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Title:
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR INTER-BAND DL/UL BEAM CORRESPONDENCE TESTING
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2020/206472
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
Embodiment methods are provided to test whether a UE supports inter-band beam correspondence between two different frequency bands. In one embodiment, a tester transmits reference signals (RSs) to a UE in a first frequency band, and receives signals from the UE over a plurality of UE transmit beams in a second frequency band different than the first frequency band. The tester selects a beam from the plurality of UE transmit beams that corresponds to effective isotropic radiation power satisfying a predefined criterion, and determines that the UE supports inter-band beam correspondence between the first frequency band and the second frequency band, upon the selected beam satisfying a minimum peak EIRP requirement and a spherical coverage requirement in the second frequency band.

Inventors:
CHENG QIAN (US)
CHEN XIANG (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2020/044348
Publication Date:
October 08, 2020
Filing Date:
July 30, 2020
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
FUTUREWEI TECHNOLOGIES INC (US)
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ZOU, Hong et al. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A method comprising:

transmitting, by a device, a first signal in a first frequency band over a first transmit beam to a user equipment (UE);

receiving, by the device, a plurality of signals from the UE in a second frequency band that is higher than the first frequency band, the plurality of signals transmitted by the UE over a plurality of UE transmit beams in the second frequency band;

measuring, by the device effective isotropic radiation powers (EIRPs) of the plurality of signals;

determining, based on the measured EIRPs, that a second signal from the plurality of signals has a measured EIRP satisfying a predefined criterion, the second signal being transmitted by the UE over a second transmit beam of the plurality of UE transmit beams; and

determining that the UE supports inter-band beam correspondence between the first frequency band and the second frequency band, upon the second transmit beam satisfying a minimum peak EIRP requirement and a spherical coverage requirement in the second frequency band.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein a quantity of the plurality of UE transmit beams is related to the first frequency band and the second frequency band.

3. The method of claim 2, wherein the quantity is based on a predefined mapping between the first frequency band and the second frequency band. 4. The method of claim 2, wherein the quantity is based on a formula relating to the first frequency band and the second frequency band.

5. The method of claim 4, wherein the quantity satisfies:

(\F2 iowl 2 fF2 high l2!

Kbc = a - maxi (I— 1

FI J—ow l , I FIJli agh I J,’

where ¾c is the quantity of the plurality of UE transmit beams, Ft_low represents a lowest frequency of the first frequency band, F2_low represents a lowest frequency of the second frequency band, Ft_high represents a highest frequency of the first frequency band, F2_high represents a highest frequency of the second frequency band, and a is a constant.

6. The method of claim 4, wherein the quantity satisfies: where ¾c is the quantity of the plurality of UE transmit beams, Ft_high represents the highest frequency of the first frequency band, F2_high represents the highest frequency of the second frequency band, and a is a constant.

7. The method of any one of claims t-6, wherein the first frequency band and the second frequency band have a frequency difference that is greater than a threshold.

8. The method of any one of claims 1-7, wherein the EIRP of the second signal satisfying the predefined criterion comprises:

the EIRP of the second signal is maximal among EIRP of the plurality of signals.

9. The method of any one of claims 1-8, further comprising:

generating, by the device, a report indicating that the UE requires calibration for inter-band beam correspondence upon the second transmit beam failing to satisfy the minimum peak EIRP requirement or the spherical coverage requirement in the second frequency band. to. The method of any one of claims 1-8, further comprising:

generating, by the device, a report indicating that the UE passes a test for inter band beam correspondence upon the first UE transmit beam satisfying the minimum peak EIRP requirement and the spherical coverage requirement in the second frequency band. 11. A method comprising:

transmitting, by a device to a user equipment (UE), a plurality of reference signals (RSs) in a first frequency band;

receiving, , by the device, a first report from the UE, the first report comprising measurements of the first plurality of RSs performed by the UE;

configuring, by the device, a transmission of a second RS in a second frequency band based on the first report, the second RS being quasi-colocated (QCLed) with a first RS of the plurality of RSs in the first frequency band according to QCL Type-D, the first RS corresponding to a resource indicator that is included in the first report, and the second frequency band being higher than the first frequency band;

transmitting, by the device, the second RS in the second frequency band to the

UE; configuring, by the device, for the UE, a transmission of uplink sounding reference signals (SRSs) in the second frequency band, the SRSs in spatial relation with the second RS;

receiving, by the device, the uplink SRSs from the UE in the second frequency band; and

determining, by the device, that the UE supports inter-band beam

correspondence between the first frequency band and the second frequency band, upon a beam that carries a SRS of the received uplink SRSs satisfying a minimum peak EIRP requirement or a spherical coverage requirement in the second frequency band, the SRS having effective isotropic radiation power (EIRP) satisfying a predefined criterion.

12. The method of claim it, wherein the plurality of RSs comprises a synchronization signal block (SSB).

13. The method of claim 11, wherein the plurality of RSs comprises a channel state information-reference signal (CSI-RS).

14. The method of any one of claims 11-13, wherein the first frequency band and the second frequency band have a frequency difference that is greater than a threshold.

15. The method of any one of claims 11-14, wherein the first report comprises a layer 1 received signal received power (Lt-RSRP) or layer 1 signal to noise plus interference ration (L-t SINR).

16. The method of any one of claims 11-15, wherein the first report comprises a CSI- RS resource indicator (CRI) and/or SSB resource indicator (SSBRI).

17. The method of any one of claims 11-16, wherein the second RS comprises a CSI- RS.

18. The method of claim 17, further comprising:

configuring, by the device, a number of transmissions of the CSI-RS, the number less than a threshold.

19. The method of any one of claims 11-18, further comprising:

generating, by the device, a report indicating that the UE requires calibration for supporting inter-band beam correspondence upon beam failing to satisfy the minimum peak EIRP requirement or the spherical coverage requirement in the second frequency band.

20. The method of any one of claims it-i8, further comprising:

generating, by the device, a report indicating that the UE passes a calibration test for supporting inter-band beam correspondence upon the beam satisfying the minimum peak EIRP requirement and the spherical coverage requirement in the second frequency band.

21. An apparatus comprising:

a non-transitory memory storage comprising instructions; and

one or more processors in communication with the memory storage, wherein the instructions, when executed by the one or more processors, cause the apparatus to perform:

transmitting a first signal in a first frequency band over a first transmit beam to a user equipment (UE);

receiving a plurality of signals from the UE in a second frequency band that is higher than the first frequency band, the plurality of signals transmitted by the UE over a plurality of UE transmit beams in the second frequency band;

measuring effective isotropic radiation powers (EIRPs) of the plurality of signals; determining, based on the measured EIRPs, that a second signal from the plurality of signals has a measured EIRP satisfying a predefined criterion, the second signal being transmitted by the UE over a second transmit beam of the plurality of UE transmit beams; and

determining that the UE supports inter-band beam correspondence between the first frequency band and the second frequency band, upon the second transmit beam satisfying a minimum peak EIRP requirement and a spherical coverage requirement in the second frequency band.

22. An apparatus comprising:

a non-transitory memory storage comprising instructions; and

one or more processors in communication with the memory storage, wherein the instructions, when executed by the one or more processors, cause the apparatus to perform:

transmitting, to a user equipment (UE), a plurality of reference signals (RSs) in a first frequency band; receiving a first report from the UE, the first report comprising measurements of the first plurality of RSs performed by the UE;

configuring a transmission of a second RS in a second frequency band based on the first report, the second RS being quasi-colocated (QCLed) with a first RS of the plurality of RSs in the first frequency band according to QCL Type-D, the first RS corresponding to a resource indicator that is included in the first report, and the second frequency band being higher than the first frequency band;

transmitting the second RS in the second frequency band to the UE;

configuring, for the UE, a transmission of uplink sounding reference signals (SRSs) in the second frequency band, the SRSs in spatial relation with the second RS; receiving the uplink SRSs from the UE in the second frequency band; and determining that the UE supports inter-band beam correspondence between the first frequency band and the second frequency band, upon a beam that carries a SRS of the received uplink SRSs satisfying a minimum peak EIRP requirement or a spherical coverage requirement in the second frequency band, the SRS having effective isotropic radiation power (EIRP) satisfying a predefined criterion.

23. A non-transitoiy computer-readable media storing computer instructions, that when executed by one or more processors, cause an apparatus to perform:

transmitting a first signal in a first frequency band over a first transmit beam to a user equipment (UE);

receiving a plurality of signals from the UE in a second frequency band that is higher than the first frequency band, the plurality of signals transmitted by the UE over a plurality of UE transmit beams in the second frequency band;

measuring effective isotropic radiation powers (EIRPs) of the plurality of signals; determining, based on the measured EIRPs, that a second signal from the plurality of signals that has a measured EIRP satisfying a predefined criterion, the second signal being transmitted by the UE over a second transmit beam of the plurality of UE transmit beams; and

determining that the UE supports inter-band beam correspondence between the first frequency band and the second frequency band, upon the second transmit beam satisfying a minimum peak EIRP requirement and a spherical coverage requirement in the second frequency band.

24. A non-transitoiy computer-readable media storing computer instructions, that when executed by one or more processors, cause an apparatus to perform: transmitting, to a user equipment (UE), a plurality of reference signals (RSs) in a first frequency band;

receiving a first report from the UE, the first report comprising measurements of the first plurality of RSs performed by the UE;

configuring a transmission of a second RS in a second frequency band based on the first report, the second RS being quasi-colocated (QCLed) with a first RS of the plurality of RSs in the first frequency band according to QCL Type-D, the first RS corresponding to a resource indicator that is included in the first report, and the second frequency band being higher than the first frequency band;

transmitting the second RS in the second frequency band to the UE;

configuring, for the UE, a transmission of uplink sounding reference signals (SRSs) in the second frequency band, the SRSs in spatial relation with the second RS; receiving the uplink SRSs from the UE in the second frequency band; and determining that the UE supports inter-band beam correspondence between the first frequency band and the second frequency band, upon a beam that carries a SRS of the received uplink SRSs satisfying a minimum peak EIRP requirement or a spherical coverage requirement in the second frequency band, the SRS having effective isotropic radiation power (EIRP) satisfying a predefined criterion.

Description:
Method and Apparatus for Inter-Band DL/UL Beam

Correspondence Testing

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] The present disclosure relates generally to wireless communications, and, in particular embodiments, to a method and apparatus for inter-band downlink

(DL)/uplink (UL) beam correspondence testing.

BACKGROUND

[0002] In next-generation wireless communications, e.g., 5G new radio (NR), high frequency carriers, such as millimeter wave (mmWave) carriers, are used to provide high data rate wireless communications. Beamforming techniques are employed to combat the path loss suffered from communications using high frequencies, where a number of high-gain transmit and/or receive beams are formed in different angular directions, and possibly at different time slots, for transmitting and receiving wireless signals. Beam management procedures are also defined and used to manage beamforming processes. SUMMARY

[0003] Technical advantages are generally achieved, by embodiments of this disclosure which describe a method and apparatus for inter-band downlink (DL)/uplink (UL) beam correspondence testing.

[0004] According to one aspect of the present disclosure, there is provided a method that includes: transmitting, by a device, a first signal in a first frequency band over a first transmit beam to a user equipment (UE); receiving, by the device, a plurality of signals from the UE in a second frequency band that is higher than the first frequency band, the plurality of signals transmitted by the UE over a plurality of UE transmit beams in the second frequency band; measuring effective isotropic radiation powers (EIRPs) of the plurality of signals; determining, based on the measured EIRPs, that a second signal from the plurality of signals has a measured EIRP satisfying a predefined criterion, the second signal being transmitted by the UE over a second transmit beam of the plurality of UE transmit beams; and determining that the UE supports inter-band beam correspondence between the first frequency band and the second frequency band, upon the second transmit beam satisfying a minimum peak EIRP requirement and a spherical coverage requirement in the second frequency band.

[0005] This enables to determine whether the UE supports inter-band beam correspondence between different frequency bands, and provides a mechanism for ensuring the UE’s capability of inter-band beam correspondence between different frequency bands. [ooo6] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, a quantity of the plurality of UE transmit beams is related to the first frequency band and the second frequency band.

[0007] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, the quantity is based on a predefined mapping between the first frequency band and the second frequency band.

[0008] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, the quantity is based on a formula relating to the first frequency band and the second frequency band.

[0009] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, the quantity satisfies:

(\F2 low l 2 \F2 ftigftl 2 )

Kbc = a - maxi (I— FI J—ow l , I FIJli a gh I J 1,’

where ¾ c is the quantity of the plurality of UE transmit beams, Ft_low represents a lowest frequency of the first frequency band, F2_low represents a lowest frequency of the second frequency band, Ft_high represents a highest frequency of the first frequency band, F2_high represents a highest frequency of the second frequency band, and a is a constant.

[0010] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, the quantity satisfies:

where ¾ c is the quantity of the plurality of UE transmit beams, Ft_high represents the highest frequency of the first frequency band, F2_high represents the highest frequency of the second frequency band, and a is a constant.

[0011] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, the first frequency band and the second frequency band have a frequency difference that is greater than a threshold.

[0012] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, the EIRP of the second signal satisfying the predefined criterion comprises: the EIRP of the second signal is maximal among EIRP of the plurality of signals.

[0013] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, the method further comprises: generating, by the device, a report indicating that the UE requires calibration for inter band beam correspondence upon the second transmit beam failing to satisfy the minimum peak EIRP requirement or the spherical coverage requirement in the second frequency band.

[0014] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, the method further comprises: generating, by the device, a report indicating that the UE passes a test for inter-band beam correspondence upon the first UE transmit beam satisfying the minimum peak EIRP requirement and the spherical coverage requirement in the second frequency band.

[0015] According to another aspect of the present disclosure, there is provided a method that includes: transmitting, by a device to a user equipment (UE), a plurality of reference signals (RSs) in a first frequency band; receiving, by the device, a first report from the UE, the first report comprising measurements of the first plurality of RSs performed by the UE; configuring, by the device, a transmission of a second RS in a second frequency band based on the first report, the second RS being quasi-colocated (QCLed) with a first RS of the plurality of RSs in the first frequency band according to QCL Type-D, the first RS corresponding to a resource indicator that is included in the first report, and the second frequency band being higher than the first frequency band; transmitting, by the device, the second RS in the second frequency band to the UE; configuring, by the device for the UE, a transmission of uplink sounding reference signals (SRSs) in the second frequency band, the SRSs in spatial relation with the second RS; receiving, by the device, the uplink SRSs from the UE in the second frequency band; and determining, by the device, that the UE supports inter-band beam correspondence between the first frequency band and the second frequency band, upon a beam that carries a SRS of the received uplink SRSs satisfying a minimum peak EIRP requirement or a spherical coverage requirement in the second frequency band, the SRS having effective isotropic radiation power (EIRP) satisfying a predefined criterion.

[0016] This enables to determine whether the UE supports inter-band beam correspondence between different frequency bands, and provides a mechanism for ensuring the UE’s capability of inter-band beam correspondence between different frequency bands.

[0017] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, the plurality of RSs comprises a synchronization signal block (SSB).

[0018] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, the plurality of RSs comprises a channel state information-reference signal (CSI-RS).

[0019] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, the first frequency band and the second frequency band have a frequency difference that is greater than a threshold.

[0020] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, the first report comprises a layer 1 received signal received power (Lt-RSRP) or layer 1 signal to noise plus interference ration (L-t SINR).

[0021] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, the first report comprises a CSI- RS resource indicator (CRI) and/or SSB resource indicator (SSBRI).

[0022] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, the second RS comprises a CSI- RS.

[0023] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, the method further comprises: configuring, by the device, a number of transmissions of the CSI-RS, the number less than a threshold.

[0024] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, the method further comprises: generating, by the device, a report indicating that the UE requires calibration for supporting inter-band beam correspondence upon beam failing to satisfy the minimum peak EIRP requirement or the spherical coverage requirement in the second frequency band.

[0025] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, the method further comprises: generating, by the device, a report indicating that the UE passes a calibration test for supporting inter-band beam correspondence upon the beam satisfying the minimum peak EIRP requirement and the spherical coverage requirement in the second frequency band.

[0026] According to another aspect of the present disclosure, an apparatus is provided that includes: a non-transitoiy memory storage comprising instructions; and one or more processors in communication with the memory storage, wherein the instructions, when executed by the one or more processors, cause the apparatus to perform a method in any of the preceding aspects.

[0027] According to another aspect of the present disclosure, a non-transitory computer-readable media is provided. The non-transitory computer-readable media stores computer instructions, that when executed by one or more processors, cause an apparatus to perform a method in any of the preceding aspects.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0028] For a more complete understanding of the present disclosure, and the advantages thereof, reference is now made to the following descriptions taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:

[0029] FIG. 1 illustrates a diagram of an embodiment communication network;

[0030] FIG. 2 illustrates a diagram of an embodiment arrangement for testing a UE’s capability of supporting inter-band beam correspondence;

[0031] FIG. 3 illustrates a diagram of an embodiment method for testing a UE’s capability of supporting inter-band beam correspondence;

[0032] FIG. 4 illustrates a diagram of another embodiment method for testing a UE’s capability of supporting inter-band beam correspondence;

[0033] FIG. 5 illustrates a flowchart of an embodiment method for testing a UE’s capability of supporting inter-band beam correspondence;

[0034] FIG. 6 illustrates a flowchart of another embodiment method for testing a UE’s capability of supporting inter-band beam correspondence;

[0035] FIG. 7 illustrates a block diagram of an embodiment processing system; and

[0036] FIG. 8 illustrates a block diagram of an embodiment transceiver adapted to transmit and receive signaling over a telecommunications network. [0037] Corresponding numerals and symbols in the different figures generally refer to corresponding parts unless otherwise indicated. The figures are drawn to clearly illustrate the relevant aspects of the embodiments and are not necessarily drawn to scale. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF ILLUSTRATIVE EMBODIMENTS

[0038] The making and using of embodiments of this disclosure are discussed in detail below. It should be appreciated, however, that the concepts disclosed herein can be embodied in a wide variety of specific contexts, and that the specific embodiments discussed herein are merely illustrative and do not serve to limit the scope of the claims. Further, it should be understood that various changes, substitutions and alterations can be made herein without departing from the spirit and scope of this disclosure as defined by the appended claims.

[0039] A user equipment (UE) may be configured to communicate in multiple frequency bands, where beamforming techniques are used for communication in the multiple frequency bands. The UE may be able to determine beam related information for one frequency band based on beam information of another frequency band according to the UE’s capability of supporting inter-band beam correspondence between the two frequency bands. This is beneficial for facilitating the UE’s beam management, such as beam link pairing, especially when an involved frequency band is high, e.g., in millimeter wave frequency band. It is thus desirable to ensure that UEs support inter-band beam correspondence before the UEs get out of the factory.

[0040] Embodiment of the present disclosure provide methods for testing whether a UE supports inter-band beam correspondence between a first frequency band and a second frequency band, where the second frequency band is higher than the first frequency band. A UE supports inter-band beam correspondence if the UE is able to determine one or more UE transmit (Tx) beams for uplink transmission in the second frequency band based on the UE’s measurement on signals received in the first frequency band, such that a UE Tx beam in the second frequency band satisfies a beam

correspondence requirement in the second frequency band. Details of embodiments will be provided in the following.

[0041] FIG. 1 illustrates a network too for communicating data. The network too comprises a base station 110 having a coverage area 101, a plurality of user equipments (UEs) 120, and a backhaul network 130. As shown, the base station 110 establishes uplink (dashed line) and/or downlink (dotted line) connections with the UEs 120, which serve to carry data from the UEs 120 to the base station 110 and vice-versa. Data carried over the uplink/ downlink connections may include data communicated between the UEs 120, as well as data communicated to/from a remote-end (not shown) by way of the backhaul network 130. As used herein, the term“base station” refers to any component (or collection of components) configured to provide wireless access to a network, such as a Node B, an evolved Node B (eNB), a next generation (NG) Node B (gNB), a master eNB (MeNB), a secondary eNB (SeNB), a master gNB (MgNB), a secondary gNB (SgNB), a network controller, a control node, an access node, an access point, a transmission point (TP), a transmission-reception point (TRP), a cell, a carrier, a macro cell, a femtocell, a pico cell, a relay, a customer premises equipment (CPE), a WI-FI access point (AP), or other wirelessly enabled devices. Base stations may provide wireless access in accordance with one or more wireless communication protocols, e.g., long term evolution (LTE), LTE advanced (LTE-A), High Speed Packet Access (HSPA), WI-FI 802.na/b/g/n/ac, etc. As used herein, the term“user equipment” refers to any component (or collection of components) capable of establishing a wireless connection with a base station. UEs may also be commonly referred to as mobile stations, mobile devices, mobiles, terminals, users, subscribers, stations, communication devices, CPEs, relays, Integrated Access and Backhaul (IAB) relays, and the like. It is noted that when relaying is used (based on relays, picos, CPEs, and so on), especially multi-hop relaying, the boundary between a controller and a node controlled by the controller may become blurry, and a dual node (e.g., either the controller or the node controlled by the controller) deployment where a first node that provides configuration or control information to a second node is considered to be the controller. Likewise, the concept of UL and DL transmissions can be extended as well. In some embodiments, the network loo may comprise various other wireless devices, such as relays, low power nodes, etc.

[0042] The network 100 may provide wireless communications over a single carrier, or over an aggregation of different component carriers (i.e., carrier aggregation). The different component carriers may be in different bands or in the same bands. The network 100 may be configured to operate in one or more frequency bands, such as sub-6 GHz band, e.g., spanning 450 MHz to 6 GHz, millimeter-wave frequency bands, e.g., spanning 24.250 GHz to 52.600 GHz, 60 GHz, and/or unlicensed spectrum.

[0043] In general, communication using a low frequency can provide large coverage and robust connections but a relatively low data rate, and communication using a high frequency can provide a high data rate because of the large bandwidth of the high frequency. However, high frequency communication suffers from large path loss (thus, providing small coverage). To address this issue, beamforming techniques are employed, where a number of high-gain transmit and/ or receive beams are formed for transmitting and receiving wireless signals. Each of the beams may cover only a small region in an angular direction. The beams may be referred to as directional beams. As a result, transmissions performed through the formed beams become highly directional, and alignment of transmit beams and the receive beams is required. Beamforming may be used to mimic omni-directional transmissions or transmissions covering a large area within a range of angles by forming multiple beams at different directions, possibly over different time slots. In high frequency communications, a large number of antenna elements, e.g., an antenna array, is required to bring a sufficient transmit/receive gain.

[0044] A base station may transmit a beamformed signal on one or more downlink (DL) beams of the base station (also referred to as transmit (Tx) beams of the base station). A UE may receive a signal on one or more DL beams of the UE (also referred to as receive (Rx) beams of the UE). A DL beam (i.e., Tx beam) of the base station for transmitting a signal, and a DL beam (i.e., Rx beam) of the UE for receiving the signal form a beam pair or a beam link pair (also referred to as a DL beam pair). Similarly, a UE may transmit a beamformed signal on one or more uplink (UL) beams of the UE (also referred to as Tx beams of the UE). A base station may receive a signal on one or more UL beams of the base station (also referred to as Rx beams of the base station). A UL beam of the UE for transmitting a signal and a UL beam of the base station used for receiving the signal form a beam pair or a beam link pair (also referred to as a UL beam pair). In some instances, the DL beam pair and the UL beam pair may be the same (e.g., may represent the same beam pairs). In other instances, differences may exist between a DL beam pair and a UL beam pair.

[0045] Beam management may be performed to manage beamforming procedures on a UE side or a base station, e.g., TRP, side. According to the 3rd Generation

Partnership Project (3GPP) technical report (TR) 38.802 V14.2.0 (2017-09), which is hereby incorporated by reference as if reproduced in its entirety, beam management in NR is defined as ( see section 6.1.6.1):

a set of L1/L2 procedures to acquire and maintain a set of TRP(s) and/or UE beams that can be used for downlink (DL) and uplink (UL) transmission/ reception, which include at least following aspects:

Beam determination: for TRP(s) or UE to select of its own Tx/Rx beam(s).

Beam measurement: for TRP(s) or UE to measure characteristics of received beam-formed signals

Beam reporting: for UE to report information of beam-formed signal(s) based on beam measurement

Beam sweeping: operation of covering a spatial area, with beams transmitted and/or received during a time interval in a predetermined way. [0046] In NR, beam correspondence is introduced for utilizing uplink-downlink reciprocity of beamformed channels. According to 3GPP 38.802 V14.2.0 (2017-09), Tx/Rx beam correspondence at TRP and UE are defined as follows:

- Tx/Rx beam correspondence at TRP holds if at least one of the following is satisfied:

- TRP is able to determine a TRP Rx beam for the uplink reception based on UE’s downlink measurement on TRP’s one or more Tx beams.

- TRP is able to determine a TRP Tx beam for the downlink transmission based on TRP’s uplink measurement on TRP’s one or more Rx beams.

- Tx/Rx beam correspondence at UE holds if at least one of the following is satisfied:

- UE is able to determine a UE Tx beam for the uplink

transmission based on UE’s downlink measurement on UE’s one or more Rx beams.

- UE is able to determine a UE Rx beam for the downlink reception based on TRP’s indication based on uplink measurement on UE’s one or more Tx beams.

- Capability indication of UE beam correspondence related information to TRP is supported.

[0047] The higher the carrier frequency is used in the network, the narrower the beam width of the formed beams is, and the larger the amount of beams is required for providing a desired communication coverage, which is more challenging for beam management, e.g., for beam link pairing. For example, to pair 1024 Tx beams and 256 Rx beams, 262,144 beam pairs need to be scanned. This consumes UEs’ resources and creates a heavy burden for UEs. It is desirable to configure UEs with a capability to support beam correspondence in order to reduce overhead of the UEs in beam management.

[0048] A UE supports beam correspondence when the UE satisfies a beam correspondence requirement. According to 3GPP 38.101-2, which is hereby incorporated by reference as if reproduced in its entirety, the beam correspondence requirement for power class 3 UEs consists of three components: UE minimum peak EIRP (as defined in Clause 6.2.1.3), UE spherical coverage (as defined in Clause 6.2.1.3), and beam correspondence tolerance (as defined in Clause 6.64.2). The beam correspondence requirement is fulfilled if the UE satisfies one of the following conditions, depending on the UE’s beam correspondence capability, as defined in TS 38.306:

- If [bit-i], the UE shall meet the minimum peak EIRP requirement according to Table 6.2.1.3-1 and spherical coverage requirement according to Table 6.2.1.3-3 with its autonomously chosen UL beams and without uplink beam sweeping. Such a UE is considered to have met the beam correspondence tolerance requirement. - If [bit-o], the UE shall meet the minimum peak EIRP requirement according to Table 6.2.1.3-1 and spherical coverage requirement according to Table 6.2.1.3-3 with uplink beam sweeping. Such a UE shall meet the beam correspondence tolerance requirement defined in Clause 6.64.2 and shall support uplink beam management, as defined in TS 38.306

[0049] Whether a UE supports the beam correspondence may be determined by testing whether the UE satisfies the beam correspondence requirement described above. However, the beam correspondence requirement is only applicable for testing whether a UE supports the beam correspondence within the same component carrier (CC).

[0050] A UE may be configured to operate in multiple CCs of different frequency bands. In some cases, a carrier operating in a frequency band (referred to as a second frequency band in the following) may have a companion carrier in another frequency band (referred to as a first frequency band in the following) lower than the second frequency band, in which current beam management works already. Beam forming information obtained for the first frequency band (i.e., lower band) may be used for beamforming in the second frequency band to speed up and simplify beam link scanning process in the second frequency band. This is especially beneficial when the two frequency bands have a large frequency gap, i.e., the difference between frequencies of the two frequency bands is large, e.g., greater than a frequency threshold. Thus, it would be appreciated that the UE also supports beam correspondence between different frequency bands, which is referred to as inter-band beam correspondence in the present disclosure. That is, the UE has inter-band beam correspondence capability.

[0051] A UE may be manufactured to support inter-band beam correspondence, however, inter-band beam correspondence may not be guaranteed. This may be caused by various reasons. For example, different antenna panels (or elements) are used for implementing communications in different frequency bands, especially for frequency bands having a large frequency gap, e.g., 15GHz and 60GHz. The panels may be collocated, but may be located in different positions and have different orientations. Other reasons may include large frequency gap of operating frequency bands, manufacturing techniques, manufacturing quality, etc. Thus, it is desirable to provide methodology to test whether a UE supports inter-band beam correspondence, and to determine whether calibration is needed in order for the UE to be able to support inter band beam correspondence. This will provide another level of assurance of the UE’s capability regarding inter-band beam correspondence.

[0052] Embodiments of the present disclosure provide methods for determining or testing whether a UE supports inter-band beam correspondence between a first frequency band and a second frequency band, where the second frequency band is higher than the first frequency band. In the embodiments of the present disclosure, a UE supports inter-band beam correspondence if the UE is able to determine one or more UE Tx beams for uplink transmission in the second frequency band based on the UE’s measurement on signals received in the first frequency band, such that a UE Tx beam in the second frequency band satisfies the beam correspondence requirement in the second frequency band according to 3GPP 38.101-2. Each of the first frequency band and the second frequency band is a frequency band in which beamforming is utilized for wireless communications in the corresponding frequency band. An example frequency band may include 6GHz, 8 GHz, 28GHZ, 40 GHz, and 60 GHz, etc. In an example, the first frequency band and the second frequency band have a frequency difference that is greater than a threshold, e.g., 30GHz.

[0053] FIG. 2 illustrates a diagram of an embodiment arrangement 200 for testing a UE’s capability of supporting inter-band beam correspondence between the first frequency band and the second frequency band. As shown, a device under test (DUT) 210 is located at a centre of a spherical chamber 220 which can be freely rotated along angles Q and cp. The DUT 210 may be any UE that is being tested. A testing device (also referred to as a tester) 230 is located at a fixed position of the chamber 220. As the chamber 220 rotates, the tester 230 is moved to different positions relative to the DUT 210, such as a position 240, thus forming different communication directions with the DUT 210. The tester 230 is equipped with Tx/RX antennas for communicating with the DUT 210. The tester 230 is configured to generate signals for transmission in multiple frequency bands, receive signals from the DUT 210 in multiple frequency bands, and process the received signals to determine whether the DUT 210, i.e., the UE, supports inter-band beam correspondence between different frequency bands. Two frequency bands under test form a frequency band pair. The tester 230 may generate a report indicating the testing result. The report may include information of a frequency band pair, i.e., the first frequency band and the second frequency band, whether the DUT 210 supports inter band beam correspondence for the frequency band pair, and/or whether calibration is needed for the DUT 210 so that the UE is capable of supporting inter-band beam correspondence between the first frequency band and the second frequency band. The tester 230 may test the DUT 210’s capability of supporting inter-band beam

correspondence for one or more frequency band pairs. The test for supporting the inter band beam correspondence between the first frequency band and the second frequency band is performed based on that the UE supports beam correspondence within the same band. That is, the UE has been determined or assumed to support beam correspondence in the first frequency band, and support beam correspondence in the second frequency band, as specified according to 3GPP 38.101-2. [0054] FIG. 3 illustrates a diagram of an embodiment method 300 for testing a UE’s capability of supporting inter-band beam correspondence between the first frequency band and the second frequency band, using the testing arrangement 200 illustrated in FIG. 2. In this example, analog beam forming is employed for communications between the DUT 210 and the tester 230 using both the first frequency band and the second frequency band.

[0055] As shown, the tester 230 transmits signals (DL) to the DUT 210 in the first frequency band on one or more DL beams (or tester Tx beams) (step 312). The signals transmitted by the tester 230 may serve as a trigger of the test. The signals transmitted by the tester 230 may include a SSB, or a CSI-RS. The signals may be transmitted similarly as being transmitted by a base station to a UE for measurements. The DUT 210 may perform a measurement on the received signals, and adjust one or more receive beams, e.g., beamforming direction, in the first frequency band based on the

measurement, e.g., RSRP, etc. The DUT 210 receives the signal transmitted by the tester 230 in the first frequency band, and in response, determines a number (or quantity) K of

UL Tx beams (DUT Tx beams) in the second frequency band for uplink transmission (transmission to the tester 230) (step 314). If the DUT 210 supports inter-band beam correspondence, the DUT 210 may determine beamforming directions of the K UL Tx beams in the second frequency band based on the beamforming direction in the first frequency band. That is, the beamforming directions of the K UL Tx beams in the second frequency band are determined based on a DL signal measurement in the first frequency band. Thus, based on the UL transmission on the K UL Tx beams by the DUT 210 in the second frequency band, the tester 230 is able to determine whether the DUT 210 supports inter-band beam correspondence between the first frequency band and the second frequency band. The DUT 210 may determine a maximum Ki, c UL Tx beams in the second frequency band. That is, K< Ki, c . In some embodiments, /<7„ : may be determined based on a mapping between the first frequency band and the second frequency band. In one embodiment, the mapping may be provided using a mapping table, as shown by Table 1 below, for example. Each row of Table 1 shows a frequency band pair and a corresponding number Ki, c . For example, the first row shows a frequency band pair {Bit, B21}, and that its corresponding maximum number /<7„ : of UL Tx beam is 4. An example of the pair {Bit, B21} may be {28 GHz, 60 GHz}. Another example of a frequency band pair {B12, B22} maybe {6 GHz, 28 GHz}. By checking Table 1 using the first frequency band and the second frequency band to be tested, f¾ c is found.

Table i

[0056] In some embodiment, the mapping may be provided through a formula. For example, /<7„ : may be calculate by:

where Ft_low represents the lowest frequency of the first frequency band, F2_low represents the lowest frequency of the second frequency band, Ft_high represents the highest frequency of the first frequency band, F2_high represents the highest frequency of the second frequency band, and a is a constant. Other applicable formula may also be used for calculating a maximum number of DUT UL Tx beams.

[0057] The DUT 210 may transmit UL signals in the second frequency band by sweeping the K (<Ki C ) determined UL beams (step 316). The tester 230 receives the UL signals in the second frequency band on the K UL beams, measures effective isotropic radiation power (EIRP) of the received UL signals on the K UL beams, and finds or selects a UL beam that has the highest EIRP among the K UL beams (step 318). That is, the selected UL beam carries a UL signal that has the highest EIRP measured among the UL signals received. Selecting such a UL beam may be expressed as an mathematical problem of:

EIRPm a x = max{EIRP k }, k = 1,2, ... , K

[0058] In another example, the test 230 may select a beam, among the K UL beams, whose EIRP satisfies a threshold, e.g., greater than or equal to the threshold.

[0059] The tester 230 then determines whether the selected beam satisfies the beam correspondence requirement in the second frequency band according to 3GPP 38.101-2 (step 320). In a case where the DUT 210 doesn’t support uplink beam management (i.e., a case of bit-t), the selected beam satisfies the beam correspondence requirement for the second frequency band if the selected beam meets the minimum peak EIRP requirement and the spherical coverage requirement without uplink beam sweeping, as specified in 3GPP 38.101-2, clause 6.2.1.3. In a case where the DUT 210 supports uplink beam management (i.e., a case of bit-o), the selected beam satisfies the beam correspondence requirement for the second frequency band if the selected beam meets the minimum peak EIRP requirement, the spherical coverage requirement and the beam

correspondence tolerance requirement with uplink beam sweeping, as specified in 3GPP 38.101-2, clause 6.2.1.3.

[0060] The selected beam satisfying the beam correspondence requirement in the second frequency band in step 320 indicates that the DUT 210 is able to determine the K UL beams based on the DL signals transmitted by the tester 230 to the DUT 210 in the first frequency band, i.e., based on measurements of the DL signals transmitted by the tester 230, so that the K UL beams are in spatial relation with the DL signals transmitted by the tester 230. Thus, the DUT 210 supports inter-band beam correspondence between the first frequency band and the second frequency band. If the selected beam does not satisfy the beam correspondence requirement for the second frequency band, then the tester 230 determines that the DUT 210 does not support the inter-band beam correspondence.

[0061] The tester 230 may generate a report based on the determination made in step 320 (step 322). For example, the report may indicate that the DUT 210 requires calibration for inter-band beam correspondence between the first frequency band and the second frequency band upon the selected beam failing to satisfy the minimum peak EIRP requirement or the spherical coverage requirement in the second frequency band. In another example, the report may indicate that the DUT 210 passes a calibration test for inter-band beam correspondence between the first frequency band and the second frequency band upon the selected beam satisfying the minimum peak EIRP requirement and the spherical coverage requirement in the second frequency band.

[0062] FIG. 4 illustrates a diagram of another embodiment method 400 for testing a UE’s capability of supporting inter-band beam correspondence between a first frequency band and a second frequency band higher than the first frequency band, using the testing arrangement 200 illustrated in FIG. 2. As shown, the tester 230 transmits a plurality of reference signals (RSs) in the first frequency band to the DUT 210 (step 412). The RSs transmitted by the tester 230 may serve as a trigger of the test. The RSs may include a synchronization signal block (SSB), or a channel state information-reference signal (CSI- RS). The RSs may be transmitted similarly as being transmitted by a base station to a UE for measurements. The DUT 210 performs measurements based on the received RSs and generates a measurement report (step 414). The DUT 210 then transmits the report to the tester 230 (step 416). The measurements of the DUT 210 may be performed according to conventional methods and configurations as known in the art. For example, the DUT 210 may measure layer 1 received signal received power (Lt-RSRP), or layer 1 signal to noise plus interference ratio (L-t SINR). The measurement report may include the Lt-RSRP and/ or the L-t SINR. The measurement report may include CSI-RS resource indicator (CRI) indicating a RS resource carrying a CSI-RS of the plurality of RSs in the first frequency band, or a SSB resource indicator (SSBRI) indicating a RS resource carrying a SSB of the plurality of RSs in the first frequency band. The RS resource, e.g., a tester Tx beam (or DL Tx beam) indicated by the CRI or SSBRI may correspond to the best L-t RSRP or L-t SINR among RSs resources carrying the plurality of RSs in the first frequency band, or may correspond to L-t RSRP or L-t SINR that satisfies a criterion, e.g., greater than a threshold.

[0063] The tester 230 receives the report, and configures a transmission of a RS in the second frequency band based on the report and signals the configuration (step 418). The RS configured may include a CSI-RS. The RS configured in the second frequency band may be quasi-colocated (QCLed) with a RS of the plurality of RSs transmitted in the first frequency band in step 412 in terms of QCL Type-D (i.e., spatial Rx parameter), and the RS of the plurality of RSs transmitted in the first frequency band is carried in a DL resource, e.g., a DL Tx beam, that is reported in the report. For example, the DL resource may be indicated by a CRI or a SSBRI in the report. The DL resource may correspond to L-t RSRP or L-t SINR that satisfies a criterion, e.g., being the highest or a greater than a threshold. The tester 230 may configure a RS resource set, e.g., CSI-RS resource set, and/or other information, such as a period for periodically transmitting the configured RS. The tester 230 signals the configuration of the transmission of the RS in the second frequency band to the DUT 210.

[0064] The tester 230 then transmits the RS in the second frequency band to the

DUT 210 according to the configuration performed in step 418 (step 420). The tester 230 also configures a transmission of UL sounding reference signals (SRSs) for the DUT 210 in the second frequency band, with the UL SRSs configured in spatial relation with the RS transmitted in the second frequency band in step 420 (step 422). The tester 230 may configure resources for the DUT 210 to transmit the UL SRSs. The tester 230 may transmit information to the DUT 210 indicating that the UL SRSs of the DUT 210 has a spatial relation with the downlink RS transmitted to the DUT 210 in step 420. The DUT 210 transmits the UL SRSs in the second frequency band according to the configuration of the tester 230 (step 424). The DUT 210 receives the RS transmitted in the second frequency, and may determine a beamforming direction for the UL SRSs based on the spatial relation configured by the tester 230 between the UL SRSs and the RS received in the second frequency band, and transmit the UL SRSs in the beamforming direction and in the configured resources. If the DUT 210 supports beam correspondence between the first frequency band and the second frequency band, the DUT 210 is able to determine a beamforming direction for receiving the downlink RS in the second frequency transmitted to the DUT 210 in step 420 based on the measurements performed on the RSs received in the first frequency band, and consequently determines the beamforming direction for transmitting the UL SRSs. Thus, based on the UL SRSs transmitted by the DUT 210, the tester 230 is able determine whether the DUT 210 supports inter-band beam correspondence between the first frequency band and the second frequency band. Upon receiving the UL SRSs from the DUT 210, the tester 230 measures EIRP of the UL SRSs received in the second frequency band, and finds or selects a UL SRS from the UL SRSs received in the second frequency band based on the measurement of the EIRP (step 426). The UL SRS may be selected based on an EIRP criterion. For example, the UL SRS may be selected when the UL SRS has the highest EIRP among the UL SRSs. In another example, the UL SRS may be selected when the UL SRS has an EIRP greater than a threshold. The selected UL SRS is carried on a UL resource, e.g., a UL Tx beam, of the DUT 210.

[0065] The tester 230 then determines whether the UL resource carrying the selected UL SRS, e.g., the UL Tx beam, satisfies the beam correspondence requirement in the second frequency band according to 3GPP 38.101-2 (step 428). In a case where the DUT 210 doesn’t support uplink beam management (i.e., a case of bit-t), the UL Tx beam satisfies the beam correspondence requirement if the UL Tx beam meets the minimum peak EIRP requirement and the spherical coverage requirement without uplink beam sweeping, as specified in 3GPP 38.101-2. In a case where the DUT 210 supports uplink beam management (i.e., a case of bit-o), the UL Tx beam satisfies the beam

correspondence requirement if the UL Tx beam meets the minimum peak EIRP requirement, the spherical coverage requirement and the beam correspondence tolerance requirement with uplink beam sweeping, as specified in 3GPP 38.101-2.

[0066] The UL resource, e.g., the UL Tx beam, satisfying the beam correspondence requirement in the second frequency band in step 428 indicates that the DUT 210 supports inter-band beam correspondence between the first frequency band and the second frequency band. If the UL resource, e.g., the UL Tx beam, does not satisfy the beam correspondence requirement in the second frequency band in step 428, then the tester 230 determines that the DUT 210 does not support inter-band beam

correspondence between the first frequency band and the second frequency band. [0067] The tester 230 may generate a report based on the determination made in step 428. For example, the report may indicate that the DUT 210 requires calibration for inter-band beam correspondence between the first frequency band and the second frequency band upon the UL resource failing to satisfy the minimum peak EIRP requirement or the spherical coverage requirement in the second frequency band. In another example, the report may indicate that the DUT 210 passes a calibration test for inter-band beam correspondence between the first frequency band and the second frequency band upon the UL resource satisfying the minimum peak EIRP requirement and the spherical coverage requirement in the second frequency band.

[0068] The embodiment methods for testing inter-band beam correspondence may be viewed as testing a UE beam directional mapping between different bands and different antenna panels of the UE. The panels may have different positions and orientations in the UE, which may adversely affect the UE’s capability to support inter band beam correspondence. Calibration may be needed to adjust panels, e.g., a panel position and/ or orientation, used for communications in different bands in order to calibrate the UE’s inter-band beam correspondence capability. In the embodiment methods, the tester communicates signals with the DUT in different frequency bands, where the beam width of the different frequency bands may have large differences. A number of UL Tx beams of the DUT may be dependent on frequencies of the frequency band pair, as illustrates with respect to FIG. 3. The embodiment methods determining the UE’s inter-band beam correspondence capability require that a UL Tx beam of the DUT selected by the tester satisfies the same band beam correspondence requirement of RAN 4.

[0069] The embodiment methods are provided to test a UE’s capability of supporting inter-band beam correspondence between two different frequency bands. The test is helpful to ensure that a UE has such capability, which facilitates the UE to perform beam management, such as perform fast beam sweeping for initial beam search and new candidate beam search.

[0070] FIG. 5 illustrates a diagram of an embodiment method 500 for testing a UE’s capability of supporting inter-band beam correspondence between a first frequency band and a second frequency band. The method 500 may be performed by a tester, e.g., the tester 230, configured to perform such a test. As shown, at step 502, the tester transmits a first signal in a first frequency band over a first transmit beam to a user equipment (UE). At step 504, the tester receives a plurality of signals from the UE in a second frequency band that is higher than the first frequency band, where the plurality of signals is transmitted by the UE over a plurality of UE transmit beams in the second frequency band. The second frequency band is higher than the first frequency band. At step 506, the tester measures effective isotropic radiation powers (EIRPs) of the plurality of signals. At step 508, the tester determines, based on the measured EIRPs, that a second signal from the plurality of signals has a measured EIRP satisfying a predefined criterion, where the second signal is transmitted by the UE over a second transmit beam of the plurality of UE transmit beams. At step 510, the tester determines that the UE supports inter-band beam correspondence between the first frequency band and the second frequency band, upon the second transmit beam satisfying a minimum peak EIRP requirement and a spherical coverage requirement in the second frequency band.

[0071] FIG. 6 illustrates a diagram of an embodiment method 600 for testing a UE’s capability of supporting inter-band beam correspondence between a first frequency band and a second frequency band. The method 600 may be performed by a tester, e.g., the tester 230, configured to perform such a test. As shown, at step 602, the tester transmits, to a user equipment (UE), a plurality of reference signals (RSs) in a first frequency band. At step 604, the tester receives a first report from the UE, the first report comprising measurements of the first plurality of RSs performed by the UE. At step 606, the tester configures a transmission of a second RS in a second frequency band based on the first report, where the second RS is quasi-colocated (QCLed) with a first RS of the plurality of RSs in the first frequency band according to QCL Type-D, and the first RS corresponds to a resource indicator included in the first report. The second frequency band is higher than the first frequency band. At step 608, the tester transmits the second RS in the second frequency band to the UE. At step 610, the tester configures, for the UE, a transmission of uplink sounding reference signals (SRSs) in the second frequency band, with the SRSs in spatial relation with the second RS. At step 612, the tester receives the uplink SRSs from the UE in the second frequency band. At step 614, the tester determines that the UE supports inter-band beam correspondence between the first frequency band and the second frequency band, upon a beam that carries a SRS of the received uplink SRSs satisfying a minimum peak EIRP requirement or a spherical coverage requirement in the second frequency band, where the SRS has effective isotropic radiation power (EIRP) satisfying a predefined criterion.

[0072] FIG. 7 illustrates a block diagram of an embodiment processing system 700 for performing methods described herein, which may be installed in a host device. As shown, the processing system 700 includes a processor 704, a memory 706, and interfaces 710-714, which may (or may not) be arranged as shown in FIG. 7. The processor 704 may be any component or collection of components adapted to perform computations and/or other processing related tasks, and the memory 706 may be any component or collection of components adapted to store programming and/or instructions for execution by the processor 704. In an embodiment, the memory 706 includes a non-transitoiy computer readable medium. The interfaces 710, 712, 714 may be any component or collection of components that allow the processing system 700 to communicate with other devices/components and/or a user. For example, one or more of the interfaces 710, 712, 714 may be adapted to communicate data, control, or

management messages from the processor 704 to applications installed on the host device and/or a remote device. As another example, one or more of the interfaces 710,

712, 714 may be adapted to allow a user or user device (e.g., personal computer (PC), etc.) to interact/communicate with the processing system 700. The processing system 700 may include additional components not depicted in FIG. 6, such as long term storage (e.g., non-volatile memory, etc.).

[0073] In some embodiments, the processing system 700 is included in a network device that is accessing, or part otherwise of, a telecommunications network. In one example, the processing system 700 is in a network-side device in a wireless or wireline telecommunications network, such as a base station, a relay station, a scheduler, a controller, a gateway, a router, an applications server, or any other device in the telecommunications network. In other embodiments, the processing system 700 is in a user-side device accessing a wireless or wireline telecommunications network, such as a mobile station, a user equipment (UE), a personal computer (PC), a tablet, a wearable communications device (e.g., a smartwatch, etc.), or any other device adapted to access a telecommunications network.

[0074] In some embodiments, one or more of the interfaces 710, 712, 714 connects the processing system 700 to a transceiver adapted to transmit and receive signaling over the telecommunications network. FIG. 8 illustrates a block diagram of a transceiver 800 adapted to transmit and receive signaling over a telecommunications network. The transceiver 800 may be installed in a host device. As shown, the transceiver 800 comprises a network-side interface 802, a coupler 804, a transmitter 806, a receiver 808, a signal processor 810, and a device-side interface 812. The network-side interface 802 may include any component or collection of components adapted to transmit or receive signaling over a wireless or wireline telecommunications network. The coupler 804 may include any component or collection of components adapted to facilitate bi directional communication over the network-side interface 802. The transmitter 806 may include any component or collection of components (e.g., up-converter, power amplifier, etc.) adapted to convert a baseband signal into a modulated carrier signal suitable for transmission over the network-side interface 802. The receiver 808 may include any component or collection of components (e.g., down-converter, low noise amplifier, etc.) adapted to convert a carrier signal received over the network-side interface 802 into a baseband signal. The signal processor 810 may include any component or collection of components adapted to convert a baseband signal into a data signal suitable for communication over the device-side interface(s) 812, or vice-versa.

The device-side interface(s) 812 may include any component or collection of components adapted to communicate data-signals between the signal processor 810 and components within the host device (e.g., the processing system 700, local area network (LAN) ports, etc.).

[0075] The transceiver 800 may transmit and receive signaling over any type of communications medium. In some embodiments, the transceiver 800 transmits and receives signaling over a wireless medium. For example, the transceiver 800 may be a wireless transceiver adapted to communicate in accordance with a wireless

telecommunications protocol, such as a cellular protocol (e.g., long-term evolution (LTE), etc.), a wireless local area network (WLAN) protocol (e.g., Wi-Fi, etc.), or any other type of wireless protocol (e.g., Bluetooth, near field communication (NFC), etc.). In such embodiments, the network-side interface 802 comprises one or more

antenna/ radiating elements. For example, the network-side interface 802 may include a single antenna, multiple separate antennas, or a multi-antenna array configured for multi-layer communication, e.g., single input multiple output (SIMO), multiple input single output (MISO), multiple input multiple output (MIMO), etc. In other

embodiments, the transceiver 800 transmits and receives signaling over a wireline medium, e.g., twisted-pair cable, coaxial cable, optical fiber, etc. Specific processing systems and/or transceivers may utilize all of the components shown, or only a subset of the components, and levels of integration may vary from device to device.

[0076] While this disclosure has been described with reference to illustrative embodiments, this description is not intended to be construed in a limiting sense.

Various modifications and combinations of the illustrative embodiments, as well as other embodiments of the disclosure, will be apparent to persons skilled in the art upon reference to the description. It is therefore intended that the appended claims encompass any such modifications or embodiments.