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Patent Searching and Data


Title:
MEAT STUFFED PET TREAT
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2021/030741
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present disclosure provides a pet treat and methods of making the same. The pet treat may have a humanized shape and configuration such as a taquito. The pet treat has an inner portion and an outer layer circumferentially wrapped around and disposed onto the inner portion. The inner portion includes a meat-based composition. The outer layer may be an animal rawhide sheet or a sheet of plant-based material.

Inventors:
VAN EYK GREGORY (US)
POTTER TIFFANY (US)
STRAZAR KELLI (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2020/046492
Publication Date:
February 18, 2021
Filing Date:
August 14, 2020
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
SPECTRUM BRANDS INC (US)
International Classes:
A23K10/20; A23K10/30; A23K20/142; A23K20/153; A23K20/174; A23K20/179; A23K40/20
Domestic Patent References:
WO2003092404A12003-11-13
Foreign References:
US20140255553A12014-09-11
US20130142936A12013-06-06
US20110217419A12011-09-08
US6277420B12001-08-21
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SMITH, Ryan, C. et al. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

We claim:

1. A pet treat having a central axis, the pet treat comprising: an inner portion centered around the central axis, the inner portion comprising a meat; and an outer layer having a substantially ellipse shape and a substantially uniform thickness, the outer layer being circumferentially wrapped and disposed onto the inner portion around the central axis.

2. The pet treat of claim 1, wherein the outer layer being wrapped has a double thickness on less than an entire circumference of the pet treat.

3. The pet treat of any of claims 1-2, wherein the outer layer has a first side portion and a second side portion opposed to each other, and wherein the first side portion is folded over and attached to the inner portion, and the second side portion is folded over and attached to the first end portion.

4. The pet treat of any of claims 1-3, wherein the inner portion extends from a first end portion to a second end portion along the central axis, and wherein the first end portion and the second end portion are not substantially covered by the outer layer.

5. The pet treat of claim 4, wherein each of the first end portion and the second end portion is about 15% or less, or about 10% or less, or about 5% or less, or about 2% or less, in length relative to an entire length of the pet treat along the central axis.

6. The pet treat of any of claims 1-5, wherein the pet treat extends from a first side to a second side along the central axis, wherein the inner portion is not covered by the outer layer at the first side and the second side along the central axis.

7. The pet treat of any of claims 1-6, wherein the pet treat is substantially straight along the central axis.

8. The pet treat of any of claims 1-7, wherein the pet treat has a substantially circular cross-section uniformly through a length thereof along the central axis.

9. The pet treat of any of claims 1-8, wherein the outer layer comprises a plant- based material.

10. The pet treat of any of claims 1-9, wherein the outer layer comprises animal rawhide.

11. The pet treat of any of claims 1-9, wherein the outer layer is free or substantially free from rawhide.

12. The pet treat of any of claims 1-11, wherein the meat of the inner portion is selected from the group consisting of pork, beef, chicken, duck, goat, horse, buffalo, venison, deer, elk, moose, liver, fish, veal, lamb, turkey, goose and combinations thereof.

13. The pet treat of any of claims 1-12, wherein the inner portion comprises a diary product selected from cheese, cheese powder, milk, milk powder, butter, egg, egg yolk, cream, casein, or combinations thereof.

14. The pet treat of any of claims 1-13, further comprising a starch selected from the group consisting of potatoes, rice, tapioca, corn, cereals, rye, wheat, oats, nuts, rhizomes, arrowroot, guar gum, locust bean, arracacha, buckwheat, banana, barley, cassava, konjac, kudzu, oca, sago, sorghum, sweet potato, taro, yams, fava beans, lentils, peas, or combinations thereof.

15. The pet treat of any of claims 1-14, further comprising a flour selected from the group consisting of oat flour, soy flour, wheat flour, rice flour, potato flour, corn flour, rye flour, buckwheat flour, chestnut flour, chickpea flour, atta flour, pea flour, bean flour, amaranth flour, arrowroot flour, taro flour, cattail flour, acorn flour, sorghum flour, or tapioca flour, or a combination of two or more thereof.

16. The pet treat of any of claims 1-15, further comprising a plant selected from a group consisting of apple, apricot, banana, blackberry, blackcurrant, blueberry, coconut, cherry, cherimoya, date, durian, fig, feijoa, gooseberry, grape, grapefruit, jackfruit, jambul, kiwifruit, kumquat, lemon, lime, loquat, lychee, mango, mangosteen, melon, cantaloupe, honeydew, watermelon, nectarine, orange, passionfruit, peach, pear, plum, prune, pineapple, pomegranate, pommelo, raspberry, rambutan, redcurrant, satsuma, strawberry, tangerine, ugh fruit and combinations thereof.

17. The pet treat of any of claims 1-16, further comprising a plant selected from a group consisting of artichoke, asparagus, avocado, bamboo shoots, bean sprouts, beans, beet, endive, bell pepper, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, calabaza, carrot, cauliflower, celery, cucumber, radish, eggplant, garlic, fiddlehead, galangal, ginger, beet greens, collard greens, dandelion greens, kale, mustard, spinach, Swiss chard, turnip greens, Jerusalem artichoke, jicama, lettuce, mushrooms, okra, onion, parsley, parsnip, peas, peppers, plantain, pumpkin, radicchio, radish, rutabaga, spinach, squash, sweet potato, tomato, turnip, water chestnut, yams, and combinations thereof.

18. The pet treat of any of claims 1-17, further comprising a food additive selected from the group of preservative, sorbitol, desired colorant, glycerin, yeast extract, flavor, salt, cochineal, potassium sorbate, or combinations thereof.

19. The pet treat of any of claims 1-14, further comprising a health ingredient selected from the group consisting of glucosamine, chondroitin, flax seed, calcium, parsley seed, peppermint, chlorophyll, vitamin E, L-carnitine, and lycopene, and combinations thereof.

20. The pet treat of any of claims 1-15, further comprising one or more coloring compounds selected from a group consisting of caramel coloring, malliouse, allura red AC, annatto, astaxanthin, betanin or beetroot red, blue 2, brilliant black BN, brilliant blue FCF, brown FK, canthaxanthin, carmine, carotene, Color Blue, curcumin, erythrosine, orange number 1, iron oxide, orange B, ponceau 6R, red 40, red 2G, saffron, sunset yellow FCF, tartrazine, titanium dioxide, turmeric, yellow 5, yellow 2, or any combination of two or more thereof.

21. The pet treat of any of claims 1-16, further comprising one or more auxiliary ingredients selected from the group consisting of a binding agent, a moisturizing compound, a salt, a sugar, an acid, a mold inhibitor, a flavoring compound, an aroma compound, a coloring compound and any combination of two or more thereof.

22. The pet treat of any of claims 1-17, wherein the inner portion is from about 40 wt% to about 90 wt%, based on the total weight of the pet treat.

23. The pet treat of any of claims 1-18, wherein the outer skin is from about 10 wt% to about 60 wt%, based on the total weight of the pet treat.

24. A method for making a pet treat, the method comprising: providing an outer layer having a substantially ellipse configuration and a substantially uniform thickness; disposing an inner portion comprising meat onto the outer layer; and wrapping the outer layer circumferentially onto the inner portion around a central axis thereof, thereby forming the pet treat.

25. The method of claim 24, wherein the outer layer being wrapped has a double thickness on less than an entire circumference of the pet treat.

26. The method of any of claims 24-25, wherein the outer layer has a first side portion and a second side portion opposed to each other, and wherein the first side portion is folded over and attached to the inner portion, and the second side portion is folded over and attached to the first end portion.

27. The method of any of claims 24-26, wherein the inner portion extends from a first end portion to a second end portion along the central axis thereof, and wherein the first end portion and the second end portion are not substantially covered by the outer layer.

28. The method of any of claims 24-27, wherein each of the first end portion and the second end portion is about 15% or less, or about 10% or less, or about 5% or less, in length relative to an entire length of the formed pet treat along the central axis.

29. The method of any of claims 24-28, wherein the formed pet treat extends from a first side to a second side along the central axis, wherein the inner portion is not covered by the outer layer at the first side and the second side.

30. The method of any of claims 24-29, further comprising disposing one or more ingredient between the inner portion and the outer layer prior to wrapping.

31. The method of any of claims 24-30, further comprising disposing one or more ingredient onto an outer surface of the formed pet treat.

32. The method of any of claims 24-31, further comprising heating the formed pet treat.

33. The method of claim 32, wherein the formed pet treat is heated at a first temperature from about 60 °C to about 100 °C for a time from about 1 hour to about 3 hours.

34. The method of claim 32, further comprising heating the formed pet treat at a second temperature from about 40 °C to about 60 °C for a time from about 10 hours to about 20 hours.

35. The method of any of claims 24-34, wherein the outer layer comprises a plant- based material.

36. The method of any of claims 24-35, wherein the outer layer comprises animal rawhide.

37. The method of any of claims 24-35, wherein the outer layer is substantially free from animal rawhide.

Description:
MEAT STUFFED PET TREAT

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

This application is being filed on 14 August 2020, as a PCT International patent application, and claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/886,926, filed August 14, 2019, the entirety of which is incorporated herein by reference.

INTRODUCTION

Traditional pet treat or pet chew products consist essentially of rawhide or dehydrated rawhide, which has high density and toughness. Although rawhide can sustain chewing in a dog’s mouth for relatively long time, it actually does not maintain a dog’s interest due to the limited acceptability. Manufacturers have attempted to solve this problem of reduced acceptability by incorporating numerous ingredients and processing techniques into the manufacture of rawhide-based chews for dogs, such as incorporating meat in the middle of a rawhide stick.

Therefore, what is needed is a pet treat that provides a texturally or visually appealing product that attracts or stimulates a pet to eat the treat. What is needed is a pet treat that prolongs a pet’s interests or chewing time. What is needed is a humanized pet treat that resemble popular human foods in appearance, configuration, taste, smell, mouthfeel, chewing experience, or palatability, which could encourage a human to purchase the pet treat. In addition, it is also desirable for multi-component pet treat having balanced meat and other nutrients.

MEAT STUFFED PET TREAT

Summary of disclosure

The present disclosure overcomes the problems inherent in the prior art and provides for a distinct advance in the art. In some aspects, the present disclosure relates to a meat stuffed pet treat comprising a meat-containing inner portion centered around a central axis of the pet treat, and an outer layer having a substantially ellipse shape and a substantially uniform thickness, wherein the outer layer being circumferentially wrapped and disposed onto the inner portion around the central axis. In certain embodiments, the outer layer being wrapped has a double thickness on less than an entire circumference of the pet treat.

In some embodiments of the pet treat, the outer layer has a first side portion and a second side portion opposed to each other, and wherein the first side portion is folded over and/or attached to the inner portion, and the second side portion is folded over and/or attached to the first end portion.

In some embodiments of the pet treat, the inner portion extends from a first end portion to a second end portion along the central axis, and wherein the first end portion and the second end portion are not substantially covered by the outer layer and are thereby exposed outside the outer layer and visible to a viewer. In certain embodiments, each of the first end portion and the second end portion being outside the outer layer is about 15% or less, or about 10% or less, or about 5% or less, or about 3% or less, or about 1% or less, in length relative to an entire length of the pet treat along the central axis.

In some embodiments, the pet treat extends from a first side to a second side along the central axis, wherein the inner portion is not covered by the outer layer at the first side and the second side along the central axis.

The present pet treat may be substantially straight along the central axis. The pet treat may have a substantially circular cross-section uniformly through a length thereof along the central axis.

The outer layer may comprise animal rawhide, or a plant-based material, or both. The outer layer may be free or substantially free from rawhide.

The meat of the inner portion may include pork, beef, chicken, duck, goat, horse, buffalo, venison, deer, elk, moose, liver, fish, veal, lamb, turkey, goose and combinations thereof. The inner portion of the pet treat comprises a diary product selected from cheese, cheese powder, milk, milk powder, butter, egg, egg yolk, cream, casein, or combinations thereof.

The pet treat may further include a useful or beneficial component such as a starch, a flour, a plant of any part thereof, an auxiliary ingredient, a health ingredient, a supplemental ingredient, a food additive, a binding agent, an edible adhesive. The useful or beneficial component may be present in any part of the pet treat such as the outer layer, the inner portion, the interface between the outer layer and the inner portion, or an outer surface of the outer layer.

In some aspects, the present disclosure relates to a method of making a meat stuffed pet treat described herein. In some embodiments, a method of making a pet treat comprises providing an sheet having a substantially ellipse configuration and a substantially uniform thickness; disposing an inner portion comprising meat onto the sheet; and wrapping the sheet circumferentially onto the inner portion around a central axis thereof, thereby forming the pet treat, wherein the wrapped sheet forms an outer layer disposed onto a substantial surface of the inner portion. In certain embodiments, the outer layer after being wrapped has a double thickness relative to the thickness of the unwrapped sheet on less than an entire circumference of the pet treat.

The present method may further comprise disposing one or more ingredients between the inner portion and the outer layer prior to wrapping, or on an outer surface of the outer layer or the formed pet treat, or both. The present method may further comprise heating or drying the formed pet treat at an elevated temperature.

Selected definitions

As used herein, “weight percent,” “wt%, “percent by weight,” “% by weight,” and variations thereof refer to the concentration of a substance as the weight of that substance divided by the total weight of the composition and multiplied by 100. It is understood that, as used here, “percent,” “%,” and the like are intended to be synonymous with “weight percent,” “wt%, etc.

As used herein, “g” represents gram; “oz” represents ounce, and one ounce is equivalent to about 28.35 g; “L” represents liter; “mg” represents “milligram (10 3 gram);” “mL” represents milliliter (10 3 liter); “cm” represents centimeter (10 2 meter); “mm” represents millimeter (10 3 meter); one inch is equivalent to about 2.54 cm. The unit of temperature used herein is degree Celsius (°C).

“Aspect ratio” used herein refers to the ratio of the length or height of a three- dimensional object to the cross-section width thereof. The term “about” is used in conjunction with numeric values to include normal variations in measurements as expected by persons skilled in the art, and is understood have the same meaning as “approximately” and to cover a typical margin of error, such as ± 10 % of the stated value. The term “about” also encompasses amounts that differ due to different equilibrium conditions for a composition resulting from a particular initial composition. Whether or not modified by the term “about,” the claims include equivalents to the quantities.

It should be noted that, as used in this specification and the appended claims, the singular forms “a,” “an,” and “the” include plural referents unless the content clearly dictates otherwise. Thus, for example, reference to a composition containing “a compound” includes having two or more compounds that are either the same or different from each other. It should also be noted that the term “or” is generally employed in its sense including “and/or” unless the content clearly dictates otherwise.

In the interest of brevity and conciseness, any ranges of values set forth in this specification contemplate all values within the range and are to be construed as support for claims reciting any sub-ranges having endpoints which are real number values within the specified range in question. By way of a hypothetical illustrative example, a disclosure in this specification of a range of from 1 to 5 shall be considered to support claims to any of the following ranges: 1-5; 1-4; 1-3; 1-2; 2-5; 2-4; 2-3; 3-5; 3-4; and 4- 5.

The term “substantially free” may refer to any component that the composition of the disclosure lacks or mostly lacks. When referring to “substantially free” it is intended that the component is not intentionally added to compositions of the disclosure. Use of the term “substantially free” of a component allows for trace amounts of that component to be included in compositions of the disclosure because they are present in another component. However, it is recognized that only trace or de minimus amounts of a component will be allowed when the composition is said to be “substantially free” of that component. Moreover, the term if a composition is said to be “substantially free” of a component, if the component is present in trace or de minimus amounts it is understood that it will not affect the effectiveness of the composition. It is understood that if an ingredient is not expressly included herein or its possible inclusion is not stated herein, the disclosure composition may be substantially free of that ingredient. Likewise, the express inclusion of an ingredient allows for its express exclusion thereby allowing a composition to be substantially free of that expressly stated ingredient.

The methods and compositions of the present disclosure may comprise, consist essentially of, or consist of the components and ingredients of the present disclosure as well as other ingredients described herein. As used herein, “consisting essentially of’ means that the methods and compositions may include additional steps, components or ingredients, but only if the additional steps, components or ingredients do not materially alter the basic and novel characteristics of the claimed methods and compositions.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 illustrates an embodiment of a finished pet treat according to the present disclosure. FIG. 2 illustrates configuration of each part of an embodiment pet treat.

FIG. 3 is a perspective view of an embodiment according to the present disclosure.

FIG. 4 is a side view of the pet treat according to the present disclosure.

FIG. 5 illustrates a process for preparing the inner portion.

FIG. 6 illustrates a process for preparing the outer layer.

FIG. 7 illustrates a process for making the inner portion of the pet treat product.

FIG. 8 illustrates a process for making the outer portion of the pet treat product.

FIG. 9 illustrates a process for making the pet treat product.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The present disclosure provides compositions and methods for making pet food treats or pet chews. In some aspects, the present disclosure relates to a meat stuffed pet treat comprising a meat-containing inner portion centered around a central axis of the pet treat, and an outer layer having a substantially ellipse shape and a substantially uniform thickness, wherein the outer layer being circumferentially wrapped and disposed onto the inner portion around the central axis. In certain embodiments, the outer layer being wrapped has a double thickness on less than an entire circumference of the pet treat. The pet treat may have a taquito-like configuration.

The present disclosure is based upon the discovery that humanized pet treats that resemble the appearance, shape, configuration, color, smell, taste, texture, or palatability will stimulate a human shopper to purchase the pet treats. The pet treats according to the present disclosure provide a number of unmatched benefits and advantages. The present pet treats have a taquito-like configuration and unique characteristics that are substantially different from traditional bone-shaped or knotted pet treats. Taquito is a popular Mexican food favored by many generations people around the world. The taquito-like pet treat may attract and stimulate shoppers who are funs of taquito or Mexican food to purchase the product. The outer layer of the taquito- like pet treat resembles a tortilla that provides firmness or toughness. The inner portion may have stuffed fillings of various meats, flavors, and beneficial nutrients. Advantageously, such taquito-like pet treats having combined crispy effect caused by the outer layer and soft/soggy effect caused by the inner portion offer unique and surprising chewing experiences for pets. In addition, the inner portion is covered and protected by the outer layer so that it will not be consumed too quickly by the pet, thereby extending the chewing time. Furthermore, the pet treat may comprise a plant- based material or other useful ingredients, allowing pets to intake both meat and the health-promoting ingredients concurrently when eating the treat.

Now referring to FIGS. 1-4, particular embodiments of the meat stuffed pet treat will be described. FIGS. 1-3 show an embodiment of pet treat and configuration of each component thereof. Pet treat 10 may have a taquito-like configuration and comprise an inner portion 110 and an outer layer 120 along a central axis 105. The outer layer 120 is a thin flat sheet that resembles a tortilla and has a substantially round or ellipse shape. The outer layer 120 is circumferentially wrapped around and disposed onto a substantial portion of a surface of the inner portion 110 along the central axis 105. The pet treat 10 may have a substantially cylindrical configuration and may be substantially straight along the central axis 105.

The pet treat 10 may extend from a first side to a second side along the central axis, wherein the inner portion is not covered by the outer layer at the first side and the second side, thereby being visible from the sides.

As shown in FIG. 2, the outer layer 120 prior to being wrapped is in a form of an extended and unwrapped sheet having a first side portion 122 and a second side portion 124 opposed to each other along a longitudinal axis 126. The sheet has a substantially uniform thickness, ranging from about lm to about 10mm, or from about 2mm to about 8mm, or from about 3mm to about 6mm, or from about 4mm to about 5mm. The sheet may have a relatively thicker or thinner edge. The longitudinal axis 126 is substantially transverse relative to the central axis 105. The outer layer 120 may be wrapped in a way such that the first side portion 122 is folded over or attached to the inner portion 110, and the second side portion 124 is folded over or attached to the first side portion 122. In some embodiments, the outer layer being wrapped has a double thickness on less than an entire circumference of the pet treat. In some embodiments, the outer layer 120 forms at least one full wrap (360 degree around the central axis 105) but less than two full wraps (720 degree) around the inner portion 110. In some embodiments, a maximum length of the sheet through the longitudinal axis 126 may be about 110% to about 190%, or about 120% to about 180%, or about 130% to about 170%, or about 140% to about 160%, relative to the circumference of the pet treat.

As shown in FIG. 3, the inner portion 110 may extend from a first end portion 112 to a second end portion 114 along the central axis 105, and wherein the first end portion 112 and the second end portion 114 are not substantially covered by the outer layer, thereby being exposed outside the outer layer 120 and visible to a viewer. Each of the first end portion 112 and the second end portion 114 may have a length about 15% or less, or about 10% or less, or about 5% or less, or about 2% or less, relative to an entire length of the pet treat through the central axis 105. As shown in FIG. 4, pet treat 10 may have a cross-section substantially uniform through a length thereof along the central axis. The shape of the cross-section may be circular, ellipse, triangle, square, rectangular, or other regular or irregular shapes.

The pet treat 10 may have an aspect ratio from about 1 to about 20, or from about 2 to about 15, or from about 3 to about 10, or from about 4 to about 5. The pet treat 10 may have a length from about 1cm to about 50cm, or from about 5cm to about 40cm, or from about 8cm to about 30cm, or from about 10cm to about 20cm, or from about 12cm to about 14cm. The pet treat 10 may have a weight from about lg to about 500g, or from about 10 to about 200g, or from about 20g to about lOOg, or from about 30g to about 50g. The aspect ratio, length, weight, or other specifications of the pet treat may vary depending on consumer needs.

The inner portion 110 may be from about 5% to about 90%, or from about 10% to about 70%, or from about 20% to about 50 %, or from about 30% to about 40%, based on the total weight of the pet treat.

The outer layer 120 may be from about 10% to about 95%, or from about 20% to about 80%, or from about 20% to about 60%, or from about 30% to about 50 %, or from about 40% to about 60%, based on the total weight of the pet treat. In some preferred embodiments the out portion is between 5% and 30% of the total weight of the pet treat. In other preferred embodiments, the outer portion is between 5% and 20% of the total weight of the pet treat.

The composition and method of making the meat stuffed pet treat are described herein. A method of making a pet treat 10 generally includes providing a meat-based composition as a base material to be used for forming the inner portion 110.

The meat-based composition or meat base is made from animal meat and may comprise boneless chicken, duck, chicken liver and combinations thereof. The animal meat may be fresh, dehydrated, powdered, and extract or frozen. The frozen animal meat is defrosted at about 0 °C to about 5 °C. Once the animal meat is defrosted, the animal meat is weighed. Once the predetermined amount of animal meat is weighed, the meat is placed in a grinder, the animal meat(s) is ground and mixed with the specific desired ratio of animal meat(s) and stored in a container as a meat base. It should be noted that the meat base may be frozen for later use, or may be used immediately after the meat base is prepared. Further, one should appreciated that although boneless chicken, duck and chicken liver are noted, the meat base can also include beef, pork, lamb, goat, horse, buffalo, venison, elk, moose, chicken, turkey, fish, or any other seafood, or any combination of two or more thereof. Alternatively, the meat base need not include boneless chicken, duck and/or chicken liver and may comprise beef, pork, lamb, goat, horse, buffalo, venison, elk, moose, bone-in chicken, turkey, fish, or any other seafood, or any combination of two or more thereof. The term “meat” associated with “meat base” and “meat mixture” are intended to encompass parts of animals, mammal and non-mammal, that can be used for a pet treat. This includes but is not limited to soft tissue, internal organs, cartilage and bone.

In one embodiment of the disclosure, chicken meat is used as a meat base. Chicken meat can include, for example, necks, breasts, or backs, or any combination of two or more thereof, with or without cartilage and/or bone ground to small sizes (i.e., emulsified). Chicken meat can also include necks, breasts, or backs, or any combination of two or more thereof that are boneless and ground to desired sizes. Chicken meat can include mechanically separated chicken (MSC). Chicken meat can also include a mixture of boneless or bone-in chicken, mixed together in various portions. The chicken meat is used in an amount of about 5-100% by weight of the meat-based composition. It should be appreciated that the other animal sources, including various sections of the animal can be used to provide a final taste or consistency for the meat. In embodiments where other meat sources are used, the total meat content is 5% to 100% by weight of the meat-based composition.

The meat of the inner portion may include pork, beef, chicken, duck, goat, horse, buffalo, venison, deer, elk, moose, liver, fish, veal, lamb, turkey, goose and combinations thereof. The inner portion of the pet treat comprises a diary product selected from cheese, cheese powder, milk, milk powder, butter, egg, egg yolk, cream, casein, or combinations thereof. The diary product may be about 0.5% to about 15%, or about 1% to about 10%, or about 2 to about 5%, based on the total weight of the pet treat. The meat-based composition may further comprise a plant, or a plant-based material, or any other useful and beneficial ingredients described in the present disclosure.

The method of making a pet treat 10 generally includes providing a sheet of material for forming the outer layer 120. The sheet of material may comprise rawhide or a plant-based material, or both.

The rawhide sheet and the process of making are generally available to a person skilled in the art. A rawhide may be from an animal source such as pork, bovine, beef, cow, deer, goat, sheep, horse, veal, fish, or any combinations thereof. The rawhide may be untreated or partially treated or substantially treated by common processes such as cleaning, bleaching, coloring, flavoring, binding, dyeing, dehydration, rehydration, reconstitution, and so on.

Alternatively, the sheet may be substantially plant-based and free from rawhide. The plant-based sheet may resemble a rawhide sheet with respect to color, texture, taste, smell, firmness, toughness, or other characteristics. The plant-based outer layer may balance the meaty fillings and also improve palatability such as crispiness when chewed by pets.

The plant-based material may include a grain-based composition comprising a grain or a flour or a starch derived from a plant. The plant may include wheat, oat, rice, corn, maize, barley, sorghum, rye, millet, amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, or combinations thereof.

The flour includes but is not limited to oat flour, soy flour, wheat flour, rice flour, potato flour, corn flour, rye flour, buckwheat flour, chestnut flour, chickpea flour, atta flour, pea flour, bean flour, amaranth flour, arrow root flour, taro flour, cattail flour, acorn flour, sorghum flour, or tapioca flour, or a combination of two or more thereof. The flour may be incorporated in amount of no more than 25% by weight of the grain- based composition. The flour may be present between about 1-50% including but not limited to 1%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, based on the total weight of the pet treat. Alternatively, the starch may be at least 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, based on the total weight of the pet treat. The pet treat 10 may include other useful or beneficial components, such as auxiliary ingredient, food additive, health ingredient, supplemental ingredient, etc. These components or ingredients may be present in the inner portion 110, in the outer layer 120, or in both, or at the interface between the inner portion 110 and the outer layer 120, or on a surface of the outer layer 120, or in any part of the pet treat 10.

A useful component is a starch or any carbohydrate of natural or vegetable origin. The starch may include amylose and/or amylopectin and may be extracted from plants, including but not limited to potatoes, rice, tapioca, com and cereals such as rye, wheat, and oats. The starch may also be extracted from fruits, nuts and rhizomes, or arrowroot, guar gum, locust bean, arracacha, buckwheat, banana, barley, cassava, konjac, kudzu, oca, sago, sorghum, sweet potato, taro, yams, fava beans, lentils and peas. The starch may be present between about 1-50% including but not limited to 1%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, based on the total weight of the pet treat. Alternatively, the starch may be at least 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, based on the total weight of the pet treat.

The starch employed herein may be raw starch, which may be understood as starch that has not seen a prior thermal molding history, such as extrusion or other type of melt processing step. The raw starch itself may also be native, which may be understood as unmodified Starch recovered in the original form by extraction and not physically or chemically modified. The raw starch may also be in powder form of varying particle size, which may be understood as milled and/or pre-sifted. It should be understood that the raw starch may also have varying degrees moisture present. The starch composition may include cellulose. The cellulose may be, for example, a long- chain polymer of polysaccharide carbohydrate. The cellulose may also be derived or extracted from plants. The cellulose may be incorporated into the starch composition between about 1-10% by weight of the starch composition.

Another useful component is a plant material, such as a fruit, vegetable, vegetable protein, fruit extract, vegetable extract and combinations thereof that can be consumed by a domestic pet. The plant material may be present in the inner portion 115, in the outer portion 110, or in both, or at the interface between the inner portion and the outer portion, or in any part of the pet treat 10. The plant material may be fresh, dehydrated, powdered, an extract or frozen. In embodiments where the plant material is frozen the plant material is defrosted at about 0 °C to about 5 °C. Once the plant material is defrosted, the plant material is weighed. Once the predetermined amount of plant material is weighed, the plant material is placed in a grinder, the plant material(s) is ground and mixed with the specific desired ratio of plant material (s) and stored in a container as a plant base. It should be noted that the plant base may be frozen for later use, or may be used immediately after the plant base is prepared. The plant base may be mixed with the meat-based composition or mixed with the grain-based composition.

A plant base material, as used herein, means a fruit, vegetable, vegetable protein, fruit extract and vegetable extract that can be consumed by a domestic pet, such as a dog.

In one embodiment of the disclosure, the plant base may include fruits such as, apple, apricot, banana, black berry, blackcurrant, blueberry, coconut, cherry, cherimoya, date, durian, fig, feijoa, gooseberry, grape, grapefruit, jack fruit, jambul, kiwifruit, kumquat, lemon, lime, loquat, lychee, mango, mangosteen, melon, cantaloupe, honeydew, watermelon, nectarine, orange, passionfruit, peach, pear, plum, prune, pineapple, pomegranate, pommelo, raspberry, rambutan, redcurrant, satsuma, strawberry, tangerine, ugli fruit and combinations thereof.

The plant base may include vegetables such as, artichoke, asparagus, avocado, bamboo shoots, bean sprouts, beans, beet, endive, bell pepper, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, calabaza, carrot, cauliflower, celery, cucumber, radish, eggplant, garlic, fiddlehead, galangal, ginger, beet greens, collard greens, dandelion greens, kale, mustard, spinach, swiss chard, turnip greens, Jerusalem artichoke, jicama, lettuce, mushrooms, okra, onion, parsley, parsnip, peas, peppers, plantain, pumpkin, radicchio, radish, rutabaga, spinach, squash, Sweet potato, tomato, turnip, water chestnut, yams, and combinations thereof.

Additionally, the plant base may comprise herbs, herbal extracts, vitamins, minerals, yeast products, soy products, may be incorporated into the plant base. Further, the plant base may also include food sources that provide phytochemicals. A non- exclusive list phytochemicals include: carotenoids, lycopenes, beta cryptozanthin, flavonoids, indoles, Sulforaphane, isoflavones, allicin, genistein, polyphenols, anthocyanins, limonoids, sterols, capsaicin, elegiac acid and lignans.

In one example embodiment carotenoids are included in the plant base. In at least this example embodiment the carotenoids are included from a plant selected from a group consisting of carrots, cantaloupe, papaya, pumpkin, squash, sweet potatoes, broccoli, dried apricots, asparagus, kale, green leafy vegetables and combinations thereof. In related embodiments lycopenes are included in the plant base. The lycopenes are added with the addition of plants selected from a group consisting of tomatoes, tomato paste, tomato juice, guava, pink grapefruit, watermelon and combinations thereof. In other related embodiments, beta cryptozanthin are included in the plant base. Beta cryptozanthin are found in plants such as tangerines, papaya, oranges, peaches, mangoes, nectarines and combinations thereof.

In other example embodiments flavonoids extracted from plants such as soy, green tea, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, brussels sprouts, mustard greens, kale, and cauliflower, citrus fruits, onions and combinations thereof can be used in the plant base. In other example embodiments, indoles and sulforaphane, which are commonly found in cruciferous vegetables are added to plant base. Examples of cruciferous vegetables include, but are not limited to cauliflower, cabbage, garden cress, bokchoy, broccoli and brussels sprouts in other related embodiments, isoflavones are included in plant base. Isoflavones are commonly found in legumes, Such as beans, peas and lentils and soy products. In other related embodiments, allicin is added to the plant base, which can be found in plants such as onions and garlic. In example embodiments, genistein is added through the addition of soy products, such as tofu. In other example embodiments, polyphenols can be added through the addition of green tea.

In yet other related embodiments, anthocyanins found in plants such as wild blueberries, bilberries and black berries can be included in plant base. Limonoids, found in citrus fruits such as clementine, grapefruit, kumquat, lemon, lime, mandarin, orange, tangerine and the like can also be added to plant base. In other embodiments, sterols from cruciferous vegetables, cucumbers, squash, sweet potatoes, soy foods, eggplant, whole grains, tomatoes and the like are included in plant base. In embodiments where the addition of capsaicin is desired, the phytochemical can be added by including chili peppers. Similarly, in embodiments where elegiac acid is desired strawberries can be included in plant base. The addition of lignans, can be achieved by the addition of nuts and seeds. It should be appreciated that the addition of certain plants will include more than one phytochemical listed herein. Further, extract(s) of the aforementioned plants can be added to specifically add a desired phytochemical or combination of phytochemicals to the plant base.

Other sources of important nutrients for animals may also include seaweed, kelp, bluegreen algae, spirulina, Irish moss, dulse, nori, kombu, wakeme, alfalfa, fenugreel seed, wheatgrass, barleygrass and marine phytoplankton.

The plant material may be used in an amount of about 5% to 100% of the pet treat 10. It should be appreciated that the other plant sources, including various extracts, can be used to provide a final taste or consistency for the pet treat 10. In embodiments where other plant sources are used, the total plant content is 1% to 70% by weight of the entire pet treat.

Auxiliary ingredients present in the pet treat may include a binding agent, a salt, a sugar, an acid, a mold inhibitor, a flavoring compound, an aroma compound, a coloring compound, a moisturizing compound or any combination of two or more thereof.

The binding agent (or binder, or adhesive, or the like) can be used in an amount between about 10% and about 75% by weight of the meat-based composition or the sheet of the outer layer. In one example embodiment the binding agent is about 20% by weight of the meat-based composition. The type and amount of binding agent can be selected so that the resulting product is not sticky and no residue is left on the pet owners finger-tips or households surfaces, such as carpets. For example, the binding agent can be added to buffer or to absorb fat content in the meat-based composition. The binding agent can also facilitate the blending of the various ingredients and allow the meat-based composition to hold a shape prior to being dried. The binding agent can include, but is not limited to, oat flour, soy flour, wheat flour, rice flour, potato flour, corn flour, rye flour, buckwheat flour, chestnut flour, chickpea flour, atta flour, pea flour, bean flour, amaranth flour, arrow root flour, taro flour, cattail flour, acorn flour, sorghum flour, or tapioca flour, or a combination of two or more thereof. The flour, in this case wheat flour, is incorporated in amount of no more than 25% by weight of the meat-based composition.

The binding agent can be an edible adhesive such as a collagen, a gelatin, a gluten, or any combinations thereof.

The aroma compound or flavoring compound, provide palatability enhancement respectively and include, but are not limited to, garlic (e.g., garlic concentrate, garlic oil, garlic powder, garlic aroma), onion (e.g., onion concentrate, onion oil, onion powder, onion aroma), natural smoke flavor, hickory, mesquite, anchovy, chicken, lobster, tikka, tandoori, parsley, spinach, saffron, digestive (liquid stomach contents of an animal, e.g., chicken), phosphate, yeast, or enzymatic liver (pork, turkey or chicken), or any derivative thereof, or any combination of two or more thereof. Additionally salt may be added to enhance flavor and can also provide particle binding in forming the meat- based composition.

Coloring compounds provide cosmetic enhancement respectively and include, but are not limited to, caramel coloring, malliouse, allurared AC, annatto, astaxanthin, betanin or beetroot red, blue 2, brilliant black BN, brilliant blue FCF, brown FK, canthaxanthin, carmine, carotene, Color Blue, curcumin, erythrosine, orange number 1, iron oxide, orange B, ponceau 6R, red 40, red 2G, Saffron, Sunset yellow FCF, tartrazine, titanium dioxide, turmeric, yellow 5. yellow 2, or any combination of two or more thereof.

The humectant can be used to reduce water activity. Water activity is a measure of the availability of water in a food for microbial growth such as molds. Water activity is a primary method of controlling antimicrobial or mold growth. One example range of water activity is an aW value of less than 0.7. The humectant including sugar, or sugar alcohols can be used in an amount between about 0% and about 20% by weight of the meat-based composition, for example about 15% to 18% by weight of the meat-based composition. The humectant, can include, but is not limited to fructose, dextrose, maltodextrin, honey, high-fructose corn syrup, maltose, brown sugar, coconut sugar, date sugar, sucanat, molasses, turbinado sugar, dextrin, glucose, sucrose sucralose, glycerin or any derivative thereof, or any combination of two or more thereof.

Another useful component is a mold inhibitor. A non-exclusive list of mold inhibitors include, but is not limited to, potassium sorbate, cultured whey, calcium propionate, cultured dextrose, cultured yeast, benzoic acid, acetic acid, or plum powder, or any derivative thereof or any combination of two or more thereof.

A moisturizing compound can be used in a range of between 2% and 20%. For example, a moisturizing compound, such as water, will aid in formation of the grain- based composition or meat-based composition. For example, the moisture content of the entire pet treat may be above 20% prior to drying the pet treat, but will achieve a moisture content below 20%, for example 18%, in the final pet treat product.

It should be appreciated that each of the components or ingredients described above is optional. Such as the ingredients with a percentage range starting at 0%. The grain-based composition and the meat-based composition may be prepared, stored, and delivered by mixing the desired ingredients using standard facility and process known in the art.

Methods for making the pet treat according to the present disclosure are described herein. An embodiment method for making a pet treat comprises providing an sheet of material having a substantially ellipse configuration and a substantially uniform thickness; disposing a meat-based composition onto the sheet; and wrapping the sheet circumferentially onto the meat-based composition around a central axis thereof, thereby forming the pet treat, wherein the meat-based composition forms an inner portion, and the sheet being wrapped forms an outer layer.

As shown in FIG. 5, an embodiment of the present method can include a process 50 for preparing the meat-based composition for forming the inner portion. The process 50 includes defrosting a meat 510, a step 520 of mixing the meat with additional ingredients described in the present disclosure, and a step 530 of steaming the resulted mixture at an elevated temperature for a period of time and grounding into meat granules. The temperature of steaming can be 100 °C or more, and the time of steaming can be about lOmin to about 2hours, or about 20min to about lhour, or about 30min to about 45min. The process 50 may include a step 530 of heating the meat granules at about 40°C to about 85°C, or from about 50°C to about 70°C, or from about 60°C to about 65°C for about 5hours to about 20hours, or from about 8hours to about 15hours, or from about lOhours to about 12hours. The process 50 may include blending the meat granules evenly with a diary product and/or a binder (binding agent) according to the present disclosure and forming the meat-based composition ready to be used for the inner portion. The meat-based composition could be optionally frozen or stored in vacuum before use.

As shown in FIG. 6, an embodiment of the present method can include a process 60 for preparing a rawhide sheet for the outer layer. The process 60 generally includes a step 610 of breaking rawhide and water into pulp and a step 620 of molding the pulp. The process 60 includes a step 630 of heating the pulp at 40°C to about 85°C, or from about 50°C to about 70°C, or from about 50°C to about 60°C for about lhours to about 20hours, or from about 5hours to about 15hours, or from about lOhours to about 12hours. The rawhide may be further treated, dyed, colored, flavored, or dehydrated to meet the desired color, hardness, dryness, taste, or smell or other characteristics depending on consumer needs.

The process 60 includes a step 640 of cutting the heated rawhide sheet or wafer into a substantially round or ellipse shape with a size of about 3inch to about lOinch, or from about 4inch to about 8inch, or from about 5inch to about 6inch. The sheet may have a substantially uniform thickness.

The process 60 may alternatively include providing a tortilla-like sheet or flat bread from flour or other vegetarian sources. The process for preparing tortilla-like bread is generally available to a person skilled in the art.

As shown in FIG. 7, an embodiment of the present method can include a process 70 for making the pet treat by assembling the prepared sheet and meat-based composition. The process 70 may include a step 710 of weighing the meat-based composition, a step 720 of placing the meat-based composition on the prepared sheet. The process 70 includes a step 730 of wrapping the sheet around the meat-based composition in a direction transverse relative to the central axis of the sheet, forming the taquito-like pet treat. As described previously, the outer layer being wrapped may have a double thickness relative to the thickness of the sheet on less than an entire circumference of the formed pet treat. In some embodiments, the sheet is wrapped in a way that the outer layer forms at least one full wrap but less than two full wraps on the inner portion.

The process 70 may optionally include a step 740 of heating and drying the formed pet treat. The step 740 may include heating at a first temperature for a first time and then heating at a second temperature for a second time, forming the final pet treat product. The first temperature can be about 60°C to about 100°C, or about 70°C to about 90°C, or about 80°C to about 85°C. The second temperature can be about 40°C to about 85°C, or about 50°C to about 70°C, or about 55°C to about 65°C. The first time can be about 30min to about 5hours, or about lhour to about 4hours, or about 2hours to about 3hours. The second time can be about 5hours to about 24hours, or about lOhours to about 20hours, or about 14hours to about 16hours. Heating may generally firm the pet treat or improve the adhesion between the inner portion and the outer layer.

The process 70 may further comprise a step 750 of inspecting, selecting, and packing the finished pet treat product.

The present method may optionally include adding useful and beneficial ingredients into any part of the inner portion, the outer layer, or any part of the pet treat during or between any steps or processes described herein. As an exemplary example, the method may comprise adding a binding agent or an edible adhesive onto the meat- based composition or the sheet before wrapping to enhance the adhesion therebetween. The method may comprise adding a flavoring agent onto an outer surface of the final pet treat product before packing.

EXAMPLES

Certain embodiments of the present disclosure are further described with reference to the following examples. These examples are intended to be merely illustrative of the disclosure and are not intended to limit or restrict the scope of the present disclosure in any way and should not be construed as providing conditions, parameters, reagents, or starting materials that must be utilized exclusively in order to practice the art of the present disclosure. Example 1. Chicken meat stuffed pet treat

A chicken meat stuffed pet treat was prepared according to the described compositions and methods. The pet treat is a taquito-like roll with a chicken-containing inner portion and an outer layer of rawhide sheet. The pet treat weighs between about 38g to about 42g, measures about 12cm to 14 cm in length, and has a shelf life of about 24 months. The colors of the outer layer and the inner portion are respectively yellow and light brown. The pet treat has a flour or corn type and chicken flavor.

Example 2. Beef meat stuffed pet treat

A beef meat stuffed pet treat was prepared according to the described compositions and methods. The pet treat is a taquito-like roll with a beef-containing inner portion and an outer layer of rawhide sheet. The pet treat weighs between about 38g to about 42g, measures about 12cm to 14 cm in length, and has a shelf life of about 24 months. The colors of the outer layer and the inner portion are respectively yellow and dark brown. The pet treat has a flour or com type and beef flavor. Table 1 below shows the formulation of the beef meat stuffed pet treat.

Table 1. Formulation of Example 2.

While various embodiments of the present disclosure have been described above, it should be understood that they have been presented by way of example, and not limitation. It will be apparent to persons skilled in the relevant art(s) that various changes in form and detail can be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the present disclosure. In fact, after reading the above description, it will be apparent to one skilled in the relevant art(s) how to implement the disclosure in alternative embodiments. Thus, the present disclosure should not be limited by any of the above-described exemplary embodiments. Accordingly, all suitable modifications and equivalents should be considered as falling within the spirit and scope of the disclosure. The disclosure resides in the claims hereinafter appended.