Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
MAGNETIC COUPLING AND/OR TRANSMISSION SYSTEM AND METHOD
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2013/123464
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
In at least one embodiment, a system and method is offered for magnetically coupling a waveform turbine with a magnet body connected to a driveshaft. In further embodiments, the magnetic coupling provides variable torque and slip ratio. In at least one embodiment, the waveform turbine including a disk pack turbine having rotating rotors and/or disks having waveform patterns on at least one side. In at least one embodiment, the waveform patterns present in at least one embodiment of the waveform turbine include a plurality of hyperbolic waveforms axially aligned around a horizontal center of the system.

Inventors:
IRVIN SR WHITAKER (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2013/026540
Publication Date:
August 22, 2013
Filing Date:
February 16, 2013
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
QWTIP LLC (US)
International Classes:
F16D27/01; H02K21/00; H02K49/10
Domestic Patent References:
WO2008127487A12008-10-23
Foreign References:
US5215501A1993-06-01
GB638998A1950-06-21
US4350236A1982-09-21
JP2001082507A2001-03-27
US20090200129A12009-08-13
SU929907A11982-05-23
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
METZENTHIN, George A. et al. (LLP1100 17th Street N.W.,Suite 40, Washington District of Columbia, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
IN THE CLAIMS:

I claim:

1. A system comprising:

a drive system,

a waveform turbine connected to said drive system,

a magnet body having at least one of a plurality of magnets attached to it, a plurality of magnets embedded in it, and a plurality of magnetic regions, said magnet body is offset from said waveform turbine or said magnet body and said waveform turbine are capable of being adjusted with respect to each other, and

a driveshaft connected to and extending from said magnet body in a direction opposite said waveform turbine.

2. The system according to claim 1 , wherein said waveform turbine includes

a plurality of waveform disks in fluid communication with said at least one feed inlet, said plurality of waveform disks each having an opening passing therethrough forming an axially centered expansion chamber;

a first rotor attached to one of said plurality of waveform disks; and

a second rotor attached to said plurality of waveform disks on a side opposite said first rotor.

3. The system according to claim 2, wherein at least one of said first rotor and said second rotor includes an opening passing therethrough axially centered with said expansion chamber.

4. The system according to any one of claims 1-3, further comprising a flux return attached to said magnet body on the side of the magnet body from which the second driveshaft extends.

5. The system according to any one of claims 1-3, wherein said magnet body includes a plurality of slots in which one of said magnets is placed in each slot.

6. The system according to claim 5, wherein said magnet body includes a magnet plate having a cam mechanism to slide said magnets within their respective slots.

7. The system according to claim 6, wherein said magnet plate includes a plurality of restrainers for holding in place a respective magnet in a respective slot.

8. The system according to claim 7, wherein said restrainers include a plurality of bolts and/or bars where said bolts engage respective holes in said magnet disk to secure said magnets in place.

9. The system according to any one of claims 1-8, further comprising

a magnet rotor on the free end of said driveshaft extending from said magnet body, and a plurality of coils spaced around said magnet rotor such that an electrical current is produced in said plurality of coils as the magnet rotor rotates.

10. The system according to claim 9, wherein said magnet rotor includes a plurality of magnets.

11. The system according to any one of claims 1-8, further comprising:

an axle connected to the free end of said driveshaft extending from said magnet body,

a pair of wheels wherein each wheel is located on an opposite end of said axle.

12. A system comprising: a motor,

a driveshaft connected to said motor,

a disk-pack turbine connected to said driveshaft, said disk-pack turbine including

at least one waveform disk having a plurality of waveforms; and

a first rotor attached to one of said at least one waveform disk, and

a magnet plate spaced from said disk-pack turbine such that said rotor is substantially parallel to a face of said magnet plate; and

a driveshaft connected to said magnet plate on a side opposite said disk-pack turbine.

13. The system according to claim 12, wherein said magnet plate and said disk-pack turbine are laterally offset from each other.

14. The system according to claim 12, wherein said magnet plate and said disk-pack turbine can be move laterally with respect to each other.

15. The system according to claim 12, further comprising a second rotor attached to one of said at least one waveform disks on a side opposite said first rotor; and

wherein said at least one waveform disk includes two waveform disks in fluid communication with each other and having an opening passing therethrough forming an axially centered expansion chamber.

16. The system according to claim 15, wherein said driveshaft includes a chamber passing from a free end to said disk-pack turbine, said chamber provides a fluid pathway from external to said system to the expansion chamber in said disk-pack turbine.

17. The system according to claims 15 or 16, wherein said first rotor is nearer to said magnet disk and includes an opening passing through its axial center that is aligned with the expansion chamber.

18. The system according to any one of claims 12-17, further comprising a flux return attached to said magnet plate on the side of the magnet plate from which said driveshaft extends.

19. The system according to any one of claims 12- 18, wherein said magnet plate includes a plurality of slots in which one of said magnets is placed in each slot.

20. The system according to claim 19, wherein said magnet plate includes a cam mechanism to slide said magnets within their respective slots.

21. The system according to claim 20, wherein said magnet plate includes a plurality of restrainers for holding in place a respective magnet in a respective slot.

22. The system according to claim 21, wherein said restrainers include a plurality of bolts and/or bars where said bolts engage respective holes in said magnet disk to secure said magnets in place.

23. The system according to any one of claims 12- 14, wherein said waveform disks number two.

24. The system according to any one of claims 12-14, wherein said waveform disks number four.

25. A system comprising:

a drive system,

a driveshaft,

at least one disk-pack turbine connected to said driveshaft, a magnet body having at least one of a plurality of magnets attached to it, a plurality of magnets embedded in it, and a plurality of magnetic regions, said magnet plate rotationally engaging said driveshaft, and

a belt connected to and extending from said magnet plate, said belt engages said drive system.

26. A system comprising:

at least one waveform turbine selected from a disk-pack turbine, a cylinder pack turbine, and a frustum pack turbine,

a magnet body having a plurality of magnets and/or magnetic areas attached, embedded in it or otherwise formed with it,

a drive system connected to either said waveform turbine or said magnet body, and

a driveshaft connected to said waveform turbine or said magnet body not connected to said drive system.

27. A method for causing rotation of a driveshaft connected to a magnet body through magnetic coupling, said method comprising:

rotating a waveform turbine with a first driveshaft,

generating a magnetic field with the waveform turbine to magnetically couple with the magnet body, and

rotating the driveshaft connected to the magnet body as the waveform turbine rotates the magnet body.

28. The method according to claim 27, wherein the magnet body includes a magnet plate.

29. The method according to claim 28, further comprising at least one of

changing the location of magnets present in and/or on the magnet plate, and

changing location includes moving the magnets along slots and/or channels in the magnet plate where the slots and/or channels extending radially out from the center of the magnet disk.

30. The method according to claim 27, further comprising drawing fluid into the waveform turbine.

31. The method according to any one of claims 27-30, further comprising adjusting the relative position of the waveform turbine and the magnet body to each other.

32. The method according to any one of claims 27-31, further comprising generating a current in a plurality of coils spaced evenly around the free end of the driveshaft extending from said magnet body where the driveshaft includes a magnet rotor and the plurality of coils form a stator.

33. The method according to any one of claims 27-31, further comprising rotating a pair of wheels with an axle engaging the driveshaft extending from the magnet body.

34. The method according to any one of claims 27-31, wherein said waveform turbine is selected from a group consisting of a disk-pack turbine, a cylinder pack turbine, and a frustum pack turbine.

35. A drive system comprising:

a housing or support frame; a magnet body having magnetic material defining at least one North pole and at least one South pole; and

a driveshaft connected to said magnet body and said housing.

36. The drive system according to claim 35, further comprising at least one coil having two leads extending from it, said coil connected to and/or embedded in said housing.

37. The drive system according to claim 35 or 36, wherein said housing includes a housing cover including at least one of bismuth and copper.

38. The drive system according to claim 35 or 36, wherein said housing includes a housing cover including at least one of bismuth, copper, and steel.

39. The drive system according to any one of claims 35-38, wherein said driveshaft extends out through at least one wall of the housing.

40. The drive system according to any one of claims 35-39, further comprising a bearing between said driveshaft and said magnet body.

41. The drive system according to any one of claims 35-39, further comprising a bearing at each end of said driveshaft where each bearing is in contact with a respective wall of the housing.

42. The drive system according to any one of claims 35-39, further comprising a bearing between said driveshaft and said magnet body, and

wherein said driveshaft includes a first part and a second part each of which is located on opposite sides of said magnet body.

43. The drive system according to any one of claims 35-42, wherein said magnet includes one North pole and one South pole each of which runs a length of said magnet body.

44. The drive system according to any one of claims 35-42, wherein said magnet body is cylindrical.

45. The drive system according to any one of claims 35-42, wherein said magnet body is spherical.

46. The drive system according to any one of claims 35-42, wherein said magnet body is elliptical.

47. The drive system according to any one of claims 35-42, wherein said housing has a length along an axis of rotation of said magnet body of between 1 inch and 6 inches, a height between 1.5 inches and 4 inches, and a width at its widest point between 1.5 inches and 4 inches.

48. An electrical power generation system as shown in the figures and discussed in the above description.

49. A coupling and/or variable torque and slip ratio system as shown in the figures and discussed in the above description.

50. A method for rotational coupling and/or variable torque and slip ratio as shown in the figures and discussed in the above description.

51. A method for electrical power generation as shown in the figures and discussed in the above description.

Description:
Magnetic Coupling and/or Transmission System and Method

[0001] This application claims the benefit of U.S. provisional Application Serial No. 61/599,893, filed February 16, 2012, and entitled Magnetic Coupling System and Method; U.S. provisional Application No. 61/605,722, filed March 1, 2012, and entitled Magnetic Coupling and/or Transmission System and Method; and U.S. provisional Application No. 61/605,555, filed March 1, 2012, and entitled Spindle for Use with a Flux Field Generator, which are hereby each incorporated by reference.

I. Field of the Invention

[0002] The present invention in at least one embodiment relates to a system and method for providing a magnetic coupling using diamagnetism produced by a waveform turbine magnetically coupled to a magnet body during at least operation. More particularly, the system and method of at least one embodiment of the present invention provides rotating hyperbolic waveform structures and dynamics that may be used to magnetically couple to a magnet body such as a magnet plate that in turn will rotate a driveshaft that can be connected to objects that, for example, require rotation and/or generation of electricity. In at least one further embodiment, the magnet body includes repositionable magnets and components that in at least one embodiment provide variable torque and slip ratio between the rotation of the hyperbolic waveform structures and the driveshaft being driven by the magnet plate.

II. Summary of the Invention

[0003] In at least one embodiment, this invention provides a system including: a drive system, a waveform turbine connected to the drive system, a magnet body having at least one of a plurality of magnets attached to it, a plurality of magnets embedded in it, and a plurality of magnetic regions, the magnet body is offset from the waveform turbine or the magnet body and the waveform turbine are capable of being adjusted with respect to each other, and a driveshaft connected to and extending from the magnet body in a direction opposite the waveform turbine. In a further embodiment, the waveform turbine includes a plurality of waveform disks in fluid communication with the at least one feed inlet, the plurality of waveform disks each having an opening passing therethrough forming an axially centered expansion chamber; a first rotor attached to one of the plurality of waveform disks; and a second rotor attached to the plurality of waveform disks on a side opposite the first rotor. In a further embodiment, at least one of the first rotor and the second rotor includes an opening passing therethrough axially centered with the expansion chamber. In a further embodiment to any of the above embodiments, the system further includes a flux return attached to the magnet body on the side of the magnet body from which the second driveshaft extends.

[0004] In a further embodiment to any of the previous embodiments, the magnet body includes a plurality of slots in which one of the magnets is placed in each slot. In a further embodiment, the magnet body includes a magnet plate having a cam mechanism to slide the magnets within their respective slots. In a further embodiment, the magnet plate includes a plurality of restrainers for holding in place a respective magnet in a respective slot, and in a further embodiment the restrainers include a plurality of bolts and/or bars where the bolts engage respective holes in the magnet disk to secure the magnets in place. [0005] In a further embodiment to any of the previous embodiments, the system further including a magnet rotor on the free end of the driveshaft extending from the magnet body, and a plurality of coils spaced around the magnet rotor such that an electrical current is produced in the plurality of coils as the magnet rotor rotates. In a further embodiment, the magnet rotor includes a plurality of magnets. In a further embodiment to any of the previous embodiments of the previous paragraphs, the system includes an axle connected to the free end of the driveshaft extending from the magnet body, a pair of wheels wherein each wheel is located on an opposite end of the axle.

[0006] In at least one embodiment, the invention provides a system including: a motor, a driveshaft connected to the motor, a disk-pack turbine connected to the driveshaft, the disk-pack turbine including at least one waveform disk having a plurality of waveforms; and a first rotor attached to one of the at least one waveform disk, and a magnet plate spaced from the disk-pack turbine such that the rotor is substantially parallel to a face of the magnet plate; and a driveshaft connected to the magnet plate on a side opposite the disk-pack turbine. In a further embodiment, the magnet plate and the disk-pack turbine are laterally offset from each other. In a further embodiment, the magnet plate and the disk-pack turbine can be move laterally with respect to each other. In a further embodiment, the system further including a second rotor attached to one of the at least one waveform disks on a side opposite the first rotor; and wherein the at least one waveform disk includes two waveform disks in fluid communication with each other and having an opening passing therethrough forming an axially centered expansion chamber. In a further embodiment, the driveshaft includes a chamber passing from a free end to the disk-pack turbine, the chamber provides a fluid pathway from external to the system to the expansion chamber in the disk- pack turbine. In a further embodiment to the previous two embodiments, the first rotor is nearer to the magnet disk and includes an opening passing through its axial center that is aligned with the expansion chamber. In a further embodiment to the other embodiments in this paragraph, the system further including a flux return attached to the magnet plate on the side of the magnet plate from which the driveshaft extends. In a further embodiment to the other embodiments in this paragraph, the magnet plate includes a plurality of slots in which one of the magnets is placed in each slot. In a further embodiment, the magnet plate includes a cam mechanism to slide the magnets within their respective slots. In a further embodiment, the magnet plate includes a plurality of restrainers for holding in place a respective magnet in a respective slot. In a further embodiment, the restrainers include a plurality of bolts and/or bars where the bolts engage respective holes in the magnet disk to secure the magnets in place. In a further embodiment to any of the previous three embodiments, the waveform disks number two or four

[0007] In at least one embodiment, this invention provides for a system including: a drive system, a driveshaft, at least one disk-pack turbine connected to the driveshaft, a magnet body having at least one of a plurality of magnets attached to it, a plurality of magnets embedded in it, and a plurality of magnetic regions, the magnet plate rotationally engaging the driveshaft, and a belt connected to and extending from the magnet plate, the belt engages the drive system.

[0008] In at least one embodiment, this invention provides a system including: at least one waveform turbine selected from a disk-pack turbine, a cylinder pack turbine, and a frustum pack turbine, a magnet body having a plurality of magnets and/or magnetic areas attached, embedded in it or otherwise formed with it, a drive system connected to either the waveform turbine or the magnet body, and a driveshaft connected to the waveform turbine or the magnet body not connected to the drive system.

[0009] In at least one embodiment, this invention provides a method for causing rotation of a driveshaft connected to a magnet body through magnetic coupling, the method including: rotating a waveform turbine with a first driveshaft, generating a magnetic field with the waveform turbine to magnetically couple with the magnet body, and rotating the driveshaft connected to the magnet body as the waveform turbine rotates the magnet body. In a further embodiment, the magnet body includes a magnet plate. In a further embodiment, the method further includes at least one of changing the location of magnets present in and/or on the magnet plate, and changing location includes moving the magnets along slots and/or channels in the magnet plate where the slots and/or channels extending radially out from the center of the magnet disk. In a further embodiment, the method further includes drawing fluid into the waveform turbine. In a further embodiment to the prior method embodiments, the method further includes adjusting the relative position of the waveform turbine and the magnet body to each other. In a further embodiment to the prior method embodiments, the method further includes generating a current in a plurality of coils spaced evenly around the free end of the driveshaft extending from the magnet body where the driveshaft includes a magnet rotor and the plurality of coils form a stator. In a further embodiment to the prior method embodiments, the method further includes rotating a pair of wheels with an axle engaging the driveshaft extending from the magnet body. In a further embodiment to the prior method embodiments, the waveform turbine is selected from a group consisting of a disk-pack turbine, a cylinder pack turbine, and a frustum pack turbine.

[0010] In at least one embodiment, this invention provides a drive system including: a housing or support frame; a magnet body having magnetic material defining at least one North pole and at least one South pole; and a driveshaft connected to the magnet body and the housing. In a further embodiment, the system further including at least one coil having two leads extending from it, the coil connected to and/or embedded in the housing. In a further embodiment to the other embodiments in this paragraph, the housing includes a housing cover including at least one of bismuth and copper or a housing cover including at least one of bismuth, copper, and steel. In a further embodiment to the other embodiments in this paragraph, the driveshaft extends out through at least one wall of the housing. In a further embodiment to the other embodiments in this paragraph, the system further includes a bearing between the driveshaft and the magnet body. In a further embodiment to the other embodiments in this paragraph, the system includes a bearing at each end of the driveshaft where each bearing is in contact with a respective wall of the housing or a bearing between the driveshaft and the magnet body, and wherein the driveshaft includes a first part and a second part each of which is located on opposite sides of the magnet body. In a further embodiment to the other embodiments in this paragraph, the magnet includes one North pole and one South pole each of which runs a length of the magnet body. In a further embodiment to the other embodiments in this paragraph, the magnet body is cylindrical, spherical or elliptical. [0011] In at least one embodiment, this invention provides a system including a motor, a driveshaft connected to the motor, a disk-pack turbine connected to the driveshaft, the disk-pack turbine having at least one waveform disk in fluid communication and having an opening passing therethrough forming an axially centered expansion chamber; a first rotor attached to one of the at least one waveform disk; and a second rotor attached to the at least one waveform disk on a side opposite the first rotor; a magnet plate spaced from the disk-pack turbine such that an outside face of the closest rotor is substantially parallel to a face of the magnet plate, the magnet plate having a plurality of magnets within and/or attached to the magnet plate; and a second driveshaft connected to the magnet plate on a side opposite the disk-pack turbine. In a further embodiment, the waveform disk is replaced by waveforms being present on one or more rotors and/or disks with the rotors sandwiching any disks that are present between the rotors.

[0012] In at least one embodiment, this invention provides a system including a drive system, a disk- pack turbine connected to the drive system, a magnet plate having a plurality of magnets attached and/or embedded in it, and a driveshaft connected to and extending from the magnet plate in a direction opposite the disk-pack turbine.

[0013] In at least one embodiment, this invention provides a system including a drive system, a disk- pack turbine connected to the drive system, a magnet plate having a plurality of magnets attached and/or embedded in it, and a belt connected to and extending from the magnet plate.

[0014] In at least one embodiment, this invention provides a method for causing rotation of a driveshaft connected to a magnet body through magnetic coupling, the method including rotating a waveform turbine with a first driveshaft, generating a magnetic field with the waveform turbine to magnetically couple with the magnet body, and rotating the driveshaft connected to the magnet body as the waveform turbine rotates. In a further embodiment, the method further includes drawing fluid into the waveform turbine. In a further embodiment, the waveform turbine includes a plurality of waveform surfaces present on rotors and/or at least one disk.

III. Brief Description of the Drawings

[0015] The present invention is described with reference to the accompanying drawings. In the drawings, like reference numbers indicate identical or functionally similar elements. The use of cross- hatching and shading within the drawings is not intended as limiting the type of materials that may be used to manufacture the invention.

[0016] FIG. 1A illustrates a block diagram according to the invention. FIG. IB illustrates a side view of at least one embodiment according to the invention.

[0017] FIGs. 2A-2F illustrate side views of additional embodiments according to the invention. FIG. 2B is partially transparent view of the disk-pack turbine and a cross-section view taken on a diameter of the magnet plate. FIGs. 2C and 2D are partial cross-sectional views of respective embodiments where the driveshaft and the disk-pack turbine are shown in cross-section taken at the diameter of these components. FIG. 2F illustrates a side view of a disk pack turbine example.

[0018] FIGs. 3A and 3B illustrate an example disk-pack turbine according to the invention.

[0019] FIGs. 4A-4C illustrate another example disk-pack turbine according to the invention. [0020] FIG. 5A illustrates a top view of another embodiment according to the invention.

[0021] FIG. 5B illustrates a cross-sectional view of the system illustrated in FIG. 5A taken at 5B-5B in FIG. 5A.

[0022] FIGs. 6A-6D illustrate another example disk-pack turbine according to the invention. FIG. 6D illustrates a cross-sectional view of the disks taken at 6D-6D in FIG. 6A.

[0023] FIGs. 7A-7E illustrate another example disk-pack turbine according to the invention. FIG. 7E illustrates a cross-sectional view of the disks taken at 7E-7E in FIG. 7A.

[0024] FIG. 8 illustrates a perspective view of another example disk according to the invention.

[0025] FIG. 9 illustrates another example disk-pack turbine according to the invention. The top rotor and the middle disk are shown in cross-section taken across the middle of the component.

[0026] FIG. 10 illustrates an example of a magnet plate according to the invention.

[0027] FIG. 11 illustrates another example of a magnet plate according to the invention.

[0028] FIGs. 12A and 12B illustrate embodiments according to the invention using a cylinder pack turbine. FIG. 12C illustrates a cross-section of two nested cylinders taken through a diameter. FIGs. 12D- 12I illustrate different examples of waveforms for use in cylinder pack turbines with FIGs. 12G and

121 providing prospective views of the illustrated cylinder. FIGs. 12J and 12K illustrate cross-section taken through a diameter of examples of nested cylinders without the presence of waveforms to simplify the presentation.

[0029] FIGs. 13A-13F illustrate example magnet body embodiments according to the invention. FIG. 13A illustrates a top view without a housing cover. FIGs. 13B and 13C illustrate alternative cross- sections that could be taken at 13B- 13B in FIG. 13A. FIG. 13D illustrates a cross-section taken at 13D- 13D in FIG. 13B. FIG. 13E illustrates another embodiment. FIG. 13F illustrates another embodiment.

[0030] FIG. 14 illustrates an embodiment according to the invention using a frustum pack turbine.

[0031] FIG. 15 illustrates another embodiment according to the invention.

[0032] Given the following enabling description of the drawings, the invention should become evident to a person of ordinary skill in the art.

IV. Detailed Description of the Drawings

[0033] The present invention, in at least one embodiment, provides a system and method for providing a magnetic coupling through a waveform turbine and a magnet body between a motor (or other drive system) and an object to be driven such as wheels on a vehicle, a propeller on a vessel, a rotor in a electrical generator, or other applications that would benefit from the transmission of rotation from a motor to what is being driven. In at least one further embodiment, the system and method provide at least one way to adjust the variable torque and slip ratio by adjustment of the location of magnets in the magnet body and/or the relative location of the magnet body to the waveform turbine. In at least one further embodiment, the system further includes a magnet plate and a coil plate for generation of electricity in addition to providing the magnetic coupling.

[0034] In order to accomplish the results provided herein, in at least one embodiment the present invention utilizes rotating hyperbolic waveform structures and dynamics. It is believed these rotating hyperbolic waveform structures and dynamics, in at least one embodiment, are capable of efficiently propagating at ambient temperature and help accomplish many of the functional principles of at least one embodiment of the present invention. More particularly, in at least one embodiment, the system of the present invention is capable of producing very strong field energy at ambient temperatures while using relatively minimal electrical input energy to provide rotational movement to the waveform turbines. Alternatively, the magnet body may be rotated to cause rotation of the waveform turbine. As will be more fully developed in this disclosure, in at least one embodiment the waveform patterns on facing surfaces form chambers (or passageways) for fluid to travel through including towards the periphery and/or center while being exposed to a variety of pressure zones that, for example, compress, expand and/or change direction and/or rotation of the fluid particles. In an alternative embodiment, fluid is not fed into the waveform turbine.

[0035] In this disclosure, waveforms include, but are not limited to, circular, sinusoidal, biaxial, biaxial sinucircular, a series of interconnected scallop shapes, a series of interconnected arcuate forms, hyperbolic, and/or multi-axial including combinations of these that when rotated provide progressive, disk channels with the waveforms being substantially centered about an axial center of the disk and/or the expansion chamber. The waveforms are formed by, for example but not limited to, a plurality of ridges (or protrusions or rising waveforms), grooves, and depressions (or descending waveforms) in the waveform surface including the features having different heights and/or depths compared to other features and/or along the individual features. In some embodiments, the height in the vertical axis and/or the depth measured along a radius of the disk chambers vary along a radius as illustrated, for example, in FIG. 6D. In some embodiments, the waveforms are implemented as ridges that have different waveforms for each side (or face) of the ridge. In this disclosure, waveform patterns (or geometries) are a set of waveforms on one disk surface. Neighboring rotor and/or disk surfaces have matching waveform patterns that form a channel running from the expansion chamber to the periphery of the disks. In this disclosure, matching waveforms include complimentary waveforms, mirroring geometries that include cavities and other beneficial geometric features. FIGs. 3A-9 illustrate a variety of examples of these waveforms. In at least one alternative embodiment, the waveform turbine includes one waveform surface. In an alternative embodiment, the waveform surface includes surface features other than waveforms.

[0036] In this disclosure, a bearing may take a variety of forms while minimizing the friction between components with examples of material for a bearing including, but are not limited to, ceramics, nylon, phenolics, bronze, and the like. Examples of bearings include, but are not limited to, bushings and ball bearings. In at least one alternative embodiment, the bearing function uses magnetic fields to center and align rotating components within the system instead of mechanical bearings.

[0037] In this disclosure, examples of non-conducting material for electrical isolation include, but are not limited to, non-conducting ceramics, plastics, Plexiglass, phenolics, nylon or similarly electrically inert material. In some embodiments, the non-conducting material is a coating over a component to provide the electrical isolation. [0038] In this disclosure, examples of non-magnetic (or very low magnetic) materials for use in housings, plates, disks, rotors, and frames include, but are not limited to, aluminum, aluminum alloys, brass, brass alloys, stainless steel such as austenitic grade stainless steel, copper, beryllium-copper alloys, bismuth, bismuth alloys, magnesium alloys, silver, silver alloys, and inert plastics. Although non- magnetic materials are used for rotating components, the rotating components have been found to be conductors. Examples of non-magnetic materials for use in bearings, spacers, and tubing include, but are not limited to, inert plastics, non-conductive ceramics, nylon, and phenolics. In at least one alternative embodiment, the magnet bodies are made from steel, stainless steel (magnetic or non-magnetic) or other magnetic material to increase the strength of the magnetic coupling between the magnet body and the waveform turbine.

[0039] In this disclosure, examples of diamagnetic materials include, but are not limited to, aluminum, brass, stainless steel, carbon fibers, copper, magnesium, bismuth and other non-ferrous material alloys some of which containing high amounts of bismuth relative to other metals.

[0040] FIGs. 1A and IB illustrate an overview of a system according to at least one embodiment of the invention. The illustrated system includes a drive system 310 such as a motor, a driveshaft 312, a waveform turbine W250 such as a disk-pack turbine 250A having at least one waveform disk 260A and at least one rotor 264A, 268A (illustrated in FIG. IB), and a magnet body M500 such as a magnet plate 500A (illustrated in FIG. IB) coupled to a driveshaft 512. In at least one embodiment, the drive system 310 includes the driveshaft 312. Although not illustrated in either FIG. 1A or FIG. IB, it should be understood that a variety of support structures and/or housings could be used to support the driveshafts 312, 512 along with other system components such as that illustrated in FIGs. 5A and 5B. The driveshafts would have bearings mounted on them or within them to minimize the frictional resistance between the driveshafts and the support structures and/or housings. Based on this disclosure, it should be understood that in at least one embodiment the driveshaft 312 is at least partially supported by the drive system 310 and/or the driveshaft 512 is at least partially supported by the object being driven by it. In a further embodiment to provide a variable torque and slip ratio, the disk-pack turbine 250A, 250B, 250C, 250' and magnet plate 500A are laterally displaceable from each other and/or magnet plate 500A (with relocatable magnets as illustrated in FIG. 1 1) is offset with the disk-pack turbine 250A, 250B, 250C, 250' {see, e.g., FIGs. 2A-2E, alternatively the illustrated components are adjustable vertically instead or in addition to the moveable magnets or lateral movement).

[0041] The magnet plate 500A includes a plurality of magnetic regions/areas within it and/or magnets. The magnetic regions and/or magnets are spaced apart from each other. Alternatively, the magnet plate 500A includes (or is replaced by) a magnet ring with multiple polarity regions on it such as at least one of North-South alternating regions or North/South areas spaced apart.

[0042] FIG. 2A illustrates an example embodiment with driveshafts 312, 512, disk-pack turbine 250A, and magnet plate 500A without drive system components or support structure. FIGs. 3A-4C and 5B-9 provide examples of disk-pack turbines that may be used. FIGs. 2B-2E illustrate four further example embodiments, respectively, where the magnet plate 500A and the disk-pack turbine 250A are shown as having transparent elements in FIG. 2B. The illustrated rotors 264A, 268A and the waveform disks 260A may be connected in a variety of ways including using bolts or other attachment members that in at least one embodiment run through electrical isolation material as to avoid establishing an electrical path between the components being connected. In at least one embodiment, the rotors have a waveform surface, and in a further embodiment the waveform disks are omitted. The connection members in at least one embodiment are present along the outside of the components as illustrated, for example, in FIGs. 2F, which depicts three connection points out of four spaced apart connection points (e.g., ears 2602A). FIG. 2F also illustrates an example of the waveform disks 260A having ears 2602A extending from the periphery (see also, e.g., FIGs. 6B and 6C with ears 2602E) to provide a location through which the connection members can pass and the rotors 264A, 268A having a recessed area into which a waveform disk fits. In an alternative embodiment, the connection members are located along the periphery of the waveform disks 260A as wing shims. In another embodiment, the connection members are openings 2602F spaced around the expansion chamber 252F as illustrated in FIGs. 7A-7D. Examples of this are illustrated in FIGs. 7A-9. In a further embodiment, the connection members are located at different points around the disk-pack turbine 250A. Based on this disclosure, one of ordinary skill in the art should appreciate that the waveform disk and system embodiments made be combined in a variety of ways. The driveshaft 312 is connected, for example, with bolts or other connection members to either the bottom rotor 268A or the top rotor 264A depending on the orientation of the disk-pack turbine 250A.

[0043] FIG. 2A illustrates an embodiment having a driveshaft 312 attached to a disk-pack turbine 250A having a top rotor 264A, a pair of waveform disks 260A, and a bottom rotor 268A. FIG. 2A also illustrates the presence of a magnet plate 500A attached to a driveshaft 512, which could be attached to a variety of components as discussed in this disclosure. FIG. 2A also illustrates that the disk-pack turbine 250A may operate without the presence of a feed inlet, which in at least one further embodiment allows for the exclusion of the openings and other features present in the top rotor 264A, the waveform disks 260A and the bottom rotor 268A that define the expansion chamber. With the omission of the expansion chamber, the waveforms present on the waveform disks 260A will be centered about the central axis passing perpendicular through the waveform disk (or rotor).

[0044] FIG. 2B illustrates an embodiment where the air intake into the disk-pack turbine 250A is through a space defined by the disk-pack turbine 250A and the magnet plate 500A. The air enters (and in at least one embodiment exits either as an unitary flow or two way flow) into the disk-pack turbine 250A through the expansion chamber 252A for distribution into the disk chambers 262A formed between the waveform disks 260A, which are held, respectively in the illustrated two waveform disk embodiment, by a top rotor (or first rotor) 264A and a bottom rotor (or second rotor) 268A, which are similar in structure with the top rotor 264A having an opening passing through it aligned with the axially centered openings of the waveform disks 260A to define the expansion chamber 252A. As illustrated, in at least one embodiment the openings work together to compress the flow of air before expanding the flow of air once it enters the expansion chamber 252A. Based on this disclosure, it should be understood that an alternative embodiment would provide for the opening through the top rotor 264A could be substantially cylindrical instead of the illustrated bevel shaped structure on the outside of the rotor. The bottom rotor 268 A engages the driveshaft 312 such that the bottom rotor 268A rotates with the driveshaft. The driveshaft 312 is driven by a drive system through, for example, direct drive connection, mechanical linkage or belt, or magnetic coupling such as a stator/rotor configuration. In an alternative embodiment, the first rotor 264A is replaced with a second rotor 268A such that the disk pack turbine has two second rotors.

[0045] FIG. 2C illustrates an embodiment where the air intake into the disk-pack turbine 250B is through a conduit 136B that runs through the driveshaft 312B. Although the conduit (or passageway) 136B is illustrated as being cylindrical, it could take over shapes including a funnel shape to establish a vortex flow for the air. The air enters (and in at least one embodiment exits either as an unitary flow or two way flow) into the disk-pack turbine 250B through the expansion chamber 252B for distribution into the disk chambers 262B formed between the waveform disks 260B, which are held, respectively in the illustrated two waveform disk embodiment, by a top rotor 264B and a bottom rotor 268A. The top rotor 264B has an opening passing through it aligned with the passageway 136B and the axially centered openings of the waveform disks 260A to define the expansion chamber 252A. As illustrated, in at least one embodiment the openings work together to compress the flow of air before expanding the flow of air once it enters the expansion chamber 252A. Based on this disclosure, it should be understood that an alternative embodiment would provide for the opening through the top rotor 264B could be substantially cylindrical instead of the illustrated bevel shaped structure. The top rotor 264B engages the driveshaft 312B such that the top rotor 264B rotates with the driveshaft. In FIG. 2C, the driveshaft 312B, for example, could be driven by a drive system through a belt. An alternative embodiment has the passageway running through the driveshaft 312B stopping short of the top of the driveshaft 312 and bending/angling/turning towards the side of the driveshaft 312 to at least one opening along the side of the driveshaft 312.

[0046] FIG. 2D illustrates an example where both the top rotor 264C and the bottom rotor 268C have openings passing through the rotor. One advantage to this structure is that it provides for additional air movement through the system to assist in sinking any heat buildup.

[0047] FIG. 2E illustrates an example of another disk-pack turbine 250' with one waveform plate 260A attached to a rotor 264A, which is rotated by a driveshaft 312 and a drive system 310. FIG. 2E also illustrates the presence of an optional flux return 400 above the rotor 264A to reflect at least some of the magnetic field back through the waveform plate 260A. The optional flux return 400 may be added to the other disk-pack turbines discussed in this disclosure. During at least rotation in the examples illustrated in FIGs. 2C-2E, the one waveform plate 260A magnetically couples to the magnet plate 500A, which in turn rotates a driveshaft 512.

[0048] In an alternative embodiment to those discussed in connection with FIGs. 2A-2E, the magnet plate 500A is aligned with a disk-pack turbine for a situation where magnetic coupling is desired without a mechanical variable torque and slip ratio. Based on this disclosure, it should be understood that the various embodiments can be modified to provide for lateral and/or vertical adjustment between the disk- pack turbine and the magnet plate along with the incorporation of adjustable magnets within the magnet plate. In at least one embodiment, the vertical displacement includes changing the size of the gap between the waveform turbine and the magnet body.

[0049] In an alternative embodiment, the disk-pack turbine is connected directly to a motor. In a further alternative embodiment, one or both driveshafts are replaced by a belt connected to the disk-pack turbine or the magnet plate, respectively. Examples of how the belt may be attached to either are the presence of a groove around one of the rotors or the magnet plate, the belt is restrained by the rotors and loops around the waveform disks, or a short protrusion with a groove is present extending away from the rotor and/or the magnet plate in a direction away from where the magnetic coupling is occurring.

[0050] FIG. 3 A illustrates a pair of disks 260D installed in a top rotor 264D and a bottom rotor 266D, respectively. The illustrated disks 260D include matched waveform patterns with two sets of hyperbolic waveforms 2642D and three sets of substantially circular waveforms 2646D. FIGs. 3A and 3B illustrate an alternative embodiment that includes exit ports including multiple convergent exit ports 2649D and multiple divergent exit ports 2648D that pair together to form convergent/divergent ports, which may be omitted. FIG. 3B illustrates an example of a waveform changing height as it travels around the disk (261 ID represents the low level and 2612D represents the high level). FIG. 3B illustrates an example of how the waveforms may vary in width (2613D represents a wide segment and 2614D represents a thinner segment).

[0051] FIGs. 4A-4C illustrate an example of a disk-pack turbine 250R with rotors 264R, 266R and no waveform disks, because the rotors include the waveform patterns. FIG. 4A illustrates the top of the disk-pack turbine 250R, FIG. 4B illustrates the bottom face of the upper rotor 264R, and FIG. 4C illustrates the top face of the lower rotor 266R. The illustrated waveform pattern includes a sinusoidal ridge 2642R and a circular ridge 2646R. The lower rotor 266R includes a circular outer face ridge 2668R. Also, illustrated is an example of mounting holes 2502R for assembling the disk-pack turbine 250R. In an alternative embodiment, the wave patterns are switched between the upper rotor 264R and the bottom rotor 266R.

[0052] FIGs. 5A and 5B illustrate an example embodiment having a disk-pack turbine 250E with four waveform disks 260E between two rotors that can be used to generate a magnetic field that in turn will be used to turn the magnet plate 500E with magnets 502E and its connected driveshaft 512E. In at least one embodiment, the disk-pack turbine harnesses and utilizes the transformational dynamics and forces propagated as the result of liquids, gases, and/or other forms of matter and energy progressing through and/or interacting with rotating hyperbolic waveform structure present on the waveform disks. The present invention, in at least one embodiment, is also capable of generating diamagnetic fields as strong forces at ambient operational temperatures. The illustrated system uses as inputs electrical energy to drive a motor to rotate the disk-pack turbine, environmental energies, and/or air and, in a further embodiment, it harnesses the environment around the system to form magnetic fields. The present invention in at least one embodiment is capable of producing very strong field energy at ambient temperatures while using relatively minimal input electrical energy compared to the electrical energy production. FIGs. 6A-6D illustrate a pair of waveform disks that can be mated together with a pair of rotors and are depicted in FIG. 5B. FIG. 6A illustrates the top of a disk-pack turbine 250E with a top rotor 264E with an opening 2522E into the expansion chamber. FIGs. 6B and 6C illustrate a pair of mated disks. The disks are considered to be mated because they fit together as depicted in FIG. 6D, because a disk channel (or chamber) 262E is formed between them while allowing fluid to pass between the disks 260E. FIG. 6D illustrates an example of the mated disks 260E placed between a top rotor 264E and a bottom rotor 266E with bolts attaching the components together around the periphery. The bolts in at least one embodiment pass through a nylon (or similar material) tube and the spacers are nylon rings. Based on this disclosure, it should be understood that at least one rotor could be integrally manufactured with at least one waveform disk.

[0053] The creation of a magnetic field results at least in part from the rotation of the disk-pack turbine 250E. The disclosure that follows provides additional discussion of the embodiment illustrated in FIGs. 5A-6D; as an example, starting with the chamber (or conduit or passageway) 136E and proceeding down through the system. The chamber 136E feeds the charging media (or air or other fluid) to the disk- pack turbine 250E during operation of the system. In at least one embodiment, the intake occurs (alternatively or also) through the periphery of the disk-pack turbine 250E.

[0054] In at least one embodiment, the chamber 136E acts as an input into the system and passes through drive shaft 312E. Although illustrated as being cylindrical, the chamber 136E could include a funnel section in at least one embodiment formed by a wall that has sides that follow a long radial path in the vertical descending direction from a top to the outlet 138E (or other receiving section or expansion chamber) where the funnel section assists in the formation of a vortex flow of charging medium downward into the system.

[0055] FIGs. 5A and 5B illustrate the presence of a support structure 600, which as illustrated as including a tri-arm centering member 602 and a ring support 603 as part of the support structure 600 that holds in place the system in axial alignment with the driveshaft 312E. Although a tri-arm centering member is illustrated, the number of arms present may vary while accomplishing the centering function. Alternatively, the centering member is a plate. The driveshaft 312E is in rotational engagement through bearings 280E and 282E with the support structure 600. The support structure 600 also includes three risers 604 although any number of risers could be used or instead an enclosure such as a cylindrical wall could be used. Based on this disclosure it should be appreciated that the support structure could take a variety of forms including using multiple multi-arm support members attached to multiple risers or ring supports attached to multiple risers. The feed chamber 136E opens up into an optional bell-shaped section 138E starting the expansion back out of the flow of the charging medium for receipt by the expansion chamber 252E.

[0056] The magnet plate 500E includes a first array of six magnets 502E attached to or embedded in it as illustrated, for example, in FIG. 5B or the magnets may be enclosed on the magnet plate with a cover. In another embodiment, the number of magnets is determined based on the desired level of coupling between the magnet plate 500E and the disk-pack turbine 250E. During operation, the first array of magnets 502E is in magnetic and/or flux communication with the disk-pack turbine 250E.

[0057] A disk-pack turbine 250E is in rotational engagement with the feed chamber 136E. As with the other embodiments, the disk-pack turbine 250E includes an expansion chamber 252E that is in fluid communication with the feed chamber 136E to establish a fluid pathway from the inlet(s) to the at least one disk chamber 262E (two are illustrated in FIG. 5B) in the disk-pack turbine 250E. The illustrated embodiment includes two pairs of mated disks 260E sandwiched by a pair of rotors 264E, 266E where the disks 260E and the top rotor 264E each includes an opening passing therethrough and the bottom rotor 266E includes a rigid feature 2522E that together define the expansion chamber 252E. The disk chambers 262 in the illustrated embodiment are present between the two disks in each mated pair with slightly paraboloid shaped surfaces (although they could be tapered or flat) being present between the neighboring disks, where the bottom disk of the top mated disk pair and the top disk of the bottom mated disk pair are the neighboring disks. In an alternative embodiment, these surfaces include one or more waveforms to provide an additional disk chamber. Each disk 260E of the mated pairs of disks is formed of complimentary non-magnetic materials by classification, such that the mated pair incorporating internal hyperbolic relational waveform geometries creates a disk that causes lines of magnetic flux to be looped into a field of powerful diamagnetic tori and repelled by the disk. An example of material to place between the mated disk pairs is phenol cut into a ring shape to match the shape of the disks.

[0058] In the illustrated embodiment, the top rotor 264E provides the interface with the driveshaft 312E. In at least one embodiment, the rotors will be directly connected to the respective disks without electrically isolating the rotor from the nested disk. In another embodiment, the disks are electrically isolated from the rotor nesting the disk. The illustrated configuration provides for flexibility in changing disks 260E into and out of the disk-pack turbine 250E and/or rearranging the disks 260E.

[0059] The drive shaft 312E is illustrated as being driven by a belt 316E attached to motor 310E. However, the driveshaft 312E may be driven by a motor, for example, either directly or via a mechanical (such as a belt or other linkage) or magnetic coupling including the magnetic coupling described in this disclosure. In an alternative embodiment, the drive shaft 312E does not include feed chamber 136E or optional bell-shaped section 138E, and in a further embodiment the rotors and/or the waveform disks do not include axially centered openings forming the expansion chamber.

[0060] Suitable magnets for use in at least one embodiment of the invention are rare earth and/or electromagnets. An example is using three inch disk type rare earth magnets rated at 140 pounds and in further embodiments magnets rated at 400 pounds are used; but based on this disclosure it should be understood that a variety of magnet strengths may be used. Depending on the construction used, all may be North magnets, South magnets, or a combination such as alternating magnets. In a further embodiment, the poles are divided into alternating quarters, sixths, eighths, etc. In a still further embodiment, the poles are divided by small gaps of non-magnetic material.

[0061] In at least one embodiment, all metallic system components, e.g., frame 600, driveshaft 312E, magnet plate 500 are formed of non-magnetic or very low magnetic material with other system components, e.g., bearings, spacers, tubing, etc., are preferably formed of non-magnetic materials. The system, including the frame 600, in at least one embodiment are electrically grounded (Earth). In a further embodiment, all movable components, particularly including individual components of the disk- pack turbine 250E, are all electrically isolated by insulators such as non-conductive ceramic or phenolic bearings, and/or spacers.

[0062] In use of the illustrated embodiment of FIGs. 5A and 5B, the rotatable disk-pack turbine is driven by an external power source such as drive system 300E. As the disk-pack turbine rotates a vacuum or suction is created in the system in some embodiments. This vacuum draws a charging media into the chamber 136E. In at least one embodiment, the chamber 136E transforms the drawn charging media into a vortex that further facilitates passing the charging media into the expansion chamber. As the charging media passes through the system, at least a portion of the through- flowing charging media is transformed into polar fluxes which are discharged or emanated from specific exit points within the system. This magnetic polar energy discharges at the center axis and periphery of the rotatable disk-pack turbine. For example, when the magnetic polar energy discharged at the periphery is a North polar flow, the magnetic energy discharged at the axis is a South polar flow. In this example, by introducing north-facing permanent magnets on magnet plate 500 into the north-flowing flux, repulsive forces are realized. By placing the North-facing polar arrays at specific oblique angles, the rotatable disk-pack turbine is driven by the repelling polar flux. Utilizing only the polar drive force and ambient environmental energies and air as the charging media, the system is capable of being driven at a maximum allowed speed. Simultaneously, while generating polar flux discharges at the axis and periphery of the disk-pack turbine 250E, powerful, high torque, levitative diamagnetic fields manifest through the top and bottom surfaces of the disk-pack turbine. The field strength of the diamagnetic fields is directly proportionate to the speed of rotation of the magnet arrays and magnet strength in relation to the rotating disk-pack turbine. Each of the mated pairs of rotatable waveform disks 260E is capable of producing very strong field energy at ambient temperatures while utilizing an extraordinarily small amount of input electrical energy. As an example, each of the mated pairs of rotatable waveform disks 260E is capable of producing well over one thousand (1 ,000) pounds of resistive, repulsive, levitative field energy. That is, the system is capable of repeatedly, sustainably and controllably producing a profoundly powerful diamagnetic field at ambient temperatures while utilizing relatively minimal input energy.

[0063] In a further embodiment, the magnet plate 500E includes a flux return on the side opposite the disk-pack turbine 250E. A flux return restrains at least in part the magnetic fields and concentrates the magnetic flux created by the disk-pack turbine 250E and increase the flux density on the magnet plate 500E. An example of material that can be used for the flux return is steel in the shape of a circular plate to fit around driveshaft 512E. In at least one embodiment, the flux return is sized to match the outer diameter of the outer edge of the magnets on the magnet plate 500E. This flux return may be added to the other magnet plates discussed in this disclosure.

[0064] Each waveform disk pair may be of like or dissimilar materials, depending on design criteria, i.e., aluminum and aluminum, or, as example, aluminum, brass or copper. When a waveform disk pair is separated by a small distance/gap and are electrically isolated from one another by means of no mechanical contact and non-conducting isolation and assembly methods and elements like those described earlier, chambers formed between each disk pair provide for highly exotic flow paths, motion, screening currents, frequencies, pressure differentials, and many other actionary and reactionary fluid and energetic dynamics and novel electrical and polar phenomena. Immediately upon energizing the drive motor to set the disk-pack turbine rotor in motion, the inner disk hyperbolic geometries begin to interact with the magnetic fields provided by the rotatable Rare Earth magnets in the magnet disk, even though there are no magnetic materials incorporated into the manufacture of the disk-pack turbine. By the time the disk-pack turbine reaches the speed of approximately 60 RPM, diamagnetic field effects between the disk-pack turbine faces and magnet arrays are sufficient to establish a strong driving/impelling link between the disk-pack turbine and magnet array faces.

[0065] A variety of magnetic polar fluxes and electrical currents begin to manifest and dramatically increase in proportion to speed of rotation. Diamagnetism manifests as a profoundly strong force at the upper and lower rotor faces as primarily vertical influences which, through repellent diamagnetic fields, act to drive the magnet disk while simultaneously generating a significant rotational torque component. It has been determined that these strong force diamagnetic fields can be transmitted through passed through insulators to other metallic materials such as aluminum and brass. These diamagnetic fields, generated at ambient temperatures, are always repellant irrespective of magnet polarity. Although mechanically generated, these diamagnetic fields are, believed to be in fact, screening and/or eddy currents previously only recognized as a strong force associated with magnetic fields as they relate to superconductors operating at cryogenic temperatures. The most profound magnetic field effects manifesting and emanating at an oblique, though near right angle relative to the upper and lower rotor faces. Polar/magnetic fluxes are the primary fluid acting in this system configured for electrical power generation. An additional component in some embodiments, but not all embodiments, acting within the system is atmospheric air. In certain implementations, allowing the intake, dissociation, and discharge of the elements within atmospheric air as well as exposure to ambient atmospheric energies increases the magnetic field effects and electrical power output (if a coil array was present) potential by plus/minus 40%.

[0066] The diamagnetic fields utilized make it possible to orient all magnets within the magnet arrays to North, South, or in a customary North/South alternating configuration. When all North or South facing magnets are configured in relation to the diamagnetic rotor fields, voltages and frequencies realized are extremely high. With all North or South magnet orientation the diamagnetism, which is both North and South magnetic loops, provides the opposite polarity for the generation of AC electricity if desired by adding a coil array, for example, between the disk-pack turbine and the magnet plate and/or adding a second magnet plate and coil array plate on the side opposite the magnet plate connected to the driveshaft 512. The addition/intake/dissociation of air and/or other ambient influences adds significantly to the process; however, with the presence of magnetic fields interacting with the hyperbolic waveform structures alone, it is believed that both exotic, magnetic phenomena as well as electricity are generated. As soon as a magnet, even handheld, is introduced above the disk surface and the diamagnetic repellent effect is felt, electrical current is being produced, thereby creating the diamagnetic phenomena.

[0067] An example of a coil array plate is a plate with embedded or otherwise attached coils. One example of a set of coils is a three phase arrangement of nine coils, three coils per phase using 16 gauge copper magnet wire with 140 turns and six magnets (three North and three South magnets alternating with each other) above the disk-pack turbine and coils. Another example of a set of coils is a four phase arrangement of 12 coils, three coils per phase using 18 gauge copper magnet wire with 260 turns and six magnets. Based on this disclosure, it should be appreciated that the gauge and material of the wire and the number of turns and of coils can be modified and that the above descriptions are examples.

[0068] In a prototype system (with the driveshaft from below the disk-pack turbine and the intake from above) that was built to test magnetic fields and electric power generation, the two top waveform disks were made of aluminum and the bottom two waveform disks were made of brass. It has been found that alternating brass and aluminum disks, as opposed to nesting like disks results in significantly higher magnetic and electrical values being produced. In further testing when copper is used in place of brass, the voltages have stayed substantially equal, but a much higher current has been produced. The system was connected to a motor via a belt. Changing the material used for an intake chamber in the built system from D2 steel to brass improved the strength of the diamagnetic field and resulting power generation by approximately 30%. It is believe that if the driveshaft was manufactured with brass that a similar improvement in the diamagnetic field will be observed.

[0069] The previously described waveforms and the waveforms illustrated in FIGs. 4B and 4C are examples of the possibilities for their structure. The waveform patterns increase the surface area in which the charging media and fields pass over and through during operation of the system. It is believed the increased surface area as alluded to earlier in this disclosure provides an area in which the environmental fields in the atmosphere are screened in such a way as to provide a magnetic field in the presence of a magnet. This is even true when the waveform disk is stationary and a magnet is passed over its surface (either the waveform side or back side of the waveform disk), and the ebbs and flow of the magnetic field track the waveform patterns on the disk, manifesting in at least one embodiment as strong, geometric eddy currents/geometric molasses.

[0070] As discussed above, the waveform disks include a plurality of radii, grooves and ridges that in most embodiments are complimentary to each other when present on opposing surfaces. In at least one embodiment, the height in the vertical axis and/or the depth measured along a radius of the disk chambers 262E vary along a radius as illustrated, for example, in FIG. 6D. In at least one embodiment, when a disk surface with the waveforms on it is viewed looking towards the waveforms, the waveforms take a variety of shapes that radiate from the opening that passes through (or the ridge feature on) the disk. In at least one embodiment, the number of peaks for each level of waveforms progressing out from the center (or down from the top) increases, which in a further embodiment includes a multiplier selected from a range of 2 to 8 and more particularly in at least one embodiment is 2. In at least one embodiment, the number of peaks for each level of waveforms progressing out from the center (or down from the top) stays the same or increases by a multiplier.

[0071] In at least one embodiment, the disk surfaces having waveforms present on it eliminates almost all right angles and flat surfaces from the surface such that the surface includes a continuously curved face.

[0072] In at least one embodiment, at least one ridge includes a back channel formed into the outer side of the ridge that together with the complementary groove on the adjoining disk form an area having a vertical oval cross-section.

[0073] FIGs. 7A-7E illustrate a variety of additional waveform examples. The illustrated plates include two different waveforms. The first waveform is a circular waveform 2646F in the center and around the periphery. The second waveform 2642F is a biaxial, sinocircular, progressive waveform located between the two sets of circular waveforms. The illustrated disks mate together to form the disk channels discussed previously. Each of the disks includes a plurality of assembly flanges 2629F (illustrated in FIG. 7E) for mounting impellers between the disks.

[0074] FIG. 7A illustrates an example combination of biaxial, sinuocircular, progressive, and concentric sinusoidal progressive waveform geometry on a disk 260F according to the invention. FIG. 7B and 7C illustrate respectively the opposing sides of the middle disk 260F. FIG. 7D illustrates the top surface of the bottom disk 260F. FIG. 7E illustrates how the three disks fit together to form the disk chambers 262F and the expansion chamber 252F of a disk-pack turbine. In an alternative embodiment, one or more of the circular waveforms is modified to include a plurality of biaxial segments.

[0075] FIG. 8 illustrates an example of a center disk incorporating varied biaxial geometries between two sets of circular waveforms according to the invention.

[0076] FIG. 9 illustrates another example of a disk-pack turbine 250G with a top rotor 264G, a disk 260G, and a bottom rotor 266G with each having at least one surface with waveforms. The top rotor 264G and the disk 260G are shown in cross-section with the plane taken through the middle of the components. FIG. 9 also illustrates an embodiment where the components are attached around the periphery of the opening that defines the expansion chamber 250G through mounting holes 2502G. Each of the waveform patterns on the top rotor 264G, the disk 260G, and the bottom rotor 266G includes two sets of circular waveforms 2646G and one set of hyperbolic waveforms 2642G.

[0077] In at least one embodiment, one or more waveform disks used in a system include other surface features in addition to the waveforms.

[0078] Based on this disclosure, it should be appreciated that the described motor mounts could be modified to work with a rotor having an axially centered opening. The illustrated waveforms can be used on the different illustrated rotors and/or disks. In at least one embodiment, the waveforms are incorporated into one or more rotors instead of having the rotors nest or hold a disk.

[0079] In a further embodiment, the orientation of the system is reversed where the motor and the driveshaft are above the disk pack turbine or there is a horizontal alignment. Based on this disclosure, it should be understood other orientations are possible. [0080] In a further embodiment for an embodiment using a pair of rotors in the disk-pack turbine, the rotors each have a waveform pattern on at least part of the surface opposite where the disk is attached to the rotor. In an embodiment where there are no rotors present, the outside disks in stack include a waveform pattern on at least part of their exposed surface. The waveform pattern in at least one embodiment is substantially an exact reverse representation (or mirror image) of the waveform pattern present on the face facing the neighboring disk. An example of a mirror image is that if there is a protrusion on the inner surface then there is a matching protrusion on the outer surface. The waveform pattern in at least one embodiment is substantially a negative image of the waveform pattern present on the face facing the neighboring disk. An example of a negative image is that if there is a protrusion on the inner surface then there is a substantially matching channel on the outer surface.

[0081] FIGs. 10 and 1 1 illustrate examples of a magnet plate (or disk). The illustrated magnets in at least one embodiment are enclosed and/or embedded within the magnet plate. One example of how this can occur is the use of a two part structure for the magnet plate where there is a base with slots and/or channels and/or openings for the magnets to reside and a cover that is attached to the base. The cover can be permanently attached or removable.

[0082] FIG. 10 illustrates a magnet plate 500H with six openings 504H sized to fit a respective magnet 502. Examples of how the magnets 502 may be held in place in the openings 504H include friction fit, adhesive, a cover, bolts and/or other connection members such as bars held across a respective magnets with bolts or other securing members, sealant, and/or any combination of these.

[0083] FIG. 1 1 illustrates a magnet plate 5001 with six slots 5041 having a width to fit a respective magnet 502. In at least one embodiment, the magnets are slid along the slots 5041 with a cam mechanism that controls the distance of the magnets from the center of the magnet plate 5001. An example a cam mechanism is one with a spiral slot for engaging a protrusion from the magnet to guide all of the magnets simultaneously as the cam mechanism is rotated. Another example of how the magnets may be held in place is with a plurality of restrainers for holding in place a respective magnet in a respective slot. One example of a restrainer is there being a plurality of holes along both sides of the slot that bolts could engage to secure against the magnet a member and/or lever to restraining movement of the magnet along the slot. As the magnets 502 are relocated along the length of the slots 5041, the variable torque and slip ratio between the disk-pack turbine and the magnet disk 5001 is changed and/or adjusted without a change in mechanical connection between the disk-pack turbine and the magnet disk 5001.

[0084] FIGs. 12A and 12B illustrate an alternative embodiment where the waveform turbine includes a cylinder pack turbine C250. In at least one embodiment, the cylinder pack turbine C250 includes at least a pair of cylinders nested together where the inner cylinder (solid or hollow) is within the outer cylinder and along the opposing (or neighboring) surfaces are a plurality of waveforms that allow for mating of the two cylinders C260, C266 to form a chamber C262 between them for air and/or other material to pass between them (see, e.g., FIG. 12C). In a further embodiment, the waveform pattern on the outer surface of the outer cylinder is substantially an exact reverse representation (or mirror image) of the waveform pattern present on the inner surface of the outer cylinder. An example of a mirror image is that if there is a protrusion on the inner surface then there is a matching protrusion on the outer surface. The waveform pattern in at least one embodiment is substantially a negative image of the waveform pattern present on the face facing the neighboring cylinder. An example of a negative image is that if there is a protrusion on the inner surface then there is a substantially matching channel on the outer surface. The central (or inner) cylinder is illustrated as being solid {see, e.g., FIG. 12C), but in at least one alternative embodiment the central cylinder C260D is hollow {see, e.g., FIG. 12G) and/or includes magnetic material and/or a flux return.

[0085] FIGs. 12C- 12I illustrate different examples of waveforms that may be used individually or in combinations with each other. The central cylinder C260A-F includes a waveform pattern defining channels (C2602A, C2602B, C2602C, C2604C, C2602C, C2602E, C2604E, and C2602F) on its outside surface with FIGs. 12C- 12I, respectively, illustrating examples of patterns for the waveforms that can be repeated, stretched, and/or condensed over the surface of the cylinder along with be used in combination with each other or with the over waveform patterns defined above. The waveforms in different embodiments run around the circumference of the cylinder {see, e.g., FIG. 12D-12H), down the length of the cylinder, angled and/or spiral about the cylinder surface {see, e.g. , FIG. 12D and 12E). In at least one embodiment as illustrated in FIG. 12E, the waveform pattern C2602B mirrors that of an auger, corkscrew, and/or spiraled such that material that enters at the top of the cylinders C260B migrates its way through the cylinder chambers to the bottom with the benefit that a spiral pattern will assist with cooling the rotating cylinder pack if needed. In at least one embodiment, the waveform pattern includes a plurality of protrusions and/or channels that form a waveform pattern when viewed in cross-section. In at least one embodiment, the waveforms include no angles along any radius extending from a start of the waveform pattern to the end of the waveform pattern. As illustrated in FIG. 12H, in at least one embodiment the channel defined by a waveform C2604E that is formed has different widths along its path and in other embodiments the protrusions along the side of the channel are offset to each other. In at least one embodiment, the channel and/or protrusion depth and/ or width are not constant along the surface of the cylinder. In at least one embodiment, the neighboring protrusions are not parallel and have different shapes and/or waveforms as illustrated in FIG. 12H by channels C2602E and C2604E. FIG. 121 illustrates the use of a series of protrusions to create a waveform pattern C2602F, which in the illustrated embodiment begins with large protrusions at the top and increase in the number of protrusions while decreasing their sizes with each layer. In at least one embodiment, the protrusions would continue down the side of the cylinder C260F. Based on this disclosure, it should be appreciated that the various embodiments in this paragraph may be combined in different ways.

[0086] In at least one embodiment, the waveforms as they progress down the cylinder surface increase in frequency with each level. In at least one further embodiment, the increases are doubling or another multiple of two between each level. In a further embodiment to these or the prior embodiments, the spacing between each level of waveforms increases and/or decreases along the length of the cylinder. An example of how to accomplish this is to increase or decrease the width of the channels and/or protrusions to change the frequency of waveforms along the length of the cylinder. In at least one further embodiment, the waveforms will repeat at each level. In at least one further embodiment, the frequency of the waveform pattern will change over the levels, and in a further embodiment will change for each level with an example being 64 to 32 to 16 to 32 to 64 to 32 to 16 and so on or some other form of multiples of two (or multiple of two).

[0087] In at least one embodiment of the cylinder pack turbine C250A, the cylinders are connected through, for example, a plurality of support bars and/or wing shims C270 as illustrated in FIG. 12 J. In at least one further embodiment, the waveforms are complimentary to each other. In a further embodiment, there are multiple layers of nested cylinders C260, C264, C266 illustrated in FIG. 12J and in a still further embodiment the cylinder pack turbine C250B includes one or more passageways (or openings) C2642B through cylinder walls of nested cylinders C264B as illustrated in FIG. 12K.

[0088] In the illustrated embodiment of FIG. 12A, the magnet plate 500A and the driveshaft 512 moves vertically as indicated by the dual arrow line passing through it (and the second phantom version of the magnet plate) so that the level of field interaction between the magnets in the magnet plate 500A and the cylinder pack turbine C250 can be adjusted and controlled to provide variable torque and slip ratio in addition to the coupling in at least one embodiment. In an alternative embodiment, the cylinder pack turbine C250 moves along its axis of rotation in addition to or instead of the magnet plate 500A moving.

[0089] In an alternative embodiment illustrated in FIG. 12B, the magnet plate is replaced by a magnet cylinder C500, which is another example of a magnet body. In at least one embodiment, the magnet cylinder C500 will include a body having a plurality of magnets attached and/or embedded in the body for magnetic coupling to cylinder pack turbine C250. In an alternative embodiment, the magnet cylinder C500 is a North-South magnet with the poles running lengthwise along the cylinder 100 where one half of the magnet is North and the other half is South. In a further embodiment, the poles are divided into alternating quarters, sixths, eighths, etc. In a still further embodiment, the poles are divided by small gaps of non-magnetic material.

[0090] FIGs. 13A-13F illustrate additional examples of a cylindrical magnet body that in at least one embodiment includes a cylinder 100 on a driveshaft 110 supported by a structure such as a housing 120, but in other embodiments the structure could be a frame capable of supporting the cylinder 100 and the driveshaft 110 at either side of the cylinder 100. In other embodiments, the cylindrical magnet body as illustrated in FIGs. 13A and 13B further includes at least one coil 130 having a plurality of wires looped around the cylinder 100 lengthwise and two leads 132, 134. The coil 130 being capable of having a current induced in it. The housing illustrated in, for example, in FIGs. 13B and 13C further includes a cover 122 for the housing 120. In further embodiments, the cylindrical magnet body includes a driveshaft 110L that extends out beyond the housing 130 to connect to or establish a magnetic relationship with external components.

[0091] The cylinder 100 includes magnetic material in its substantially cylindrical body; however, in a further embodiment the cylinder is instead elliptical or spherical. In at least one embodiment, the cylinder 100 is a North-South magnet with the poles running lengthwise along the cylinder 100 where one half of the magnet is North and the other half is South. In a further embodiment, the poles are divided into alternating quarters, sixths, eighths, etc. In a still further embodiment, the poles are divided by small gaps of non-magnetic material.

[0092] The cylinder 100 in at least one embodiment is designed to spin about the axis of the driveshaft 1 10. The driveshaft 1 10 depending upon the implementation may pass through the axial lengthwise center of the cylinder 100 (as illustrated in, for example, FIG. 13D) with or without a bearing sleeve or the driveshaft 1 10 is separated into two parts that acts as points of rotation (with or without a bearing at the point of contact) at the axial ends of the cylinder 100 and run from the housing wall to the cylinder 100 to provide support to the cylinder 100.

[0093] In at least one embodiment with coils 130, the housing 120 includes support members (not illustrated) such as brackets and/or cantilever arms extending from a cavity wall in to support the coils 130. In a further embodiment with coils present, the housing 120 includes holes passing through at least one wall for ventilation and/or lead wires 132, 134 for the coils 130.

[0094] In at least one embodiment, the housing 120 includes bores for engaging the driveshaft 1 10 where the bores may not completely pass through a wall of the housing or are openings all the way through the wall. Although the housing 120 is illustrated as a rectangular box, the housing may take other forms that provide support for the other components present in the system for example a triangle cross section. In a further embodiment, the housing may be a frame on which the other components are attached.

[0095] In a further embodiment, the housing 120 includes a housing cover 122 like that illustrated in FIGs. 13B and 13C. In at least one embodiment, the housing cover 122 includes bismuth, copper, and/or steel to act as a flux return to direct the flux field from the flux field generator back onto the cylinder 100. In at least one embodiment where steel is present, the housing further includes additional support members between the cylinder 100 and the cover 122 to reinforce the gap between the steel and the cylinder 100. When the system is placed into a diamagnetic field, the housing cover 122 in at least one use is positioned to be on the opposite side of the cylinder 100 from where a waveform turbine is present.

[0096] In at least one embodiment, the coils 130 run the length of the cylinder 100 and loop around in the space between the cylinder 100 and the housing wall or cover so that the housing 120 can be more compacted from the use of the space around the cylinder 100 instead of placing the coil on a plane that does not intersect the cylinder 100. In at least one embodiment, the number of coils 130 present in the housing can number from 0 to 4 depending upon the implementation and the arrangement of magnetic material on the cylinder 100. As mentioned previously, there are embodiments where the coil 130 is omitted from the system. FIGs. 13A, 13B, 13D, and 13E illustrate one possible example of how to arrange two coils 130 within the housing. FIG. 13C illustrates an example of how three coils 130 may be arranged in the housing 120. Based on this example, it should be understood that if one coil is desired to be present, then the second and third illustrated coils may be omitted from the examples illustrated in FIGs. 13B and 13C. [0097] In a further embodiment to the above embodiments with coils, the coils 130 are built into the housing 130. In further alternative embodiments, the housing 120 is enlarged such that the coils 130 are arranged around the cylinder 1 10 with no overlap as that illustrated in the figures.

[0098] FIGs. 13E and 13F illustrate top views of examples where the driveshaft 1 10L extends out beyond at least one end of the housing 120. FIG. 13E illustrates the system with at least one coil 130, while FIG. 13F omits the coil 130. As mentioned previously the driveshaft 1 10L can be used as a prime mover for additional equipment and acts, for example, as a generator or motor. FIGs. 13E and 13F also illustrate the housing 120 without the optional housing cover.

[0099] In at least one embodiment, the cylinders illustrated in FIG. 13E or FIG. 13F are used to provide rotational movement to a second waveform turbine when placed into a flux field of a first waveform turbine where the first waveform turbine would be driven by a drive system thus making the first waveform turbine the primary driver of the stacked system. This could be repeated from the second to a third and so on with each level linked by multiple magnet bodies (as many as can be reasonably arranged around the available turbine face without detrimental magnetic interference between them). It is believed that this will not only cause greater rotational field linkage and mechanical torque as compared to a single rotor surface in a disk-pack turbine, but each could also individually and simultaneously function as a counter-rotational link, generator and mechanical power-take-off. Once in counter- rotational motion with at least one lower and upper disk-pack turbine relationship, the momentum/inertia will result in a flywheel like tendency to accumulate energy and remain in motion with diminishing energy input requirement in proportion to speed with the advantages varying depending on load conditions. In at least one embodiment, other than the driving rotor, all others will rotate freely about the common central shaft or axis via bearings within each rotor assembly or independently supported bearing and shaft assemblies which are precisely aligned along the same axis.

[0100] In at least one embodiment, the housing illustrated in FIGs. 13A- 13F is between 1.5 and 4 inches in height and width and between 1 inch and 6 inches in length (as taken along the axis of rotation of the cylinder 100). Based on this disclosure and the various examples, it should be understood that the housing could be larger than these dimensions.

[0101] In use, the housing 120 would be placed on a platform proximate a waveform turbine. Alternatively, the housing 120 is placed below the waveform turbine. Another alternative is to place the housing 120 along the periphery such that the driveshaft is parallel to a driveshaft in the waveform turbine. As the waveform turbine rotates, a diamagnetic field is created that propagates in a variety of directions including up, down and to the periphery. The diamagnetic field will rotate the cylinder 100 about the driveshaft 1 10/1 10L to further generate current in any coil 130 that is present and/or rotate the driveshaft 1 10/l lOL. In a further alternative embodiment, there are a plurality of cylinders 100 present around a waveform turbine, and in a still further embodiment the cylinders 100 work in conjunction with respective coil(s) 130 to generate electricity.

[0102] FIG. 14 illustrates a different coupling embodiment where the waveform turbine and magnet plate are a frustum pack turbine F250 and a magnet frustum F500. Based on this disclosure it should be appreciated that a conical shape could be used in place of the frustum as illustrated by the dot/dash lines. Similar to the cylinder pack turbine C250, the frustum pack turbine has at least an inner frustum and an outer frustum with at least the neighboring surfaces having waveforms present on them (in addition to an alternative embodiment where the outside and/or the hollow inside (if any) includes waveforms independent of the other surfaces, mirrored, and/or negative) to define a chamber. In an alternative embodiment, the frustum pack turbine includes waveforms on the outside and/or along an inside of a hollow frustum body, and in a further embodiment the inner frustum is omitted. The neighboring surfaces in at least one embodiment are angled. In at least one embodiment, there are multiple nested frustums present. The magnet frustum F500 in at least one embodiment includes magnetic regions and/or magnets aligned along the length of the frustum surface. As with the previous embodiment, the magnet frustum F500 is adjustable along the axis of rotation of the frustum pack turbine F250 with the sliding adjustment providing the variable torque and slip ratio. In an alternative embodiment, the frustum pack turbine F250 moves along its axis of rotation in addition to or instead of the magnet frustum F500 moving. In a further embodiment, the driveshafts 312, 512 pass all of the way through the respective frustum component. In a further alternative embodiment, the magnets are adjustable along the face of the magnet frustum F500 and therefore the frustums are offset from each other with the relocation of the magnets providing variable torque and slip ratio adjustment through the level of field coupling.

[0103] FIG. 15 illustrates another embodiment according to the invention where the drive system rotates the magnet plate 500 with a belt 512'. Above and below the magnet plate 500 are disk-pack turbines 250 that are adjustable up and down with respect to each other and the magnet plate 500 to change the mechanical advantage of the coupling strength between the magnet plate 500 and the disk- pack turbine 250. An example of how the disk-pack turbine may be adjusted is that it also floats along an inner driveshaft but has a nested outer driveshaft 312' that is capable of movement along the inner driveshaft. The magnet plate 500 in this embodiment freely rotates about the driveshaft, i.e., the rotation of neither the driveshaft nor the magnet plate impacts the other through any type of mechanical linkage. In this example embodiment, the rotation of the magnet plate 500 causes a rotation in the disk-pack turbine 250. Based on this embodiment, it should be appreciated that the other embodiments can have a reverse driving force caused by the magnet plate/frustum resulting in rotation of the disk/cylinder/frustum pack turbine, which in turn rotates a driveshaft.

[0104] While the invention has been described with reference to certain embodiments, numerous changes, alterations and modifications to the described embodiments are possible without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, as defined in the appended claims and equivalents thereof. The number, location, and configuration of the waveform turbines and magnet bodies described above and illustrated are examples and for illustration only. Further, the terms disks and rotors in connection with the disk-pack turbines are used interchangeably throughout the detailed description without departing from the invention.

[0105] The example and alternative embodiments described above may be combined in a variety of ways with each other without departing from the invention. [0106] As used above "substantially," "generally," and other words of degree are relative modifiers intended to indicate permissible variation from the characteristic so modified, ft is not intended to be limited to the absolute value or characteristic which it modifies but rather possessing more of the physical or functional characteristic than its opposite, and preferably, approaching or approximating such a physical or functional characteristic.

[0107] The foregoing description describes different components of embodiments being "connected" to other components. These connections include physical connections, fluid connections, magnetic connections, flux connections, and other types of connections capable of transmitting and sensing physical phenomena between the components.

[0108] The foregoing description describes different components of embodiments being "in fluid communication" to other components. "In fluid communication" includes the ability for fluid to travel from one component/chamber to another component/chamber.

[0109] Although the present invention has been described in terms of particular embodiments, it is not limited to those embodiments. Alternative embodiments, examples, and modifications which would still be encompassed by the invention may be made by those skilled in the art, particularly in light of the foregoing teachings.

[0110] Those skilled in the art will appreciate that various adaptations and modifications of the embodiments described above can be configured without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention. Therefore, it is to be understood that, within the scope of the appended claims, the invention may be practiced other than as specifically described herein.