyclic C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl or a monocyclic 4- to 6- membered saturated heterocyclic group, wherein the monocyclic C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl or the monocyclic 4- to 6-membered saturated heterocyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups. Typically in such an aspect, the straight-chained alkylene group includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton. In one embodiment of such an aspect, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to ring B is O. In another embodiment of such an aspect, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to ring B is N. In another aspect of any of the fourth to seventh exemplary embodiments, L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene group, wherein the straight-chained alkylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C 1- C 4 alkyl, -O-(C 1 -C 4 alkyl), C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two R L2 may together form a C 1 -C 5 alkylene or C 1 -C 5 fluoroalkylene group, wherein one carbon atom in the backbone of the alkylene or fluoroalkylene group may optionally be replaced by a single oxygen or nitrogen atom. Typically in such an aspect, L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene group, wherein the straight-chained alkylene group includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one oxo (=O) group and/or with one, two, three or four groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C 1 -C 3 alkyl or C 1 -C 3 fluoroalkyl group, or wherein any two R L2 may together form a straight-chained C 1 -C 5 alkylene or a straight-chained C1-C5 fluoroalkylene group, wherein one carbon atom in the backbone of the alkylene or fluoroalkylene group may optionally be replaced by a single oxygen atom. In one embodiment of such an aspect, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to ring B is O. In another embodiment of such an aspect, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to ring B is N. In another aspect of any of the fourth to seventh exemplary embodiments, L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene group, wherein the straight-chained alkylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, methyl or fluoromethyl group, or wherein any two R L2 attached to the same carbon atom may together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a cyclopropyl group, wherein the cyclopropyl group may optionally be fluoro-substituted. In yet another aspect of any of the fourth to seventh exemplary embodiments, L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene group, wherein the straight-chained alkylene group includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one oxo (=O) group and/or with one, two, three or four groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, methyl or fluoromethyl group, or wherein any two R L2 attached to the same carbon atom may together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a cyclopropyl group, wherein the cyclopropyl group may optionally be fluoro-substituted. In one embodiment of such an aspect, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to ring B is O. In another embodiment of such an aspect, the atom of L 2 that is directly attached to ring B is N. Typically in accordance with any aspect of any of the fourth to seventh exemplary embodiments, L 2 has a chain length of from 3 to 6 atoms. Typically in accordance with any aspect of any of the fourth to seventh exemplary embodiments, L 2 contains in total from 2 to 15 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. More typically, L 2 contains in total from 3 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In an eighth exemplary embodiment of the first aspect of the invention, the compound has the formula (Ig): wherein: A 1 and A 3 are each independently selected from C and N, and A 2 , A 4 and A 5 are each independently selected from N, C-H, C-Hal and N-H, such that ring A g is a 5- membered heteroaryl ring containing one, two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure; m is 0, 1 or 2; each R A is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two R A attached to A 4 and A 5 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and R AA ; each R AA is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; E 1 is N, C-H or C-Hal, and E 2 and E 3 are each independently selected from O, N-H, N-R e , CH 2 , CH(Hal), CH(R e ), C(Hal) 2 , C(Hal)(R e ) and C(R e ) 2 , such that E 1 , E 2 and E 3 together contain at most one nitrogen or oxygen atom; each R e is independently selected from a methyl or fluoromethyl group; each Hal is independently selected from F, Cl or Br; L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene or alkenylene group, wherein the straight- chained alkylene or alkenylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C 1- C 4 alkyl, -O-(C 1- C 4 alkyl), C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two R L2 may together with the atom(s) of the alkylene or alkenylene group to which they are attached form a 3- to 7-membered cyclic group, wherein the 3- to 7-membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups; R 4 is selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R 20 ) 3 or -C(R 20 ) 2 -OC(R 20 ) 3 group, or R 4 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CHCH 2 -, -CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group formed by R 4 and R 5 may optionally be fluoro-substituted; R 6 is hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R 20 ) 3 or -C(R 20 ) 2 -OC(R 20 ) 3 group; and each R 20 is independently selected from hydrogen or F. In one aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment: each R A is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms; L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene group, wherein the straight-chained alkylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C 1- C 4 alkyl, -O-(C 1- C 4 alkyl), C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two R L2 may together form a C 1 -C 5 alkylene or C 1 -C 5 fluoroalkylene group, wherein one carbon atom in the backbone of the alkylene or fluoroalkylene group may optionally be replaced by a single oxygen or nitrogen atom; R 4 is selected from a C 1- C 4 alkyl, C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OMe or -O-(fluoromethyl) group, or R 4 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH=CHCH 2 -, -CH 2 CH=CH-, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group formed by R 4 and R 5 may optionally be fluoro- substituted; and R 6 is hydrogen, F, C1, Br, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OMe or -O-(fluoromethyl) group. In one aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, ring A g is a 5-membered heteroaryl ring containing two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure. In one aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, A 1 is C. In a further aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, A 1 is C, A 3 is independently selected from C and N, and A 2 , A 4 and A 5 are each independently selected from N, C-H, C-Hal and N-H, such that ring A g is a 5-membered heteroaryl ring containing two or three nitrogen atoms in its ring structure. Typically in such an aspect, ring A g is a 5- membered heteroaryl ring containing two nitrogen atoms in its ring structure. In one embodiment of such an aspect, ring A g is a pyrazole ring. For example, in one aspect A 1 is C, A 2 is N, A 3 is N, and A 4 and A 5 are each independently selected from C-H and C-Hal, such that ring A g is a pyrazole ring. In one aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment: each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two R A attached to A 4 and A 5 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6- membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and R AA ; and each R AA is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AA contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In a further aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment: each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms, or wherein any two R A attached to A 4 and A 5 may together form a fused 5- or 6-membered cyclic group, wherein the fused 5- or 6- membered cyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more Hal groups and/or one or two groups independently selected from oxo (=O) and R AA ; and each R AA is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R AA contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In one aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, m is 0 or 1. In one aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, each R A is independently selected from -OH, -NH 2 , -CN or a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically in such an aspect, each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 6 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Typically in such an aspect, each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 10 (or, more typically, from 1 to 6) carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In another aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes a single heteroatom O or N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or a single oxo (=O) group, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 5 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In one embodiment of such an aspect, each R A is independently selected from a saturated hydrocarbyl group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is straight-chained or branched, or is or includes a cyclic group, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group optionally includes a single heteroatom O or N in its carbon skeleton, wherein the saturated hydrocarbyl group is optionally fluoro-substituted, and wherein each R A contains, in total, from 1 to 4 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In a further aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, m is 0. In one aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, E 1 is C-H or C-Hal, and E 2 and E 3 are each independently selected from O, CH 2 , CH(Hal), CH(R e ), C(Hal) 2 , C(Hal)(R e ) and C(R e ) 2 , such that E 1 , E 2 and E 3 together contain at most one oxygen atom. Typically in such an aspect, E 1 is C-H or C-F, E 2 is selected from CH 2 , CHF, CH(R e ), CF2, CF(R e ) and C(R e ) 2 , and E 3 is selected from O, CH 2 , CHF, CH(R e ), CF2, CF(R e ) and C(R e ) 2 . More typically in such an aspect, E 1 is C-H or C-F, E 2 is selected from CH 2 , CHF and CF 2 , and E 3 is selected from O, CH 2 , CHF and CF2. In a further aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, E 1 is C-H or C-Hal, and E 2 and E 3 are each independently selected from CH 2 , CH(Hal), CH(R e ), C(Hal) 2 , C(Hal)(R e ) and C(R e ) 2 . Typically in such an aspect, E 1 is C-H or C-F, and E 2 and E 3 are each independently selected from CH 2 , CHF, CH(R e ), CF2, CF(R e ) and C(R e ) 2 . More typically in such an aspect, E 1 is C-H or C-F, and E 2 and E 3 are each independently selected from CH 2 , CHF and CF 2 . In one aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, each Hal is F. In one aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene group, wherein the straight-chained alkylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more (e.g. one, two, three or four) groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C 1- C 4 alkyl, -O-(C 1- C 4 alkyl), C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two R L2 may together with the atom(s) of the alkylene group to which they are attached form a monocyclic C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl or a monocyclic 4- to 6-membered saturated heterocyclic group, wherein the monocyclic C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl or the monocyclic 4- to 6- membered saturated heterocyclic group may optionally be substituted with one or more fluoro groups and/or one or two oxo (=O) groups. In one aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene group, wherein the straight-chained alkylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C 1- C 4 alkyl, -O-(C 1- C 4 alkyl), C 1- C 4 fluoroalkyl or -O-(C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl) group, or wherein any two R L2 may together form a C 1 -C 5 alkylene or C 1 -C 5 fluoroalkylene group, wherein one carbon atom in the backbone of the alkylene or fluoroalkylene group may optionally be replaced by a single oxygen or nitrogen atom. Typically in such an aspect, L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene group, wherein the straight-chained alkylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one oxo (=O) group and/or with one, two, three or four groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, C 1 -C 3 alkyl or C 1 -C 3 fluoroalkyl group, or wherein any two R L2 may together form a straight-chained C 1 -C 5 alkylene or a straight- chained C1-C5 fluoroalkylene group, wherein one carbon atom in the backbone of the alkylene or fluoroalkylene group may optionally be replaced by a single oxygen atom. In another aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene group, wherein the straight-chained alkylene group optionally includes one or two heteroatoms independently selected from O and N in its carbon skeleton, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or two oxo (=O) groups and/or with one or more groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, methyl or fluoromethyl group, or wherein any two R L2 attached to the same carbon atom may together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a cyclopropyl group, wherein the cyclopropyl group may optionally be fluoro-substituted. In yet another aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene group, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or more groups R L2 , wherein each R L2 is independently selected from a fluoro, methyl or fluoromethyl group, or wherein any two R L2 attached to the same carbon atom may together with the carbon atom to which they are attached form a cyclopropyl group, wherein the cyclopropyl group may optionally be fluoro-substituted. Typically in such an aspect, L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene group, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 2 to 8 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or more fluoro groups. More typically, L 2 is a straight-chained alkylene group, wherein L 2 has a chain length of from 4 to 6 atoms, and wherein L 2 may optionally be substituted with one or more fluoro groups. Typically in accordance with any aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, L 2 has a chain length of from 3 to 6 atoms. More typically, L 2 has a chain length of from 4 to 6 atoms. Typically in accordance with the eighth exemplary embodiment, L 2 contains in total from 2 to 15 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. More typically, L 2 contains in total from 3 to 10 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In one aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, R 4 is selected from a C 1 -C 4 alkyl, C 1 - C4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 6 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 6 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is selected from hydrogen, F or a methyl or fluoromethyl group. Typically in such an aspect, R 5 is hydrogen or F. In another aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, R 4 is selected from a C 3 -C 4 alkyl, C 3 -C 4 fluoroalkyl, C 3 -C 5 cycloalkyl or C 3 -C 5 fluorocycloalkyl group, and R 5 is hydrogen, F, or a methyl or fluoromethyl group. Typically in such an aspect, R 5 is hydrogen or F. In yet another aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, R 4 and R 5 together form a divalent group selected from -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH 2 CH 2 O- and -OCH 2 CH 2 -, wherein the divalent group formed by R 4 and R 5 may optionally be fluoro-substituted. In one aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, R 6 is selected from hydrogen, F, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OC(R 20 ) 3 or -C(R 20 ) 2 -OC(R 20 ) 3 group (wherein R 20 is as previously defined). Typically in such an aspect, R 6 is selected from hydrogen, F, or a -CN, methyl, fluoromethyl, -OMe or -O-(fluoromethyl) group. In another aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, R 6 is selected from hydrogen, F, or a methyl or fluoromethyl group. Typically in such an aspect, R 6 is hydrogen or F. Typically in accordance with any aspect of the eighth exemplary embodiment, at least one of R 5 or R 6 is selected from hydrogen or F. In one embodiment of the first aspect of the invention, any compound of formula (I), (Ia), (Ib), (Ic), (Id), (Ie), (If) or (Ig) contains from 10 to 80 atoms other than hydrogen or halogen. More typically, any compound of formula (I), (Ia), (Ib), (Ic), (Id), (Ie), (If) or (Ig) contains from 15 to 60 atoms other than hydrogen or halogen. Yet more typically, any compound of formula (I), (Ia), (Ib), (Ic), (Id), (Ie), (If) or (Ig) contains from 20 to 50 atoms other than hydrogen or halogen. Yet more typically, any compound of formula (I), (Ia), (Ib), (Ic), (Id), (Ie), (If) or (Ig) contains from 22 to 45 atoms other than hydrogen or halogen. More typically still, any compound of formula (I), (Ia), (Ib), (Ic), (Id), (Ie), (If) or (Ig) contains from 25 to 40 atoms other than hydrogen or halogen. In one aspect of any of the above embodiments, the compound of formula (I), (Ia), (Ib), (Ic), (Id), (Ie), (If) or (Ig) has a molecular weight of from 250 to 2000 Da. Typically, the compound of formula (I), (Ia), (Ib), (Ic), (Id), (Ie), (If) or (Ig) has a molecular weight of from 275 to 900 Da. More typically, the compound of formula (I), (Ia), (Ib), (Ic), (Id), (Ie), (If) or (Ig) has a molecular weight of from 280 to 700 Da. More typically still, the compound of formula (I), (Ia), (Ib), (Ic), (Id), (Ie), (If) or (Ig) has a molecular weight of from 300 to 600 Da. A second aspect of the invention provides a compound selected from the group consisting of:

A third aspect of the invention provides a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug of any compound of the first or second aspect of the invention. The compounds of the present invention can be used both, in their free base form and their acid addition salt form. For the purposes of this invention, a “salt” of a compound of the present invention includes an acid addition salt. Acid addition salts are preferably pharmaceutically acceptable, non-toxic addition salts with suitable acids, including but not limited to inorganic acids such as hydrohalogenic acids (for example, hydrofluoric, hydrochloric, hydrobromic or hydroiodic acid) or other inorganic acids (for example, nitric, perchloric, sulfuric or phosphoric acid); or organic acids such as organic carboxylic acids (for example, propionic, butyric, glycolic, lactic, mandelic, citric, acetic, benzoic, salicylic, succinic, malic or hydroxysuccinic, tartaric, fumaric, maleic, hydroxymaleic, mucic or galactaric, gluconic, pantothenic or pamoic acid), organic sulfonic acids (for example, methanesulfonic, trifluoromethanesulfonic, ethanesulfonic, 2-hydroxyethanesulfonic, benzenesulfonic, toluene-p-sulfonic, naphthalene-2-sulfonic or camphorsulfonic acid) or amino acids (for example, ornithinic, glutamic or aspartic acid). The acid addition salt may be a mono-, di-, tri- or multi-acid addition salt. A preferred salt is a hydrohalogenic, sulfuric, phosphoric or organic acid addition salt. A preferred salt is a hydrochloric acid addition salt. Where a compound of the invention includes a quaternary ammonium group, typically the compound is used in its salt form. The counter ion to the quaternary ammonium group may be any pharmaceutically acceptable, non-toxic counter ion. Examples of suitable counter ions include the conjugate bases of the protic acids discussed above in relation to acid addition salts. The compounds of the present invention can also be used both, in their free acid form and their salt form. For the purposes of this invention, a “salt” of a compound of the present invention includes one formed between a protic acid functionality (such as a carboxylic acid group) of a compound of the present invention and a suitable cation. Suitable cations include, but are not limited to lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and ammonium. The salt may be a mono-, di-, tri- or multi-salt. Preferably the salt is a mono- or di-lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium or ammonium salt. More preferably the salt is a mono- or di-sodium salt or a mono- or di- potassium salt. Preferably any salt is a pharmaceutically acceptable non-toxic salt. However, in addition to pharmaceutically acceptable salts, other salts are included in the present invention, since they have potential to serve as intermediates in the purification or preparation of other, for example, pharmaceutically acceptable salts, or are useful for identification, characterisation or purification of the free acid or base. The compounds and/or salts of the present invention may be anhydrous or in the form of a hydrate (e.g. a hemihydrate, monohydrate, dihydrate or trihydrate) or other solvate. Such other solvates may be formed with common organic solvents, including but not limited to, alcoholic solvents e.g. methanol, ethanol or isopropanol. In some embodiments of the present invention, therapeutically inactive prodrugs are provided. Prodrugs are compounds which, when administered to a subject such as a human, are converted in whole or in part to a compound of the invention. In most embodiments, the prodrugs are pharmacologically inert chemical derivatives that can be converted in vivo to the active drug molecules to exert a therapeutic effect. Any of the compounds described herein can be administered as a prodrug to increase the activity, bioavailability, or stability of the compound or to otherwise alter the properties of the compound. Typical examples of prodrugs include compounds that have biologically labile protecting groups on a functional moiety of the active compound. Prodrugs include, but are not limited to, compounds that can be oxidized, reduced, aminated, deaminated, hydroxylated, dehydroxylated, hydrolyzed, dehydrolyzed, alkylated, dealkylated, acylated, deacylated, phosphorylated, and/or dephosphorylated to produce the active compound. The present invention also encompasses salts and solvates of such prodrugs as described above. The compounds, salts, solvates and prodrugs of the present invention may contain at least one chiral centre. The compounds, salts, solvates and prodrugs may therefore exist in at least two isomeric forms. The present invention encompasses racemic mixtures of the compounds, salts, solvates and prodrugs of the present invention as well as enantiomerically enriched and substantially enantiomerically pure isomers. For the purposes of this invention, a “substantially enantiomerically pure” isomer of a compound comprises less than 5% of other isomers of the same compound, more typically less than 2%, and most typically less than 0.5% by weight. The compounds, salts, solvates and prodrugs of the present invention may contain any stable isotope including, but not limited to 12 C, 13 C, 1 H, 2 H (D), 14 N, 15 N, 16 O, 17 O, 18 O, 19 F and 127 I, and any radioisotope including, but not limited to 11 C, 14 C, 3 H (T), 13 N, 15 O, 18 F, 123 I, 124 I, 125 I and 131 I. The compounds, salts, solvates and prodrugs of the present invention may be in any polymorphic or amorphous form. A fourth aspect of the invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of the first or second aspect of the invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect of the invention, and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient. Conventional procedures for the selection and preparation of suitable pharmaceutical formulations are described in, for example, “Aulton’s Pharmaceutics - The Design and Manufacture of Medicines”, M. E. Aulton and K. M. G. Taylor, Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 4 th Ed., 2013. Pharmaceutically acceptable excipients including adjuvants, diluents or carriers that may be used in the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention are those conventionally employed in the field of pharmaceutical formulation, and include, but are not limited to, sugars, sugar alcohols, starches, ion exchangers, alumina, aluminium stearate, lecithin, serum proteins such as human serum albumin, buffer substances such as phosphates, glycerine, sorbic acid, potassium sorbate, partial glyceride mixtures of saturated vegetable fatty acids, water, salts or electrolytes such as protamine sulfate, disodium hydrogen phosphate, potassium hydrogen phosphate, sodium chloride, zinc salts, colloidal silica, magnesium trisilicate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, cellulose-based substances, polyethylene glycol, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, polyacrylates, waxes, polyethylene-polyoxypropylene-block polymers, polyethylene glycol and wool fat. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition of the fourth aspect of the invention additionally comprises one or more further active agents. In a further embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition of the fourth aspect of the invention may be provided as a part of a kit of parts, wherein the kit of parts comprises the pharmaceutical composition of the fourth aspect of the invention and one or more further pharmaceutical compositions, wherein the one or more further pharmaceutical compositions each comprise a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient and one or more further active agents. A fifth aspect of the invention provides a compound of the first or second aspect of the invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect of the invention, or a pharmaceutical composition of the fourth aspect of the invention, for use in medicine, and/or for use in the treatment or prevention of a disease, disorder or condition. Typically, the use comprises the administration of the compound, salt, solvate, prodrug or pharmaceutical composition to a subject. In one embodiment, the use comprises the co-administration of one or more further active agents. The term “treatment” as used herein refers equally to curative therapy, and ameliorating or palliative therapy. The term includes obtaining beneficial or desired physiological results, which may or may not be established clinically. Beneficial or desired clinical results include, but are not limited to, the alleviation of symptoms, the prevention of symptoms, the diminishment of extent of disease, the stabilisation (i.e., not worsening) of a condition, the delay or slowing of progression/worsening of a condition/symptom, the amelioration or palliation of a condition/symptom, and remission (whether partial or total), whether detectable or undetectable. The term “palliation”, and variations thereof, as used herein, means that the extent and/or undesirable manifestations of a physiological condition or symptom are lessened and/or time course of the progression is slowed or lengthened, as compared to not administering a compound, salt, solvate, prodrug or pharmaceutical composition of the present invention. The term “prevention” as used herein in relation to a disease, disorder or condition, relates to prophylactic or preventative therapy, as well as therapy to reduce the risk of developing the disease, disorder or condition. The term “prevention” includes both the avoidance of occurrence of the disease, disorder or condition, and the delay in onset of the disease, disorder or condition. Any statistically significant (p £ 0.05) avoidance of occurrence, delay in onset or reduction in risk as measured by a controlled clinical trial may be deemed a prevention of the disease, disorder or condition. Subjects amenable to prevention include those at heightened risk of a disease, disorder or condition as identified by genetic or biochemical markers. Typically, the genetic or biochemical markers are appropriate to the disease, disorder or condition under consideration and may include for example, inflammatory biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) in the case of inflammation; total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin resistance and C-peptide in the case of NAFLD and NASH; and more generally IL-1b and IL-18 in the case of a disease, disorder or condition responsive to NLRP3 inhibition. A sixth aspect of the invention provides the use of a compound of the first or second aspect, or a pharmaceutically effective salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect, in the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment or prevention of a disease, disorder or condition. Typically, the treatment or prevention comprises the administration of the compound, salt, solvate, prodrug or medicament to a subject. In one embodiment, the treatment or prevention comprises the co-administration of one or more further active agents. A seventh aspect of the invention provides a method of treatment or prevention of a disease, disorder or condition, the method comprising the step of administering an effective amount of a compound of the first or second aspect, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect, or a pharmaceutical composition of the fourth aspect, to thereby treat or prevent the disease, disorder or condition. In one embodiment, the method further comprises the step of co-administering an effective amount of one or more further active agents. Typically, the administration is to a subject in need thereof. An eighth aspect of the invention provides a compound of the first or second aspect of the invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect of the invention, or a pharmaceutical composition of the fourth aspect of the invention, for use in the treatment or prevention of a disease, disorder or condition in an individual, wherein the individual has a germline or somatic non-silent mutation in NLRP3. The mutation may be, for example, a gain-of-function or other mutation resulting in increased NLRP3 activity. Typically, the use comprises the administration of the compound, salt, solvate, prodrug or pharmaceutical composition to the individual. In one embodiment, the use comprises the co-administration of one or more further active agents. The use may also comprise the diagnosis of an individual having a germline or somatic non-silent mutation in NLRP3, wherein the compound, salt, solvate, prodrug or pharmaceutical composition is administered to an individual on the basis of a positive diagnosis for the mutation. Typically, identification of the mutation in NLRP3 in the individual may be by any suitable genetic or biochemical means. A ninth aspect of the invention provides the use of a compound of the first or second aspect, or a pharmaceutically effective salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect, in the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment or prevention of a disease, disorder or condition in an individual, wherein the individual has a germline or somatic non-silent mutation in NLRP3. The mutation may be, for example, a gain-of-function or other mutation resulting in increased NLRP3 activity. Typically, the treatment or prevention comprises the administration of the compound, salt, solvate, prodrug or medicament to the individual. In one embodiment, the treatment or prevention comprises the co- administration of one or more further active agents. The treatment or prevention may also comprise the diagnosis of an individual having a germline or somatic non-silent mutation in NLRP3, wherein the compound, salt, solvate, prodrug or medicament is administered to an individual on the basis of a positive diagnosis for the mutation. Typically, identification of the mutation in NLRP3 in the individual may be by any suitable genetic or biochemical means. A tenth aspect of the invention provides a method of treatment or prevention of a disease, disorder or condition, the method comprising the steps of diagnosing an individual as having a germline or somatic non-silent mutation in NLRP3, and administering an effective amount of a compound of the first or second aspect, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect, or a pharmaceutical composition of the fourth aspect, to the positively diagnosed individual, to thereby treat or prevent the disease, disorder or condition. In one embodiment, the method further comprises the step of co-administering an effective amount of one or more further active agents. Typically, the administration is to a subject in need thereof. In general embodiments, the disease, disorder or condition may be a disease, disorder or condition of the immune system, the cardiovascular system, the endocrine system, the gastrointestinal tract, the renal system, the hepatic system, the metabolic system, the respiratory system, the central nervous system, may be a cancer or other malignancy, and/or may be caused by or associated with a pathogen. It will be appreciated that these general embodiments defined according to broad categories of diseases, disorders and conditions are not mutually exclusive. In this regard any particular disease, disorder or condition may be categorized according to more than one of the above general embodiments. A non-limiting example is type I diabetes which is an autoimmune disease and a disease of the endocrine system. In one embodiment of the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth or tenth aspect of the invention, the disease, disorder or condition is responsive to NLRP3 inhibition. As used herein, the term “NLRP3 inhibition” refers to the complete or partial reduction in the level of activity of NLRP3 and includes, for example, the inhibition of active NLRP3 and/or the inhibition of activation of NLRP3. There is evidence for a role of NLRP3-induced IL-1 and IL-18 in the inflammatory responses occurring in connection with, or as a result of, a multitude of different disorders (Menu et al., Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 166: 1-15, 2011; Strowig et al., Nature, 481: 278-286, 2012). Genetic diseases in which a role for NLRP3 has been suggested include sickle cell disease (Vogel et al., Blood, 130(Suppl 1): 2234, 2017), and Valosin Containing Protein disease (Nalbandian et al., Inflammation, 40(1): 21-41, 2017). NLRP3 has been implicated in a number of autoinflammatory diseases, including Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), TNF receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS), pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum and acne (PAPA), Sweet’s syndrome, chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO), and acne vulgaris (Cook et al., Eur J Immunol, 40: 595-653, 2010). In particular, NLRP3 mutations have been found to be responsible for a set of rare autoinflammatory diseases known as CAPS (Ozaki et al., J Inflammation Research, 8: 15-27, 2015; Schroder et al., Cell, 140: 821-832, 2010; and Menu et al., Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 166: 1-15, 2011). CAPS are heritable diseases characterized by recurrent fever and inflammation and are comprised of three autoinflammatory disorders that form a clinical continuum. These diseases, in order of increasing severity, are familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS), Muckle- Wells syndrome (MWS), and chronic infantile cutaneous neurological articular syndrome (CINCA; also called neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease, NOMID), and all have been shown to result from gain-of-function mutations in the NLRP3 gene, which leads to increased secretion of IL-1b. A number of autoimmune diseases have been shown to involve NLRP3 including, in particular, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes (T1D), psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Behcet’s disease, Schnitzler’s syndrome, macrophage activation syndrome, Coeliac disease (Masters, Clin Immunol, 147(3): 223-228, 2013; Braddock et al., Nat Rev Drug Disc, 3: 1-10, 2004; Inoue et al., Immunology, 139: 11-18, 2013; Coll et al., Nat Med, 21(3): 248-55, 2015; Scott et al., Clin Exp Rheumatol, 34(1): 88-93, 2016; Pontillo et al., Autoimmunity, 43(8): 583-589, 2010; and Guo et al., Clin Exp Immunol, 194(2): 231-243, 2018), systemic lupus erythematosus (Lu et al., J Immunol, 198(3): 1119-29, 2017) including lupus nephritis (Zhao et al., Arthritis and Rheumatism, 65(12): 3176-3185, 2013), multiple sclerosis (Xu et al., J Cell Biochem, 120(4): 5160- 5168, 2019), and systemic sclerosis (Artlett et al., Arthritis Rheum, 63(11): 3563-74, 2011). NLRP3 has also been shown to play a role in a number of respiratory and lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), asthma (including steroid- resistant asthma and eosinophilic asthma), bronchitis, asbestosis, volcanic ash induced inflammation, and silicosis (Cassel et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(26): 9035-9040, 2008; Chen et al., ERJ Open Research, 4: 00130-2017, 2018; Chen et al., Toxicological Sciences, 170(2): 462-475, 2019; Damby et al., Front Immun, 8: 2000, 2018; De Nardo et al., Am J Pathol, 184: 42-54, 2014; Lv et al., J Biol Chem, 293(48): 18454, 2018; and Kim et al., Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 196(3): 283- 97, 2017). NLRP3 has also been suggested to have a role in a number of central nervous system conditions, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), dementia, Huntington’s disease, cerebral malaria, brain injury from pneumococcal meningitis (Walsh et al., Nature Reviews, 15: 84-97, 2014; Cheng et al., Autophagy, 1-13, 2020; Couturier et al., J Neuroinflamm, 13: 20, 2016; and Dempsey et al., Brain Behav Immun, 61: 306-316, 2017), intracranial aneurysms (Zhang et al., J Stroke & Cerebrovascular Dis, 24(5): 972-979, 2015), intracerebral haemorrhages (ICH) (Ren et al., Stroke, 49(1): 184-192, 2018), cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injuries (Fauzia et al., Front Pharmacol, 9: 1034, 2018; Hong et al., Neural Plasticity, 2018: 8, 2018; Ye et al., Experimental Neurology, 292: 46-55, 2017), general anesthesia neuroinflammation (Fan et al., Front Cell Neurosci, 12: 426, 2018), sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) (Fu et al., Inflammation, 42(1): 306-318, 2019), perioperative neurocognitive disorders including postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) (Fan et al., Front Cell Neurosci, 12: 426, 2018; and Fu et al., International Immunopharmacology, 82: 106317, 2020), early brain injury (subarachnoid haemorrhage SAH) (Luo et al., Brain Res Bull, 146: 320-326, 2019), and traumatic brain injury (Ismael et al., J Neurotrauma, 35(11): 1294- 1303, 2018; and Chen et al., Brain Research, 1710: 163-172, 2019). NRLP3 activity has also been shown to be involved in various metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D), atherosclerosis, obesity, gout, pseudo-gout, metabolic syndrome (Wen et al., Nature Immunology, 13: 352-357, 2012; Duewell et al., Nature, 464: 1357-1361, 2010; Strowig et al., Nature, 481: 278-286, 2012), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (Mridha et al., J Hepatol, 66(5): 1037-46, 2017). A role for NLRP3 via IL-1b has also been suggested in atherosclerosis (Chen et al., Journal of the American Heart Association, 6(9): e006347, 2017; and Chen et al., Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 495(1): 382-387, 2018), myocardial infarction (van Hout et al., Eur Heart J, 38(11): 828-36, 2017), cardiovascular disease (Janoudi et al., European Heart Journal, 37(25): 1959-1967, 2016), cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis (Gan et al., Biochim Biophys Acta, 1864(1): 1-10, 2018), heart failure (Sano et al., J Am Coll Cardiol, 71(8): 875-66, 2018), aortic aneurysm and dissection (Wu et al., Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 37(4): 694-706, 2017), cardiac injury induced by metabolic dysfunction (Pavillard et al., Oncotarget, 8(59): 99740-99756, 2017; and Zhang et al., Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1863(6): 1556-1567, 2017), atrial fibrillation (Yao et al., Circulation, 138(20): 2227-2242, 2018), hypertension (Gan et al., Biochim Biophys Acta, 1864(1): 1-10, 2018), and other cardiovascular events (Ridker et al., N Engl J Med, doi: 10.1056/ NEJMoa1707914, 2017). Other diseases, disorders and conditions in which NLRP3 has been shown to be involved include: - ocular diseases such as both wet and dry age-related macular degeneration (Doyle et al., Nature Medicine, 18: 791-798, 2012; and Tarallo et al., Cell, 149(4): 847- 59, 2012), diabetic retinopathy (Loukovaara et al., Acta Ophthalmol, 95(8): 803-808, 2017) and optic nerve damage (Puyang et al., Sci Rep, 6: 20998, 2016 Feb 19); - liver diseases including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (Henao-Meija et al., Nature, 482: 179-185, 2012), ischemia reperfusion injury of the liver (Yu et al., Transplantation, 103(2): 353-362, 2019), fulminant hepatitis (Pourcet et al., Gastroenterology, 154(5): 1449-1464, e20, 2018), liver fibrosis (Zhang et al., Parasit Vectors, 12(1): 29, 2019), and liver failure including acute liver failure (Wang et al., Hepatol Res, 48(3): E194-E202, 2018); - kidney diseases including nephrocalcinosis (Anders et al., Kidney Int, 93(3): 656-669, 2018), kidney fibrosis including chronic crystal nephropathy (Ludwig- Portugall et al., Kidney Int, 90(3): 525-39, 2016), obesity related glomerulopathy (Zhao et al., Mediators of Inflammation, article 3172647, 2019), acute kidney injury (Zhang et al., Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, 12: 1297-1309, 2019), and renal hypertension (Krishnan et al., Br J Pharmacol, 173(4): 752-65, 2016; Krishnan et al., Cardiovasc Res, 115(4): 776-787, 2019; Dinh et al., Aging, 9(6): 1595- 1606, 2017); - conditions associated with diabetes including diabetic encephalopathy (Zhai et al., Molecules, 23(3): 522, 2018), diabetic retinopathy (Zhang et al., Cell Death Dis, 8(7): e2941, 2017), diabetic nephropathy (also called diabetic kidney disease) (Chen et al., BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 18: 192, 2018), and diabetic hypoadiponectinemia (Zhang et al., Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease, 1863(6): 1556-1567, 2017); - inflammatory reactions in the lung and skin (Primiano et al., J Immunol, 197(6): 2421-33, 2016) including lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (Xu et al., Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 503(4): 3031-3037, 2018), epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) (Li et al., Experimental Cell Research, 362(2): 489-497, 2018), contact hypersensitivity (such as bullous pemphigoid (Fang et al., J Dermatol Sci, 83(2): 116-23, 2016)), atopic dermatitis (Niebuhr et al., Allergy, 69(8): 1058-67, 2014), Hidradenitis suppurativa (Alikhan et al., J Am Acad Dermatol, 60(4): 539-61, 2009), acne vulgaris (Qin et al., J Invest Dermatol, 134(2): 381-88, 2014), and sarcoidosis (Jager et al., Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 191: A5816, 2015); - inflammatory reactions in the joints (Braddock et al., Nat Rev Drug Disc, 3: 1- 10, 2004) and osteoarthritis (Jin et al., PNAS, 108(36): 14867-14872, 2011); - conditions associated with arthritis including arthritic fever (Verma, Linköping University Medical Dissertations, No.1250, 2011); - amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Gugliandolo et al., Inflammation, 41(1): 93-103, 2018); - cystic fibrosis (Iannitti et al., Nat Commun, 7: 10791, 2016); - stroke (Walsh et al., Nature Reviews, 15: 84-97, 2014; Ye et al., Experimental Neurology, 292: 46-55, 2017); - headaches including migraine (He et al., Journal of Neuroinflammation, 16: 78, 2019); - chronic kidney disease (Granata et al., PLoS One, 10(3): e0122272, 2015); - Sjogren’s syndrome (Vakrakou et al., Journal of Autoimmunity, 91: 23-33, 2018); - graft-versus-host disease (Takahashi et al., Scientific Reports, 7: 13097, 2017); - sickle cell disease (Vogel et al., Blood, 130(Suppl 1): 2234, 2017); and - colitis and inflammatory bowel diseases including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease (Braddock et al., Nat Rev Drug Disc, 3: 1-10, 2004; Neudecker et al., J Exp Med, 214(6): 1737-52, 2017; Wu et al., Mediators Inflamm, 2018: 3048532, 2018; and Lazaridis et al., Dig Dis Sci, 62(9): 2348-56, 2017), and sepsis (intestinal epithelial disruption) (Zhang et al., Dig Dis Sci, 63(1): 81-91, 2018). Genetic ablation of NLRP3 has been shown to protect from HSD (high sugar diet), HFD (high fat diet) and HSFD-induced obesity (Pavillard et al., Oncotarget, 8(59): 99740- 99756, 2017). The NLRP3 inflammasome has been found to be activated in response to oxidative stress, sunburn (Hasegawa et al., Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 477(3): 329-335, 2016), and UVB irradiation (Schroder et al., Science, 327: 296-300, 2010). NLRP3 has also been shown to be involved in inflammatory hyperalgesia (Dolunay et al., Inflammation, 40: 366-386, 2017), wound healing (Ito et al., Exp Dermatol, 27(1): 80-86, 2018), burn healing (Chakraborty et al., Exp Dermatol, 27(1): 71-79, 2018), pain including allodynia, multiple sclerosis-associated neuropathic pain (Khan et al., Inflammopharmacology, 26(1): 77-86, 2018), chronic pelvic pain (Zhang et al., Prostate, 79(12): 1439-1449, 2019) and cancer-induced bone pain (Chen et al., Pharmacological Research, 147: 104339, 2019), and intra-amniotic inflammation/ infection associated with preterm birth (Faro et al., Biol Reprod, 100(5): 1290-1305, 2019; and Gomez-Lopez et al., Biol Reprod, 100(5): 1306-1318, 2019). The inflammasome, and NLRP3 specifically, has also been proposed as a target for modulation by various pathogens including bacterial pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (Cohen et al., Cell Reports, 22(9): 2431-2441, 2018; and Robinson et al., JCI Insight, 3(7): e97470, 2018), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) (Subbarao et al., Scientific Reports, 10: 3709, 2020), bacillus cereus (Mathur et al., Nat Microbiol, 4: 362-374, 2019), salmonella typhimurium (Diamond et al., Sci Rep, 7(1): 6861, 2017), and group A streptococcus (LaRock et al., Science Immunology, 1(2): eaah3539, 2016); viruses such as DNA viruses (Amsler et al., Future Virol, 8(4): 357-370, 2013), influenza A virus (Coates et al., Front Immunol, 8: 782, 2017), chikungunya, Ross river virus, and alpha viruses (Chen et al., Nat Microbiol, 2(10): 1435-1445, 2017); fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans (Tucey et al., mSphere, 1(3), pii: e00074-16, 2016); and other pathogens such as T. gondii (Gov et al., J Immunol, 199(8): 2855-2864, 2017), helminth worms (Alhallaf et al., Cell Reports, 23(4): 1085-1098, 2018), leishmania (Novais et al., PLoS Pathogens, 13(2): e1006196, 2017), and plasmodium (Strangward et al., PNAS, 115(28): 7404-7409, 2018). NLRP3 has been shown to be required for the efficient control of viral, bacterial, fungal, and helminth pathogen infections (Strowig et al., Nature, 481: 278-286, 2012). NLRP3 activity has also been associated with increased susceptibility to viral infection such as by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (Pontillo et al., J Aquir Immune Defic Syndr, 54(3): 236-240, 2010). An increased risk for early mortality amongst patients co-infected with HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) has also been associated with NLRP3 activity (Ravimohan et al., Open Forum Infectious Diseases, 5(5): ofy075, 2018). NLRP3 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many cancers (Menu et al., Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 166: 1-15, 2011; and Masters, Clin Immunol, 147(3): 223-228, 2013). For example, several previous studies have suggested a role for IL-1b in cancer invasiveness, growth and metastasis, and inhibition of IL-1b with canakinumab has been shown to reduce the incidence of lung cancer and total cancer mortality in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Ridker et al., Lancet, S0140- 6736(17) 3 2247-X, 2017). Inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome or IL-1b has also been shown to inhibit the proliferation and migration of lung cancer cells in vitro (Wang et al., Oncol Rep, 35(4): 2053-64, 2016), and NLRP3 has been shown to suppress NK cell- mediated control of carcinogenesis and metastases (Chow et al., Cancer Res, 72(22): 5721-32, 2012). A role for the NLRP3 inflammasome has been suggested in myelodysplastic syndromes (Basiorka et al., Blood, 128(25): 2960-2975, 2016) and also in the carcinogenesis of various other cancers including glioma (Li et al., Am J Cancer Res, 5(1): 442-449, 2015), colon cancer (Allen et al., J Exp Med, 207(5): 1045-56, 2010), melanoma (Dunn et al., Cancer Lett, 314(1): 24-33, 2012), breast cancer (Guo et al., Scientific Reports, 6: 36107, 2016), inflammation-induced tumours (Allen et al., J Exp Med, 207(5): 1045-56, 2010; and Hu et al., PNAS, 107(50): 21635-40, 2010), multiple myeloma (Li et al., Hematology, 21(3): 144-51, 2016), and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (Huang et al., J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 36(1): 116, 2017; and Chen et al., Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 75: 2045-2058, 2018). Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome has also been shown to mediate chemoresistance of tumour cells to 5-fluorouracil (Feng et al., J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 36(1): 81, 2017), and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in peripheral nerves contributes to chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain (Jia et al., Mol Pain, 13: 1-11, 2017). Accordingly, any of the diseases, disorders or conditions listed above may be treated or prevented in accordance with the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth or tenth aspect of the present invention. Particular examples of diseases, disorders or conditions which may be responsive to NLRP3 inhibition and which may be treated or prevented in accordance with the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth or tenth aspect of the present invention include: (i) inflammation, including inflammation occurring as a result of an inflammatory disorder, e.g. an autoinflammatory disease, inflammation occurring as a symptom of a non-inflammatory disorder, inflammation occurring as a result of infection, or inflammation secondary to trauma, injury or autoimmunity; (ii) auto-immune diseases such as acute disseminated encephalitis, Addison’s disease, ankylosing spondylitis, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), anti- synthetase syndrome, aplastic anemia, autoimmune adrenalitis, autoimmune hepatitis, autoimmune oophoritis, autoimmune polyglandular failure, autoimmune thyroiditis, Coeliac disease including paediatric Coeliac disease, Crohn’s disease, type 1 diabetes (T1D), Goodpasture’s syndrome, Graves’ disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), Hashimoto’s disease, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, Kawasaki’s disease, lupus erythematosus including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), multiple sclerosis (MS) including primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS), secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) and relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), myasthenia gravis, opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (OMS), optic neuritis, Ord’s thyroiditis, pemphigus, pernicious anaemia, polyarthritis, primary biliary cirrhosis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis or Still’s disease, refractory gouty arthritis, Reiter’s syndrome, Sjögren’s syndrome, systemic sclerosis a systemic connective tissue disorder, Takayasu’s arteritis, temporal arteritis, warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia, Wegener’s granulomatosis, alopecia universalis, Behcet’s disease, Chagas’ disease, dysautonomia, endometriosis, hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), interstitial cystitis, neuromyotonia, psoriasis, sarcoidosis, scleroderma, ulcerative colitis, Schnitzler’s syndrome, macrophage activation syndrome, Blau syndrome, vitiligo or vulvodynia; (iii) cancer including lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, gastric cancer, myelodysplastic syndrome, leukaemia including acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), adrenal cancer, anal cancer, basal and squamous cell skin cancer, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, bile duct cancer, bladder cancer, bone cancer, brain and spinal cord tumours, breast cancer, cervical cancer, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML), colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, oesophagus cancer, Ewing family of tumours, eye cancer, gallbladder cancer, gastrointestinal carcinoid tumours, gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST), gestational trophoblastic disease, glioma, Hodgkin lymphoma, Kaposi sarcoma, kidney cancer, laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer, liver cancer, lung carcinoid tumour, lymphoma including cutaneous T cell lymphoma, malignant mesothelioma, melanoma skin cancer, Merkel cell skin cancer, multiple myeloma, nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer, neuroblastoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, non-small cell lung cancer, oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer, osteosarcoma, ovarian cancer, penile cancer, pituitary tumours, prostate cancer, retinoblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, salivary gland cancer, skin cancer, small cell lung cancer, small intestine cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, stomach cancer, testicular cancer, thymus cancer, thyroid cancer including anaplastic thyroid cancer, uterine sarcoma, vaginal cancer, vulvar cancer, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, and Wilms tumour; (iv) infections including viral infections (e.g. from influenza virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), alphavirus (such as Chikungunya and Ross River virus), flaviviruses (such as Dengue virus and Zika virus), herpes viruses (such as Epstein Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, Varicella-zoster virus, and KSHV), poxviruses (such as vaccinia virus (Modified vaccinia virus Ankara) and Myxoma virus), adenoviruses (such as Adenovirus 5), or papillomavirus), bacterial infections (e.g. from Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA), Helicobacter pylori, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Bordatella pertussis, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Corynebacterium diptheriae, Clostridium tetani, Clostridium botulinum, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Listeria monocytogenes, Hemophilus influenzae, Pasteurella multicida, Shigella dysenteriae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Rickettsia rickettsii, Legionella pneumophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Propionibacterium acnes, Treponema pallidum, Chlamydia trachomatis, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella typhi, Borrelia burgdorferi, Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) or Yersinia pestis), fungal infections (e.g. from Candida or Aspergillus species), protozoan infections (e.g. from Plasmodium, Babesia, Giardia, Entamoeba, Leishmania or Trypanosomes), helminth infections (e.g. from schistosoma, roundworms, tapeworms or flukes), prion infections, and co-infections with any of the aforementioned (e.g. with HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis); (v) central nervous system diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, motor neuron disease, Huntington’s disease, cerebral malaria, brain injury from pneumococcal meningitis, intracranial aneurysms, intracerebral haemorrhages, sepsis-associated encephalopathy, perioperative neurocognitive disorder, postoperative cognitive dysfunction, early brain injury, traumatic brain injury, cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, stroke, general anesthesia neuroinflammation and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; (vi) metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), atherosclerosis, obesity, gout, and pseudo-gout; (vii) cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, ischaemia, reperfusion injury including post-MI ischemic reperfusion injury, stroke including ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, myocardial infarction including recurrent myocardial infarction, heart failure including congestive heart failure and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, embolism, aneurysms including abdominal aortic aneurysm, metabolism induced cardiac injury, and pericarditis including Dressler’s syndrome; (viii) respiratory diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), asthma such as allergic asthma, eosinophilic asthma, and steroid-resistant asthma, asbestosis, silicosis, volcanic ash induced inflammation, nanoparticle induced inflammation, cystic fibrosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; (ix) liver diseases including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non- alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) including advanced fibrosis stages F3 and F4, alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD), alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), ischemia reperfusion injury of the liver, fulminant hepatitis, liver fibrosis, and liver failure including acute liver failure; (x) renal diseases including chronic kidney disease, oxalate nephropathy, nephrocalcinosis, glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy, obesity related glomerulopathy, kidney fibrosis including chronic crystal nephropathy, acute renal failure, acute kidney injury, and renal hypertension; (xi) ocular diseases including those of the ocular epithelium, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (dry and wet), Sjögren’s syndrome, uveitis, corneal infection, diabetic retinopathy, optic nerve damage, dry eye, and glaucoma; (xii) skin diseases including dermatitis such as contact dermatitis and atopic dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, psoriasis, sunburn, skin lesions, hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), other cyst-causing skin diseases, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne vulgaris including and acne conglobata; (xiii) lymphatic conditions such as lymphangitis and Castleman’s disease; (xiv) psychological disorders such as depression and psychological stress; (xv) graft versus host disease; (xvi) pain such as pelvic pain, hyperalgesia, allodynia including mechanical allodynia, neuropathic pain including multiple sclerosis-associated neuropathic pain, and cancer- induced bone pain; (xvii) conditions associated with diabetes including diabetic encephalopathy, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic vascular endothelial dysfunction, and diabetic hypoadiponectinemia; (xviii) conditions associated with arthritis including arthritic fever; (xix) headache including cluster headaches, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, migraine, low pressure headaches (e.g. post-lumbar puncture), Short-Lasting Unilateral Neuralgiform Headache With Conjunctival Injection and Tearing (SUNCT), and tension-type headaches; (xx) wounds and burns, including skin wounds and skin burns; and (xxi) any disease where an individual has been determined to carry a germline or somatic non-silent mutation in NLRP3. In one embodiment, the disease, disorder or condition is selected from: (i) inflammation; (ii) an auto-immune disease; (iii) cancer; (iv) an infection; (v) a central nervous system disease; (vi) a metabolic disease; (vii) a cardiovascular disease; (viii) a respiratory disease; (ix) a liver disease; (x) a renal disease; (xi) an ocular disease; (xii) a skin disease; (xiii) a lymphatic condition; (xiv) a psychological disorder; (xv) graft versus host disease; (xvi) allodynia; (xvii) a condition associated with diabetes; and (xviii) any disease where an individual has been determined to carry a germline or somatic non-silent mutation in NLRP3. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder or condition is selected from: (i) cancer; (ii) an infection; (iii) a central nervous system disease; (iv) a cardiovascular disease; (v) a liver disease; (vi) an ocular disease; or (vii) a skin disease. More typically, the disease, disorder or condition is selected from: (i) cancer; (ii) an infection; (iii) a central nervous system disease; or (iv) a cardiovascular disease. In one embodiment, the disease, disorder or condition is selected from: (i) acne conglobata; (ii) atopic dermatitis; (iii) Alzheimer’s disease; (iv) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; (v) age-related macular degeneration (AMD); (vi) anaplastic thyroid cancer; (vii) cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS); (viii) contact dermatitis; (ix) cystic fibrosis; (x) congestive heart failure; (xi) chronic kidney disease; (xii) Crohn’s disease; (xiii) familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS); (xiv) Huntington’s disease; (xv) heart failure; (xvi) heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; (xvii) ischemic reperfusion injury; (xviii) juvenile idiopathic arthritis; (xix) myocardial infarction; (xx) macrophage activation syndrome; (xxi) myelodysplastic syndrome; (xxii) multiple myeloma; (xxiii) motor neuron disease; (xxiv) multiple sclerosis; (xxv) Muckle-Wells syndrome; (xxvi) non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); (xxvii) neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID); (xxviii) Parkinson’s disease; (xxix) sickle cell disease; (xxx) systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis; (xxxi) systemic lupus erythematosus; (xxxii) traumatic brain injury; (xxxiii) transient ischemic attack; (xxxiv) ulcerative colitis; or (xxxv) Valosin Containing Protein disease. In another embodiment of the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth or tenth aspect of the present invention, the treatment or prevention comprises a reduction in susceptibility to viral infection. For instance, the treatment or prevention may comprise a reduction in susceptibility to HIV infection. In a further typical embodiment of the invention, the disease, disorder or condition is inflammation. Examples of inflammation that may be treated or prevented in accordance with the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth or tenth aspect of the present invention include inflammatory responses occurring in connection with, or as a result of: (i) a skin condition such as contact hypersensitivity, bullous pemphigoid, sunburn, psoriasis, atopical dermatitis, contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, seborrhoetic dermatitis, lichen planus, scleroderma, pemphigus, epidermolysis bullosa, urticaria, erythemas, or alopecia; (ii) a joint condition such as osteoarthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, adult-onset Still’s disease, relapsing polychondritis, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile chronic arthritis, gout, or a seronegative spondyloarthropathy (e.g. ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis or Reiter’s disease); (iii) a muscular condition such as polymyositis or myasthenia gravis; (iv) a gastrointestinal tract condition such as inflammatory bowel disease (including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis), colitis, gastric ulcer, Coeliac disease, proctitis, pancreatitis, eosinopilic gastro-enteritis, mastocytosis, antiphospholipid syndrome, or a food-related allergy which may have effects remote from the gut (e.g., migraine, rhinitis or eczema); (v) a respiratory system condition such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma (including eosinophilic, bronchial, allergic, intrinsic, extrinsic or dust asthma, and particularly chronic or inveterate asthma, such as late asthma and airways hyper-responsiveness), bronchitis, rhinitis (including acute rhinitis, allergic rhinitis, atrophic rhinitis, chronic rhinitis, rhinitis caseosa, hypertrophic rhinitis, rhinitis pumlenta, rhinitis sicca, rhinitis medicamentosa, membranous rhinitis, seasonal rhinitis e.g. hay fever, and vasomotor rhinitis), sinusitis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), sarcoidosis, farmer’s lung, silicosis, asbestosis, volcanic ash induced inflammation, adult respiratory distress syndrome, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, or idiopathic interstitial pneumonia; (vi) a vascular condition such as atherosclerosis, Behcet’s disease, vasculitides, or Wegener’s granulomatosis; (vii) an autoimmune condition such as systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren’s syndrome, systemic sclerosis, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, type I diabetes, idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura, or Graves disease; (viii) an ocular condition such as uveitis, allergic conjunctivitis, or vernal conjunctivitis; (ix) a nervous condition such as multiple sclerosis or encephalomyelitis; (x) an infection or infection-related condition, such as Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), acute or chronic bacterial infection, acute or chronic parasitic infection, acute or chronic viral infection, acute or chronic fungal infection, meningitis, hepatitis (A, B or C, or other viral hepatitis), peritonitis, pneumonia, epiglottitis, malaria, dengue hemorrhagic fever, leishmaniasis, streptococcal myositis, mycobacterium tuberculosis (including mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV co- infection), mycobacterium avium intracellulare, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, orchitis/epidydimitis, legionella, Lyme disease, influenza A, Epstein-Barr virus infection, viral encephalitis/aseptic meningitis, or pelvic inflammatory disease; (xi) a renal condition such as mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, nephritis, glomerular nephritis, obesity related glomerulopathy, acute renal failure, acute kidney injury, uremia, nephritic syndrome, kidney fibrosis including chronic crystal nephropathy, or renal hypertension; (xii) a lymphatic condition such as Castleman’s disease; (xiii) a condition of, or involving, the immune system, such as hyper IgE syndrome, lepromatous leprosy, familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, or graft versus host disease; (xiv) a hepatic condition such as chronic active hepatitis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), alcohol-induced hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD), alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), primary biliary cirrhosis, fulminant hepatitis, liver fibrosis, or liver failure; (xv) a cancer, including those cancers listed above; (xvi) a burn, wound, trauma, haemorrhage or stroke; (xvii) radiation exposure; (xviii) a metabolic disease such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), atherosclerosis, obesity, gout or pseudo-gout; and/or (xix) pain such as inflammatory hyperalgesia, pelvic pain, allodynia, neuropathic pain, or cancer-induced bone pain. In one embodiment of the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth or tenth aspect of the present invention, the disease, disorder or condition is an autoinflammatory disease such as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS), familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS), familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID), Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptor-Associated Periodic Syndrome (TRAPS), hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS), deficiency of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (DIRA), Majeed syndrome, pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum and acne syndrome (PAPA), adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD), haploinsufficiency of A20 (HA20), pediatric granulomatous arthritis (PGA), PLCG2-associated antibody deficiency and immune dysregulation (PLAID), PLCG2- associated autoinflammatory, antibody deficiency and immune dysregulation (APLAID), or sideroblastic anaemia with B-cell immunodeficiency, periodic fevers and developmental delay (SIFD). Examples of diseases, disorders or conditions which may be responsive to NLRP3 inhibition and which may be treated or prevented in accordance with the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth or tenth aspect of the present invention are listed above. Some of these diseases, disorders or conditions are substantially or entirely mediated by NLRP3 inflammasome activity, and NLRP3-induced IL-1b and/or IL-18. As a result, such diseases, disorders or conditions may be particularly responsive to NLRP3 inhibition and may be particularly suitable for treatment or prevention in accordance with the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth or tenth aspect of the present invention. Examples of such diseases, disorders or conditions include cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS), familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS), neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID), familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum and acne syndrome (PAPA), hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS), Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptor-Associated Periodic Syndrome (TRAPS), systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD), relapsing polychondritis, Schnitzler’s syndrome, Sweet’s syndrome, Behcet’s disease, anti- synthetase syndrome, deficiency of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (DIRA), and haploinsufficiency of A20 (HA20). Moreover, some of the diseases, disorders or conditions mentioned above arise due to mutations in NLRP3, in particular, resulting in increased NLRP3 activity. As a result, such diseases, disorders or conditions may be particularly responsive to NLRP3 inhibition and may be particularly suitable for treatment or prevention in accordance with the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth or tenth aspect of the present invention. Examples of such diseases, disorders or conditions include cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS), familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS), and neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID). An eleventh aspect of the invention provides a method of inhibiting NLRP3, the method comprising the use of a compound of the first or second aspect of the invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect of the invention, or a pharmaceutical composition of the fourth aspect of the invention, to inhibit NLRP3. In one embodiment of the eleventh aspect of the present invention, the method comprises the use of a compound of the first or second aspect of the invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect of the invention, or a pharmaceutical composition of the fourth aspect of the invention, in combination with one or more further active agents. In one embodiment of the eleventh aspect of the present invention, the method is performed ex vivo or in vitro, for example in order to analyse the effect on cells of NLRP3 inhibition. In another embodiment of the eleventh aspect of the present invention, the method is performed in vivo. For example, the method may comprise the step of administering an effective amount of a compound of the first or second aspect, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect, or a pharmaceutical composition of the fourth aspect, to thereby inhibit NLRP3. In one embodiment, the method further comprises the step of co-administering an effective amount of one or more further active agents. Typically, the administration is to a subject in need thereof. Alternately, the method of the eleventh aspect of the invention may be a method of inhibiting NLRP3 in a non-human animal subject, the method comprising the steps of administering the compound, salt, solvate, prodrug or pharmaceutical composition to the non-human animal subject and optionally subsequently mutilating or sacrificing the non-human animal subject. Typically, such a method further comprises the step of analysing one or more tissue or fluid samples from the optionally mutilated or sacrificed non-human animal subject. In one embodiment, the method further comprises the step of co-administering an effective amount of one or more further active agents. A twelfth aspect of the invention provides a compound of the first or second aspect of the invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect of the invention, or a pharmaceutical composition of the fourth aspect of the invention, for use in the inhibition of NLRP3. Typically, the use comprises the administration of the compound, salt, solvate, prodrug or pharmaceutical composition to a subject. In one embodiment, the compound, salt, solvate, prodrug or pharmaceutical composition is co-administered with one or more further active agents. A thirteenth aspect of the invention provides the use of a compound of the first or second aspect of the invention, or a pharmaceutically effective salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect of the invention, in the manufacture of a medicament for the inhibition of NLRP3. Typically, the inhibition comprises the administration of the compound, salt, solvate, prodrug or medicament to a subject. In one embodiment, the compound, salt, solvate, prodrug or medicament is co-administered with one or more further active agents. In any embodiment of any of the fifth to thirteenth aspects of the present invention that comprises the use or co-administration of one or more further active agents, the one or more further active agents may comprise for example one, two or three different further active agents. The one or more further active agents may be used or administered prior to, simultaneously with, sequentially with or subsequent to each other and/or to the compound of the first or second aspect of the invention, the pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect of the invention, or the pharmaceutical composition of the fourth aspect of the invention. Where the one or more further active agents are administered simultaneously with the compound of the first or second aspect of the invention, or the pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug of the third aspect of the invention, a pharmaceutical composition of the fourth aspect of the invention may be administered wherein the pharmaceutical composition additionally comprises the one or more further active agents. In one embodiment of any of the fifth to thirteenth aspects of the present invention that comprises the use or co-administration of one or more further active agents, the one or more further active agents are selected from: (i) chemotherapeutic agents; (ii) antibodies; (iii) alkylating agents; (iv) anti-metabolites; (v) anti-angiogenic agents; (vi) plant alkaloids and/or terpenoids; (vii) topoisomerase inhibitors; (viii) mTOR inhibitors; (ix) stilbenoids; (x) STING agonists; (xi) cancer vaccines; (xii) immunomodulatory agents; (xiii) antibiotics; (xiv) anti-fungal agents; (xv) anti-helminthic agents; and/or (xvi) other active agents. It will be appreciated that these general embodiments defined according to broad categories of active agents are not mutually exclusive. In this regard any particular active agent may be categorized according to more than one of the above general embodiments. A non-limiting example is urelumab which is an antibody that is an immunomodulatory agent for the treatment of cancer. As will be understood, where the further active agent is a small chemical entity, any reference to a specific small chemical entity below is to be understood to encompass all salt, hydrate, solvate, polymorphic and prodrug forms of the specific small chemical entity. Similarly, where the further active agent is a biologic such as a monoclonal antibody, any reference to a specific biologic below is to be understood to encompass all biosimilars thereof. In some embodiments, the one or more chemotherapeutic agents are selected from abiraterone acetate, altretamine, amsacrine, anhydrovinblastine, auristatin, azacitidine, 5-azacytidine, azathioprine, adriamycin, bexarotene, bicalutamide, BMS 184476, bleomycin, bortezomib, N,N-dimethyl-L-valyl-L-valyl-N-methyl-L-valyl-L-prolyl-L- proline-t-butylamide, cisplatin, carboplatin, carboplatin cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, cachectin, cemadotin, cyclophosphamide, carmustine, cladribine, cryptophycin, cytarabine, docetaxel, doxetaxel, doxorubicin, dacarbazine (DTIC), dactinomycin, daunorubicin, decitabine, dolastatin, etoposide, etoposide phosphate, enzalutamide (MDV3100), 5-fluorouracil, fludarabine, flutamide, gemcitabine, hydroxyurea and hydroxyureataxanes, idarubicin, ifosfamide, irinotecan, ixazomib, lenalidomide, lenalidomide-dexamethasone, leucovorin, lonidamine, lomustine (CCNU), larotaxel (RPR109881), mechlorethamine, mercaptopurine, methotrexate, mitomycin C, mitoxantrone, melphalan, mivobulin, 3',4'-didehydro-4'-deoxy-8'-norvin- caleukoblastine, nilutamide, oxaliplatin, onapristone, prednimustine, procarbazine, paclitaxel, platinum-containing anti-cancer agents, 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro-N-(3-fluoro- 4-methoxyphenyl)benzene sulfonamide, prednimustine, revlimid, rhizoxin, sertenef, streptozocin, stramustine phosphate, tretinoin, tasonermin, taxol, topotecan, tamoxifen, teniposide, taxane, tegafur/uracil, thalidomide, vincristine, vinblastine, vinorelbine, vindesine, vindesine sulfate, and/or vinflunine. Alternatively or in addition, the one or more chemotherapeutic agents may be selected from CD59 complement fragment, fibronectin fragment, gro-beta (CXCL2), heparinases, heparin hexasaccharide fragment, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), Type I interferon ligands such as interferon alpha and interferon beta, Type I interferon mimetics, Type II interferon ligands such as interferon gamma, Type II interferon mimetics, interferon inducible protein (IP-10), kringle 5 (plasminogen fragment), metalloproteinase inhibitors (TIMPs), 2-methoxyestradiol, placental ribonuclease inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor, platelet factor-4 (PF4), prolactin 16 kD fragment, proliferin-related protein (PRP), various retinoids, tetrahydrocortisol-S, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-b), vasculostatin, vasostatin (calreticulin fragment), cytokines (including interleukins, such as interleukin-1, interleukin-2, interleukin-5, interleukin-10, interleukin-12, and interleukin-33), interleukin-1 ligands and mimetics (such as rilonacept, anakinra, and anakinra-dexamethasone), interleukin-2 ligands and mimetics, interleukin-5 ligands and mimetics, interleukin-10 ligands and mimetics, interleukin-12 ligands and mimetics, and/or interleukin-33 ligands and mimetics. In some embodiments, the one or more antibodies may comprise one or more monoclonal antibodies. In some embodiments, the one or more antibodies are anti‐TNFa and/or anti‐IL‐6 antibodies, in particular anti‐TNFa and/or anti‐IL‐6 monoclonal antibodies. In some embodiments, the one or more antibodies are selected from abatacept, abciximab, adalimumab, alemtuzumab, atezolizumab, atlizumab, avelumab, basiliximab, belimumab, benralizumab, bevacizumab, bretuximab vedotin, brodalumab, canakinumab, cetuximab, ceertolizumab pegol, daclizumab, denosumab, dupilumab, durvalumab, eculizumab, efalizumab, elotuzumab, gemtuzumab, golimumab, guselkumab, ibritumomab tiuxetan, infliximab, ipilimumab, ixekizumab, mepolizumab, muromonab-CD3, natalizumab, nivolumab, ofatumumab, omalizumab, palivizumab, panitumuab, pembrolizumab, ranibizumab, reslizumab, risankizumab, rituximab, sarilumab, secukinumab, siltuximab, tildrakizumab, tocilizumab, tositumomab, trastuzumab, and/or ustekinumab. In some embodiments, the one or more alkylating agents may comprise an agent capable of alkylating nucleophilic functional groups under conditions present in cells, including, for example, cancer cells. In some embodiments, the one or more alkylating agents are selected from cisplatin, carboplatin, mechlorethamine, cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, ifosfamide and/or oxaliplatin. In some embodiments, the alkylating agent may function by impairing cell function by forming covalent bonds with amino, carboxyl, sulfhydryl, and/or phosphate groups in biologically important molecules. In some embodiments, the alkylating agent may function by modifying a cell’s DNA. In some embodiments, the one or more anti-metabolites may comprise an agent capable of affecting or preventing RNA or DNA synthesis. In some embodiments, the one or more anti-metabolites are selected from azathioprine and/or mercaptopurine. In some embodiments, the one or more anti-angiogenic agents are selected from thalidomide, lenalidomide, endostatin, angiogenin inhibitors, angioarrestin, angiostatin (plasminogen fragment), basement-membrane collagen-derived anti- angiogenic factors (tumstatin, canstatin, or arrestin), anti-angiogenic antithrombin III, and/or cartilage-derived inhibitor (CDI). In some embodiments, the one or more plant alkaloids and/or terpenoids may prevent microtubule function. In some embodiments, the one or more plant alkaloids and/or terpenoids are selected from a vinca alkaloid, a podophyllotoxin and/or a taxane. In some embodiments, the one or more vinca alkaloids may be derived from the Madagascar periwinkle, Catharanthus roseus (formerly known as Vinca rosea), and may be selected from vincristine, vinblastine, vinorelbine and/or vindesine. In some embodiments, the one or more taxanes are selected from taxol, paclitaxel, docetaxel and/or ortataxel. In some embodiments, the one or more podophyllotoxins are selected from an etoposide and/or teniposide. In some embodiments, the one or more topoisomerase inhibitors are selected from a type I topoisomerase inhibitor and/or a type II topoisomerase inhibitor, and may interfere with transcription and/or replication of DNA by interfering with DNA supercoiling. In some embodiments, the one or more type I topoisomerase inhibitors may comprise a camptothecin, which may be selected from exatecan, irinotecan, lurtotecan, topotecan, BNP 1350, CKD 602, DB 67 (AR67) and/or ST 1481. In some embodiments, the one or more type II topoisomerase inhibitors may comprise an epipodophyllotoxin, which may be selected from an amsacrine, etoposid, etoposide phosphate and/or teniposide. In some embodiments, the one or more mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin, also known as the mechanistic target of rapamycin) inhibitors are selected from rapamycin, everolimus, temsirolimus and/or deforolimus. In some embodiments, the one or more stilbenoids are selected from resveratrol, piceatannol, pinosylvin, pterostilbene, alpha-viniferin, ampelopsin A, ampelopsin E, diptoindonesin C, diptoindonesin F, epsilon-vinferin, flexuosol A, gnetin H, hemsleyanol D, hopeaphenol, trans-diptoindonesin B, astringin, piceid and/or diptoindonesin A. In some embodiments, the one or more STING (Stimulator of interferon genes, also known as transmembrane protein (TMEM) 173) agonists may comprise cyclic di- nucleotides (CDNs), such as c-di-AMP, c-di-GMP, and cGAMP, and/or modified cyclic di-nucleotides that may include one or more of the following modification features: 2'-O/3'-O linkage, phosphorothioate linkage, adenine and/or guanine analogue, and/or 2'-OH modification (e.g. protection of the 2'-OH with a methyl group or replacement of the 2'-OH by -F or -N 3 ). In some embodiments, the one or more STING agonists are selected from BMS-986301, MK-1454, ADU-S100, a diABZI, 3’3’-cGAMP, and/or 2’3’- cGAMP. In some embodiments, the one or more cancer vaccines are selected from an HPV vaccine, a hepatitis B vaccine, Oncophage, and/or Provenge. In some embodiments, the one or more immunomodulatory agents may comprise an immune checkpoint inhibitor. The immune checkpoint inhibitor may target an immune checkpoint receptor, or combination of receptors comprising, for example, CTLA-4, PD-1, PD-L1, PD-L2, T cell immunoglobulin and mucin 3 (TIM3 or HAVCR2), galectin 9, phosphatidylserine, lymphocyte activation gene 3 protein (LAG3), MHC class I, MHC class II, 4-1BB, 4-1BBL, OX40, OX40L, GITR, GITRL, CD27, CD70, TNFRSF25, TL1A, CD40, CD40L, HVEM, LIGHT, BTLA, CD160, CD80, CD244, CD48, ICOS, ICOSL, B7- H3, B7-H4, VISTA, TMIGD2, HHLA2, TMIGD2, a butyrophilin (including BTNL2), a Siglec family member, TIGIT, PVR, a killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, an ILT, a leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor, NKG2D, NKG2A, MICA, MICB, CD28, CD86, SIRPA, CD47, VEGF, neuropilin, CD30, CD39, CD73, CXCR4, and/or CXCL12. In some embodiments, the immune checkpoint inhibitor is selected from urelumab, PF-05082566, MEDI6469, TRX518, varlilumab, CP-870893, pembrolizumab (PD1), nivolumab (PD1), atezolizumab (formerly MPDL3280A) (PD-L1), MEDI4736 (PD-L1), avelumab (PD-L1), PDR001 (PD1), BMS-986016, MGA271, lirilumab, IPH2201, emactuzumab, INCB024360, galunisertib, ulocuplumab, BKT140, bavituximab, CC- 90002, bevacizumab, and/or MNRP1685A. In some embodiments, the one or more immunomodulatory agents may comprise a complement pathway modulator. Complement pathway modulators modulate the complement activation pathway. Complement pathway modulators may act to block action of the C3 and/or C3a and/or C3aR1 receptor, or may act to block action of the C5 and/or C5a and/or C5aR1 receptor. In some embodiments, the complement pathway modulator is a C5 complement pathway modulator and may be selected from eculizumab, ravulizumab (ALXN1210), ABP959, RA101495, tesidolumab (LFG316), zimura, crovalimab (RO7112689), pozelimab (REGN3918), GNR-045, SOBI005, and/or coversin. In some embodiments, the complement pathway modulator is a C5a complement pathway modulator and may be selected from cemdisiran (ALN-CC5), IFX-1, IFX-2, IFX-3, and/or olendalizumab (ALXN1007). In some embodiments, the complement pathway modulator is a C5aR1 complement pathway modulator and may be selected from ALS-205, MOR-210/TJ210, DF2593A, DF3016A, DF2593A, avacopan (CCX168), and /or IPH5401. In some embodiments, the one or more immunomodulatory agents may comprise an anti-TNFa agent. In some embodiments, the anti-TNFa agent may be an antibody or an antigen-binding fragment thereof, a fusion protein, a soluble TNFa receptor (e.g. a soluble TNFR1 or soluble TNFR2), an inhibitory nucleic acid, or a small molecule TNFa antagonist. In some embodiments, the inhibitory nucleic acid may be a ribozyme, a small hairpin RNA, a small interfering RNA, an antisense nucleic acid, or an aptamer. In some embodiments, the anti-TNFa agent is selected from adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab, CDP571, and biosimilars thereof (such as adalimumab-adbm, adalimumab-adaz, adalimumab-atto, etanercept-szzs, infliximab- abda and infliximab-dyyb). In some embodiments, the one or more immunomodulatory agents may comprise azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, levofloxacin and/or roxithromycin. In some embodiments, the one or more antibiotics are selected from amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, netilmicin, tobramycin, paromomycin, streptomycin, spectinomycin, geldanamycin, herbimycin, rifaximin, loracarbef, ertapenem, doripenem, imipenem, cilastatin, meropenem, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefalotin, cefalothin, cefalexin, cefaclor, cefamandole, cefoxitin, cefprozil, cefuroxime, cefixime, cefdinir, cefditoren, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cefpodoxime, ceftazidime, ceftibuten, ceftizoxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime, ceftaroline fosamil, ceftobiprole, teicoplanin, vancomycin, telavancin, dalbavancin, oritavancin, clindamycin, lincomycin, daptomycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, dirithromycin, erythromycin, roxithromycin, troleandomycin, telithromycin, spiramycin, aztreonam, furazolidone, nitrofurantoin, linezolid, posizolid, radezolid, torezolid, amoxicillin, ampicillin, azlocillin, carbenicillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, flucloxacillin, mezlocillin, methicillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, penicillin G, penicillin V, piperacillin, temocillin, ticarcillin, calvulanate, ampicillin, subbactam, tazobactam, ticarcillin, clavulanate, bacitracin, colistin, polymyxin B, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, moxifloxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, trovafloxacin, grepafloxacin, sparfloxacin, temafloxacin, mafenide, sulfacetamide, sulfadiazine, silver sulfadiazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfanamide, sulfasalazine, sulfisoxazole, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, sulfonamideochrysoidine, demeclocycline, minocycline, oytetracycline, tetracycline, clofazimine, dapsone, dapreomycin, cycloserine, ethambutol, ethionamide, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampicin, rifabutin, rifapentine, streptomycin, arsphenamine, chloramphenicol, fosfomycin, fusidic acid, metronidazole, mupirocin, platensimycin, quinupristin, dalopristin, thiamphenicol, tigecycyline, tinidazole, trimethoprim, and/or teixobactin. In some embodiments, the one or more antibiotics may comprise one or more cytotoxic antibiotics. In some embodiments, the one or more cytotoxic antibiotics are selected from an actinomycin, an anthracenedione, an anthracycline, thalidomide, dichloroacetic acid, nicotinic acid, 2-deoxyglucose, and/or chlofazimine. In some embodiments, the one or more actinomycins are selected from actinomycin D, bacitracin, colistin (polymyxin E) and/or polymyxin B. In some embodiments, the one or more antracenediones are selected from mitoxantrone and/or pixantrone. In some embodiments, the one or more anthracyclines are selected from bleomycin, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), daunorubicin (daunomycin), epirubicin, idarubicin, mitomycin, plicamycin and/or valrubicin. In some embodiments, the one or more anti-fungal agents are selected from bifonazole, butoconazole, clotrimazole, econazole, ketoconazole, luliconazole, miconazole, omoconazole, oxiconazole, sertaconazole, sulconazole, tioconazole, albaconazole, efinaconazole, epoziconazole, fluconazole, isavuconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, propiconazole, ravusconazole, terconazole, voriconazole, abafungin, amorolfin, butenafine, naftifine, terbinafine, anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, benzoic acid, ciclopirox, flucytosine, 5-fluorocytosine, griseofulvin, haloprogin, tolnaflate, undecylenic acid, and/or balsam of Peru. In some embodiments, the one or more anti-helminthic agents are selected from benzimidazoles (including albendazole, mebendazole, thiabendazole, fenbendazole, triclabendazole, and flubendazole), abamectin, diethylcarbamazine, ivermectin, suramin, pyrantel pamoate, levamisole, salicylanilides (including niclosamide and oxyclozanide), and/or nitazoxanide. In some embodiments, other active agents are selected from growth inhibitory agents; anti-inflammatory agents (including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents; small molecule anti-inflammatory agents (such as colchicine); and anti-inflammatory biologics that target for example TNF, IL-5, IL-6, IL-17 or IL-33); JAK inhibitors; phosphodiesterase inhibitors; CAR T therapies; anti-psoriatic agents (including anthralin and its derivatives); vitamins and vitamin-derivatives (including retinoinds, and VDR receptor ligands); steroids; corticosteroids; glucocorticoids (such as dexamethasone, prednisone and triamcinolone acetonide); ion channel blockers (including potassium channel blockers); immune system regulators (including cyclosporin, FK 506, and glucocorticoids); lutenizing hormone releasing hormone agonists (such as leuprolidine, goserelin, triptorelin, histrelin, bicalutamide, flutamide and/or nilutamide); hormones (including estrogen); and/or uric acid lowering agents (such as allopurinol). Unless stated otherwise, in any of the fifth to thirteenth aspects of the invention, the subject may be any human or other animal. Typically, the subject is a mammal, more typically a human or a domesticated mammal such as a cow, pig, lamb, sheep, goat, horse, cat, dog, rabbit, mouse etc. Most typically, the subject is a human. Any of the medicaments employed in the present invention can be administered by oral, parenteral (including intravenous, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intradermal, intratracheal, intraperitoneal, intraarticular, intracranial and epidural), airway (aerosol), rectal, vaginal, ocular or topical (including transdermal, buccal, mucosal, sublingual and topical ocular) administration. Typically, the mode of administration selected is that most appropriate to the disorder, disease or condition to be treated or prevented. Where one or more further active agents are administered, the mode of administration may be the same as or different to the mode of administration of the compound, salt, solvate, prodrug or pharmaceutical composition of the invention. For oral administration, the compounds, salts, solvates or prodrugs of the present invention will generally be provided in the form of tablets, capsules, hard or soft gelatine capsules, caplets, troches or lozenges, as a powder or granules, or as an aqueous solution, suspension or dispersion. Tablets for oral use may include the active ingredient mixed with pharmaceutically acceptable excipients such as inert diluents, disintegrating agents, binding agents, lubricating agents, sweetening agents, flavouring agents, colouring agents and preservatives. Suitable inert diluents include sodium and calcium carbonate, sodium and calcium phosphate, and lactose. Corn starch and alginic acid are suitable disintegrating agents. Binding agents may include starch and gelatine. The lubricating agent, if present, may be magnesium stearate, stearic acid or talc. If desired, the tablets may be coated with a material, such as glyceryl monostearate or glyceryl distearate, to delay absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. Tablets may also be effervescent and/or dissolving tablets. Capsules for oral use include hard gelatine capsules in which the active ingredient is mixed with a solid diluent, and soft gelatine capsules wherein the active ingredient is mixed with water or an oil such as peanut oil, liquid paraffin or olive oil. Powders or granules for oral use may be provided in sachets or tubs. Aqueous solutions, suspensions or dispersions may be prepared by the addition of water to powders, granules or tablets. Any form suitable for oral administration may optionally include sweetening agents such as sugar, flavouring agents, colouring agents and/or preservatives. Formulations for rectal administration may be presented as a suppository with a suitable base comprising, for example, cocoa butter or a salicylate. Formulations suitable for vaginal administration may be presented as pessaries, tampons, creams, gels, pastes, foams or spray formulations containing in addition to the active ingredient such carriers as are known in the art to be appropriate. For parenteral use, the compounds, salts, solvates or prodrugs of the present invention will generally be provided in a sterile aqueous solution or suspension, buffered to an appropriate pH and isotonicity. Suitable aqueous vehicles include Ringer’s solution and isotonic sodium chloride or glucose. Aqueous suspensions according to the invention may include suspending agents such as cellulose derivatives, sodium alginate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and gum tragacanth, and a wetting agent such as lecithin. Suitable preservatives for aqueous suspensions include ethyl and n-propyl p-hydroxybenzoate. The compounds of the invention may also be presented as liposome formulations. For ocular administration, the compounds, salts, solvates or prodrugs of the invention will generally be provided in a form suitable for topical administration, e.g. as eye drops. Suitable forms may include ophthalmic solutions, gel-forming solutions, sterile powders for reconstitution, ophthalmic suspensions, ophthalmic ointments, ophthalmic emulsions, ophthalmic gels and ocular inserts. Alternatively, the compounds, salts, solvates or prodrugs of the invention may be provided in a form suitable for other types of ocular administration, for example as intraocular preparations (including as irrigating solutions, as intraocular, intravitreal or juxtascleral injection formulations, or as intravitreal implants), as packs or corneal shields, as intracameral, subconjunctival or retrobulbar injection formulations, or as iontophoresis formulations. For transdermal and other topical administration, the compounds, salts, solvates or prodrugs of the invention will generally be provided in the form of ointments, cataplasms (poultices), pastes, powders, dressings, creams, plasters or patches. Suitable suspensions and solutions can be used in inhalers for airway (aerosol) administration. The dose of the compounds, salts, solvates or prodrugs of the present invention will, of course, vary with the disease, disorder or condition to be treated or prevented. In general, a suitable dose will be in the range of 0.01 to 500 mg per kilogram body weight of the recipient per day. The desired dose may be presented at an appropriate interval such as once every other day, once a day, twice a day, three times a day or four times a day. The desired dose may be administered in unit dosage form, for example, containing 1 mg to 50 g of active ingredient per unit dosage form. For the avoidance of doubt, insofar as is practicable any embodiment of a given aspect of the present invention may occur in combination with any other embodiment of the same aspect of the present invention. In addition, insofar as is practicable it is to be understood that any preferred, typical or optional embodiment of any aspect of the present invention should also be considered as a preferred, typical or optional embodiment of any other aspect of the present invention. Examples – compound synthesis All solvents, reagents and compounds were purchased and used without further purification unless stated otherwise. Abbreviations 2-MeTHF 2-methyltetrahydrofuran AcCl acetyl chloride Ac 2 O acetic anhydride AcOH acetic acid app apparent aq aqueous B 2 Pin 2 bis(pinacolato)diboron, also called 4,4,4',4',5,5,5',5'-octamethyl- 2,2'-bi(1,3,2-dioxaborolane) Boc tert-butyloxycarbonyl br broad Cbz carboxybenzyl CDI 1,1-carbonyl-diimidazole conc concentrated d doublet DABCO 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane DCE 1,2-dichloroethane, also called ethylene dichloride DCM dichloromethane dd double doublet ddd double double doublet DIAD diisopropyl azodicarboxylate DIPEA N,N-diisopropylethylamine, also called Hünig’s base DMA dimethylacetamide DMAP 4-dimethylaminopyridine, also called N,N-dimethylpyridin-4- amine DME dimethoxyethane DMF N,N-dimethylformamide DMSO dimethyl sulfoxide EDC 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide eq or equiv equivalent (ES + ) electrospray ionization, positive mode Et ethyl EtOAc ethyl acetate EtOH ethanol Ex example FC flash column chromatography on silica gel h hour(s) HATU 1-[bis(dimethylamino)methylene]-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5- b]pyridinium 3-oxid hexafluorophosphate HPLC high performance liquid chromatography Hz hertz Int intermediate KOAc potassium acetate KO t Bu potassium tert-butoxide LC liquid chromatography m multiplet m-CPBA 3-chloroperoxybenzoic acid Me methyl MeCN acetonitrile MeOH methanol (M+H) + protonated molecular ion MHz megahertz min minute(s) MS mass spectrometry Ms mesyl, also called methanesulfonyl MsCl mesyl chloride, also called methanesulfonyl chloride MTBE methyl tert-butyl ether, also called tert-butyl methyl ether m/z mass-to-charge ratio NaO t Bu sodium tert-butoxide NBS 1-bromopyrrolidine-2,5-dione, also called N-bromosuccinimide NCS 1-chloropyrrolidine-2,5-dione, also called N-chlorosuccinimide NMP N-methylpyrrolidine NMR nuclear magnetic resonance (spectroscopy) p pentuplet Pd 2 (dba) 3 tris(dibenzylideneacetone) dipalladium(0) PdCl2(dppf) [1,1¢-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene] dichloropalladium(II), also called Pd(dppf)Cl2 PE petroleum ether Ph phenyl PMB p-methoxybenzyl, also called 4-methoxybenzyl prep-HPLC preparative high performance liquid chromatography prep-TLC preparative thin layer chromatography on silica PTSA p-toluenesulfonic acid q quartet RP reversed phase RT room temperature s singlet sat saturated SCX solid supported cation exchange (resin) sept septuplet SPhos-Pd-G3 (2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2¢,6¢-dimethoxybiphenyl) [2-(2¢- amino-1,1¢-biphenyl)]palladium(II) methanesulfonate t triplet T 3 P propylphosphonic anhydride TBME tert-butyl methyl ether, also called methyl tert-butyl ether TEA triethylamine Tf triflyl, also called trifluoromethanesulfonyl TFA 2,2,2-trifluoroacetic acid THF tetrahydrofuran TLC thin layer chromatography TMS trimethylsilyl wt % weight percent or percent by weight XPhos 2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2¢,4¢,6¢-triisopropylbiphenyl XPhos-Pd-G3 (2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2¢,4¢,6¢-triisopropyl-1,1¢-biph enyl)[2- (2¢-amino-1,1¢-biphenyl)]palladium(II) methanesulfonate Experimental Methods Nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectra were recorded at 300, 400 or 500 MHz. Spectra were measured at 298 K, unless indicated otherwise, and were referenced relative to the solvent resonance. The chemical shifts are reported in parts per million. Spectra were recorded using one of the following machines: - a Bruker Avance III spectrometer at 400 MHz fitted with a BBO 5mm liquid probe, - a Bruker 400 MHz spectrometer using ICON-NMR, under TopSpin program control, - a Bruker Avance III HD spectrometer at 500 MHz, equipped with a Bruker 5mm SmartProbe TM , - an Agilent VNMRS 300 instrument fitted with a 7.05 Tesla magnet from Oxford instruments, indirect detection probe and direct drive console including PFG module, or - an Agilent MercuryPlus 300 instrument fitted with a 7.05 Tesla magnet from Oxford instruments, 4 nuclei auto-switchable probe and Mercury plus console. LC-MS LC-MS Methods: Using SHIMADZU LCMS-2020, Agilent 1200 LC/G1956A MSD and Agilent 1200\G6110A, Agilent 1200 LC & Agilent 6110 MSD. Mobile Phase: A: 0.025% NH 3 ·H 2 O in water (v/v); B: acetonitrile. Column: Kinetex EVO C182.1 x 30 mm, 5µm. Preparative Reversed Phase HPLC General Methods Acidic prep HPLC (x-y% MeCN in water): Waters X-Select CSH column C18, 5 µm (19 x 50 mm), flow rate 28 mL min -1 eluting with a H 2 O-MeCN gradient containing 0.1% v/v formic acid over 6.5 min using UV detection at 254 nm. Gradient information: 0.0-0.2 min, x% MeCN; 0.2-5.5 min, ramped from x% MeCN to y% MeCN; 5.5-5.6 min, ramped from y% MeCN to 95% MeCN; 5.6-6.5 min, held at 95% MeCN. Acidic prep HPLC (x-y% MeOH in water): Waters X-Select CSH column C18, 5 µm (19 x 50 mm), flow rate 28 mL min -1 eluting with a 10mM aq formic acid-MeOH gradient over 7.5 min using UV detection at 254 nm. Gradient information: 0.0-1.5 min, x% MeOH; 1.5-6.8 min, ramped from x% MeOH to y% MeOH; 6.8-6.9 min, ramped from y% MeOH to 95% MeOH; 6.9-7.5 min, held at 95% MeOH. Basic prep HPLC (x-y% MeCN in water): Waters X-Bridge Prep column C18, 5 µm (19 x 50 mm), flow rate 28 mL min -1 eluting with a 10 mM NH4HCO3-MeCN gradient over 6.5 min using UV detection at 254 nm. Gradient information: 0.0-0.2 min, x% MeCN; 0.2-5.5 min, ramped from x% MeCN to y% MeCN; 5.5-5.6 min, ramped from y% MeCN to 95% MeCN; 5.6-6.5 min, held at 95% MeCN. Synthesis of intermediates Intermediate A1: 1-(5-hydroxypentyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3- sulfonamide O Step A: lithium 1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-sulfinate A solution of n-BuLi (100 mL, 250 mmol, 2.5M in hexanes) was added slowly to a solution of 1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole (36.2 g, 238 mmol) in THF (500 mL), keeping the temperature below -65 °C. The mixture was stirred for 1.5 h, then sulfur dioxide was bubbled through for 10 min. The mixture was allowed to warm to RT, the solvent evaporated and the residue triturated with MTBE (300 mL) and filtered. The solid was washed with MTBE and isohexane and dried to afford the crude title compound (54.89 g, 99 %). LCMS m/z 215 (M-Li)- (ES-). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.26 (d, J=1.6Hz, 1H), 6.10 (d, J=1.7Hz, 1H), 5.99 (dd, J=10.0, 2.5Hz, 1H), 3.92-3.87 (m, 1H), 3.56-3.49 (m, 1H), 2.25-2.15 (m, 1H), 2.00-1.91 (m, 1H), 1.75-1.69 (m, 1H), 1.66-1.46 (m, 3H). Step B: N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyr azole-5- sulfonamide NCS (12.0 g, 90 mmol) was added to a suspension of lithium 1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran- 2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-sulfinate (20 g, 90 mmol) in DCM (250 mL) cooled in an ice bath. The mixture was stirred for 4 h, quenched with water (100 mL), and then partitioned between DCM (300 mL) and water (200 mL). The organic phase was washed with water (200 mL), dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered and evaporated to ~50mL. The solution was added to a mixture of bis(4-methoxybenzyl)amine (24 g, 93 mmol) and triethylamine (40 mL, 287 mmol) in DCM (300 mL) cooled in an ice bath. After stirring for 1 h, the mixture was warmed to RT, and then partitioned between DCM (300 mL) and water (250 mL). The organic layer was washed with water (250 mL), aq 1M HCl (2 x 250 mL), water (250 mL), dried (MgSO4), filtered, and evaporated to afford the crude title compound (41.02 g, 97 %) as a brown oil. LCMS m/z 494.2 (M+Na) + (ES + ). Step C: N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide A mixture of N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyr azole-5- sulfonamide (41 g, 87 mmol) and aq 1M HCl (30 mL) in THF (300 mL) and MeOH (50 mL) was stirred at RT for 18 h. The solvent was evaporated and the residue partitioned between EtOAc (400 mL) and aq 1M HCl (200 mL). The organic layer was washed with 10% brine (200 mL), dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated. The residue was triturated with MTBE, filtered and dried to afford the title compound (24.87 g, 69 %) as an off-white solid. LCMS m/z 388 (M+H) + (ES + ); 386 (M-H)- (ES-). 1 H NMR (CDCl3) d 7.88 (d, J=2.4Hz, 1H), 7.06-7.02 (m, 4H), 6.79-6.75 (m, 4H), 6.63 (d, J=2.4Hz, 1H), 4.31 (s, 4H), 3.78 (s, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Step D: 1-(5-hydroxypentyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-s ulfonamide N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (1.69 g, 4.36 mmol) and K 2 CO 3 (1.5 g, 10.85 mmol) were suspended in MeCN (20 mL) under N2.5-Bromopentan-1-ol (1.0 g, 4.79 mmol) was added and the mixture was heated to 50 °C for 4 h. After cooling to RT, water (20 mL) and EtOAc (20 mL) were added, the layers were separated and the organic phase was dried (MgSO 4 ) and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (1.13 g, 49%) as a thick colourless oil. LCMS m/z 496.3 (M+Na) + (ES + ) 1H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.97 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.08 - 6.94 (m, 4H), 6.90 - 6.75 (m, 4H), 6.71 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 4.39 (t, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 4.25 - 4.15 (m, 6H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.44 - 3.34 (m, 2H), 1.80 (p, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H), 1.51 - 1.38 (m, 2H), 1.32 - 1.21 (m, 2H). The following intermediates were synthesised following the general procedure for Intermediate A1:

Intermediate A5: 11-(5-hydroxypentyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-4- sulfonamide N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-sulfonamide (0.47 g, 1.067 mmol) and K 2 CO 3 (0.37 g, 2.68 mmol) were suspended in dry MeCN (10 mL) under N2.5- bromopentan-1-ol (0.21 mL, 1.388 mmol) was added and the mixture was heated to 50 °C for 18 h. After cooling to RT, water (10 mL) and EtOAc (10 mL) were added, the layers were separated and the organic phase was dried (MgSO4) and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (0.17 g, 33.0 %) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 474.3 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.34 (s, 1H), 7.80 (s, 1H), 7.12 - 6.97 (m, 4H), 6.88 - 6.70 (m, 4H), 4.38 (t, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 4.16 - 4.09 (m, 6H), 3.71 (s, 6H), 3.37 (td, J = 6.4, 5.0 Hz, 2H), 1.78 (p, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H), 1.43 (p, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H), 1.27 - 1.20 (m, 2H). Intermediate A8: 1-(2-((2-hydroxyethyl)(methyl)amino)ethyl)-N,N-bis(4- methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-su lfonamide (Intermediate A7) (1.902 g, 3.92 mmol) was dissolved in THF (20 mL), to which was added DIPEA (0.959 mL, 5.49 mmol). Then methanesulfonyl chloride (0.321 mL, 4.12 mmol) was added dropwise at 0 °C, and the reaction stirred for 2 h. KI (0.065 g, 0.392 mmol) and 2-(methylamino)ethanol (0.945 mL, 11.77 mmol) were added and the reaction stirred at 60 °C for 16 h. Additional 2-(methylamino)ethanol (0.945 mL, 11.77 mmol) and KI (0.065 g, 0.392 mmol) were added and the reaction heated at 60 °C for 72 h, then concentrated in vacuo and the resulting residue taken up in EtOAc (50 mL). Organics were washed with water (50 mL) and the aqueous layer extracted with EtOAc (50 mL). The combined organics were dried (phase separator) and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-10% MeOH/DCM) to afford the title compound (1.172 g, 55%) as a thick colourless oil. LCMS m/z 489.4 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1H NMR (CDCl3) d 7.48 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.10 - 7.02 (m, 4H), 6.80 - 6.73 (m, 4H), 6.63 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 4.30 (s, 4H), 4.27 (t, J = 6.3 Hz, 2H), 3.77 (s, 6H), 3.53 (t, J = 5.3 Hz, 2H), 2.90 (t, J = 6.3 Hz, 2H), 2.61 - 2.54 (m, 2H), 2.29 (s, 3H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Intermediate A9: 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)- 1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide Step A: methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2- methylpropanoate N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A1, Step C) (2.00 g, 5.16 mmol) and K 2 CO 3 (2.140 g, 15.49 mmol) were suspended in DMF (30 mL). Methyl 2-bromo-2-methylpropanoate (1.00 mL, 7.74 mmol) was added and the mixture was heated to 80 °C overnight. The reaction mixture was cooled to RT, diluted with water (20 mL), poured onto brine (200 mL) and washed with MTBE (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (MgSO4) and evaporated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-70% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (2.45 g, 94%) as a clear colourless oil. LCMS m/z 510.6 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.18 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 7.05 - 6.95 (m, 4H), 6.85 - 6.78 (m, 4H), 6.78 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 4.18 (s, 4H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.65 (s, 3H), 1.81 (s, 6H). Step B: 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1 H-pyrazole-3- sulfonamide Methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2- methyl- propanoate (3.28 g, 6.73 mmol) was dissolved in THF (30 mL) and cooled to 0 °C. LiAlH 4 (2 M in THF, 3.36 mL, 6.73 mmol) was added drop-wise and the reaction was stirred at RT for 16 h, quenched with slow addition of water (20 mL), then diluted with brine (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic extracts were dried (phase separator) and concentrated in vacuo to afford the title compound (3.43 g, 100%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 482.3 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.00 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 7.04-6.98 (m, 4H), 6.84-6.80 (m, 4H), 6.69 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 5.14 (t, J = 5.5 Hz, 1H), 4.20 (s, 4H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.61 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 2H), 1.50 (s, 6H). Intermediate A10: 1-(1-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4- methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide Step A: methyl 2-(2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl) -2- methylpropoxy)acetate Prepared according to the general procedure of 1-(5-hydroxypentyl)-N,N-bis(4- methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A1, Step D) from 1-(1- hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyr azole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A9) and methyl 2-bromoacetate to afford the title compound (254 mg, 55%) as a colourless oil. LCMS m/z 532.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.09 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 7.05-6.99 (m, 4H), 6.83-6.79 (m, 4H), 6.72 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 4.20 (s, 4H), 4.09 (s, 2H), 3.76 (s, 2H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.64 (s, 3H), 1.54 (s, 6H). Step B: 1-(1-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methox ybenzyl)-1H- pyrazole-3-sulfonamide Prepared according to the general procedure of 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)- N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A9, Step B) to afford the title compound (216 mg, 91%) as a colourless oil. 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.04 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 7.05-6.99 (m, 4H), 6.83-6.79 (m, 4H), 6.70 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 4.59 (t, J = 5.4 Hz, 1H), 4.20 (s, 4H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.66 (s, 2H), 3.45 (q, J = 5.3 Hz, 2H), 3.36 (t, J = 5.3 Hz, 2H), 1.53 (s, 6H). Intermediate A11: 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-N- (2-hydroxyethyl)-N,2-dimethylpropanamide Step A: 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2- methylpropanoic acid, sodium salt A mixture of methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2- methylpropanoate (12.60 g, 25.8 mmol) (Intermediate A9, Step A) and NaOH (2M aq. sol.) (20.48 mL, 41.0 mmol) in THF (77 mL) and MeOH (18 mL) was stirred at RT for 48 h.2 M NaOH (2.05 mL, 4.10 mmol) was added and the reaction was stirred for a further 3 h. Solvents were removed in vacuo and the residue dried azeotropically with toluene (3 x 100 mL). The resulting solid was stirred with MTBE (100 mL) for 2 h and filtered to afford the title compound (13.1 g, 62%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 474.3 (M+2H-Na) + (ES + ), 472.2 (M-H)- (ES-). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.93 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.02 - 7.00 (m, 4H), 6.82 - 6.79 (m, 4H), 6.62 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 4.18 (s, 4H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 1.63 (s, 6H). Step B: 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-N- (2- hydroxyethyl)-N,2-dimethylpropanamide 2-(Methylamino)ethanol (0.32 mL, 3.98 mmol) was added to a stirred solution of 2-(3- (N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-methy lpropanoic acid, sodium salt (1.00 g, 2.018 mmol), HATU (0.92 g, 2.420 mmol) and N-ethyl-N- isopropylpropan-2-amine (0.71 mL, 4.07 mmol) in DMF (10 mL) at RT. The mixture was stirred at RT for 18 h. The reaction mixture was partitioned between EtOAc (20 mL) and brine (200 mL). The organic layer was dried (MgSO 4 ) and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (0.87 g, 72%) as a colourless solid. LCMS m/z 553.3 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.11 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 7.08 - 7.02 (m, 4H), 6.84 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 6.83 - 6.79 (m, 4H), 4.66 (br s, 1H), 4.20 (s, 4H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.47 (br s, 1H), 2.36 - 2.18 (m, 2H), 1.73 (s, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed, 3H obscured by water signal. Intermediate A12: 1-cyclopropyl-5-(((3-hydroxypropyl)(methyl)amino)methyl)-N,N - bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide Step A: 1-cyclopropyl-3-nitro-1H-pyrazole To a solution of cyclopropylboronic acid (36.77 g, 428.04 mmol, 1.1 eq) in DCE (500 mL) was added 3-nitro-1H-pyrazole (44 g, 389.12 mmol, 1 eq), 2,2-bipyridine (60.77 g, 389.12 mmol, 1 eq) and Na 2 CO 3 (64.59 g, 609.44 mmol, 1.57 eq) at 25 °C. The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 0.5 h. Then Cu(OAc) 2 (70.68 g, 389.12 mmol, 1 eq) was added and the resulting mixture was warmed to 70 °C and stirred at 70 °C for 15.5 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to remove the solvent. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 30:1 to 3:1) to give impure product (26.7 g). The impure product was dissolved in pyrrolidine (10 mL) and the resulting mixture was stirred at 70 °C for 2 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to remove pyrrolidine. The residue was diluted with H 2 O (33 mL) and the pH was adjusted to 5-6 with aqueous HCl solution (1N). Then the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 × 50 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (2 × 33 mL), dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to give the title compound (17.7 g, 30 %) as yellow oil. 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 7.54 (d, 1 H), 6.84 (d, 1 H), 3.73-3.67 (m, 1 H), 1.24-1.22 (m, 2 H) and 1.13-1.07 (m, 2 H). Step B: 1-cyclopropyl-1H-pyrazol-3-amine To a solution of 1-cyclopropyl-3-nitro-1H-pyrazole (36 g, 235.08 mmol, 1 eq) in EtOH (400 mL) was added a solution of NH 4 Cl (62.87 g, 1.18mol, 5 eq) in H 2 O (150 mL). Then the reaction mixture was warmed to 60 °C and iron power (39.38 g, 705.24 mmol, 3 eq) was added in portions. The reaction mixture was stirred at 60 °C for 16 h and then concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was diluted with H 2 O (500 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 × 500 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (2 × 250 mL), dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 30:1 to 1:1) to give the title compound (20 g, 69 %) as yellow oil. LCMS m/z 124.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 7.14 (d, 1 H), 5.11 (d, 1 H), 3.57 (br s, 2 H), 3.38-3.32 (m, 1 H), 0.99- 0.95 (m, 2 H) and 0.90-0.87 (m, 2 H). Step C: 1-cyclopropyl-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonyl chloride To a solution of 1-cyclopropyl-1H-pyrazol-3-amine (19 g, 154.28 mmol, 1 eq) in MeCN (500 mL) and H 2 O (50 mL) at 0 °C was added conc. HCl solution (50 mL). Then an aqueous solution of NaNO 2 (12.77 g, 185.13 mmol, 1.2 eq) in H 2 O (50 mL) was added slowly. The resulting solution was stirred at 0 °C for 40 min. AcOH (50 mL), CuCl2 (10.37 g, 77.14 mmol, 0.5 eq) and CuCl (763 mg, 7.71 mmol, 0.05 eq) were added. Then SO 2 gas (15 psi) was bubbled into the resulting mixture for 20 min at 0 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 1 h, and then concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was diluted with H 2 O (250 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 250 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (2 x 150 mL), dried over Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 100:0 to 1:1) to give the title compound (14 g, 44 %) as yellow oil. 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 7.62 (d, 1 H), 6.83 (d, 1 H), 3.78-3.72 (m, 1 H), 1.28-1.24 (m, 2 H) and 1.16-1.12 (m, 2 H). Step D: 1-cyclopropyl-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfona mide To a solution of 1-cyclopropyl-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonyl chloride (28 g, 135.49 mmol, 1 eq) in THF (300 mL) was added TEA (27.42 g, 270.99 mmol, 2 eq) and bis(4- methoxybenzyl)amine (34.87 g, 135.49 mmol,1 eq). The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 1 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with H 2 O (500 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 × 500 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (2 × 500 mL), dried over Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by reversed phase flash chromatography (0.5% NH3.H 2 O-MeCN) to give the title compound (30 g, 52 % yield, 99.8 % purity on LCMS). LCMS m/z 428.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 7.49 (d, 1 H), 7.08-7.06 (m, 4 H), 6.79-6.77 (m, 4 H), 6.62 (d, 1 H), 4.32 (s, 4 H), 3.80 (s, 6 H), 3.68-3.64 (m, 1 H), 1.15-1.13 (m, 2 H) and 1.09-1.06 (m, 2 H). Step E: 1-cyclopropyl-5-formyl-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole- 3-sulfonamide To a solution of 1-cyclopropyl-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfona mide (4.00 g, 9.36 mmol) in THF (50 mL) at -78 °C was slowly added nBuLi (2.5 M in THF, 4.12 mL, 10.29 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at -78 °C for 1 h. Morpholine-4- carbaldehyde (2.81 mL, 28.1 mmol) was added slowly and the stirring was continued for 3 h. The reaction was quenched with sat aq NH 4 Cl (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organics were washed with brine (50 mL), dried (phase separator) and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by FC (0-80% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (3.386 g, 72%) as a clear colourless oil that solidified slowly to afford a white solid. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 10.02 (s, 1H), 7.35 (s, 1H), 7.14 - 6.94 (m, 4H), 6.89 - 6.74 (m, 4H), 4.31 - 4.25 (m, 1H), 4.24 (s, 4H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 1.15 - 1.11 (m, 4H). Step F: 1-cyclopropyl-5-(((3-hydroxypropyl)(methyl)amino)methyl)-N,N -bis(4- methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide 3-(Methylamino)propan-1-ol (0.307 mL, 3.16 mmol) was added to a solution of 1- cyclopropyl-5-formyl-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3- sulfonamide (0.800 g, 1.581 mmol) in THF (20 mL) and the reaction was stirred at RT for 1 h. Sodium triacetoxyhydroborate (0.502 g, 2.371 mmol) and acetic acid (0.018 mL, 0.316 mmol) were added and the solution was stirred at RT for 4 h. Additional sodium triacetoxyhydroborate (0.502 g, 2.371 mmol) and acetic acid (0.018 mL, 0.316 mmol) were added and the reaction stirred for a further 16 h. Water (30 mL) was added and the product was extracted into EtOAc (3 x 30 mL). The organic extracts were combined, dried (MgSO 4 ) and the solvent was removed in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-5% MeOH/DCM) to afford the title compound (0.406 g, 48%) as a thick colourless oil. LCMS m/z 529.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.06 - 6.99 (m, 4H), 6.86 - 6.78 (m, 4H), 6.58 (s, 1H), 4.19 (s, 4H), 3.82 - 3.77 (m, 1H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.63 (s, 2H), 3.44 (t, J = 6.4 Hz, 2H), 2.45 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H), 2.15 (s, 3H), 1.69 - 1.57 (m, 2H), 1.11 - 0.99 (m, 4H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Intermediate A13: 1-cyclopropyl-5-((3-hydroxypropoxy)methyl)-N,N-bis(4- methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide O Step A: 1-cyclopropyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H- pyrazole-3- sulfonamide To a solution of 1-cyclopropyl-5-formyl-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole- 3- sulfonamide (Intermediate A12, Step E) (0.830 g, 1.640 mmol) in THF (20 mL) at 0 °C was added sodium borohydride (0.068 g, 1.804 mmol). The reaction mixture was allowed to warm to RT and stirred for 4 h. The solution was concentrated in vacuo and the resulting residue was redissolved in EtOAc (20 mL) and washed with brine (20 mL). The organic phase was dried (MgSO4) and evaporated in vacuo to afford the title compound (0.910 g, quantitative yield) as a colourless oil. LCMS m/z 480.3 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ) d 7.12 - 7.00 (m, 4H), 6.81 - 6.69 (m, 4H), 6.52 (s, 1H), 4.77 (s, 2H), 4.29 (s, 4H), 3.79 (s, 6H), 3.60 (tt, J = 7.4, 3.8 Hz, 1H), 1.24 - 1.19 (m, 2H), 1.10 - 1.04 (m, 2H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Step B: methyl 3-((3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1-cyclopropyl-1H-p yrazol- 5-yl)methoxy)propanoate To a solution of 1-cyclopropyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H- pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (0.910 g, 1.651 mmol) in THF (20 mL) at 0°C was added sodium hydride (60% dispersion in mineral oil) (0.073 g, 1.816 mmol) and the reaction stirred for 30 min. Methyl 3-bromopropanoate (0.216 mL, 1.981 mmol) was then added and the reaction was allowed to warm to RT and then heated at 60 °C for 18 h. The reaction was cooled to 0 °C and additional sodium hydride (60% dispersion in mineral oil) (0.146 g, 3.632 mmol) added. The reaction was stirred for 30 min, at which point methyl 3-bromopropanoate (0.432 mL, 3.962 mmol) was added and the reaction heated at 60 °C for 3 h. Additional sodium hydride (60% dispersion in mineral oil) (0.146 g, 3.632 mmol) and methyl 3-bromopropanoate (0.432 mL, 3.962 mmol) were added and the reaction stirred for a further 2 h. The reaction was quenched with MeOH (~50 mL) and concentrated in vacuo. The resulting residue was taken up in EtOAc (50 mL), washed with water (50 mL) and the organic layer extracted. The aqueous layer was re-extracted with EtOAc (2 x 20 mL), the organics combined, passed through a phase separator and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0- 100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (0.611 g, 65% yield) as a thick colourless oil. LCMS m/z 566.2 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ) d 7.09 - 7.04 (m, 4H), 6.79 - 6.74 (m, 4H), 6.60 (s, 1H), 4.61 (s, 2H), 4.29 (s, 4H), 3.78 (s, 6H), 3.75 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 2H), 3.69 (s, 3H), 3.58 (tt, J = 7.4, 3.8 Hz, 1H), 2.61 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 2H), 1.22 - 1.17 (m, 2H), 1.08 - 1.00 (m, 2H). Step C: 1-cyclopropyl-5-((3-hydroxypropoxy)methyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxy benzyl)-1H- pyrazole-3-sulfonamide

To a solution of methyl 3-((3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1-cyclopropyl-1H- pyrazol-5-yl)methoxy)propanoate (0.611 g, 1.079 mmol) in THF (15 mL) at 0 °C was added lithium borohydride (4 M in THF) (1.079 mL, 4.32 mmol) dropwise. The reaction mixture was allowed to warm to RT and stirred for 16 h. The reaction was quenched via the slow addition of water and the resulting mixture was diluted with EtOAc (50 mL) and washed with brine (50 mL). The organic phase was separated and the aqueous layer re-extracted with EtOAc (2 x 25 mL). The organics were combined, passed through a phase separator and then concentrated in vacuo to afford the title compound (0.581 g, quantitative yield) as a thick colourless oil. LCMS m/z 538.3 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 7.04 - 6.99 (m, 4H), 6.83 - 6.78 (m, 4H), 6.70 (s, 1H), 4.62 (s, 2H), 4.45 (t, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 4.19 (s, 4H), 3.75 - 3.68 (m, 7H), 3.52 (t, J = 6.4 Hz, 2H), 3.50 - 3.44 (m, 2H), 1.70 (p, J = 6.4 Hz, 2H), 1.08 - 1.00 (m, 4H). Intermediate A14: 5-((dimethylamino)methyl)-1-(5-hydroxypentyl)-N,N-bis(4- methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide 1-(5-Hydroxypentyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-s ulfonamide (Intermediate A1, Step D) (750 mg, 1.584 mmol) was dissolved in dry THF (25 mL) and cooled to -78 °C. n-BuLi (2.5M in hexanes) (1.58 mL, 3.95 mmol) was then added, immediately followed by N-methyl-N-methylenemethanaminium iodide (439 mg, 2.375 mmol). The reaction was stirred for 1 h, whilst allowing to warm to RT. The reaction was quenched with water (50 mL), extracted with MTBE (2 x 50 mL), dried using a phase separator and concentrated in vacuo. The resulting residue was dissolved in MeOH and stirred with SCX (3 g) for 30 min. The resin was then washed with MeOH (100 mL), then the desired product was eluted with 0.7 M NH3 in MeOH (150 mL). The resulting solution was concentrated in vacuo to afford the title compound (175 mg, 20%) as a yellow oil. 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 7.04-7.00 (m, 4H), 6.82-6.79 (m, 4H), 6.57 (s, 1H), 4.38 (t, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 4.24-4.14 (m, 6H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.47 (s, 2H), 3.38 (t, J = 6.4 Hz, 2H), 2.16 (s, 6H), 1.78 (p, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 1.45 (p, J = 7.3 Hz, 2H), 1.29 (p, J = 7.3 Hz, 2H). Intermediate A15: 5-hydroxy-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)pentane-1-sulfonamide ( )2 Step A: methyl 5-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)pentanoate A suspension of methyl 5-(chlorosulfonyl)pentanoate (0.25 g, 1.165 mmol) and bis(4- methoxybenzyl)amine (0.30 g, 1.165 mmol) in DCM (20 mL) was cooled to 0 °C. TEA (0.40 mL, 2.81 mmol) was then added dropwise at 0 °C and the mixture was stirred at RT for 18 h. The mixture was concentrated in vacuo, dissolved in DCM (5 mL) and a few drops of MeOH, then purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (0.30 g, 56%) as a colourless oil. LCMS m/z 458.3 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3) d 7.24 – 7.16 (m, 4H), 6.91 – 6.86 (m, 4H), 4.26 (s, 4H), 3.82 (s, 6H), 3.67 (s, 3H), 2.87 – 2.77 (m, 2H), 2.29 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 2H), 1.85 – 1.75 (m, 2H), 1.71 – 1.63 (m, 2H). Step B: 5-hydroxy-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)pentane-1-sulfonamide 4M Lithium borohydride in THF (0.49 mL, 1.960 mmol) was added dropwise to a stirred solution of methyl 5-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)pentanoate (0.30 g, 0.647 mmol) in THF (6.5 mL) at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred for 1 h. Additional lithium borohydride (0.50 mL, 2.00 mmol) was added and mixture was stirred for a further 16 h at RT. The mixture was then quenched with water (10 mL) and stirred at RT for 15 min. The mixture was then partitioned between water (20 mL) and EtOAc (50 mL). The organic layer was collected and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 20 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered and concentrated in vacuo to give the title compound (0.31 g, 98%) as a colourless oil. LCMS m/z 430.3 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.20 - 7.15 (m, 4H), 6.91 - 6.85 (m, 4H), 4.37 (t, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 4.20 (s, 4H), 3.74 (s, 6H), 3.40 - 3.32 (m, 2H), 3.02 - 2.95 (m, 2H), 1.61 (p, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 1.43 - 1.26 (m, 4H). Intermediate A16: 5-((dimethylamino)methyl)-1-(3-hydroxypropyl)-N,N-bis(4- methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide Prepared according to the general procedure for 5-((dimethylamino)methyl)-1-(5- hydroxypentyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfon amide (Intermediate A14) from 1-(3-hydroxypropyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H- pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A6). LCMS m/z 503.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.05-7.00 (m, 4H), 6.83-6.78 (m, 4H), 6.58 (s, 1H), 4.80 (br s, 1H), 4.25 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H), 4.20 (s, 4H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.48 (s, 2H), 3.39-3.35 (m, 2H), 2.16 (s, 6H), 1.92 (p, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H). Intermediate A17: 4-fluoro-1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4- methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide Step A: 4-fluoro-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole A solution of 4-fluoro-1H-pyrazole (2 g, 23.24 mmol), 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran (9 mL, 99 mmol) and TFA (0.40 mL, 5.19 mmol) in THF (25 mL) was heated to reflux overnight. The reaction was concentrated in vacuo and the crude product was purified by FC (0- 50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (4.33 g, 93%) as a pale yellow oil. 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ) d 7.48 (d, J = 4.7 Hz, 1H), 7.40 (d, J = 4.3 Hz, 1H), 5.34 - 5.24 (m, 1H), 4.07 – 4.04 (m, 1H), 3.77 - 3.61 (m, 1H), 2.12 - 1.94 (m, 3H), 1.76 - 1.55 (m, 3H). Step B: lithium 4-fluoro-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-sulfinat e n-BuLi (2.5 M in THF) (5 mL, 12.50 mmol) was added slowly to a solution of 4-fluoro- 1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole (2 g, 11.75 mmol) in THF (25 mL) keeping the temperature below -65 °C. The mixture was stirred for 1.5 h then SO 2 was bubbled through for 10 min. The mixture was allowed to warm to RT, the solvent evaporated and the residue triturated with MTBE (50 mL) and filtered. The solid was washed with MTBE, isohexane and dried to afford the title compound (1.91 g, 64%) as a white solid. 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.25 (d, J = 4.6 Hz, 1H), 6.08 (dd, J = 10.2, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 3.93 - 3.86 (m, 1H), 3.54 - 3.46 (m, 1H), 2.19 - 2.08 (m, 1H), 1.98 - 1.89 (m, 1H), 1.71 - 1.64 (m, 1H), 1.64 - 1.51 (m, 1H), 1.51 - 1.43 (m, 2H). Step C: 4-fluoro-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-y l)-1H- pyrazole-5-sulfonamide NCS (2.78 g, 20.82 mmol) was added to a suspension of lithium 4-fluoro-1-(tetrahydro- 2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-sulfinate (5.00 g, 20.82 mmol) in DCM (100 mL) cooled in an ice bath. The mixture was stirred for 18 h, quenched with water (10 mL) then partitioned between DCM (50 mL) and water (20 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (2 x 100 mL) and the organic layers were dried (MgSO 4 ) and concentrated in vacuo to ~100 mL. The solution was added to a mixture of bis(4-methoxybenzyl)amine (5.63 g, 21.86 mmol) and TEA (3.4 mL, 24.39 mmol) in DCM (30 mL) cooled in an ice bath. The mixture was allowed to warm to RT and stirred for 18 h, then partitioned between DCM (60 mL) and water (40 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (2 x 30 mL) and the combined organic layers were dried (MgSO 4 ) and concentrated to dryness to afford a yellow oil. The crude product was purified by FC (0-50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (5.05 g, 40%) as a yellow crystalline solid. LCMS m/z 512.1 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.86 (d, J = 4.5 Hz, 1H), 7.03 - 6.95 (m, 4H), 6.86 - 6.78 (m, 4H), 5.79 (dd, J = 9.6, 2.6 Hz, 1H), 4.42 (d, J = 15.4 Hz, 2H), 4.23 (d, J = 15.5 Hz, 2H), 3.95 - 3.80 (m, 1H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.61 - 3.50 (m, 1H), 2.41 - 2.19 (m, 1H), 2.08 - 1.93 (m, 1H), 1.93 - 1.80 (m, 1H), 1.70-1.65 (m, 1H), 1.55 - 1.44 (m, 2H). Step D: 4-fluoro-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-y l)-1H- pyrazole-3-sulfonamide HCl (4 M in dioxane, 1 mL, 4.00 mmol) was added to a solution of 4-fluoro-N,N-bis(4- methoxybenzyl)-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-su lfonamide (4.25 g, 6.95 mmol) in DCM (50 mL). The mixture was heated at 40 °C for 3 days and concentrated in vacuo. The product was purified by FC (0-50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (3.54 g, quantitative yield) as a thick yellow oil. LCMS m/z 512.2 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.30 (d, J = 4.6 Hz, 1H), 7.09 - 7.03 (m, 4H), 6.86 - 6.81 (m, 4H), 5.43 (dd, J = 9.3, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 4.37 - 4.19 (m, 4H), 3.93 - 3.87 (m, 1H), 3.73 (s, 6H), 3.70 - 3.62 (m, 1H), 2.08 - 1.95 (m, 1H), 1.94 - 1.81 (m, 2H), 1.74 - 1.62 (m, 1H), 1.61 - 1.46 (m, 2H). Step E: 4-fluoro-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide Concentrated HCl (10 mL, 120 mmol) was added to 4-fluoro-N,N-bis(4-methoxy- benzyl)-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonami de (3.50 g, 6.86 mmol) in MeOH (80 mL) at RT. The mixture was stirred at RT for 18 h. The methanol was removed in vacuo and the remaining aqueous suspension was quenched with sat aq NaHCO 3 drop-wise to pH 8. EtOAc (50 mL) was added and the organic layer was collected. The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (50 mL) and the combined organic layers were concentrated in vacuo to afford a white solid which was triturated with MTBE (50 mL) to give a first crop of title compound (1.90 g). The filtrate was concentrated to dryness and purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane). Both batches were combined to afford the title compound (2.59 g, 92%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 427.3 (M+Na) + (ES + ); 404.1 (M-H)- (ES-). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.11 - 7.87 (m, 1H), 7.13 - 6.99 (m, 4H), 6.87 - 6.72 (m, 4H), 4.24 (s, 4H), 3.72 (s, 6H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Step F: methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-fluoro-1H-pyrazol -1-yl)-2- methylpropanoate 4-Fluoro-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (1.00 g, 2.466 mmol) and K 2 CO 3 (1.10 g, 7.96 mmol) were suspended in dry DMF (45 mL). Methyl 2-bromo- 2-methylpropanoate (0.48 mL, 3.71 mmol) was added and the mixture was warmed to 80 °C for 3 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to RT, diluted with water (20 mL), poured onto brine (100 mL) and extracted with MTBE (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (1.22 g, 92 %) as a thick colourless oil. LCMS m/z 527.7 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.41 (d, J = 4.5 Hz, 1H), 7.09 - 6.96 (m, 4H), 6.88 - 6.75 (m, 4H), 4.23 (s, 4H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.66 (s, 3H), 1.76 (s, 6H). Step G: 4-fluoro-1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxy benzyl)-1H- pyrazole-3-sulfonamide LiBH4 (4 M solution in THF) (1.81 mL, 7.24 mmol) was added dropwise to a stirred solution of methyl 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-4-fluoro-1H-pyrazol -1- yl)-2-methylpropanoate (1.22 g, 2.413 mmol) in THF (25 mL) at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred for 17 h. The mixture was partitioned between water (20 mL) and EtOAc (50 mL). The organic layer was collected and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 20 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated to dryness to afford the title compound (1.01 g, 83%) as a sticky colourless foam. LCMS m/z 500.1 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.19 (d, J = 4.6 Hz, 1H), 7.10 - 7.00 (m, 4H), 6.87 - 6.78 (m, 4H), 5.18-5.09 (m, 1H), 4.24 (s, 4H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.55 (d, J = 3.8 Hz, 2H), 1.44 (s, 6H). Intermediate A18: 4-fluoro-1-(3-hydroxypropyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H- pyrazole-3-sulfonamide 4-Fluoro-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A17, Step E) (0.99 g, 2.442 mmol) and K 2 CO 3 (1.00 g, 7.24 mmol) were suspended in dry MeCN (10 mL) under a nitrogen atmosphere.3-Bromopropan-1-ol (0.30 mL, 3.32 mmol) was added and the mixture was heated to 50 °C for 19 h. After cooling to RT, water (20 mL) and EtOAc (20 mL) were added and the layers separated. The organic phase was dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered and concentrated in vacuo to give a pale yellow oil. The crude product was purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (0.88 g, 69%) as a thick colourless oil. LCMS m/z 486.1 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.13 (d, J = 4.7 Hz, 1H), 7.09 - 7.00 (m, 4H), 6.86 - 6.75 (m, 4H), 4.66 (t, J = 5.0 Hz, 1H), 4.24 (s, 4H), 4.17 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 2H), 3.72 (s, 6H), 3.40 (td, J = 6.1, 4.9 Hz, 2H), 1.90 (p, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H). Intermediate A19: 4-fluoro-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H- pyrazole-3-sulfonamide Prepared according to the general procedure for 4-fluoro-1-(3-hydroxypropyl)-N,N- bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A18) from 4- fluoro-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A17, Step E) and 2-bromoethanol to afford the title compound (0.88 g, 70%) as a thick colourless oil. LCMS m/z 472.1 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.11 (d, J = 4.6 Hz, 1H), 7.06 - 6.99 (m, 4H), 6.85 - 6.80 (m, 4H), 5.03 (t, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.23 (s, 4H), 4.17 (t, J = 5.4 Hz, 2H), 3.75 (q, J = 5.4 Hz, 2H), 3.72 (s, 6H). Intermediate A20: 3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)benzene- sulfonamide A solution of 2-(3-(benzylthio)phenyl)ethanol (1.21 g, 4.95 mmol) in MeCN (25 mL), AcOH (0.3 mL) and water (0.6 mL) was cooled to -10 °C (ice /acetone bath).1,3- Dichloro-5,5-dimethylimidazolidine-2,4-dione (1.50 g, 7.61 mmol) was then added and the mixture was stirred at -10 °C for 4 h. The mixture was then partitioned between DCM (50 mL) and water (50 mL) and the organic layer was collected. The aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (100 mL) and the combined organic layers were dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered and concentrated in vacuo to give a thick yellow paste. The thick yellow paste was suspended in DCM (25 mL) and cooled with an ice bath. Bis(4- methoxybenzyl)amine (1.30 g, 5.05 mmol) was added, followed by TEA (1.5 mL, 10.76 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 17 h, quenched with water (20 mL) then partitioned between DCM (50 mL) and water (40 mL). The organic phase was collected, dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered and concentrated in vacuo to give a brown oil. The brown oil was purified by FC (0-50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (1.40 g, 60%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 464.1 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.72 - 7.61 (m, 2H), 7.57 - 7.44 (m, 2H), 7.02 - 6.93 (m, 4H), 6.83 - 6.75 (m, 4H), 4.69 (t, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 4.18 (s, 4H), 3.71 (s, 6H), 3.63 (td, J = 6.7, 5.0 Hz, 2H), 2.80 (t, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H). Intermediate A21: 1-(4-hydroxytetrahydrofuran-3-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)- 1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (1 g, 2.58 mmol) and potassium carbonate (1.00 g, 7.24 mmol) were suspended in dry MeCN (10 mL).3,6-Dioxa- bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane (0.3 mL, 4.18 mmol) was added and the mixture was heated to reflux overnight. Further 3,6-dioxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane (0.3 mL, 4.18 mmol) was added and the mixture was heated for a further 1 h. The mixture was cooled to RT and partitioned between DCM (20 mL) and water (10 mL). The organic phase was dried by passing through a hydrophobic frit then concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford an enantiomeric mixture of the trans-isomers of the title compound (0.96 g, 78%) as a clear colourless oil that crystallized on standing. LCMS m/z 474.6 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ) d 7.51 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.11 - 7.02 (m, 4H), 6.82 - 6.74 (m, 4H), 6.66 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 4.80 - 4.76 (m, 1H), 4.55 - 4.51 (m, 1H), 4.37 - 4.25 (m, 5H), 4.14 (dd, J = 10.1, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.09 (dd, J = 10.1, 3.6 Hz, 1H), 3.82 - 3.79 (m, 1H), 3.79 (s, 6H). One exchangeable proton was not observed. Intermediate A22: 1-(4-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)-N,N-bis(4- methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide Step A: 4-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)tet rahydro-2H- pyran-4-carboxylic acid NaOH (0.780 g, 19.50 mmol) was added to a solution of dihydro-2H-pyran-4(3H)-one (0.360 mL, 3.90 mmol) and N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A1, Step C) (1.5 g, 3.87 mmol) in THF (25 mL) at 0 °C and the solution stirred for 10 min. CHCl 3 (1.60 mL, 19.84 mmol) was added dropwise to the solution and the mixture was allowed to warm to RT and stirred overnight. The mixture was diluted with water (150 mL) and acidified with aq 1 M HCl (100 mL). The mixture was extracted with DCM (2 x 150 mL), the organic phases combined, dried (MgSO4), filtered, directly loaded onto silica and purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (302 mg, 14%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 538.4 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 13.55 (br s, 1H), 8.24 (d, J = 2.6 Hz, 1H), 7.05 - 6.97 (m, 4H), 6.84 - 6.79 (m, 5H), 4.19 (s, 4H), 3.74 - 3.66 (m, 8H), 2.47 - 2.33 (m, 4H). Two aliphatic protons overlapped with water in DMSO-d 6 signal. Step B: methyl 4-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)tet rahydro- 2H-pyran-4-carboxylate 2M TMS-diazomethane in diethyl ether (0.293 mL, 0.586 mmol) was added to a solution of 4-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)tet rahydro-2H- pyran-4-carboxylic acid (302 mg, 0.586 mmol) in MeOH/toluene (2:3, 10 mL) at 0 °C and the reaction was stirred for 1 h. Additional 2M TMS-diazomethane in diethyl ether (0.293 mL, 0.586 mmol) was added and the mixture stirred for 3 h. The mixture was partitioned between water (20 mL) and EtOAc (20 mL), the organic phase separated, the aqueous further extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL), the organic phase combined, dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated in vacuo to afford the title compound (0.25 g, 74%) as a colourless oil. LCMS m/z 552.3 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.27 (d, J = 2.6 Hz, 1H), 7.06 - 7.00 (m, 4H), 6.86 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 6.84 - 6.79 (m, 4H), 4.19 (s, 4H), 3.74 - 3.67 (m, 8H), 3.65 (s, 3H), 3.39 - 3.33 (m, 2H), 2.49 - 2.43 (m, 2H), 2.42 - 2.35 (m, 2H). Step C: 1-(4-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)-N,N-bis(4-meth oxybenzyl)- 1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide LiBH4 (4 M in THF) (0.36 mL, 1.440 mmol) was added to a solution of methyl 4-(3- (N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)tetrahyd ro-2H-pyran-4- carboxylate (254 mg, 0.480 mmol) in anhydrous THF (10 mL) at 0 °C. The reaction was stirred for 3 h. The reaction mixture was partition between EtOAc (50 mL) and water (50 mL). The organic phase was separated and the aqueous was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The organic phases were combined, dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered and concentrated in vacuo to afford the title compound (214 mg, 83%) as a white sticky foam. LCMS m/z 524.4 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.08 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 7.05 - 6.99 (m, 4H), 6.84 - 6.78 (m, 4H), 6.76 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 5.12 (t, J = 5.6 Hz, 1H), 4.20 (s, 4H), 3.75 - 3.68 (m, 8H), 3.51 (d, J = 5.9 Hz, 2H), 3.27 - 3.19 (m, 2H), 2.34 - 2.25 (m, 2H), 1.98 - 1.92 (m, 2H). Intermediate A23: 1-((3-hydroxycyclopentyl)methyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)- 1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide Step A: methyl 3-oxocyclopentanecarboxylate A solution of 3-oxocyclopentanecarboxylic acid (1 g, 7.80 mmol, 1 eq) in MeOH (10 mL) was cooled to 0 °C. H 2 SO4 (78 mg, 98 wt.% in aqueous solution, 0.1 eq) was added to the above mixture. Then the resulting mixture was heated to 80 °C and stirred for 6 h. The mixture was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was quenched with H 2 O (30 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (40 mL x 3). The organic phases were washed with the aqueous saturated NaHCO3 solution (50 mL) and H 2 O (50 mL). Then the organic phase was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (petroleum ether: EtOAc 10:1 to 1:1) to give the title compound (1 g, 90% yield) as a yellow oil. 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 3.72 (s, 3 H), 3.16-3.10 (m, 1 H), 2.53-2.44 (m, 2 H) and 2.43-2.12 (m, 4 H). Step B: 3-(hydroxymethyl)cyclopentanol To a solution of LiAlH4 (721 mg, 18.99 mmol, 3 eq) in THF (20 mL) was added dropwise a solution of methyl 3-oxocyclopentanecarboxylate (900 mg, 6.33 mmol, 1 eq) in THF (5 mL) at 0 °C under N 2 . The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 1 h. The mixture was warmed to 20 °C and stirred for 12 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with THF (20 mL), and then the mixture was quenched with sodium sulfate decahydrate (1 g). The mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc 3:1 to 0:1) to give the title compound (550 mg, 75% yield) as a yellow oil. 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6): d 4.43-4.38 (m, 2 H), 4.05-4.02 (m, 1 H), 3.33-3.31 (m, 1 H), 3.25- 3.22 (m, 1 H), 1.96-1.81 (m, 2 H), 1.61-1.55 (m, 2 H), 1.47-1.36 (m, 2 H) and 1.16-1.09 (m, 1 H). Step C: (3-hydroxycyclopentyl)methyl methanesulfonate To a solution of 3-(hydroxymethyl)cyclopentanol (500 mg, 4.30 mmol, 1 eq) and TEA (871 mg, 8.61 mmol, 2 eq) in DCM (10 mL) was added a solution of MsCl (493 mg, 4.30 mmol, 1 eq) in DCM (2 mL) at 0 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 2 h. The mixture was quenched with ice water (20 mL) and extracted with DCM (20 mL x 3). The organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuum to give the title compound (0.6 g, crude) as a yellow oil, which was used directly in the next step. Step D: 1-((3-hydroxycyclopentyl)methyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H -pyrazole-3- sulfonamide To a solution of N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A1, Step C) (1.20 g, 3.09 mmol, 1 eq) in DMF (10 mL) was added K 2 CO 3 (1.07 g, 7.72 mmol, 2.5 eq) and (3-hydroxycyclopentyl)methyl methanesulfonate (600 mg, 3.09 mmol, 1 eq) at 20 °C. The mixture was heated to 50 °C, and stirred at 50 °C for 16 h. The mixture was quenched with H 2 O ( 50 mL) and extracted with DCM (50 mL x 3). The organic phases were washed with brine (150 mL x 2), dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc 2:1 to 0:1) to give the title compound (400 mg, two steps yield: 19%, 75% purity in LCMS) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 486.0 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6): d 7.97 (d, 1 H), 7.03-7.00 (m, 4 H), 6.82-6.79 (m, 4 H), 6.70 (d, 1 H), 4.59 (d, 1 H), 4.21-4.17 (m, 6 H), 3.71 (s, 6 H), 3.70-3.68 (m, 1 H), 1.86-1.80 (m, 1 H), 1.68-1.60 (m, 1 H), 1.57-1.49 (m, 2 H), 1.47-1.37 (m, 2 H) and 1.28-1.22 (m, 1 H). Intermediate B1: 5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-amine A mixture of 5-bromo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-amine (10 g, 47.2 mmol), (2-fluoro- pyridin-4-yl)boronic acid (6.64 g, 47.2 mmol) and K 2 CO 3 (19.6 g, 142 mmol) in dioxane (200 mL) and water (50 mL) was degassed with N2. PdCl2(dppf) (1.7 g, 2.32 mmol) was added and the reaction heated at 80°C for 20 h. After cooling at RT, the reaction was partitioned between EtOAc (100 mL) and water (50 mL). The organic layer was dried (MgSO 4 ) and evaporated in vacuo. The residue was purified by FC (0-50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (8.64 g, 79%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 299.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.24 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 7.38 (ddd, J = 5.2, 2.2, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.16 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1H), 6.90 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 6.60 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 4.82 (s, 2H), 2.84 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.71 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 2.03 (p, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H). Intermediate B2: 5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-methyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-ami ne Step A: N-(6-bromo-4-nitro-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)acetamide Nitric acid (150 mL, 2350 mmol) was slowly added to sulfuric acid (150 mL) cooled to 0 °C while keeping the temperature below 20 °C. The mixture was stirred for 10 min and added dropwise to a stirred mixture of N-(6-bromo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)- acetamide (58 g, 228 mmol) in AcOH (300 mL) and sulfuric acid (150 mL), keeping the temperature below 30 °C. The mixture was stirred at RT for 4 h and then poured onto ice/water (4.5 L total volume, 2.5 kg ice) and left to stand at RT for 18 h. The solid was filtered, washed with water (2.5 L), and dried to afford the title compound (55 g, 80%) as an ochre powder. LCMS m/z 299.0/301.0(M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 9.99 (s, 1H), 7.85 (s, 1H), 3.01 - 2.88 (m, 4H), 2.07 (p, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.00 (s, 3H). Step B: N-(6-methyl-4-nitro-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)acetamide A mixture of N-(6-bromo-4-nitro-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)acetamide (30.0 g, 100 mmol), 2,4,6-trimethyl-1,3,5,2,4,6-trioxatriborinane (14.02 mL, 100 mmol) and K 2 CO 3 (34.7 g, 251 mmol) in dioxane (500 mL) and H 2 O (140 mL) was degassed with N2 for 15 min. PdCl 2 (dppf).DCM (4.10 g, 5.01 mmol) was added and the reaction was heated at 100 °C for 16 h, diluted with brine (300 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 800 mL). The organic layers were dried (MgSO4) and evaporated. The residue was triturated with EtOAc/isohexanes (1:1 mixture, 400 mL) and the resultant solid was filtered, rinsing with hexanes, and dried in vacuo to afford the title compound (15.33 g, 56%) as a brown solid. LCMS m/z 235.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 9.65 (s, 1H), 7.41 (s, 1H), 2.98 - 2.87 (m, 4H), 2.20 (s, 3H), 2.07 - 2.03 (m, 2H), 1.99 (s, 3H). Step C: 6-methyl-4-nitro-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-amine N-(6-methyl-4-nitro-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)acetamide (15.33 g, 65.4 mmol) was suspended in a mixture of EtOH (126 mL) and conc. aq HCl (126 mL). The mixture was heated to reflux overnight and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was basified by portionwise addition of 2 M aq NaOH (~500 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (5 x 200 mL), dried (MgSO 4 ) and concentrated in vacuo to afford the title compound (15.18 g, 84%) as a brown solid. LCMS m/z 193.4 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 7.21 (s, 1H), 6.61 (s, 2H), 3.16 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.76 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H), 2.16 (s, 3H), 2.00 - 1.94 (m, 2H). Step D: 5-bromo-6-methyl-4-nitro-2,3-dihydro-1H-indene A solution of 6-methyl-4-nitro-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-amine (4.9 g, 20.39 mmol) and isopentyl nitrite (3.0 mL, 22.33 mmol) in MeCN (400 mL) was heated to 55 °C whereupon CuBr 2 (4.56 g, 20.39 mmol) was added. The mixture was heated to 70 °C and stirred for 1 h. The reaction was allowed to cool to RT and 1 M aq HCl (200 mL) was added. The reaction mixture was extracted with DCM (3 x 200 mL). The organic phases were concentrated in vacuo and the crude product was purified by FC (0-20% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (3.2 g, 60%) as a pale yellow solid. LCMS m/z 279.2 (M+Na) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 7.50 (s, 1H), 2.94 - 2.86 (m, 4H), 2.41 (s, 3H), 2.09 (p, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H). Step E: 5-bromo-6-methyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-amine A stirred mixture of 5-bromo-6-methyl-4-nitro-2,3-dihydro-1H-indene (8.42 g, 32.9 mmol), sat aq NH 4 Cl (50 mL) and iron powder (7.34 g, 132 mmol) in 3:2 EtOH/water (80 mL) was stirred at 80 °C for 2 h. After cooling to RT, the reaction was diluted with EtOAc (20 mL) and filtered through a pad of Celite. The filtrate was diluted with water (10 mL). The layers were separated and the organic layer was dried (MgSO4) and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by FC (0-50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (6.52 g, 75%) as a pink solid. LCMS m/z 226/227 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 6.48 (s, 1H), 4.94 (br s, 2H), 2.73 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.68 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 2.24 (s, 3H), 2.02 - 1.95 (m, 2H). Step F: 5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-methyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-ami ne To a solution of 4-bromo-2-fluoropyridine (0.905 mL, 8.81 mmol) in dioxane (60 mL) was added B2Pin2 (2.460 g, 9.69 mmol), KOAc (3.46 g, 35.2 mmol) and Pd(dppf)Cl2.DCM (0.360 g, 0.440 mmol). The reaction mixture was degassed with N2 and heated at 100 °C for 3 h. After cooling to RT, a solution of 5-bromo-6-methyl-2,3- dihydro-1H-inden-4-amine (2.096 g, 8.81 mmol) in dioxane (20 mL) was added followed by a solution of K 2 CO 3 (4.87 g, 35.2 mmol) in water (35 mL). The reaction was heated at 100 °C for 18 h. After cooling, EtOAc (150 mL) was added and the organics were washed with water (2 x 100 mL) and brine (100 mL), dried (MgSO4) and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-30 % EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (1.06 g, 47%) as a pale yellow solid. LCMS m/z 243.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.29 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 7.16 - 7.11 (m, 1H), 6.97 (s, 1H), 6.46 (s, 1H), 4.30 (s, 2H), 2.78 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.64 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 2H), 1.99 (p, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 1.88 (s, 3H). Intermediate B3: 3-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)phenol PdCl2(dppf) (0.10 g, 0.137 mmol) was added to 5-bromo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4- amine (0.769 g, 3.63 mmol), (3-hydroxyphenyl)boronic acid (0.5 g, 3.63 mmol) and K 2 CO 3 (1.50 g, 10.85 mmol) in dioxane (200 mL) and water (50 mL) previously degassed with N 2 . The reaction was heated at 80°C for 20 h. The mixture was cooled to RT and partitioned between EtOAc (100 mL) and water (50 mL). The organic layer was dried (MgSO4), and evaporated. The residue was purified by FC (0-50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (0.65 g, 79%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 226.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 9.44 (s, 1H), 7.23 (t, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 6.83 - 6.75 (m, 3H), 6.75 - 6.69 (m, 1H), 6.56 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 4.41 (s, 2H), 2.82 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.70 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 2H), 2.02 (p, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H). Intermediate B4: 4-fluoro-2-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylaniline Prepared according to the general procedure of 5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro- 1H-inden-4-amine (Intermediate B1) from 2-bromo-4-fluoro-6-isopropylaniline and (2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)boronic acid to afford the title compound (626 mg, 74%) as a purple gum. LCMS m/z 249.0 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3) d 8.30 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1H), 7.31 - 7.28 (m, 1H), 7.04 (br s, 1H), 6.96 (dd, J = 9.9, 2.9 Hz, 1H), 6.71 (dd, J = 8.5, 2.9 Hz, 1H), 3.64 (br s, 2H), 2.97 - 2.87 (m, 1H), 1.29 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 6H). Intermediate B5: 5-(2,3-difluoropyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-amine Prepared according to the general procedure for 5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro- 1H-inden-4-amine (Intermediate B1) from 5-bromo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-amine and (2,3-difluoropyridin-4-yl)boronic acid to afford the title compound (104 mg, 30%) as an off-white solid. LCMS m/z 247.4 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.02 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1H), 7.31 (t, J = 4.9 Hz, 1H), 6.83 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 6.57 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 4.85 (s, 2H), 2.84 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.71 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 2.03 (p, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H). Intermediate B6: 6-fluoro-5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-ami ne Step A: N-(6-fluoro-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)acetamide AcCl (1.8 mL, 25.3 mmol) was added dropwise to a solution of 6-fluoro-2,3-dihydro- 1H-inden-5-amine (3.50 g, 23.15 mmol) and TEA (5.00 mL, 35.9 mmol) in DCM (40 mL) cooled with an ice bath. The mixture was warmed to RT and partitioned between EtOAc (200 mL) and 1 M aq HCl (100 mL), the organic layer separated, washed with water (100 mL), dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was triturated with isohexane, filtered and dried to afford the title compound (4.04 g, 89%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 194.0 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3) d 8.09 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 7.28 (br s, 1H), 6.95 (d, J = 10.9 Hz, 1H), 2.93 - 2.83 (m, 4H), 2.22 (s, 3H), 2.15-2.05 (m, 2H). Step B: N-(6-fluoro-4-nitro-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)acetamide Nitric acid (15 mL, 235 mmol) was added dropwise to sulfuric acid (15 mL) cooled to 0 °C, keeping the temperature below 20 °C. This mixture was stirred for 10 min then added dropwise to a stirred suspension of N-(6-fluoro-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)- acetamide (4 g, 20.70 mmol) in AcOH (30 mL) and sulfuric acid (15 mL) keeping the temperature below 35 °C. The mixture was stirred at RT for 4 h then poured into ice/water (300 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (300 mL). The organic layer was washed with sat aq NaHCO 3 (200 mL), water (50 mL), dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was triturated with TBME (15 mL), filtered and dried to afford the title compound (2.54 g, 51%) as a solid. LCMS m/z 238.9 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ) d 7.62 (br s, 1H), 7.26 (d, J = 9.1 Hz, 1H), 3.15 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 3.01 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H), 2.22 (s, 3H), 2.17 (p, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H). Step C: 6-fluoro-4-nitro-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-amine A mixture of N-(6-fluoro-4-nitro-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)acetamide (2.53 g, 10.62 mmol) in conc. H 2 SO 4 (1 mL) and EtOH (25 mL) was heated under reflux for 24 h. The solvent was evaporated, water (20 mL) added, the mixture basified with aq 50% NaOH solution and extracted with DCM (2 x 100 mL). The organic layer was washed with water (50 mL), dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered and evaporated to afford the title compound (1.89 g, 90%) as an orange solid. LCMS m/z 196.9 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3) d 7.12 (d, J = 10.3 Hz, 1H), 5.81 (br s, 2H), 3.33 (t, J = 7.4Hz, 2H), 2.87 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 2.14-2.06 (m, 2H). Step D: 5-bromo-6-fluoro-4-nitro-2,3-dihydro-1H-indene 6-fluoro-4-nitro-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-amine (1.88 g, 9.58 mmol) was added portion-wise over 20 min to a stirred mixture of isopentyl nitrite (1.70 mL, 12.65 mmol) and Cu(II)Br (2.6 g, 11.64 mmol) in MeCN (80 mL) at 60 °C. After addition, the mixture was heated for 1 h, cooled and partitioned between aq 1 M HCl (200 mL) and DCM (300 mL). The organic layer was washed with water (100 mL), dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated. The crude product was purified by FC (0-15% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (2.21 g, 62%) as yellow solid. LCMS m/z 196.9 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3) d 7.18 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 3.07 - 2.96 (m, 4H), 2.21 (p, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H). Step E: 5-bromo-6-fluoro-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-amine A mixture of 5-bromo-6-fluoro-4-nitro-2,3-dihydro-1H-indene (2.2 g, 5.92 mmol), NH4Cl (450 mg, 8.41 mmol) and Fe powder (2 g, 35.8 mmol) in EtOH (20 mL) and water (10 mL) was heated at 80 °C for 24 h. The mixture was diluted with EtOAc (50 mL), filtered through Celite and washed with EtOAc (50 mL). The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo, partitioned between EtOAc (100 mL) and aq sat NaHCO 3 solution (20 mL), the organic layer washed with water (20 mL), dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-30% DCM/isohexane) to afford the title compound (1.14 g, 81%) as a pale yellow solid. LCMS m/z 229.9/231.8 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3) d 6.48 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 4.15 (br s, 2H), 2.88 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H), 2.74 (t, J= 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.19 - 2.11 (m, 2H). Step F: 6-fluoro-5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-ami ne Prepared according to the general procedure for 5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro- 1H-inden-4-amine (Intermediate B1) from 5-bromo-6-fluoro-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden- 4-amine and (2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)boronic acid to afford the title compound (0.33 g, 57%) as a pale yellow solid. LCMS m/z 247.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.29 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 7.31 - 7.23 (m, 1H), 7.10 (s, 1H), 6.39 (d, J = 9.9 Hz, 1H), 4.96 (s, 2H), 2.81 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.69 - 2.62 (m, 2H), 2.02 (p, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H). Intermerdiate B7: 5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-methyl-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4- amine Step A: N-(3-methoxy-5-methylphenyl)pivalamide Pivaloyl chloride (4.7 mL, 38.2 mmol) was added dropwise to a solution of 3-methoxy- 5-methylaniline (5 g, 36.4 mmol) and TEA (6 mL, 43.0 mmol) in DCM (100 mL) cooled with an ice bath. The mixture was warmed to RT, stirred for 2 h then partitioned between DCM (100 mL) and aq 1 M HCl (100 mL). The organic layer was washed with water (50 mL), dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered and evaporated. The residue was purified by FC (0-10% DCM/TBME) to afford the title compound (6.91 g, 81%) as an off white solid. LCMS m/z 222.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ) d 7.27 (br s, 1H), 7.17 (t, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 6.87-6.84 (br s, 1H), 6.52- 6.50 (br m, 1H), 3.81 (s, 3H), 2.32 (s, 3H), 1.33 (s, 9H). Step B: N-(2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methoxy-5-methylphenyl)pivalamide 2.5M BuLi (27 mL, 67.5 mmol) in hexane was added dropwise to a solution of N-(3- methoxy-5-methylphenyl)pivalamide (5.90 g, 26.7 mmol) in THF (100 mL) cooled in an ice bath. The mixture was stirred for 2 h, 2.5-3.3 M oxirane (16.00 mL, 40.0 mmol) in THF was added and the mixture allowed to warm to RT overnight. The mixture was quenched with aq. NH 4 Cl solution (20 mL), the solvent evaporated and the residue partitioned between EtOAc (100 mL) and water (30 mL). The organic layer was separated, dried (MgSO4), filtered, evaporated and the residue was purified by FC (0- 100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (5.64 g, 75%) as an orange solid. LCMS m/z 266.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3) d 8.75 (s, 1H), 7.33 (s, 1H), 6.53 (s, 1H), 3.94 - 3.88 (m, 2H), 3.81 (s, 3H), 2.86 (t, 2H), 2.35 (s, 3H), 1.96 - 1.91 (br s, 1H), 1.33 (s, 9H). Step C: 6-methyl-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-amine A mixture of N-(2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methoxy-5-methylphenyl)pivalamide (5.62 g, 21.18 mmol) in conc. HBr (50 mL) was heated at 100 °C for 5 h. The mixture was cooled in an ice bath, the pH adjusted to 9 with solid NaOH and extracted with EtOAc (200 mL). The organic layer was washed with water (50 mL), dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered, concentrated in vacuo and the residue purified by FC (0-40% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (1.67 g, 51%) as an oil. LCMS m/z 150.0 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ) d 6.14 (s, 1H), 6.08 (s, 1H), 4.60 (t, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 3.55 (br s, 2H), 3.00 (t, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 2.24 (s, 3H). Step D: N-(6-methyl-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)acetamide AcCl (900 µL, 12.66 mmol) was added dropwise to a solution of 6-methyl-2,3- dihydrobenzofuran-4-amine (1.75 g, 11.73 mmol) and TEA (2.50 mL, 17.94 mmol) in DCM (25 mL) cooled in an ice bath. The mixture was warmed to RT and partitioned between EtOAc (100 mL) and aq 1 M HCl (50 mL). The organic layer was separated, washed with water (50 mL), dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was triturated with TBME/isohexane, filtered and dried to afford the title compound (1.87 g, 81%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 192.0 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3) d 7.05 (s, 1H), 6.93 (br s, 1H), 6.47 (s, 1H), 4.60 (t, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 3.11 (t, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 2.31 (s, 3H), 2.19 (s, 3H). Step E: N-(5-bromo-6-methyl-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)acetamide A mixture of N-(6-methyl-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)acetamide (1.85 g, 9.67 mmol), PTSA (1.00 g, 5.26 mmol) and Pd(OAc) 2 (0.109 g, 0.484 mmol) in toluene (25 mL) was stirred at RT under air for 10 min, then NBS (1.8 g, 10.11 mmol) was added in one portion and the reaction was stirred for 2 h. The mixture was diluted with EtOAc (100 mL) and washed with sat aq NaHCO 3 (50 mL). The organic phase was separated, washed with aq 20% Na2S2O3 (50 mL), water (30 mL), dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was triturated with TBME (40 mL), filtered and dried to afford the title compound (2.15 g, 74%) as an off white solid. LCMS m/z 269.9/271.9 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3) d 7.19 (s, 1H), 6.63 (s, 1H), 4.60 (t, J = 8.7 Hz, 2H), 3.20 (t, J = 8.7 Hz, 2H), 2.38 (s, 3H), 2.25 (s, 3H). Step F: 5-bromo-6-methyl-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-amine A mixture of N-(5-bromo-6-methyl-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)acetamide (2.14 g, 7.92 mmol) in sulfuric acid (1 mL) and MeOH (20 mL) was heated under reflux for 24 h. The solvent was evaporated in vacuo, water (20 mL) added, the mixture basified with aq 50% NaOH solution and extracted with DCM (2 x 100 mL). The organic layer was washed with water (50 mL), dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered and evaporated to afford the title compound (1.43 g, 75%) as an off white solid. LCMS m/z 227.9/229.8 (M+H)+ (ES+). 1 H NMR (CDCl3) d 6.25 (s, 1H), 4.62 (t, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 4.36 (br s, 2H), 3.07 (t, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 2.34 (s, 3H). Step G: 5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-methyl-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-am ine Prepared according to the general procedure for 5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro- 1H-inden-4-amine (Intermediate B1) from 5-bromo-6-methyl-2,3-dihydrobenzo- furan-4-amine and 2-fluoro-4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)pyri dine to afford the title compound (234 mg, 72%) as an off-white solid. LCMS m/z 245.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.28 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1H), 7.15-7.12 (m, 1H), 6.97-6.95 (m, 1H), 6.03 (s, 1H), 4.55 (s, 2H), 4.50 (t, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 2.95 (t, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 1.87 (s, 3H). Intermediate B8: 5-(2-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-ami ne Prepared according to the general procedure for 5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro- 1H-inden-4-amine (Intermediate B1) from 5-bromo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-amine and 2-fluoro-6-methyl-4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan- 2-yl)pyridine to afford the title compound (289 mg, 82%) as an off-white solid. LCMS m/z 243.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.23 (s, 1H), 6.92 (s, 1H), 6.88 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 6.59 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 4.79 (s, 2H), 2.83 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 2.71 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 2.45 (s, 3H), 2.03 (p, J = 7.3 Hz, 2H). Intermediate B9: 5-(2,5-difluoropyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-amine Prepared according to the general procedure for 5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro- 1H-inden-4-amine (Intermediate B1) from 5-bromo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-amine and (2,5-difluoropyridin-4-yl)boronic acid to afford the title compound (0.18 g, 24%) as a yellow solid. LCMS m/z 247.0 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.26 (s, 1H), 7.28 - 7.04 (m, 1H), 6.82 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 6.57 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 4.83 (s, 2H), 2.83 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.70 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 2H), 2.02 (p, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H). Intermediate B10: 5-(2,6-difluoropyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-amine Prepared according to the general procedure for 5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro- 1H-inden-4-amine (Intermediate B1) from 5-bromo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-amine and (2,6-difluoropyridin-4-yl)boronic acid to afford the title compound (713 mg, 82%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 246.8 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ) d 7.00 – 6.97 (m, 3H), 6.78 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 3.76 (s, 2H), 2.97 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 2.77 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 2.18 (p, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H). Intermediate B11: 5-(2-fluoro-3-methylpyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-ami ne To a solution of 4-bromo-2-fluoro-3-methylpyridine (0.510 g, 2.68 mmol) in dioxane (10 mL) was added 4,4,4',4',5,5,5',5'-octamethyl-2,2'-bi(1,3,2-dioxaborolane) (0.750 g, 2.95 mmol), potassium acetate (1.054 g, 10.74 mmol), and PdCl2(dppf)•CH 2 Cl2 (0.110 g, 0.134 mmol). The reaction mixture was degassed (N 2 , 5 min) and evacuated and backfilled with N 2 (x 3) and stirred at 100 °C for 2 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to RT. A solution of 5-bromo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-amine (0.569 g, 2.68 mmol) in dioxane (10 mL) was added followed by a solution of potassium carbonate (1.484 g, 10.74 mmol) in water (3 mL). The temperature was increased to 100 °C and the reaction was stirred for 16 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to RT, diluted with EtOAc (30 mL) and washed with water (2 x 30 mL) and brine (30 mL). The organic extract was dried (phase separator) and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-40% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (0.43 g, 62%) as a pale orange solid. LCMS m/z 243.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.10 - 7.98 (m, 1H), 7.11 - 7.01 (m, 1H), 6.75 - 6.65 (m, 1H), 6.60 - 6.52 (m, 1H), 4.53 (s, 2H), 2.84 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H), 2.75 - 2.64 (m, 2H), 2.08 - 1.99 (m, 5H). Intermediate B12: 5-(2-fluoro-5-methylpyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-ami ne Prepared according to the general procedure for 5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro- 1H-inden-4-amine (Intermediate B1) from 5-bromo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-amine and (2-fluoro-5-methylpyridin-4-yl)boronic acid to afford the title compound (156 mg, 45%) as an off-white solid. LCMS m/z 243.4 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.12 (s, 1H), 6.88 (d, J = 2,9 Hz, 1H), 6.68 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 6.56 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 4.50 (s, 2H), 2.84 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.71 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.08 (s, 3H), 2.02 (p, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H). Intermediate B13: 5-(2-fluoro-5-methylpyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-ami ne A mixture of 2-fluoro-4-hydrazineylpyridine (1.75 g, 13.8 mmol), 2-formyl-3-methyl- butanenitrile (1.90 g, 17.1 mmol) and acetic acid (840 mg, 800 µL, 14.0 mmol) in dioxane (30 mL) was heated at 65 °C for 12 h. The mixture was partitioned between EtOAc (200 mL) and sat aq NaHCO3 solution (100 mL), the organic layer separated, washed with water (50 mL), dried and evaporated. The residue was purified by FC (0- 50% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford a solid (3.0g) that was stirred in dioxane (20 mL) and 4M HCl in dioxane (15 mL) for 3 h (precipitate formed). A further portion of 4M HCl in dioxane (15 mL) was added and the mixture was heated at 40 °C for 24 h then 50 °C for 48 h. The solvent was evaporated and the residue partitioned between EtOAc (150 mL) and sat aq NaHCO 3 solution (50 mL), the organic layer separated, washed with water (50 mL), dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated. The crude product was purified by FC (0-50% TBME/isohexane) to afford the title compound (767 mg, 24%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 221.2 (M+H) + (ES + ); 219.2 (M-H)-(ES-). 1H NMR (CDCl 3 ) d 8.27 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 1H), 7.68 (dt, J = 5.7, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.47 (s, 1H), 7.43 (br s, 1H), 3.66 (br s, 2H), 2.71 (sept, J = 6.9 Hz, 1H), 1.27 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 6H). Intermediate C1: 1-(5-((4-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)pyridin-2-yl)oxy )- pentyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide Step A: 1-(5-((4-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)pyridin-2-yl)oxy )pentyl)-N,N- bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide A mixture of 1-(5-hydroxypentyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3- sulfonamide (Intermediate A1) (0.40 g, 0.845 mmol) and KO t Bu (104 mg, 0.929 mmol) in THF (5 mL) was stirred at RT for 1 h.5-(2-Fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro- 1H-inden-4-amine (Intermediate B1) (0.193 g, 0.845 mmol) was added and the reaction was stirred at RT for a further 18 h and diluted with water (20 mL) and EtOAc (20 mL). The layers were separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 20 mL) and the combined organics were dried (MgSO 4 ) and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (0.43 g, 47%) as a thick yellow gum. LCMS m/z 682.5 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.15 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 7.98 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.05 - 6.97 (m, 5H), 6.86 - 6.75 (m, 5H), 6.73 - 6.72 (m, 1H), 6.71 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 6.57 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 4.65 (br s, 2H), 4.25 (q, J = 6.6 Hz, 4H), 4.19 (s, 4H), 3.70 (s, 6H), 2.82 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.70 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 2H), 2.02 (p, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 1.87 (p, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H), 1.76 (p, J = 6.8 Hz, 2H), 1.38 (p, J = 7.8 Hz, 2H). Step B: 1-(5-((4-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)pyridin-2-yl)oxy )pentyl)-1H- pyrazole-3-sulfonamide A solution of 1-(5-((4-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)pyridin-2-yl)oxy )pentyl)- N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (0.43 g, 0.397 mmol) in TFA (5 mL) was stirred at RT for 5 h. The mixture was quenched with MeOH (5 mL) and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by FC (0-10% MeOH/DCM) to afford the title compound (0.18 g, 96%) as a bright yellow foam. LCMS m/z 442.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.17 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 7.89 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.38 (s, 2H), 7.01 (dd, J = 5.3, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 6.88 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 6.77 (s, 1H), 6.64 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 6.57 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 4.27 (t, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H), 4.20 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 2H), 2.84 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.72 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 2.03 (p, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 1.86 (p, J = 7.3 Hz, 2H), 1.77 (p, J = 6.9 Hz, 2H), 1.40 (p, J = 7.8 Hz, 2H). Two exchangeable protons not observed. The following intermediates were synthesised following the general procedure for Intermediate C1, from the intermediate compounds indicated in the ‘From’ column:

Intermediate C14: 1-(5-(3-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)phenoxy)pentyl)- 1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide Step A: 1-(5-(3-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)phenoxy)pentyl)-N ,N-bis(4- methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide

DIAD (0.146 mL, 0.741 mmol) was added dropwise to 3-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H- inden-5-yl)phenol (Intermediate B3) (0.15 g, 0.659 mmol), 1-(5-hydroxypentyl)- N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A1) (0.30 g, 0.570 mmol) and PPh 3 (0.194 g, 0.741 mmol) in THF (20 mL) at RT. The mixture was stirred at RT for 5 h, concentrated on to silica (2 g) and purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (0.36 g, 65%) as a thick yellow gum. LCMS m/z 681.5 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.98 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.31 (t, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.05 - 6.95 (m, 4H), 6.92 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 6.88 - 6.82 (m, 2H), 6.81 - 6.76 (m, 5H), 6.71 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 6.55 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 4.42 (s, 2H), 4.24 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H), 4.18 (s, 4H), 3.96 (t, J = 6.4 Hz, 2H), 3.69 (s, 6H), 2.81 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.68 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 2H), 2.07 - 1.97 (m, 2H), 1.86 (p, J = 7.1 Hz, 2H), 1.80 - 1.71 (m, 2H), 1.43 - 1.33 (m, 2H). Step B: 1-(5-(3-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)phenoxy)pentyl)-1 H-pyrazole-3- sulfonamide Prepared according to the general procedure of 1-(5-((4-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H- inden-5-yl)pyridin-2-yl)oxy)pentyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamid e (Intermediate C1, Step B), from 1-(5-(3-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)phenoxy)pentyl)-N ,N- bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide, to afford the title compound (0.22 g, 94%) as an orange gum. LCMS m/z 441.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.89 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.39 - 7.35 (m, 3H), 7.35 - 7.30 (m, 1H), 6.95 - 6.91 (m, 1H), 6.89 - 6.85 (m, 2H), 6.82 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 6.61 - 6.53 (m, 1H), 4.20 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 2H), 3.99 (t, J = 6.4 Hz, 2H), 2.83 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.71 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 2H), 2.04 (p, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 1.86 (p, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H), 1.81 - 1.72 (m, 2H), 1.44 - 1.34 (m, 2H). Two exchangeable protons not observed. Intermediate C18: 1-(1-((2-((4-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)pyridin-2- yl)oxy)ethyl)(methyl)amino)-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole -3-sulfonamide Step A: N-(2-((4-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)pyridin-2-yl)oxy )ethyl)-2-(3- (N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-N,2-dim ethylpropanamide A mixture of 2-(3-(N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-N- (2- hydroxyethyl)-N,2-dimethylpropanamide (Intermediate A11) (0.87 g, 1.443 mmol) and potassium tert-butoxide (0.25 g, 2.228 mmol) in THF (5 mL) was stirred at RT for 1 h.5-(2-Fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-amine (Intermediate B1) (0.35 g, 1.472 mmol) was then added and the mixture was stirred at RT for a further 18 h. The mixture was partitioned between EtOAc (30 mL) and water (15 mL). The organic layer was collected and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 20 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered and concentrated to dryness to give the title compound (0.75 g, 67%) as a yellow foam. LCMS m/z 739.4 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.16 - 8.06 (m, 1H), 7.07 - 6.97 (m, 5H), 6.85 - 6.76 (m, 6H), 6.74 (s, 1H), 6.57 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 4.64 (s, 2H), 4.41 (s, 2H), 4.22 - 4.16 (m, 5H), 3.71 (s, 6H), 3.66 (s, 2H), 2.82 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.70 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 2.43 - 2.23 (m, 3H), 2.05 - 1.98 (m, 2H), 1.74 (s, 6H). Step B: 1-(1-((2-((4-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)pyridin-2-yl )oxy)ethyl)- (methyl)amino)-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl) -1H-pyrazole-3- sulfonamide BH3·THF (1 M in THF) (1184 µL, 1.184 mmol) was added to a suspension of N-(2-((4- (4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)pyridin-2-yl)oxy)ethyl)-2 -(3-(N,N-bis(4- methoxybenzyl)sulfamoyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-N,2-dimethylpropan amide (250 mg, 0.338 mmol) in THF (5 mL). The mixture was heated to 70 °C for 16 h. The reaction mixture was then left to cool to RT and quenched slowly by dropwise addition with MeOH (20 mL) followed by 6M aq NaOH (60 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred vigorously at RT for 5 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with DCM (20 mL). The organic layer was separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (2 x 20 mL). The combined organic layers were dried using a phase separator, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (0-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (115 mg, 44%) as a colourless oil. LCMS m/z 725.5 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.15 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 7.98 (d, J = 7.4 Hz, 1H), 7.08-6.96 (m, 5H), 6.84-6.76 (m, 5H), 6.72 (s, 1H), 6.68 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 6.57 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 4.64 (s, 2H), 4.24 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 2H), 4.18 (s, 4H), 3.70 (s, 6H), 2.82 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.77 (s, 2H), 2.70 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 2H), 2.59 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 2H), 2.07-1.95 (m, 5H), 1.56 (s, 6H). Step C: 1-(1-((2-((4-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)pyridin-2- yl)oxy)ethyl)(methyl)amino)-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole -3-sulfonamide

1-(1-((2-((4-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)pyridin-2-yl )oxy)ethyl)(methyl)- amino)-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyra zole-3-sulfonamide (115 mg, 0.159 mmol) was dissolved in TFA (4 mL) and stirred at RT for 24 h. The reaction was concentrated in vacuo and the resulting residue purified by FC (0-10% (0.7 M ammonia/MeOH)/DCM) to afford the title compound (74 mg, 90%) as a yellow oil. LCMS m/z 485.4 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.16 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 7.88 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.36 (s, 2H), 7.01 (dd, J = 5.3, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 6.86 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 6.77-6.76 (m, 1H), 6.61-6.57 (d, 7.6 Hz, 1H), 6.54 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 4.66 (s, 2H), 4.28 (t, J = 5.9 Hz, 2H), 2.83 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.75 (s, 2H), 2.70 (t. J = 7.3 Hz, 2H), 2.67 (t, J = 5.9 Hz, 2H), 2.03 (p, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 1.96 (s, 3H), 1.53 (s, 6H). Intermediate C21: 1-(3-(3-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)phenoxy)propyl)- 1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide Step A: 1-(3-(3-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)phenoxy)propyl)-N ,N-bis(4- methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide Prepared according to the general procedure of 1-(5-(3-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H- inden-5-yl)phenoxy)pentyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyraz ole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate C14, Step A) from 1-(3-hydroxypropyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)- 1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A6) and 3-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H- inden-5-yl)phenol (Intermediate B3) to afford to afford the title compound (0.19 g, 12%) as a thick yellow gum. LCMS m/z 653.4 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 8.01 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.34 (t, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 7.01 - 6.96 (m, 5H), 6.96 - 6.93 (m, 1H), 6.92 - 6.89 (m, 1H), 6.89 - 6.85 (m, 1H), 6.82 - 6.75 (m, 4H), 6.73 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 6.55 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 4.42 (dd, J = 13.2, 6.3 Hz, 2H), 4.17 (s, 4H), 3.99 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 2H), 3.70 (s, 6H), 2.82 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.69 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 2H), 2.26 (p, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H), 2.06 - 1.98 (m, 2H). Two exchangeable protons not observed. Step B: 1-(3-(3-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)phenoxy)propyl)-1 H-pyrazole-3- sulfonamide Prepared according to the general procedure of 1-(5-((4-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H- inden-5-yl)pyridin-2-yl)oxy)pentyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamid e (Intermediate C1, Step B) from 1-(3-(3-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)phenoxy)propyl)-N ,N- bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide to afford the title compound (0.08 g, 82%) as an orange gum. LCMS m/z 413.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) d 7.91 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.38 (s, 2H), 7.37 - 7.31 (m, 1H), 6.95 (dt, J = 7.5, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 6.92 - 6.87 (m, 2H), 6.82 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 6.59 (s, 1H), 6.58 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 4.36 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 2H), 4.01 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 2H), 2.82 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.70 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 2H), 2.26 (p, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H), 2.05 - 1.99 (m, 2H). Two exchangeable protons not observed. Intermediate C42: 1-(2-((4-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)-6-fluoropyridin -2- yl)oxy)ethyl)-4-fluoro-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide F Step A: 1-(2-((4-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)-6-fluoropyridin -2-yl)oxy)ethyl)- 4-fluoro-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide To a solution of 4-fluoro-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyra zole-3- sulfonamide (Intermediate A19) (433 mg, 1.670 mmol), 5-(2,6-difluoropyridin-4-yl)- 2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-amine (Intermediate B10) (751 mg, 1.587 mmol) and THF (15 mL) was added 60% NaH in mineral oil (200 mg, 5.01 mmol) at at 0 °C. The reaction mixture was left to stir at RT for 3 h. To the reaction mixture was added aq 1 N HCl (100 mL), the product was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL), the combined organic extracts were passed through a phase separator and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by FC (10-100% EtOAc/isohexane) to afford the title compound (860 mg, 69% yield) as a colourless oil. LCMS m/z 675.8 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.24 (d, J = 4.4 Hz, 1H), 6.98 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 4H), 6.84 - 6.68 (m, 7H), 6.55 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 4.77 (s, 2H), 4.61 (t, J = 4.9 Hz, 2H), 4.55 (t, J = 4.9 Hz, 2H), 4.20 (s, 4H), 3.68 (d, J = 1.1 Hz, 6H), 2.82 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.68 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 2.05 - 1.99 (m, 2H). Step B: 1-(2-((4-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)-6-fluoropyridin -2-yl)oxy)ethyl)- 4-fluoro-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide F Prepared according to the general procedure for 1-(5-((4-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H- inden-5-yl)pyridin-2-yl)oxy)pentyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamid e (Intermediate C1, Step B) from 1-(2-((4-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)-6-fluoropyridin -2-yl)- oxy)ethyl)-4-fluoro-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-s ulfonamide to afford the title compound (401 mg, 96%) as a white gum. LCMS m/z 436.5 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.16 (d, J = 4.6 Hz, 1H), 7.71 (s, 2H), 6.87 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 6.74 (dt, J = 3.5, 1.1 Hz, 2H), 6.57 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 4.79 (s, 2H), 4.59 (dd, J = 5.7, 4.3 Hz, 2H), 4.51 (dd, J = 5.7, 4.2 Hz, 2H), 2.82 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.69 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 2H), 2.02 (q, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H). Intermediate C43: 1-(1-((4-(2-amino-5-fluoro-3-isopropylphenyl)pyridin-2-yl)ox y)- 2-methylpropan-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide Prepared according to the general procedure for 1-(2-((4-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H- inden-5-yl)-6-fluoropyridin-2-yl)oxy)ethyl)-4-fluoro-1H-pyra zole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate C42) from 1-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-N,N-bis(4- methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A9) and 4-fluoro-2-(2- fluoropyridin-4-yl)-6-isopropylaniline (Intermediate B4). LCMS m/z 448.5 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.18 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 8.05 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 7.39 (s, 2H), 7.04 (dd, J = 5.2, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 6.92 (dd, J = 10.2, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 6.80 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1H), 6.73 (dd, J = 8.9, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 6.59 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 4.53 (s, 2H), 4.47 (s, 2H), 3.05 (p, J = 6.6 Hz, 1H), 1.67 (s, 6H), 1.17 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 6H). Intermediate C46: 1-((3-((4-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)pyridin-2-yl)ox y)- cyclopentyl)methyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide Step A: 1-((3-((4-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)pyridin-2-yl)ox y)cyclopentyl)- methyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide To a solution of 1-((3-hydroxycyclopentyl)methyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H - pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A23) (300 mg, 463.35 µmol, 1 eq) in THF (10 mL) was added KO t Bu (52 mg, 463.35 µmol, 1 eq). The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 1 h. Then to the above mixture was added 5-(2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H- inden-4-amine (Intermediate B1) (106 mg, 463.35 µmol, 1 eq) and the resulting reaction mixture was warmed to 65 °C and stirred for 6 h. Then a second batch of KO t Bu (52 mg, 463.35 µmol, 1 eq) was added to the above reaction mixture. The mixture was stirred at 70 °C for 12 h. Then a third batch of KO t Bu (52 mg, 463.35 µmol, 1 eq) was added to the above reaction mixture. The mixture was stirred at 70 °C for 6 h. The mixture was quenched with H 2 O (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (50 mL x 3). The organic phases were washed with brine (50 mL x 2), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc 4:1 to 2:1) to give the title compound (0.3 g, 82% yield, 88% purity on LCMS) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 694.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ): d 8.13 (d, 1H), 7.98 (d, 1H), 7.01-6.97 (m, 5H), 6.80-6.77 (m, 5H), 6.77 (d, 1H), 6.70 (d, 1H), 6.57-6.54 (m, 1H), 5.38-5.35 (m, 1H), 4.65 (s, 2H), 4.26-4.24 (m, 2H), 4.19-4.16 (m, 4H), 3.69 (s, 6H), 2.81 (t, 2H), 2.68 (t, 2H), 2.21-2.14 (m, 1H), 2.04-2.00 (m, 2H), 1.96-1.94 (m, 2H), 1.86-1.80 (m, 1H), 1.69-1.63 (m, 1H), 1.56-1.46 (m, 2H). Step B: 1-((3-((4-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)pyridin-2-yl)ox y)cyclopentyl)- methyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide A soluton of 1-((3-((4-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)pyridin-2-yl)ox y)- cyclopentyl)methyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-s ulfonamide (300 mg, 380.48 µmol, 1 eq) in TFA (5 mL) was stirred at 20 °C for 3 h. The mixture was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was dissolved in sat aq NaHCO 3 solution (70 mL) and then extracted with EtOAc (50 mL x 3). The organic phases were washed with brine (50 mL x 2), dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by prep-TLC (PE : EtOAc 2:1) to give the title compound (120 mg, 69.54% yield) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 454.1.1(M+H) + (ES + ). 1H NMR (DMSO-d6): d 8.15 (d, 1H), 7.89 (d, 1H), 7.38 (s, 2H), 6.98 (dd, 1H), 6.84 (d, 1H), 6.74 (d, 1H), 6.59-6.56 (m, 2H), 5.38-5.35 (m, 1H), 4.66 (s, 2H), 4.24-4.19 (m, 2H), 2.82 (t, 2H), 2.67 (t, 2H), 2.26-2.14 (m, 2H), 2.05-2.01 (m, 2H), 1.98-1.94 (m, 1H), 1.87- 1.81 (m, 1H), 1.71-1.67 (m, 1H), 1.57-1.46 (m, 2H). Intermediate D1: N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1-(pent-4-en-1-yl)-1H-pyrazole-3- sulfonamide Step A: 1-(5-bromopentyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sul fonamide To a solution of N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A1, Step C) (10 g, 25.81 mmol, 1 eq) in DMF (100 mL) was added K 2 CO 3 (7.13 g, 51.62 mmol, 2 eq) at 25 °C, and the mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 0.5 h. Then 1,5-dibromopentane (7.12 g, 30.97 mmol, 1.2 eq) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred at 50 °C for 3 h. The reaction mixture was quenched with water (300 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (200 mL x 2). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (200 mL x 2), dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 8:1 to 5:1) to give the title compound (6.3 g, 45.50% yield) as a yellow oil. 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6): d 7.96 (d, 1H), 7.02 (d, 4H), 6.80 (d, 4H), 6.71 (d, 1H), 4.23-4.20 (m, 6H), 3.73 (s, 6H), 3.51 (t, 2H), 1.83-1.80 (m, 4H), 1.35-1.32 (m, 2H). Step B: N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1-(pent-4-en-1-yl)-1H-pyrazole-3-su lfonamide To a solution of 1-(5-bromopentyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3- sulfonamide (2 g, 3.73 mmol, 1 eq) in THF (20 mL) was slowly added NaH (0.6 g, 15.00 mmol, 60% purity in mineral oil, 4.02 eq) in portions at 0 °C. After the addition, the reaction mixture was stirred at 70 °C for 12 h. The reaction mixture was quenched with sat aq NH 4 Cl solution (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (50 mL x 2). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 20:1 to 4:1) to give the title compound (1.3 g, 73.18% yield, 95.6% purity on LCMS) as a colourless oil. LCMS: m/z 456.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 7.41 (d, 1H), 7.06 (d, 4H), 6.77 (d, 4H), 6.64 (d, 1H), 5.82-5.74 (m, 1H), 5.05 (d, 2H), 4.31 (s, 4H), 4.18 (t, 2H), 3.78 (s, 6H), 2.06-1.98 (m, 4H). Intermediate D2: 1-allyl-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide To a solution of N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A1, Step C) (1.0 g, 2.58 mmol, 1 eq) and K 2 CO 3 (713 mg, 5.16 mmol, 2.0 eq) in DMF (10 mL) at 25 °C was added 3-bromoprop-1-ene (375 mg, 3.10 mmol, 1.2 eq). The reaction mixture was stirred at 60 °C for 3 h. Water (100 mL) and EtOAc (100 mL) were added, and the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (50 mL x 2). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 10:1 to 2:1) to give the title compound (0.9 g, 81.40% yield, 100% purity on LCMS) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 428.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 7.45 (d, 1H), 7.06 (d, 4H), 6.77 (d, 4H), 6.67 (d, 1H), 6.06-5.96 (m, 1H), 5.34 (dd, 1H), 5.26 (dd, 1H), 4.80 (d, 2H), 4.32 (s, 4H), 3.79 (s, 6H). Intermediate D3: 1-(but-3-en-1-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3- sulfonamide Step A: 1-(4-bromobutyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulf onamide A mixture of N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate A1, Step C) (10 g, 25.81 mmol, 1 eq) and K 2 CO 3 (10.70 g, 77.43 mmol, 3 eq) in DMF (100 mL) was stirred at 25 °C for 0.5 h. Then 1,4-dibromobutane (7.24 g, 33.55 mmol, 1.3 eq) was added and the resulting reaction mixture was heated to 70 °C and stirred for 3 h. The mixture was quenched with water (150 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (100 mL x 3). Then the combined organic phases were washed with brine (100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 10:1 to 4:1) to give the title compound (5.5 g, 38.34% yield, 94% purity on LCMS) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 522.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 7.43 (d, 1H), 7.07 (d, 4H), 6.78 (d, 4H), 6.66 (d, 1H), 4.43 (s, 4H), 4.22 (t, 2H), 3.81 (s, 6H), 3.41 (t, 2H), 2.09-2.02 (m, 2H), 1.87-1.82 (m, 2H). Step B: 1-(but-3-en-1-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sul fonamide To a solution of 1-(4-bromobutyl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3- sulfonamide (0.9 g, 1.72 mmol, 1 eq) in THF (10 mL) was added NaH (276 mg, 6.89 mmol, 60% purity in mineral oil, 4 eq) at 0 °C. Then the reaction mixture was stirred at 70 °C for 12 h. The reaction mixture was quenched with sat aq NH4Cl (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (100 mL x 2). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (100 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 20:1 to 3:1) to give the title compound (0.35 g, 44.27% yield, 96.2% purity on LCMS) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 442.4 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 7.43 (d, 1H), 7.06 (d, 4H), 6.77 (d, 4H), 6.62 (d, 1H), 5.77-5.68 (m, 1H), 5.10-5.06 (m, 2H), 4.31 (s, 4H), 4.24 (t, 2H), 3.78 (s, 6H), 2.66-2.60 (s, 2H). Intermediate E1: 1-allyl-8-nitro-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-1-ol Step A: 3-chloro-1-(2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)propan-1-one A suspension of AlCl3 (225.67 g, 1.69 mol, 1 eq) in DCM (1 L) was cooled to -10 °C under N2 atmosphere. Then a mixture of 2,3-dihydro-1H-indene (200 g, 1.69 mol, 1 eq) and 3- chloropropanoyl chloride (214.88 g, 1.69 mol, 1 eq) in DCM (400 mL) was added dropwise to the suspension. After addition, the mixture was warmed to 27 °C and stirred for 2 h. The reaction mixture was added slowly to an aq HCl solution (2 N, 2.8 L) below 10 °C. The layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (1 L). The combined organic layers were washed with water (1 L), sat aq NaHCO 3 solution (1 L) and brine (500 mL). The organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was triturated with petroleum ether (500 mL) to give the title compound (260.44 g, 73.74% yield) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 209.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 7.84 (s, 1H), 7.79-7.76 (m, 1H), 7.34-7.32 (d, 1H), 3.96-3.93 (t, 2H), 3.48-3.44 (t, 2H), 3.00-2.96 (t, 4H), 2.18-2.11 (m, 2H). Step B: 2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-s-indacen-1(5H)-one To conc. H 2 SO4 (1.84 kg, 18.39 mol, 98 wt.% in aq solution, 37.25 eq) was added 3- chloro-1-(2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)propan-1-one (103 g, 493.57 mmol, 1 eq). Then the reaction mixture was stirred at 70 °C for 12 h. The reaction mixture was poured into ice-water (4.5 L) and the resulting suspension was filtered. The filter cake was dissolved in EtOAc (500 mL) and washed with sat aq Na2CO3 solution (500 mL). The organic layer was separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (3 × 200 mL). The combined organic layers were concentrated in vacuum to give the title compound (60 g, 69.17% yield, 98% purity on LCMS) as a yellow solid. LCMS: m/z 173.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 7.58 (s, 1H), 7.30 (s, 1H), 3.08-2.96 (m, 2H), 2.95-2.91 (m, 4H), 2.70 (t, 2H), 2.15-2.05 (m, 2H). Step C: 8-nitro-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-s-indacen-1(5H)-one To a solution of 2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-s-indacen-1(5H)-one (54.88 g, 318.66 mmol, 1 eq) in 665 mL of H 2 SO 4 was added dropwise a mixture of H 2 SO 4 (22.76 mL, 427.00 mmol, 1.34 eq) and HNO 3 (22.83 mL, 497.11 mmol, 98% purity, 1.56 eq) at 0~10 °C. After addition, the mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 1 h. The reaction mixture was poured into ice-water (1 L) and extracted with DCM (1 L x 3). The combined organic layers were washed with sat aq NaHCO 3 solution (400 mL x 3), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE: EtOAc, 10:1 to 5:1) to give the title compound (30 g, yield: 43.34%) as a yellow solid. 1 H NMR (CDCl3): d 7.45 (s, 1H), 3.47 (t, 2H), 3.11-2.97 (m, 4H), 2.76 (t, 2H), 2.22-2.18 (m, 2H). Step D: 1-allyl-8-nitro-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-1-ol To a solution of 8-nitro-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-s-indacen-1(5H)-one (20 g, 92.07 mmol, 1 eq) in THF (200 mL) was added allylmagnesium bromide (1 M, 138.11 mL, 1.5 eq) at 0 °C under N 2 . The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 3 h. The reaction mixture was quenched with water (100 mL) and filtered through a pad of silica gel. The filter cake was washed with EtOAc (80 mL × 3) and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuum to remove THF. The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (80 mL × 3). The combined organic layers were dried over Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE: EtOAc, 10:1 to 9:1) and then further purified by reversed phase flash chromatography (water (0.1% TFA)-MeCN) to give a racemic mixture of the title compound (2.8 g, 11.73% yield) as a brown oil. LCMS: m/z 242.2 (M-OH) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 7.28 (s, 1H), 5.67-5.62 (m, 1H), 5.15-5.05 (m, 2H), 3.62 (s, 1H), 3.26-3.14 (m, 1H), 3.10-2.92 (m, 4H), 2.87-2.68 (m, 2H) 2.67-2.52 (m, 1H), 2.46-2.35 (m, 1H), 2.28-2.06 (m, 3H). Preparation of Examples Example 1: 24-Oxa-14l⁶-thia-11,13,18,26,30-pentaazapentacyclo- [23.3.1.1 15,18 .0 2,10 .0 5,9 ]-triaconta-1(29),2(10),3,5(9),15(30),16,25,27-octaene -12,14,14- trione Triphosgene (0.075 g, 0.254 mmol) was added to a solution of 1-(5-((4-(4-amino-2,3- dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)pyridin-2-yl)oxy)pentyl)-1H-pyrazole-3 -sulfonamide (Intermediate C1) (0.17 g, 0.385 mmol) in THF (10 mL). Et3N (0.107 mL, 0.770 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred for 90 min at RT. The mixture was concentrated in vacuo and redissolved in THF (10 mL). NaO t Bu (2 M in THF, 0.578 mL, 1.155 mmol) was then added and the mixture was stirred at RT for 6 h, concentrated in vacuo and purified by basic prep HPLC (20-50% MeCN in water) to afford the title compound (28 mg, 15% yield) as a colourless solid. LCMS m/z 468.3 (M+H) + (ES + ); 466.3 (M-H)- (ES-). 1H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.06 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 7.54 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 7.06 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 6.98 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 6.82 (dd, J = 5.3, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 6.63 (br s, 1H), 6.38 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 6.06 (br s, 2H), 4.17 (t, J = 5.4 Hz, 2H), 4.10 (t, J = 6.2 Hz, 2H), 2.90 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 2.86 - 2.77 (m, 2H), 2.00 (p, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 1.85 - 1.76 (m, 2H), 1.68 - 1.57 (m, 2H), 1.32 - 1.11 (m, 2H). The following examples were synthesised following the general procedure for Example 1, from the intermediate compounds indicated in the ‘From’ column: Example 3b: 21,24-dioxa-14l⁶-thia-11,13,18,26,30-pentaazapentacyclo- [23.3.1.1 15,18 .0 2,10 .0 5,9 ]triaconta-1(29),2(10),3,5(9),15(30),16,25,27-octaene- 12,14,14- trione, sodium salt 21,24-Dioxa-14l⁶-thia-11,13,18,26,30-pentaazapentacyclo[23 .3.1.1 15,18 .0 2,10 .0 5,9 ]- triaconta-1(29),2(10),3,5(9),15(30),16,25,27-octaene-12,14,1 4-trione (Example 3) (38.83 mg, 0.080 mmol) was dissolved in 0.5 M aq NaOH (160 µl, 0.080 mmol). Water (1 mL) was added and the mixture was frozen. The mixture was freeze-dried overnight to afford the title compound (20 mg, 50%) as a solid. LCMS m/z 470.3 (M+H) + (ES + ); 468.2 (M-H)- (ES-). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 8.08 - 7.93 (m, 1H), 7.60 - 7.50 (m, 1H), 7.05 (br s, 1H), 7.00 - 6.93 (m, 1H), 6.86 - 6.76 (m, 1H), 6.61 (br s, 1H), 6.36 - 6.24 (m, 1H), 4.27 - 4.10 (m, 4H), 3.83 (t, J = 5.0 Hz, 2H), 3.74 - 3.60 (m, 2H), 2.96 - 2.77 (m, 4H), 2.07 - 1.92 (m, 2H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Example 24: 3,19,19-trimethyl-21-oxa-14l⁶-thia-11,13,18,23,27-pentaaza pentacyclo- [20.3.1.1 15,18 .0 2,10 .0 5,9 ]heptacosa-1(25),2(10),3,5(9),15(27),16,22(26),23-octa ene- 12,14,14-trione, sodium salt Step A: 3,19,19-trimethyl-21-oxa-14l⁶-thia-11,13,18,23,27-pentaaza pentacyclo- [20.3.1.1 15,18 .0 2,10 .0 5,9 ]heptacosa-1(25),2(10),3,5(9),15(27),16,22(26),23-octa ene- 12,14,14-trione

Prepared according to the general procedure for 24-oxa-14l⁶-thia-11,13,18,26,30- pentaazapentacyclo-[23.3.1.1 15,18 .0 2,10 .0 5,9 ]triaconta-1(29),2(10),3,5(9),15(30),16,25,27- octaene-12,14,14-trione (Example 1) from 1-(1-((4-(4-amino-6-methyl-2,3-dihydro- 1H-inden-5-yl)pyridin-2-yl)oxy)-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-1H-pyra zole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate C24) to afford the title compound (69 mg, 33%) as an off-white solid. Step B: 3,19,19-trimethyl-21-oxa-14l⁶-thia-11,13,18,23,27-pentaaza pentacyclo- [20.3.1.1 15,18 .0 2,10 .0 5,9 ]heptacosa-1(25),2(10),3,5(9),15(27),16,22(26),23-octa ene- 12,14,14-trione, sodium salt 0.1 M NaOH (1280 µL, 0.128 mmol) was added to 3,19,19-trimethyl-21-oxa-14l⁶-thia- 11,13,18,23,27-pentaazapentacyclo[20.3.1.1 15,18 .0 2,10 .0 5,9 ]heptacosa-1(25),2(10),3,5(9), 15(27),16,22(26),23-octaene-12,14,14-trione and the solution was frozen. The mixture was freeze-dried overnight to afford the title compound (62 mg, 98%) as a white solid. LCMS m/z 468.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) d 7.98 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 7.75 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 6.93 (s, 1H), 6.78 (s, 1H), 6.61 (dd, J = 5.1, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 6.27 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 6.17 (s, 1H), 4.82 (d, J = 10.9 Hz, 1H), 4.18 (d, J = 10.9 Hz, 1H), 2.91 - 2.66 (m, 4H), 2.04 - 1.93 (m, 2H), 1.92 (s, 3H), 1.71 (s, 3H), 1.53 (s, 3H). The following examples were synthesised following the general procedure for Example 24, from the intermediate compounds indicated in the ‘From’ column: Example 46: 24-oxa-14l⁶-thia-11,13,18,26,31-pentaazahexacyclo- [23.3.1.1 15,18 .1 20,23 .0 2,10 .0 5,9 ]hentriaconta-1(28),2,4,9,15(31),16,25(29),26-octaene- 12,14,14-trione To a solution of 1-((3-((4-(4-amino-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)pyridin-2-yl)ox y)- cyclopentyl)methyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate C46) (120 mg, 264.58 µmol, 1 eq) and TEA (53 mg, 529.15 µmol, 2 eq) in THF (10 mL) was added triphosgene (47 mg, 158.75 µmol, 0.6 eq) at 0 °C. The mixture was warmed to 20 °C and stirred for 1 h. The mixture was filtered and to the filtrate was added NaO t Bu (76.28 mg, 793.73 µmol, 3 eq) at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred at 50 °C for 2 h. The mixture was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by prep-HPLC (column: Waters Xbridge, 150mm x 25mm x 5µm; mobile phase: [A: water (10mM NH 4 HCO 3 ); B: MeCN]; B%: 14%-44%, 10 min) to give an enantiomeric mixture of a single cis- or trans-isomer of the title compound (8.15 mg, 6.29% yield, 97.95% purity on HPLC) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 480.1 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CD3OD) d 8.07 (d, 1H), 7.73 (s, 1H), 7.21 (d, 1H), 7.10 (d, 1H), 6.88-6.82 (m, 2H), 6.43 (s, 1H), 5.13 (s, 1H), 4.44-4.40 (m, 1H), 4.29-4.24 (m, 1H), 3.01-2.89 (m, 4H), 2.61-2.53 (m, 1H), 2.15-1.99 (m, 4H), 1.93-1.75 (m, 4H). Two exchangeable protons not observed. Example 48: 5l⁶-thia-2,4,9,27-tetraazapentacyclo[14.9.1.1 6,9 .0 19,26 .0 21,25 ]heptacosa- 1(25),6(27),7,19(26),20-pentaene-3,5,5-trione Step A: 1-(6-(1-hydroxy-8-nitro-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-1-yl )hex-4-en-1-yl)- N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide

To a solution of 1-allyl-8-nitro-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-1-ol (Intermediate E1) (200 mg, 771.31 µmol, 1 eq) and N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1-(pent-4-en-1-yl)-1H- pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (Intermediate D1) (351 mg, 771.31 µmol, 1 eq) in DCE (3 mL) was added benzylidene-[1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolidin-2-yl idene]- dichloro-ruthenium;tricyclohexylphosphane (131 mg, 154.26 µmol, 0.2 eq) at 25 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 70 °C for 3 h under N2. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was re-dissolved with water (15 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (15 mL × 3). The combined organic layers were dried over Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by prep-TLC (PE : EtOAc, 1:1) to give the title compound as a mixture of stereoisomers (0.3 g, 55.50% yield, 98% purity on LCMS) as a colourless gum. LCMS: m/z 669.4 (M-OH) + (ES + ). 1H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 7.30-7.28 (m, 2H), 7.05 (d, 4H), 6.76 (d, 4H), 6.70-6.61 (m, 1H), 5.53-5.36 (m, 2H), 4.30 (s, 2H), 4.29 (s, 2H), 4.17-4.12 (m, 2H), 3.79 (s, 6H), 3.26-3.13 (m, 1H), 3.08-2.92 (m, 4H), 2.87-2.65 (m, 2H), 2.63-2.45 (m, 2H), 2.43-2.04 (m, 5H), 2.02-1.88 (m, 2H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Step B: 1-(6-(8-amino-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-1-yl)hexyl)-N, N-bis(4-methoxy- benzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide A mixture of 1-(6-(1-hydroxy-8-nitro-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-1-yl )hex-4-en-1- yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (0.3 g, 436.80 µmol, 1 eq), Pd/C (30 mg, 10% purity loading on activated carbon) and methanesulfonic acid (84 mg, 873.60 µmol, 2 eq) in MeOH (30 mL) was stirred at 20 °C for 12 h under H 2 atmosphere (15 psi). The reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of silica gel, and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 1:1) to give a racemic mixture of the title compound (70 mg, 23.93% yield, 96% purity on LCMS) as a colourless gum. LCMS: m/z 643.5 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 7.41 (d, 1H), 7.05 (d, 4H), 6.75 (d, 4H), 6.64 (d, 1H), 6.59 (s, 1H), 4.31 (s, 4H), 4.18-4.10 (m, 2H), 3.79 (s, 6H), 3.03-2.83 (m, 4H), 2.76-2.67 (m, 3H), 2.20-2.05 (m, 4H), 1.95-1.88 (m, 3H), 1.46-1.29 (m, 7H). Two exchangeable protons not observed. Step C: 1-(6-(8-amino-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-1-yl)hexyl)-1H -pyrazole-3- sulfonamide To a solution of 1-(6-(8-amino-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-1-yl)hexyl)-N, N-bis(4- methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (70 mg, 108.89 µmol, 1 eq) in DCM (1.5 mL) was added TFA (1.5 mL). The mixture was stirred at 30 °C for 12 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was diluted with MeOH (4 mL) and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by prep-TLC (PE : EtOAc, 1:1) to give a racemic mixture of the title compound (55 mg, 87.02% yield, 89% purity on LCMS, TFA salt) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 403.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1H NMR (CD3OD): d 7.71 (d, 1H), 6.70 (s, 1H), 6.64 (d, 1H), 4.20 (t, 2H), 3.19-3.13 (m, 1H), 2.97-2.65 (m, 6H), 2.17-2.04 (m, 3H), 2.04-1.81 (m, 4H), 1.45-1.25 (m, 7H). Four exchangeable protons not observed. Step D: 5l⁶-thia-2,4,9,27-tetraazapentacyclo[14.9.1.1 6,9 .0 19,26 .0 21,25 ]heptacosa- 1(25),6(27),7,19(26),20-pentaene-3,5,5-trione To a solution of 1-(6-(8-amino-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-1-yl)hexyl)-1H - pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (55 mg, 106.47 µmol, 1 eq, TFA salt) and TEA (43 mg, 425.88 µmol, 4 eq) in THF (1.5 mL) was added triphosgene (16 mg, 53.24 µmol, 0.5 eq) at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 0.5 h. Then the mixture was filtered. To the filtrate was added t-BuONa (10 mg, 106.47 µmol, 1 eq). The resulting mixture was stirred at 60 °C for 1 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by prep-HPLC (column: Waters Xbridge C18, 150mm x 25mm x 5µm; mobile phase: [A: water (10mM NH 4 HCO 3 ); B: MeCN]; B%: 19%-49%, 9 min) to give a racemic mixture of the title compound (1 mg, 2.17% yield, 99% purity on LCMS) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 429.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): d 7.66 (s, 1H), 6.90 (s, 1H), 6.79 (s, 1H), 4.26 (t, 2H), 3.12-3.01 (m, 1H), 2.96-2.62 (m, 6H), 2.15-1.65 (m, 6H), 1.48-0.96 (m, 8H). Two exchangeable protons not observed. Example 49: 10l⁶-thia-6,11,13,25-tetraazapentacyclo[12.9.1.1 6,9 .0 15,19 .0 21,24 ]pentacosa- 7,9(25),14,19,21(24)-pentaene-10,10,12-trione Step A: 1-(4-(1-hydroxy-8-nitro-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-1-yl )but-2-en-1-yl)- N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide To a solution of 1-allyl-8-nitro-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-1-ol (Intermediate E1) (0.5 g, 1.93 mmol, 1 eq) and 1-allyl-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3- sulfonamide (Intermediate D2) (826 mg, 1.93 mmol, 1 eq) in DCE (7 mL) was added benzylidene-[1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolidin-2-yl idene]-dichloro- ruthenium;tricyclohexylphosphane (327 mg, 385.65 µmol, 0.2 eq). The reaction mixture was stirred at 70 °C for 12 h under N 2 . The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by FC (PE : EtOAc, 10:1 to 2:1) to give the title compound as a mixture of stereoisomers (0.5 g, 39.09% yield, 99% purity on LCMS) as a red oil. LCMS: m/z 641.2 (M-OH) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 7.31 (s, 1H), 7.30 (s, 1H), 7.05 (d, 4H), 6.78 (d, 4H), 6.62 (d, 1H), 5.78-5.70 (m, 2H), 4.73-4.66 (m, 2H), 4.30 (d, 4H), 3.79 (s, 6H), 3.62 (s, 1H), 3.23-3.15 (m, 1H), 3.04-2.95 (m, 4H), 2.86-2.77 (m, 2H), 2.62-2.59 (m, 1H), 2.38-2.31 (m, 1H), 2.27-2.13 (m, 3H). Step B: 1-(4-(8-amino-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-1-yl)butyl)-N, N-bis(4- methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide To a solution of 1-(4-(1-hydroxy-8-nitro-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-1-yl )but-2-en- 1-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (0.5 g, 753.69 µmol, 1 eq) and MsOH (145 mg, 1.51 mmol, 2.0 eq) in MeOH (15 mL) was added Pd/C (0.1 g, 10% purity on active carbon) under N2. The suspension was degassed in vacuum and purged with H 2 several times. The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 12 h under H 2 (15 psi). The reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was re-dissolved in EtOAc (50 mL) and sat aq Na2CO3 solution (50 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (50 mLx 2). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by prep-TLC (PE : EtOAc, 1:1) to give a racemic mixture of the title compound (0.15 g, 32.37% yield, 100% purity on LCMS) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 615.3 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 7.41 (d, 1H), 7.05 (d, 4H), 6.77 (d, 4H), 6.64 (d, 1H), 6.59 (s, 1H), 4.31 (s, 4H), 4.23-4.16 (m, 2H), 3.78 (s, 6H), 3.71-3.60 (m, 2H), 3.02-2.80 (m, 4H), 2.76-2.67 (m, 3H), 2.21-2.09 (m, 3H), 1.96-1.86 (m, 2H), 1.78-1.35 (m, 5H). Step C: 1-(4-(8-amino-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-1-yl)butyl)-1H -pyrazole-3- sulfonamide To a solution of 1-(4-(8-amino-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-1-yl)butyl)-N, N-bis(4- methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (0.15 g, 243.98 µmol, 1 eq) in DCM (2 mL) was added TFA (3.08 g, 27.01 mmol,110.71 eq). The reaction mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 12 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was slurried with MeOH (10 mL), filtered and washed with MeOH (10 mL x 5). The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was re-dissolved in EtOAc (50 mL) and sat aq Na 2 CO 3 (50 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (50 mL x 2). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by prep-TLC (EtOAc : PE, 2:1) to give a racemic mixture of the title compound (64 mg, 62.90% yield, 90% purity on LCMS) as a yellow oil. LCMS: m/z 375.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1H NMR (CDCl3): d 7.41 (d, 1H), 6.71 (d, 1H), 6.61 (s, 1H), 5.49 (br s, 2H), 4.27-4.17 (m, 2H), 3.85-3.59 (m, 2H), 2.99-2.84 (m, 4H), 2.76-2.65 (m, 3H), 2.22-2.09 (m, 3H), 1.96- 1.84 (m, 3H), 1.72-1.65 (m, 1H), 1.52-1.43 (m, 1H), 1.38-1.27 (m, 2H). Step D: 10l⁶-thia-6,11,13,25-tetraazapentacyclo[12.9.1.1 6,9 .0 15,19 .0 21,24 ]pentacosa- 7,9(25),14,19,21(24)-pentaene-10,10,12-trione To a solution of 1-(4-(8-amino-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-1-yl)butyl)-1H - pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (32 mg, 76.73 µmol, 1 eq) in THF (1 mL) was added TEA (19 mg, 191.83 µmol, 2.5 eq) and bis(trichloromethyl) carbonate (9 mg, 30.69 µmol, 0.4 eq). The reaction mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 10 min. The reaction mixture was filtered and to the filtrate was added t-BuONa (7 mg, 74.91 µmol) in THF (3 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred at 50 °C for 0.5 h. The reaction mixture was concentrared in vacuum. The residue was purified by prep-HPLC (column: Waters Xbridge C18, 150mm x 25mm x 5µm; mobile phase: [A: water (10mM NH4HCO3); B: MeCN]; B%: 13%-46%, 10 min) to give a racemic mixture of the title compound (5.16 mg, 17.20% yield, 99.9% purity on HPLC) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 401.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): d 7.76 (d, 1H), 6.92 (s, 1H), 6.79 (d, 1H), 4.38-4.26 (m, 2H), 2.91- 2.79 (m, 5H), 2.74-2.68 (m, 2H), 2.15-2.02 (m, 4H), 1.84-1.71 (m, 2H), 1.57-1.51 (m, 1H), 1.42-1.40 (m, 1H), 1.01-0.99 (m, 2H). Two exchangeable protons not observed. Example 50: 5l⁶-thia-2,4,9,26-tetraazapentacyclo[13.9.1.1 6,9 .0 18,25 .0 20,24 ]hexacosa- 1(24),6(26),7,18(25),19-pentaene-3,5,5-trione Step A: 1-(5-(1-hydroxy-8-nitro-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-1-yl )pent-3-en-1-yl)- N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide A mixture of 1-allyl-8-nitro-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-1-ol (Intermediate E1) (200 mg, 771.31 µmol, 1 eq), benzylidene-[1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolidin- 2-ylidene]-dichloro-ruthenium;tricyclohexylphosphane (131 mg, 154.26 µmol, 0.2 eq) and 1-(but-3-en-1-yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sul fonamide (Intermediate D3) (341 mg, 771.31 µmol, 1 eq) in DCE (3 mL) was stirred at 70 °C for 4 h under N 2 . The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by prep-TLC (PE : EtOAc, 1:1) to give the title compound as a mixture of stereoisomers (190 mg, 35.52% yield, 97% purity on LCMS) as a colourless gum. LCMS: m/z 655.4 (M-OH) + (ES + ). 1H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 7.35 (d, 1H), 7.29 (d, 1H), 7.05 (d, 4H), 6.76 (d, 4H), 6.59 (d, 1H), 5.44-5.40 (m, 2H), 4.29 (s, 4H), 4.17-4.12 (m, 2H), 3.78 (s, 6H), 3.25-3.18 (m, 1H), 3.09-2.93 (m, 4H), 2.85-2.43 (m, 5H), 2.27-2.06 (m, 4H). One exchangeable proton not observed. Step B: 1-(5-(8-amino-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-1-yl)pentyl)-N ,N-bis(4- methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide A mixture of 1-(5-(1-hydroxy-8-nitro-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-1-yl )pent-3-en-1- yl)-N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (190 mg, 282.41 µmol, 1 eq), methanesulfonic acid (54 mg, 564.81 µmol, 2 eq) and Pd/C (20 mg, 282.41 µmol, 10% purity loading on activated carbon) in MeOH (30 mL) was stirred at 20 °C for 12 h under H 2 atmosphere (15 psi). The reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of silica gel and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuum. The residue was re-dissolved with sat aq Na2CO3 solution (10 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (8 mL × 3). The combined organic layers were dried over Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by prep-TLC (PE : EtOAc, 1:1) to give a racemic mixture of the title compound (60 mg, 33.79% yield) as a brown gum. LCMS: m/z 629.5 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 7.40 (d, 1H), 7.05 (d, 4H), 6.76 (d, 4H), 6.64 (d, 1H), 6.60 (s, 1H), 4.31 (s, 4H), 4.17 (t, 2H), 3.77 (s, 6H), 2.98-2.86 (m, 4H), 2.74-2.64 (m, 3H), 2.22-2.07 (m, 4H), 1.95-1.88 (m, 4H), 1.52-1.33 (m, 4H). Two exchangeable protons not observed. Step C: 1-(5-(8-amino-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-1-yl)pentyl)-1 H-pyrazole-3- sulfonamide A solution of 1-(5-(8-amino-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-1-yl)pentyl)-N ,N-bis(4- methoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (55 mg, 87.47 µmol, 1 eq) in DCM (3 mL) and TFA (3 mL) was stirred at 25 °C for 12 h. The mixture was quenched with sat aq NaHCO3 solution (30 mL). Then the aqueous phase was extracted with DCM (10 mL x 2). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (10 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 , filtered and concentrated in vacuum. The residue was purified by prep-TLC (PE : EtOAc, 1:2) to give a racemic mixture of the title compound (20 mg, 58.85% yield) as a colourless oil. LCMS: m/z 389.4 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1H NMR (CDCl 3 ): d 7.41 (d, 1H), 6.71 (d, 1H), 6.60 (s, 1H), 4.21-4.15 (m, 2H), 3.57 (s, 2H), 3.03-2.86 (m, 4H), 2.73-2.69 (m, 3H), 2.15-2.10 (m, 3H), 2.01-1.90 (m, 3H), 1.66- 1.52 (m, 1H), 1.51-1.30 (m, 5H). Two exchangeable protons not observed. Step D: 1-(5-(8-amino-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-1-yl)pentyl)-1 H-pyrazole-3- sulfonyl isocyanate To a solution of 1-(5-(8-amino-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-1-yl)pentyl)-1 H- pyrazole-3-sulfonamide (20 mg, 51.48 µmol, 1 eq) and TEA (16 mg, 154.43 µmol, 3 eq) in THF (3 mL) was added triphosgene (6 mg, 20.59 µmol, 0.4 eq) at 0 °C. Then the solution was stirred at 25 °C for 10 min. The mixture was filtered to give the filtrate (theoretical amount: 21.3 mg) as a crude product, which was used in the next step without purification. Step E: 5l⁶-thia-2,4,9,26-tetraazapentacyclo[13.9.1.1 6,9 .0 18,25 .0 20,24 ]hexacosa- 1(24),6(26),7,18(25),19-pentaene-3,5,5-trione To a solution of 1-(5-(8-amino-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-1-yl)pentyl)-1 H- pyrazole-3-sulfonyl isocyanate (21.3 mg, 48.25 µmol, 1 eq) in THF (3 mL) was added t- BuONa (5 mg, 48.25 µmol, 1 eq) and the solution was stirred at 50 °C for 10 min. The mixture was concentrated in vacuum, and the residue was purified by prep-HPLC (column: Waters Xbridge C18, 150mm x 25mm x 5µm; mobile phase: [A: water (10mM NH4HCO3); B: MeCN]; B%: 17%-47%, 9 min) to give a racemic mixture of the title compound (1.72 mg, two steps yield: 8.55%, 100% purity on LCMS) as a white solid. LCMS: m/z 415.2 (M+H) + (ES + ). 1 H NMR (CD3OD): d 7.67 (d, 1H), 6.87 (s, 1H), 6.72 (d, 1H), 4.24 (t, 2H), 2.88-2.86 (m, 1H), 2.91-2.66 (m, 6H), 2.08-1.95 (m, 4H), 1.83-1.67 (m, 2H), 1.52-1.39 (m, 1H), 1.31- 0.93 (m, 5H). Two exchangeable protons not observed. Examples – biological studies NLRP3 and Pyroptosis It is well established that the activation of NLRP3 leads to cell pyroptosis and this feature plays an important part in the manifestation of clinical disease (Yan-gang Liu et al., Cell Death & Disease, 2017, 8(2), e2579; Alexander Wree et al., Hepatology, 2014, 59(3), 898-910; Alex Baldwin et al., Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2016, 59(5), 1691- 1710; Ema Ozaki et al., Journal of Inflammation Research, 2015, 8, 15-27; Zhen Xie & Gang Zhao, Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation, 2014, 1(2), 60-65; Mattia Cocco et al., Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2014, 57(24), 10366-10382; T. Satoh et al., Cell Death & Disease, 2013, 4, e644). Therefore, it is anticipated that inhibitors of NLRP3 will block pyroptosis, as well as the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1b) from the cell. THP-1 Cells: Culture and Preparation THP-1 cells (ATCC # TIB-202) were grown in RPMI containing L-glutamine (Gibco #11835) supplemented with 1mM sodium pyruvate (Sigma # S8636) and penicillin (100units/ml) / streptomycin (0.1mg/ml) (Sigma # P4333) in 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) (Sigma # F0804). The cells were routinely passaged and grown to confluency (~10 6 cells/ml). On the day of the experiment, THP-1 cells were harvested and resuspended into RPMI medium (without FBS). The cells were then counted and viability (>90%) checked by Trypan blue (Sigma # T8154). Appropriate dilutions were made to give a concentration of 625,000 cells/ml. To this diluted cell solution was added LPS (Sigma # L4524) to give a 1µg/ml Final Assay Concentration (FAC).40µl of the final preparation was aliquoted into each well of a 96-well plate. The plate thus prepared was used for compound screening. THP-1 Cells Pyroptosis Assay The following method step-by-step assay was followed for compound screening. 1. Seed THP-1 cells (25,000 cells/well) containing 1.0µg/ml LPS in 40µl of RPMI medium (without FBS) in 96-well, black walled, clear bottom cell culture plates coated with poly-D-lysine (VWR # 734-0317) 2. Add 5µl compound (8 points half-log dilution, with 10µM top dose) or vehicle (DMSO 0.1% FAC) to the appropriate wells 3. Incubate for 3hrs at 37°C, 5% CO 2 4. Add 5µl nigericin (Sigma # N7143) (FAC 5µM) to all wells 5. Incubate for 1hr at 37°C, 5% CO 2 6. At the end of the incubation period, spin plates at 300xg for 3mins and remove supernatant 7. Then add 50µl of resazurin (Sigma # R7017) (FAC 100 µM resazurin in RPMI medium without FBS) and incubate plates for a further 1-2hrs at 37°C and 5% CO 2 8. Plates were read in an Envision reader at Ex 560nm and Em 590nm 9. IC 50 data is fitted to a non-linear regression equation (log inhibitor vs response- variable slope 4-parameters) 96-well Plate Map The results of the pyroptosis assay are summarised in Table 1 below as THP IC50. Human Whole Blood IL-1b Release Assay For systemic delivery, the ability to inhibit NLRP3 when the compounds are present within the bloodstream is of great importance. For this reason, the NLRP3 inhibitory activity of a number of compounds in human whole blood was investigated in accordance with the following protocol. Human whole blood in Li-heparin tubes was obtained from healthy donors from a volunteer donor panel. 1. Plate out 80µl of whole blood containing 1µg/ml of LPS in 96-well, clear bottom cell culture plate (Corning # 3585) 2. Add 10µl compound (8 points half-log dilution with 10µM top dose) or vehicle (DMSO 0.1% FAC) to the appropriate wells 3. Incubate for 3hrs at 37°C, 5% CO 2 4. Add 10µl nigericin (Sigma # N7143) (10µM FAC) to all wells 5. Incubate for 1hr at 37°C, 5% CO 2 6. At the end of the incubation period, spin plates at 300xg for 5mins to pellet cells and remove 20µl of supernatant and add to 96-well v-bottom plates for IL-1b analysis (note: these plates containing the supernatants can be stored at -80°C to be analysed at a later date) 7. IL-1b was measured according to the manufacturer protocol (Perkin Elmer- AlphaLisa IL-1 Kit AL220F-5000) 8. IC50 data is fitted to a non-linear regression equation (log inhibitor vs response- variable slope 4-parameters) The results of the human whole blood assay are summarised in Table 1 below as HWB IC50.

Table 1: NLRP3 inhibitory activity (£0.1µM = ‘+++++’, £0.5µM = ‘++++’, £1 µM = ‘+++’, £5 µM = ‘++’, £10 µM = ‘+’, not determined = ‘ND’). As is evident from the results presented in Table 1, surprisingly in spite of the structural differences versus the prior art compounds, the compounds of the invention show high levels of NLRP3 inhibitory activity in the pyroptosis assay and in the human whole blood assay. It will be understood that the present invention has been described above by way of example only. The examples are not intended to limit the scope of the invention. Various modifications and embodiments can be made without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention, which is defined by the following claims only.