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Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2022/118074
Kind Code:
The Light Field Generator (LFG) produces a substantial increase in electrical energy through rotating photovoltaic (PV) material around a common axle, as the material rotates through optically concentrated incident light rays. This motive action generates originating periodic waveforms through periodic motion. The photovoltaic material comprises multiple sections. These sections can be arrayed in a rectangular facet and mounted in an array to form a cylinder, or other geometric form. These shapes directly create different voltage and current combinations when connected in series and parallel electrical circuit array patterns.

Application Number:
Publication Date:
June 09, 2022
Filing Date:
December 01, 2021
Export Citation:
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International Classes:
H02S20/30; H01L31/054; H02S40/20
Foreign References:
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
CALDWELL, Gregory, D. (US)
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1. A light field generator, comprising: a lens, positioned in a two-dimensional plane, to receive and pass through incident light rays from the sun; an drive shaft having a longitudinal axis positioned near and substantially parallel to the two- dimensional geometric plane of the lens; a motor coupled to one end of the drive shaft to rotate the drive shaft about the longitudinal axis at a constant speed; and a plurality of solar modules electrically coupled to each other and mechanically coupled to the drive shaft, each forming one of a corresponding plurality of rectangular facets of a cylindrical array of solar modules centered about the drive shaft, such that as the motor rotates the drive shaft at the constant speed, each of the plurality of solar modules repeatedly rotates by the lens for a respective time period, receives the incident light rays that pass through the lens during the respective time period, and generates an electrical signal pulse, wherein the plurality of solar modules electrically coupled to each other outputs a time series of electrical signal pulses.

2. The light field generator of claim 1, wherein the lens to optically concentrates the received incident light rays and pass through concentrated incident light rays, wherein each of the plurality of solar modules repeatedly rotates by the lens for a respective time period, and receives the concentrated incident light rays that pass through the lens during the respective time period. he light field generator of claim 1, wherein each of the plurality of solar modules comprises a plurality of semiconductor photovoltaic material sections, each section comprising a plurality of P-N junctions, wherein as the motor rotates the drive shaft at the constant speed, and each of the plurality of solar modules repeatedly rotates by the lens for the respective time period to receive the incident light rays that pass through the lens during the respective time period, the plurality of P-N junctions receives the incident light rays that pass through the lens during the respective time period. he light field generator of claim 3, wherein when each of the plurality of solar modules repeatedly rotates by the lens for the respective time period to receive the incident light rays that pass through the lens during the respective time period, the plurality of P-N junctions that receives the incident light rays that pass through the lens during the respective time period undergo controlled and predictive impact ionization electron avalanching.



[0001] This PCT application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 63/119,796, filed December 1, 2020, entitled “Light Field Generator (LFG) System for Solar Electrical Power Generation”; and is related to U.S. Utility Patent entitled “Method and Apparatus for Alternating Circuit Solar Power Generation,” filed March 29, 2017, having an application number 15/473,276 and issued June 2, 2020 as patent number 10,673,377, PCT Application entitled “Method and Apparatus for Alternating Circuit Solar Power Generation,” filed March 29, 2017, having an application number of PCT/US 17/24842, and U.S. Utility Patent Application entitled “Method and Apparatus for Solar Power Generation,” filed December 27, 2016, having an application number of 15,391,715, the entire contents of each being incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.


[0002] Static solar photovoltaic solar power generators are inefficient. Static solar photovoltaic material utilized in conventional flat solar panels is inadequately applied or used. What is needed is a system that provides a dramatic increase in power generation capability beyond present day one-sun flat panel technology that utilizes single junction photovoltaic material or optical concentration multi -junction material. The light field generator (LFG) system according to embodiments of the invention described herein better utilizes solar photovoltaic material with much more efficient utilization of physical space. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0003] The features and advantages of embodiments of the invention will become apparent from the detailed description that follows in which:

[0004] Fig. 1 illustrates a sideview and frontal view of a single LFG system;

[0005] Fig. 2 illustrates how photovoltaic material is arrayed on an LFG system;

[0006] Fig. 3 illustrates various power status elements of an LFG system;

[0007] Fig. 4 illustrates a twelve-channel rotary transformer;

[0008] Fig. 5 illustrates an LFG commercial solar module panel; and

[0009] Fig. 6 illustrates an LFG planar optic array.


[0010] Embodiments of the invention involve a light field, or solar, power generator that utilizes rotating solar photovoltaic material that is configured to provide efficiently controlled and predictive impact ionization electron avalanching for dramatic increases of electrical power generation compared to prior art static flat solar panels without damage to the crystalline substrate of any photovoltaic material, or other types of photo diodes, or any type of single junction and multijunction photovoltaic material. This improvement is made possible by rotating, cooling, and optically pulsing any type of photovoltaic material for practical electrical energy production and distribution, thus creating an electrical power production system that is photovoltaic material agnostic. This rotating motive action generates originating periodic electromagnetic waveforms through periodic motion of the solar panels for increased electrical signal flexibility.

[0011] The light field generator (LFG) system, according to embodiments of the invention, utilizes photovoltaic material. The material may be custom Yag, or CO2 laser, cut into multiple sections. This can be accomplished in a laboratory setting or manufacturing environment. These sections can be arrayed in a rectangular facet and multiple such facets mounted in an array of facets to form, for example, a cylinder, a truncated hyperboloid, a shallow hyperboloid, or other geometric form of an array of solar panels. These shapes are just one type of underlying physical structure of an LFG system according to embodiments of the invention. One or LFG system solar panels are the moving components that rotates around a common metallic axle of the LFG system. The LFG system array is rotated by a direct current (DC) drive. The DC drive rotates the generators at a fixed rate of revolutions per minute (RPM).

[0012] Today, at the industrial level, the costs per watt of multi -junction concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) material starts to approach the cost per watt of single junction photovoltaic (PV) material. However, conventional CPV system designs still prohibit wide acceptance in the solar power marketplace because of the physical dimensions of CPV apparatus, its optics, and the complexity of external cooling systems. The LFG system design, according to embodiments of the invention, elegantly solves these issues with efficient cooling, and advanced planar light guide optics. Planar light guide optics have been developed by numerous university research programs around the world, and have been proven to be much more efficient, and flexible in terms of design variants than any standard linear, circular, and other forms of conventional Fresnel optics.

[0013] The LFG system concentrates incident light, rotates photovoltaic material, pulses the concentrated light, and cools the temperature of PV material, to produce much higher levels of electrical current, and electrical voltage. Creating periodic electrical waveforms such as highbred bipolar square waves is another important aspect of the LFG electrical generator system. Power generator systems produce periodic electrical waveforms from a source. An LFG system produces electrical waveforms such as bipolar alternating current (AC), direct current pulse (DCP), and hybrids thereof, enabling incredible levels of generated electrical signal flexibility and load adaptability.

[0014] These aspects of the LFG system do not add electrical power. Rather, the LFG system methods of operation simply release the potential electrical power that is inherent in photovoltaic material. The solar industry and the solar engineering community have completely missed the power potential that has always been available. Flatland or static thinking has dominated the solar industry to such an extent that no other means and method has even been considered. Billions of dollars and countless hours have been spent on increasing static solar photovoltaic material performance characteristics in terms of small percentage increases. The LFG system completely changes this. The LFG system takes advantage of impact ionization electron avalanching. Impact ionization electronic avalanching is effectively a chain reaction of electron and electron hole pair charge carrier generation, and is dependent on the free electrons gaining sufficient energy according to a process in which a number of electrons increases due to increased photons because of the optical concentration rule, which states: more light equates to more electron and electron hole pair charge carrier generation. The LFG system incorporates improved cooling techniques applied to the PV material. More cooling dramatically reduces electrical resistance and reduces and or eliminates any possible damage to the atomic structure of the crystalline substrate of the PV material.

[0015] The crystalline substrate that is electrically joined by the depletion region creates a widening electromagnetic field between the N-layer and P-layer of the photovoltaic junction due to all these performance enhancing aspects that the LFG system enables. Additional important features of the LFG system are to enable a significant increase in the wire gauge or size of the photovoltaic N- Layer and P-Layer electrode, and fingers of the silkscreen overlay. Simple operations such as using high quality military grade (m-grade) 6-12 gauge stranded electrical conductors, m-grade solder, and other components have increased the size of the electrical conductance path that supports the dramatic increase of electrical energy output by the LFG system.

[0016] Fig. 1 depicts the fundamental structure of a light field generator system (LFG) 50, according to embodiments of the invention. The generator is comprised of generator-rotor 50a in a side view 60, and a frontal view 61. The generator rotates around a common axle or drive shaft 58 comprised of metal or a composite material. The generator-rotor 50a is populated with a 360° mechanical degree circular or cylindrical array of preferably six equally positioned photovoltaic facet clusters, or solar modules, 51a-f. Other embodiments may have more or less modules which may or may not be equally positioned or spaced with respect to each other. Each facet cluster 51a, 51b, 51c, 5 Id, 51e, and 5 If, is comprised of multiple sections of the photovoltaic material. In this case the generator-rotor is comprised of six rectangle facet-clusters that are mounted in an equilateral hexagon frame 74. Arrays of any number of facet clusters can be used in the LFG system, and any type of geometric frame can be utilized such as hyperboloid frames, truncated hyperboloid frames, shallow hyperboloid frames, geodesic frames, and frames of other geometric shapes. The photovoltaic material can be single junction polysilicate, single junction monosilicate, dual junction polysilicate, dual junction monosilicate, triple junction polysilicate, and triple monosilicate. New materials such as thin film photovoltaic, transparent, perovskite, graphene, and any other photovoltaic materials that is based upon one or a plurality of P-N junctions, other architectures can be used as well.

[0017] The LFG system 50 utilizes many different types of optical concentration methods that provide multiple suns of light amplification. For example, in experimental prototypes, optical lenses such as linear Fresnel lenses, and circular Fresnel lenses, have been utilized and other such conventional optics 52. The operation of the LFG system 50 is elegantly simple and straightforward. Incident light rays 53 are refracted through the optical material 52, and incident light rays are concentrated 54. Many focal distances have been experimented with. In one case an experimental platform was designed with a linear Fresnel optical lens with a physical dimension of 500mm long by 100mm wide. In Fig. 1, the focal distance 58 of the lens is 480mm. Each facet-cluster 51 is comprised of a physical frame 100mm in length and 43mm in height. In this example the physical frame is populated with six photovoltaic sections 68.

[0018] Fig. 2 is another side view 60 of generator rotor 50a, with three different groups of photovoltaic sections, or facet clusters, illustrated in exploded views 59, 59a, and 59b respectively.

At 59, six 16mm (65) x 38mm (66) single junction polysilicate photovoltaic sections 68a, are grouped together as depicted at 62, 62a, 62b, 62c, 62d, and 62e, and each generates 0.55 volts. Arrayed in a group or cluster and wired in a series circuit 3.3volts are generated in a static one sun environment 69, X6=3.3 volts. Six facet-clusters generate between 18-19.8 volts in a static environment. One of the basic elements of single junction polysilicate photovoltaic material is that a single junction wafer only produces 0.55 volts no matter how large the surface area. The LFG system circumvents this limitation by cutting the material into small sections while at the same time providing P-N junction exposure to incident light.

[0019] In Fig. 2, take note of the side view 60 of an LFG generator-rotor 50a. One of the fundamental dynamic functions of the LFG system is that when the generator-rotor rotates at threshold revolutions per minute (RPM) all six facet-clusters remain energized, cooled, and the generated electrical power outputs levels are significant. In still another configuration in Fig. 2, a 38mm x 16mm single junction polysilicate photovoltaic section is cut, e.g., custom laser cut, into four sub-sections 63, 63a, 63b and 63c. In exploded view 59a, each sub-section remains 16mm in width. However, each of the four subsections is cut into 9.55mm in length. Each subsection still produces 0.55volts, so X4=2.2volts is generated 78. In exploded view 59b, X6=13.2volts 70. Therefore, as depicted in side view 60, six facet-cluster 51a, 51b, 51c, 5 Id, 51e, and 5 If, each using the smaller subsections depicted in 59a, will produce a total of X6=79.2 volts 71.

[0020] The best way to provide significant increase in electrical power is to create the best-case electrical source signal without adding external electrical circuit components to the electrical system. This approach inherently increases electrical generation efficiency by unleashing the electrical power potential that has always resided in the crystalline substrate of any solar photovoltaic material. In Figs. 1 and 2, the side view of the LFG system 50a shows each facet-cluster 51a, 51b, 51c, 5 Id, 51e, and 5 If at different photon to electron saturation power levels, as depicted by the relatively different amounts of black versus white shading, wherein the black shading represents photon to electron saturation. Facet-cluster 51a is photonically energized by concentrated incident light 54. As a facet-cluster rotates away from concentrated incident light 54, the photonic energy level dissipates over time, as is depicted by the relatively smaller amount of black shading in each of successive facet-clusters 5 If, 51e, 5 Id, 51c, and 51b as they rotate in a clockwise direction away from concentrated incident light 54.

[0021] Each facet-cluster from 51a to 5 If remains energized in a continuous state once the LFG system rotates at the desired revolutions per minute (RPM) threshold. The LFG system rotates 360° mechanical degrees 93 and produces 1080° electrical degrees 94 as shown in Fig. 3 because each facet-cluster produces a periodic waveform for a total of six in one 360° mechanical degree rotation like any electrical power generator or alternator.

[0022] Referring to Fig. 3, the depicted six facet-clusters 51 also reflect the energized state of the system depicted in Fig. 2. Depicted in Fig. 3 are three electrical conditional states (a) 76, (b) 77, and (c) 78. Each conditional state is directly dependent upon RPM levels. Sky conditions or best-case atmospherics electrical condition state (a) 76 govern the quantity and quality of sun light. LFG prototypes used for testing and data collection have revealed technical settings and configurations that enable electrical power generation optimization. For example, in conditional state (a) 76 an electrical equilibrium is achieved. In this case electrical equilibrium equates to a maximum electrical power generation state. For example, with a six facet-cluster 51a to 5 If with each facetcluster surface area that measures 100mm by 43mm, optimum or RPM threshold 80 is 200RPM 81. Surface temperature average of each facet-cluster 35C, 83. The measurement is taken with laserbased heat gauge. In this case the temperature reading is taken with the LFG system rotating at 200RPM. In this case the heat level is relatively low, and photovoltaic capacitance 88 is optimized, maximum electrical power 75 is achieved. As the LFG system rotates at 200RPM, 1200 electrical pulses per second (PPS) 82 are generated (6 facet-clusters each generating an electrical pulse each time a facet-cluster passes under lens, or optical material, 52). Sustained RPM also produces stable electrical synchronization 87, and stable in-phase 85 signal 84 to a designated electrical load 86. [0023] The LFG system has been developed over a ten-year period. 35 different test and data collection prototypal systems have been built and configured in countless configurations. Scientific experimentations have proven that by pulsing the photovoltaic material with incident light every time it passes by, or under, optical material 52, while sustaining efficient temperature cooling, maximum power generation through electron avalanching is realized, and does not cause any deleterious damage, and wear and tear on the crystalline substrate and metallic electrodes and fingers. There is a new precedent in the photovoltaic arts. The company Spectrolab is a manufacturer of space solar cells and panels, and testing simulators headquartered in Sylmar, California. The company developed the Spectrolab Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator (LAPSS). This test system is designed to provide for measurement of current-voltage (I/V) characteristics of solar arrays for space craft. The pulsed solar simulator enables for repeat testing of large solar panels without changing the temperature of each solar cell. Like the LFG system the LAPSS system does not cause any deleterious effects on the photovoltaic material. The LAPSS system measures 40 data points per pulse and up to 200 simultaneous data points. The LAPSS system did not utilize concentrating optics. Solar panels for space craft do not utilize optical concentration. So, the LFG system protocols, and procedural phenomenon did not reveal itself to Spectrolab technicians. By rotating the LFG system, and periodic pulsing of concentrated light, a dramatic increase in electrical energy is predictively and efficiently generated.

[0024] With reference to Fig. 3, there are different types of electron avalanching 90, cascading states, and impact ionization. A form of electron avalanching is one photon produces one electron, so there is a one to one (1 : 1) proton to electron ratio, another form of electron avalanching is one photon produces two electrons (1 :2 ratio), and still another form produces a 1 :3 ratio of photons to electrons. Electron avalanching is a form of chain reaction of electron generation. Regardless of the phenomenon, the application of optical concentration by physical means is that incident light energy is optically enhanced on the receiving surface of the facet-cluster. In Fig. 1, the focal line image 57 is created by the aperture 57a of that light that is framed and bounded by the 500mm by 100mm optical lens 52. In Fig. 3, like any generator, the output electrical signal can be produced to generate 50Hz-60Hz sinewaves 91. Square waves, direct current, three phase electrical signals, and other such conventional periodic waveform structures. This is accomplished through the utilization of power electronics.

[0025] In Fig. 3, electrical conditional state (b) 77 describes a deleterious condition.

When the RPM drops 101, facet-cluster surface temperature rises 98, electrical resistance increases, electrical energy drops 95, electrical signal 84 loses synchronization 96, and loses electrical phase 100, and electrical power is lost 97. Electrical conditional state (c) 78 with higher RPM 102 induces higher electrical resistance 99, due to temperature increase 98a of the facet-cluster surface. The electrical signal 84 synchronization loss 96 and other factors create a deleterious environment of each facet-cluster. Each facet-cluster has a diode directly connected, 72, 72a, 72b, 72c, 72d, and 72e, to the respective facet-cluster. The simple operation of the diode involves switching on the diode to release electrical energy when concentrated light is detected by the photovoltaic material of each facet-cluster. When concentrated light is no longer detected, the diode switches off 73. The switching action of the attached diode ensures that electrical power generation remains constant, and reverse current and electrical interference from faulty power electronics and other faulty circuits is avoided.

[0026] In Fig. 4, electrical energy is transferred from rotating LFG system circuits to stationary circuits with a rotary transformer 89. In this case a flat plane 104 rotary transformer is depicted. Each facet-cluster has a positive + and a negative - circuit and has twelve channels 107 from the LFG system 107a. The rotary transformer rotor 105 is directly attached to the same axle 58a, and 58b to which all LFG systems are attached as shown in Fig 5. Fig. 5 depicts an LFG commercial solar power generator 120 with two separate generator arrays each with 16 equilateral hexagonal generators 118 and 118a respectively. Each generator array utilizes its own common axle 58a and 58b. The entire LFG panel system utilizes 32 equilateral hexagonal generators 119. Each 16- generator array utilizes its own DC drive 117, and 117a. The LFG system utilizes an efficient and low-cost brushless DC drive that utilizes frictionless magnetic bearings. This design ensures that there are no physical wear points, and points of mechanical drag and resistance that consumes electrical power. Both DC drives are controlled by a common power electronics system 115. Each LFG system 50a is electrically connected in a common parallel two positive and negative circuit path. The twin axle panel utilizes two 12 channel rotary transformers 89a and 89b respectively.

[0027] In Fig. 4 the rotary transformer 89 is a flat plane system 104 that is comprised of an aluminum housing with 12 metallic coils that are wound and embedded in a dielectric ferrite material 110 that enables channel isolation through magnetic field compression 111. This design has been used in the rotating video record and playback heads of professional and consumer video cassette recording (VCR) systems and proven to sustain solid video signal-to-noise ratios. The stator coils 106a are divided into 12 channels 108a, 108b, 108c, 108d, 108e, and 108f. The 12-channel stator is directly connected to power electronics 115. The combined electrical signal is connected to an electrical load 114. The rotor coils 105a are also divided into 12 facing channels 109a, 109b, 109c, 109d, 109e, and 109f. The rotor 105 and the stator 106 are divided by a calibrated air gap 113. This ensures an efficient transfer of electrical energy from the rotor to the stator. A rotary transformer requires the utilization of alternating current (AC). The LFG generation system is designed to generate AC current as an originating source signal due to a simple circuit arrangement from each 16-channel generator array.

[0028] In Fig. 5 the physical dimensions of the twin axle LFG panel are 1048mm in width 121 and 2100mm in height or length 122. These dimensions are typical for solar panels in commercial solar installations and residential applications. A conventional solar panel with these dimensions and populated with combinations of polysilicate and monosilicate single junction material is rated to produce 365 watts peak DC. In one 650,000 panel installation in Central California the published output is 237.9 Peak DC megawatts. The LFG system has been subjected to countless tests and data collection sequences. A single LFG system 50a has produced an average of 140 watts EV curve throughout a solar day. This was accomplished with a basic LFG testing system prototype with a single conventional 500mm by 100mm linear Fresnel lens. Each single equilateral hexagonal LFG system is 100mm long by 90mm wide. This system included 32 generators that produced 140 watts EV curve each, mechanically and electrically combined, to produce a total of 4,480 watts, using with the same physical footprint as a standard commercial one-sun solar flat panel-module. The LFG 32 generator solar panel-module concentrates its received incident light with specialized planar optics 123, according to embodiments of the invention.

[0029] Referring to Fig. 6, a logical schematic of the twin axel commercial flat panel 120 is depicted. In particular, this figure depicts a side view or internal view of the basic twin 16 generator 118 and 118a generator configuration, for a total of 32 generators 119. Both 16 equilateral hexagonal generator arrays are electrically synchronized with the common power electronics. The embodiment uses planar micro-optic concentration 123 lensing. Planar optics have developed by a plurality of technical universities around the world. Planar optics is a form of light guide and light pipe systems that was originally designed for concentrated solar photovoltaics (CPV) such as dual and triple junction photovoltaic material applications. Typically, this application requires elaborate and expensive cooling systems to manage the high temperatures of up to 500 times one sun optical concentration which equate to 500X optical concentration. Another important feature of the advanced optical system for the LFG system is Electro-Wetting on Dielectric (EWOD) systems 131 as shown in Fig. 6. EWOD may be used to optically track the sun while it traverses the sky from horizon to horizon. EWOD eliminates expensive and complex X-Y mechanical tracking. Planar micro-optical concentration system utilizes a primary optic 129 that is comprised of multiple micro-optical lenses that have a typical length 10.5mm and micro lens width that depends upon desired primary optical lens concentration. Tradeoffs between lens diameter, focal length, waveguide thickness and desired light concentration output all affect the performance of a particular design. Light enters the primary optical micro lenses and a two-dimensional lens array and collects in a multimode slab waveguide.

[0030] Light collected by each optical element of the lens array is coupled into a common slab waveguide using specular reflections from an associate area of prism facets fabricated at each lens focus that propagate as a linear progression 126 on the left at 126a and the right at 126b simultaneously, and additive functions 125 and 125a, respectively. Sunlight propagates within the slab by total internal reflection (TIR) and is guided to a PV cell placed at the waveguide edge(s) 124 and 124a from the center with reflective prism facets +0+, and 1+, 2+, 3+ 4+, 5+, and 6+, left and right simultaneously. This is the focal point of the secondary optical element that provides homogenized light energy flux to the rotating facet-clusters in each LFG 16 generator array 118.

[0031] In Fig. 6, a simplified approach to EWOD 131 is disclosed. EWOD tunable optics typically are made by using a plurality of tunable microfluid prisms as an optical overlay for concentrated optics; 127, 127a, 127b, 127c, 127d, 127e, 127f, 127g, 127h, 127i, 127j, 127k, 1271, 127m and 127n are examples. Each of the liquid prism modules includes two immiscible liquids. The prism sidewall is fabricated by coating a hydrophobic dielectric layer on a conductive substrate. An electrowetting effect is induced by applying bias voltages 130, 130a, 130b, and 130c with two liquids, incident light is accordingly steered at each of the interfaces and thus the microfluidic device functions as an optical prism 127. Modulation of the contact angles at two and four sidewalls allows for single- and dual-axis tracking, respectively. A basic prism module is further stacked up and expanded to achieve an arrayed prism panel, which enables wide solar tracking and high concentration through concentrating optics. This microfluidic solar energy collector can be potentially useful for various solar power technologies such as solar thermal heating, solar indoor lighting, concentrated photovoltaic (CPV), concentrated solar power (CSP), and solar thermochemical reactions. However, EWOD is utilized by the LFG system for efficient incident light steering so that the sun is followed thereby enabling optimized electrical power generation. Electric field variables 132 are created that tune the micro-fluid that steers the light beam to the center of the primary optic 129, with electronics control 128 that electrically steers each light beams so that the homogenized light flux of concentrated light powers the LFG systems facet-clusters uniformly, for all 32 LFG systems that comprised the LFG commercial solar panel-module.