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Title:
MAGNETIC DRIVE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2003/030338
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
I studied the properties of the electromagnet, permanent magnets and field distribution. I shaped the magnets to my requirement to get a linearly scalable motor with permanent magnets. I call this as MagnoDrive. This Magno Dirve will not require any external power input. As 'the permanent magnets reacts to the environment magnetic field', as I describe or uses 'stored energy' as described by the scholars, this drive will work as long as the magnets used in the MagnoDrive drive retains its magnetic property. This construction follows a specific geometry to appropriately distribute the forces at required place at required direction. Since the geometry is scalable, the assembly/construction of the drive, and hence the power output is also scalable.

Inventors:
VASUDEVAN RAMESH S (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2002/019591
Publication Date:
April 10, 2003
Filing Date:
June 18, 2002
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
VASUDEVAN RAMESH S (US)
International Classes:
H02K53/00; (IPC1-7): H02K53/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO1996002083A11996-01-25
WO1992022123A11992-12-10
Foreign References:
DE4306909A11994-09-08
DE3916204A11990-03-22
US4151431A1979-04-24
Other References:
PATENT ABSTRACTS OF JAPAN vol. 013, no. 541 (E - 854) 5 December 1989 (1989-12-05)
PATENT ABSTRACTS OF JAPAN vol. 2000, no. 10 17 November 2000 (2000-11-17)
PATENT ABSTRACTS OF JAPAN vol. 1999, no. 11 30 September 1999 (1999-09-30)
PATENT ABSTRACTS OF JAPAN vol. 1999, no. 14 22 December 1999 (1999-12-22)
PATENT ABSTRACTS OF JAPAN vol. 2000, no. 06 22 September 2000 (2000-09-22)
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Vasudevan, Ramesh S. (South 142nd Court Apt #5 Omaha NE, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims
1. What I am claiming as my invention is: Claim 1: The MagnoDrive is a Permanent magnet motor consisting of two assemblies. The fixed part is called stator and moving part is rotor. The stator doesn't have to be stationary. The stator can also be described as relatively slow moving part compared to the speed of the rotor. The magnetic pole is described as a magnet of any shape used to create the field. The Pole can be either electromagnet or a permanent magnet. The Pole face is described as either North Pole or South Pole of a magnet as understood by us now. The Magnetic neutral is defined as a virtual line between Polefaces of the magnet, where the field strength on either side of the line is equal along the direction of magnetization. The MagnoDrive has a rotor and a stator assembly, containing one or more poles. The poles are assembled in a specific order such that, one assembly's pole face is exposed for reaction with another assembly, where the other assembly's poles magnetic neutral is either perpendicular to or at an inclination to the exposed pole face. Such orientation and direction develops a force between the poles resulting in a twisting moment. I claim that the arrangement of the poles such that exposing the pole face to the magnetic neutral of other pole (on the other assembly) either at perpendicular direction or at an inclination to the pole face (of the other assembly), resulting in developing a twisting moment, which can be harnessed as a useful power as my invention. Dependent Claims: Claim 2: Using shaped magnets to physically lower the position of one pole face (either North pole or South Pole) and elevating the other pole face, and placing them appropriately to get desired reaction is my invention. The shape can be any, but the objective and technique to achieve the desired result is what I claim as my invention. Claim 3: Using circle geometry to place the poles at appropriate location to control the interaction of undesired magnetic reaction and use the circle geometry to scale the size, consequently the power output of the MagnoDrive is my invention. Claim 4: The magnets used in building a power drive may be either an electromagnet or a permanent magnet. Such substitution of shaped magnets to develop a drive is my invention. Claim 5: The magnets used can be either preoriented or an unoriented magnet. It can either be diametrically oriented or radial oriented magnets. The objective is to get the field of desired strength at desired direction. Using different type of orientation/ magnetization to fulfill the basic condition as explained in claim, irrespective of the type of magnet used is my invention. Claim 6: If electromagnets are used to build the drive, the idea of getting desired orientation and direction to meet the basic condition as described in claim 1 is my invention, irrespective of the any conventional winding technique being used. Claim 7: Apart from getting desired direction and field distribution of the magnetic field, the shaped magnets are also used to concentrate the field to maximize the power output. The art of maximizing the concentration of the field using shaped magnet is my invention. Claim 8: Either on the part of stator or on the part of rotor, there is no limitation on the number of poles that has to be used. It can either be an odd number or can be even number. Neither the size of the pole nor the number of poles is a limitation. As long as we are able to meet the basic condition as claimed in claim 1 and use precise geometry to accommodate, it is possible to build MagnoDrive. This is my invention. Claim 9: The single pole face (either North Pole or South Pole) of the magnet facing the magnetic neutral of the other magnet, as described in claim 1, decides the direction of rotation. The polarity of the pole face and polarity of the poles used on other assembly can be changed to change the direction of rotation. Changing the polarity of the poles to change the direction in MagnoDrive is my invention. Such changes can be achieved easily in electric powered system. Claim 10: It is not necessary that all magnets used should be either permanent magnet or electromagnet simultaneously. It can be combination of both types of magnets simultaneously. Combining such magnets to get single power drive is my invention. Claim 11: It is possible to have a cascade construction of MagnoDrive with more than two assemblies as a stator and a rotor. In such case, either the rotating part or the static part will be in the middle section. Both on the outside and also inside the middle assembly, another assembly can be placed to maximize the power output. In such case it will either work as a double motor or a maximized power can be harnessed from the center section. This kind of cascade construction apart from the Multistage is my invention. Claim 12: Either a simple bar magnet or an electromagnet can be used to construct a linear Drive. Such magnets may be continuous or discontinuous. As long as the basic principle as described in the claiml is met, linear drives would work. The construction principle as described to make a linear drive is my invention. Claim 13: It is not necessary that we should use only a smooth cylindrical magnet in one of the assembly. It is also possible to use multiple pieces of poles for both rotor and stator assembly using appropriate orientation. As long as the physical principle as described in the claiml is met, the MagnoDrive will work. This method of using different shaped poles for both stator and rotor part simultaneously is my invention. Claim 14: Crescent shaped segment to concentrate and get appropriate direction of the field, without any limitation on the size, shape or geometry of the segment and construct a Drive to harness Power is my invention. Claim 15: Using the umbrella Cut shaped segment without any limitation on the size, shape or geometry and concentrate/get appropriate direction of the magnetic field to construct a drive is my invention. Claim 16: Preparing the magnets with an arc, without any limitation on the size, shape, or geometry and using it to create magnetic field either using permanent magnet or electro magnet to construct a drive is my invention. Claim 17 : The arrangement of moving the magnets of fixed part to control the reaction, either by moving the poles or by tilting the poles and changing the direction of the field to control the reaction in a MagnoDrive is my invention. Claim 18: Assembling multiple sets on a same shaft, without any limitation on the number of sets, with appropriate clearance, to increase the power output is my invention.
Description:
MAGNETIC DRIVE Descriptive Title Of invention Primary Invention: MagnoDrive The MagnoDrive is my primary invention. This is a permanent magnet driven motor/drive. This would produce mechanical torque/turning moment as the output similar to an electric motor. This force/rotary motion can be harnessed as useful power output of desired choice with additional components. This product directly uses the magnetic field reaction of permanent magnets hence this will not require any external power input. Since the electromagnet and permanent magnet are same on the part of functionality, an electromagnet can be substituted in place of permanent magnet. In that case, it would require electric power to excite the electromagnets. The primary construction method is by assembling multiple magnets, machined to specific shape, assembled over a rotor shaft. The stator magnet uses a smooth cylindrical magnet. Either one of the assembly can be made to rotate by holding the other assembly. In that sense, the rotating part is called rotor and stationary part is called as stator.

Descriptive title of dependent Invention: Claim 2: MagnoDrive-US The MagnoDrive-US uses the same principle of the MagnoDrive. However, the shape and position of the magnets are changed to achieve the same result in a different method. This design uses Umbrella cut shaped magnets to orient the field in desired direction.

Claim 3: MagnoDrive-CS The MagnoDrive-CS uses the same principle of a standard MagnoDrive. It differs in the shape of the magnet used and placement of the magnet to achieve desired result.

The segment shape of the magnet appears as a Crescent moon.

Claim 4: MagnoDrive-MS The MagnoDrive-MS is an extension of the basic type of MagnoDrive. This is designed to over come the present day limitations of the size, and mechanical assembly, and to harness maximum power output. This is achieved by assembling multiple sets over the same shaft. This design demonstrates how to scale the MagnoDrive.

Claim 5: MagnoDrive-EP The MagnoDrive-EP is designed to use electromagnets to get the power output.

Since, functionally the electromagnet and permanent magnets are same, an electromagnet can very well be substituted in place of permanent magnets.

Claim 6: MagnoDrive-SEP The MagnoDrive-SEP demonstrates how to substitute only the stator with electromagnet. In this configuration it works as a electric motor. This provides the ability to control the power output.

Claim 7: MagnoDrive-LD The MagnoDrive-LD uses the same basic principle of the MagnoDrive with a difference is that, it produces a linear motion instead of a circular motion.

Cross Reference to related application No previous approved application.

My Provisional Application # 60/300, 010 filing date 06/21/2001 My earlier Non Provisional Utility patent application # 09/970,277 dated-10/03/2001 Subsequent Pre-correction to the same application Dated 02-22-2002 This is Pre-correction to the same application.

Statement regarding Federally sponsored R & D Not Applicable I developed this product out of my individual effort. I didn't receive any support from any agency.

Reference to sequence of listing, A table or A computer program-listing Appendix.

Not applicable.

Background of Invention: From the basic principle of the electric motors, we know that using magnetic field reaction of the magnets, it is possible to obtain a turning moment/mechanical power output. However, we always used an external power to get this turning moment in the electric motor. This external power does nothing but creating sufficient magnetic field for reaction.

Considering the permanent magnet, the permanent magnet materials have the capacity to retain its magnetic property. That means it is capable of delivering sufficient magnetic field, which can be used for reaction. On the part of magnetic field, there is no difference between electromagnet and permanent magnet. Hence, we must be able to effectively use the permanent magnet to get desired output.

I made an attempt to achieve this by studying the principle of operation of the existing motors. I figured out the fundamental forces that drive the motor. I effectively used the permanent magnet and its orientation to achieve the desired result.

Principle of operation and explanation: List of drawings referenced in this section.

Drawing # Rev Description MD-PR-001 002 Field reaction of a permanent magnet, When it is placed in a magnetic field.

MD-PR-002 002 Field reaction, when a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field.

MD-PR-003 002 Standard DC motor assembly and field reaction.

MD-PR-004 002 Field reaction in a cylindrical magnet.

MD-PR-005 002 Modified rotor pole assembly and fundamental forces of reaction.

MD-PR-006 002 Direction of rotation and control.

MD-PR-007 002 MagnoDrive Basic Design and Field distribution Please refer to the drawing MD-PR-001. The drawing shows two instances of magnetic reaction. When the center magnet P3 is placed across the field, the south pole of P3 develops an attractive force towards PI and North Pole of P3 develops an attractive force towards P2. This constitutes a turning moment. Eventually the magnet P3 will try to align itself with the environment field. This is shown in instance 2.

In the second instance, the Magnet P6 is placed aligned to the external field. In this position South Pole of P6 and North Pole of P4 gets locked. Similarly North Pole of P6 and South Pole of P5 gets locked.

Please refer to drawing MD-PR-002. When a current carrying conductor is placed in a uniform magnetic field, the coil deflects so as to align itself to the least reluctance path of the environment field. This would produce a twisting moment. This principle is used in DC motors to get the rotation.

Please refer to the drawing MD-PR-003. This drawing shows a general assembly of the parts/components of a 2 pole DC motor. The stator/Field can either be a wound coil or a permanent magnet as shown in the drawing. The rotor/Armature is wound on a base support. The edges of the coils are connected to Commutator and brush assembly.

The commutator is essential, to maintain the pole in a fixed position, with respect to the field/stator pole, while the armature itself is rotating. The placement of the brush decides, where the armature field peak should form. In the drawing, I have shown this as little shifted to the left from the vertical axis. When you feed the power, the poles are formed as shown in the figure such that, the magnetic neutral is formed on the horizontal axis. Here, due to the brush position, the axis had shifted a little on the counter clockwise direction. This would bring the north pole of the armature closer to the South Pole of the Field/stator. This would result in developing an attractive force.

Similarly the South Pole of the armature experiences an attractive force towards stator/ Field North Pole. These forces are developed due to the fact that, the field always tries to aligns itself to least reluctance path. How long this force would go? This would go till the peak of the North Pole aligns itself with the South Pole of the stator and vice versa.

Is the North Pole to North Pole, repulsive reaction is a contributor? In my opinion, it is negative to the reaction. The North-Pole-to-North-Pole reaction is likely to shift axially rather than tangentially. This is because the pole reaction in all direction within the influence is equal in all direction. Hence, I would describe it as a retarding force or as a load or as a contributor to inefficiency. The picture on the right shows the field reaction and magnetic neutral lines in a 4 pole DC motor.

Please refer to the drawing MD-PR-004. The figure on the left is a magnetic bearing and on the right is a stator/rotor combination of my test piece. In the magnetic bearing, one cylindrical magnet is slid in to another, with like poles facing each other.

The field reactions at each point in all the direction are equal. Hence it doesn't rotate naturally.

On the other hand, I created a circular magnet with diametric orientation. I placed the North Pole peak facing the Inner surface (Pole) of the ring magnet. Though it had a non-reactive lower portion on either side of the magnet, still it didn't produce the turning moment. The forces at the reaction points were equal in all direction. It was shifting in axial direction and did not move tangentially. Hence, I conclude that the repulsive force is not the driving force.

Please refer to the drawing MD-PR-005. I re-oriented the disc magnet in the assembly such that, I placed the magnetic neutral to the peak on the rotor surface. This kept the South Pole and the North Pole of the rotor magnet close to the inner surface of the stator magnet. When the stator magnets inner surface is North Pole, then, at the peak point of disc magnet, the South Pole experiences an attractive pull and the North Pole experiences a repulsive push. These forces resolve in to a tangential force. This is the driving force for the rotor. This clearly defines the fundamental forces of the MagnoDrive.

Please refer to drawing MD-PR-006. Once there is a turning moment, then the question comes, what is the direction of rotation? The drawing shows how the forces resolve. From the fundamental forces, we can find the direction of the resolved force.

The forces always resolve in the direction of repulsion as long as you place the magnet inside the outer circular ring. Hence, with respect to a fixed rotor magnet orientation, the polarity of Pole face exposed for reaction decides the direction of rotation.

Though the forces described are fine, to get the desired output, we have to eliminate the unwanted forces from stalling the rotor. I had to follow precise geometry to achieve the result. Moreover, during testing, I realized that the repulsive forces are to be avoided as much as possible and should use only the attractive force to drive. Hence, the field orientation, direction and placement of shaped magnets decide the direction of rotation. Individual section will explain the forces and direction. The drawing MD-PR- 007 Rev 002 clearly marks the field and forces that constitutes the driving and retarding forces. The standard assembly eliminates all the negative forces and uses only the useful force to bring out the MagnoDrive to a working form.

Brief Description Of Invention : The MagnoDrive is a Motor/Power drive, which is comparable to an electric motor on the part of functionality. This works by directly using the magnetic field reaction of permanent magnets. Except for the variant identified as electric powered, this MagnoDrive will not require any external source of energy to be supplied by us. This drive will work as long as, the magnets used by this drive retains its magnetic property.

The principle of operation is defined as follows: Place the magnetic neutral of one magnet in perpendicular direction to the pole face of the other magnet. In order to catch with the unlike pole, the magnet placed across the field will develop a force. This will create a twisting moment. This moment can be harnessed as a useful power output. The direction of resultant force depends on how the magnet is deployed.

The MagnoDrive is developed using this principle. The basic design gives a standard construction method, eliminating many undesired forces. It was realized that placing the shaped magnets external to the smooth cylindrical magnet gives some advantages on the part of scalability and efficiency. The shapes are necessary to get proper field distribution and direction for reaction.

Electric powered MagnoDrive is a method of construction by replacing the permanent magnets with electro magnets. All the magnets uses appropriate orientation of direction of magnetic field.

List Of Drawings: Drawing # Rev Description MD-SC-001 002 MagnoDrive-SC Standard Construction This drawing gives the details about the shape and assembly method of MagnoDrive.

MD-SC-002 002 MagnoDrive-SC Pole Reaction This drawing compares the forces at two different rotor positions.

MD-SS-001 002 MagnoDrive-SS Single Stage This drawing gives the basic assembly method of a rotor and a stator poles. This also describes the basic control mechanism.

MD-MS-001 002 MagnoDrive-MS Multi Stage This drawing shows the assembly method of a multi stage MagnoDrive. This gives details about how it should be assembled to scale and harness high power output.

MD-EP-001 002 MagnoDrive-EP Electric Powered This drawing shows how electromagnets are deployed in place of the permanent magnets in the MagnoDrive to make it work like an electric motor.

MD-SEP-001 002 MagnoDrive-SEP Stator Electric Powered.

This drawing shows how the cylindrical magnet alone can be replaced with electro magnet. This would give a controlled reaction with no additional high maintenance components.

MD-US-001 002 MagnoDrive-US Field Distribution This drawing shows how the field is distributed and can be used for field reaction in the MagnoDrive.

MD-US-002 002 MagnoDrive-US Standard Construction This drawing shows the standard assembly method using Umbrella Segment stator/rotor magnets.

This demonstrates 6-pole construction of this drive.

MD-US-003 002 MagnoDrive-US 3 Pole construction This drawing shows how a 3 pole MagnoDrive can be constructed using Umbrella segment magnets.

MD-CS-001 002 MagnoDrive-CS Field Distribution This drawing shows the field distribution in a crescent moon shaped magnet. Here after it will be referred as crescent segment magnet or crescent segment.

MD-CS-002 002 MagnoDrive-CS Standard Construction This drawing shows the construction method of a six pole MagnoDrive using crescent segments.

MD-LD-001 002 MagnoDrive-LD Linear Drive This drawing shows how the linear drive can be developed using the shaped magnets.

Detailed Description MagnoDrive Standard Construction Reference Drawing MD-SC-001 Rev 002, MD-SC-002 Rev 002 The MagnoDrive standard construction is shown in the drawing MD-SC-001 rev 002.

Please refer to drawing MD-PR-007 rev002 for the details of forces. When a semi circular segment is placed inside the smooth cylindrical magnet, the forces X, Y, U and Z are acting in different directions, causing undesirable reaction. These forces, because of wrong direction, prevent us from achieving the desired result. To overcome the negative effects, we have to stick to a specific geometry. By placing the magnets in a specific geometric shape, we keep the forces in right direction, at appropriate distance.

Assume the Stator magnet has the North Pole on the inner Surface and South Pole on the Outer Surface. The rotor magnet is as shown in the drawing MD-SC-002 Rev 002.

The South Pole forms on the surface'acb'and North Pole will be at'fa', if it is radially magnetized. Though this is most preferred direction, it may not be practicable. As an alternate, the magnetization can be done diametrically such that, the North Pole forms at'jfk'.

The'jk'marks the magnetic neutral in that configuration.

Then, to avoid the force Y and U, the rotor North Pole should be kept at much lower physical position, to prevent it from interacting with the stator North Pole. Similarly the South Pole of the Stator (top surface) should be stopped from reacting with Rotor Magnets North Pole. By keeping the North Pole at much lower position and by shaping the magnet, we avoid three undesired components Y, U and Z.

The width of the magnet is designed such that the round trip field distance (Half the width on Top surface of stator magnet + stator Thickness + half the width of the inner surface of the stator magnet) is less than the distance between the stator South Pole and Rotor North Pole. By doing this, you force the stator field to flow only to its north pole and at no time the stator South Pole (top surface) interacts with the rotor North Pole (which would otherwise produce a locking force). So you avoid the force Z by deciding appropriate distances using geometry. With all these corrections, the drawing MD-SC-001 rev 002 shows the correct geometry and construction method of standard MagnoDrive.

The attractive force is the driving force hence rotor South Pole should be close- enough to stator's North Pole face. The nearest North Pole of the stator is at position, directly above the rotor Magnet's. This closest point'e'is always parallel to Magnetic neutral of the rotor magnet. The pole faces of rotor magnet are at an inclination to or perpendicular to the Pole face of the stator Magnet. When placed in this position, the rotor South Pole will try to catch up with the peak field of the Stator North Pole. This peak field of stator North Pole (which is uniformly distributed and the peak point happens to be, every point on the inner surface of the stator), which is closest point at any given time. As the rotor magnet moves the peak point also move to a new position. Hence the broken balance will continue to exist. It will never be able to attain the balanced position. The circle geometry helps us to achieve this artificial imbalance. The forces will exist perennially, giving a continuous power output.

Please refer the drawing MD-SC-002 Rev 002.'acb'forms the rotor South Pole surface.'al'will form the north pole, if it is radially oriented. If a diametric orientation is preferred due to manufacturing constraints, still the North Pole should form along'jk'. The distance'cd'is the shortest distance to the opposite pole along the direction of magnetization.

The distance'ce'is the shortest distance from rotor magnet to stator magnet. The distance between'd'and'g', from rotor pole face'abc'is much longer than the round trip distance of the stator pole. Hence the stator South Pole has maximum affinity only to its north pole, rather than to the Rotor Pole.

As the Rotor peak field lies along'cd'and the stator peak field lay along'ce'the peak fields will try to align itself. This makes the rotor magnet to tilt, causing a twisting moment.

As the rotor magnet moves, say it attained the new position a'c'b'f, then, for the new position, the distance c'd'and c'e'remains same as"cd"and"ce", only the location has changed. The new position will make the rotor to continue to produce twisting moment and will start rotating. As the point of reaction is entire 360°, the rotor continues to rotate. Will the rotor get locked in some position rather than rotating? Never, the tendency to align itself to the peak field will always exist and it will continue to produce the reaction. Only the load will control the reaction. As long as the load is less than the reactive force, it will continue to rotate. The force and direction (vector) of the field is kept in such direction that the rotor magnet always tilts upward, making it to produce turning moment in one direction.

In DC motor, we keep the force and directions fixed (Rotor and stator Poles) and switch the field (by using commutator) to maintain the force at fixed place for reaction, while the armature itself is moving. Here the forces and directions are maintained by choosing appropriate geometry, even when the rotor rotates. This is the most advantageous configuration as it is possible to get free rotation with permanent magnets. The permanent magnet doesn't loose its magnetic property under normal circumstance. Hence, it is possible to deploy permanent magnets effectively avoiding external power input.

Detail Description MagnoDrive-SS Single Stage Reference Drawing: MD-SS-001 Rev: 001 The drawing MD-SS-001 Rev 002 shows the suggested mechanical assembly of a single stage construction of MagnoDrive with control mechanism. The MagnoDrive has a stator assembly and a rotor assembly. The stator assembly is primarily used to support the cylindrical segment magnet. This support should be sufficiently strong to work against a repulsive force from the rotor. Instead of having single cylindrical shape, the stator magnet can be split into two or multiple pieces. Moving all the segments towards the rotor axis would result in forming a cylindrical shape over the rotor assembly. By moving the stator magnets, it is possible to obtain a controlled reaction. This is one way to control the power output. A stud and nut combination, with a hand wheel is used to move the magnets back and forth, to control the position of the magnet. A gear and pinion combination is used to drive the studs.

However in this configuration it works in stop/run mode.

It is not necessary that the stator should be a ring magnet and rotor assembly should have multiple shaped magnets. In some of the designs, it is advantageous to have the rotor/ inner piece as the cylindrical magnet and shaped magnets are used outside the cylindrical magnet. In such cases, it would be easy to control the tilting of the shaped magnet to control the reaction rather than changing the cylindrical magnet. As it is to be dealt with on case-to- case basis, only a fundamental idea is outlined here to cover the patent requirements.

The electric powered drive doesn't have this mechanism. However, the control of these drives is achieved by controlling the excitation of the electro magnet. If both the assemblies would be electric powered, then we will require a slip ring assembly to feed the excitation current to moving assembly. In the case of stator electric powered, we directly control the excitation of static part.

The rotor assembly holds the rotor magnets at appropriate place. Placement of the poles follows the circle geometry precisely. The rotor is mounted on a shaft and is supported at the ends by a bearing assembly. Though it is not essential to have thrust bearing, it is preferable to have them in place, as the life of MagnoDrive is expected to be very long. There is no constraint on the number of poles that should be used. It can be an odd or an even number. The geometry is the limitation.

As long as the essential conditions are met, the MagnoDrive will work.

This is a basic assembly method given as a suggestion. It can very well be replaced by a sophisticated electrical or electro-mechanical or a hydraulic system, depending on the requirement. The application design engineer will be the best person to decide on the control mechanism and assembly method.

MagnoDrive-US Umbrella Segment Construction Reference Drawing MD-US-001 Rev 002, MD-US-002 Rev 002, MD-US-003 Rev 002 The MagnoDrive-US is another method of construction using Umbrella cut like segment. The significance of the design is described in the following sections. Please refer to the drawing MD-US-001 Rev 002. The AECDFGA is the shape of the segment.

The arc AEC follows the profile of the inner cylindrical magnet with an air gap. The CD is the pole face of the South Pole of the magnet. The AG is the pole face of the North Pole. The direction of magnetization is along QJ (or S-N as shown in drawing). The GH identifies the magnetic neutral for this segment. The magnetization direction is radial.

Effectively it can be compared to a bar magnet along xx'y'y. The direction chosen such that the JD is close compared to JAC.

In this configuration, the cylindrical magnet should be long enough, so that the field should catch pole face CD rather than reaching it's own opposite pole. So the thickness can be made larger, consequently increasing the power output. Also, the length of the segment (surface area for reaction) can be made larger.

Please refer to the drawing MD-US-002 rev 002. This drawing shows the arrangement of the poles on the assembly. Here, the inner magnet is chosen to be a cylindrical magnet and outer is kept as shaped segments. The air gap is almost equal to the thickness of the inner magnet, so that most of the field flows to the segment poles as that is the nearest point. The peak field of the rotor is in the perpendicular in direction.

The peak field for the segment poles forms along direction of magnetization that is b3a2.

The arc aal is drawn with center as a'and radius a'al. This arc should be and can be extended up to a tangent point on the outer surface of the inner magnet. This is to be done on case-to-case basis. Since I am not considering optimization at this time, appropriate arc will have to be chosen based on experience and theoretical background.

The field from the shaped magnet splits into two. One portion goes towards the North Pole of the adjoining segment. Other portion goes towards the rotor cylindrical segment. These two forces will produce a resultant force along b3 in a tangential direction to the outer surface of the inner magnet. This tangential force is the direction of peak field. Hence the field from opposite pole would try to catch up in this direction making the rotor to rotate. If you hold the inner magnet, the outer magnet will rotate in the clockwise direction.

The drawing MD-US-003 rev 002 shows how to construct a 3-pole Umbrella Segment construction. This clearly distinguishes on the part of geometry between a 6-Pole construction and a 3-Pole construction. Here the length of the segment and clearances between segments are important. The geometry precisely supports this construction with right direction of the field force and the resultant force. Here also, the peak field should be oriented to the tangent on the rotor cylindrical magnet. By retaining one assembly, the other assembly can be made to rotate. However, the weight of the assembly decides which part should rotate.

The MagnoDrive-CS is another method of building a MagnoDrive using permanent magnets. The drawings shows the field distribution and construction geometry. The drawing MD-CS-001 Rev 002 shows how the field is distributed in a crescent shaped segment magnet. The arc ASB forms the South Pole and arc ANB forms the North Pole. The'NS'identifies not only the maximum thickness as a consequence it also identifies the peak field direction. ARPQB is the field distribution of the South Pole.

The peak field forms along SP.

The drawing MD-CS-002 Rev 002 shows, how the crescent segment magnets are to be arranged to construct a MagnoDrive. The placement of the segment follows precise geometry. Considering the inner assembly to be a cylindrical magnet, segment magnets are assembled as shown in the drawing. The peak field is precisely aligned to the tangent of the outer surface of the inner magnet. Under this condition, the field divides into two parts. One section flows towards the adjoining segment and the other flows towards the cylindrical surface of the other assembly. The resultant force, which is aligned to the tangent of the inner assembly, forces the outer assembly to rotate in that direction.

The other way of explaining this is to, consider the peak field alignments. The Inner assembly peak field is vertically upward at the starting point of the adjoining segment. The peak field of the Segment is at an angle to the inner field. While they try to align, they produce the twisting moment, making one of the assemblies to rotate. This is most efficient construction method.

The MagnoDrive Electric Powered is another design. In this design, we replace the permanent magnets with electromagnets. As the reaction is between the North and South Pole fields, between the rotor and stator assembly, the field strength and direction of the force only matters. On the part of the magnetic field, as there is no difference between an electromagnet and a permanent magnet, electromagnets can very well be substituted in place of a permanent magnet. We should take care only the field distribution and geometry. The drawing MD-EP-001 rev 002 shows, how the permanent magnets are replaced with electro magnets in a standard construction of a MagnoDrive. It demonstrates that both stator magnet and rotor magnet can be replaced simultaneously.

To feed electricity to the moving parts, we would need an additional slip ring and brush assembly. This assembly is mounted on the rotor shaft. To maintain the field distribution, shape and geometry, I would suggest using shaped poles built using magnetic material and burying the excitation coils inside the pole. The electric powered MagnoDrive should draw only the excitation current, required to produce the magnetic field for reaction. The reaction should be a natural reaction, hence this should be much more efficient than a regular DC motor.

From the MagnoDrive-EP we know that electromagnets can replace the permanent magnets. However, when both the assemblies are replaced with electromagnets, it would require additional components to feed electricity. Any additional component causes additional maintenance and creates a point of failure. It would be efficient to have the moving part as permanent magnet, so that you avoid additional components. At the same time, to have control, you may substitute the fixed part with electromagnet. In this configuration you get all in one shot. You have control, save external energy and avoid all additional components. The system becomes simple and most efficient. The drawing MD-SEP-001 rev 002 shows the construction method and components of the stator electric powered MagnoDrive. This works as a most efficient motor. The same technique can be applied to all the types of MagnoDrive.

Using the principle of MagnoDrive, it is also possible to obtain linear motion. Please refer to the drawing MD-LD-001 Rev: 002 for the details of assembly. Any of the shaped magnets can be used on one side, preferably on the moving part, and the other side, a bar magnet is used, instead of circular ring. The direction of motion is on the direction of repulsion. By shaping the magnet and by placing at appropriate position, it is possible to avoid the repulsive force altogether. Instead of using a bar magnet, an electromagnet may be used to control the direction of motion.

The MagnoDrive Multistage construction becomes essential as there are some limitations imposed by the geometry and construction methods. In the case of the standard construction method, there is a limitation on the maximum width that it can go.

Under such circumstance, to maximize the power output, it is necessary to find a way to over come the limitations. The multi stage provides a way to scale the drive by assembling multiple sets on the same shaft. This is a horizontally scalable model.

Please refer to the drawing MD-MS-001 Rev 002. The drawing shows how multiple sets can be arranged to scale horizontally to maximize the power output. Please note that there is sufficient gap is to be maintained between stages, to maintain proper field distribution. As there are some limitations on the part of manufacturing, like maximum size of the magnet and capacity to magnetize, it is always desirable to assemble multiple sets to increase the power output. Multistage is a demonstration of scalability using multiple sets. Except for the air gap, all the dimensions are already scalable due to the nature of geometry followed in the construction of MagnoDrive. As in any magnetic reaction, the power output depends on the area of reaction multi stage provides a way to expand the surface area.

The other method of scaling MagnoDrive is by constructing a cascade drive.

Assuming ring magnet in the center assembly, one assembly can be constructed out side the ring magnet and another assembly can be constructed inside the ring magnet.

Appropriate field polarity and directions are to be maintained.