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Title:
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR VIDEO CODING
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2020/123220
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
An apparatus for video decoding includes processing circuitry configured to receive a split direction syntax element, a first index syntax element, and a second index syntax element that are associated with a coding block coded with a triangular prediction mode. The coding block can be partitioned into two triangular prediction units according to a split direction indicated by the split direction syntax element. The first and second index syntax elements can indicate a first merge index and a second merge index, respectively, to a merge candidate list constructed for the two triangular prediction units. The coding block can be reconstructed according to the split direction, the first merge index, and second merge index.

Inventors:
XU MENG (US)
LI XIANG (US)
LIU SHAN (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2019/064410
Publication Date:
June 18, 2020
Filing Date:
December 04, 2019
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
TENCENT AMERICA LLC (US)
International Classes:
H04N19/00; H04N19/103; H04N19/154; H04N19/44
Foreign References:
US20130279577A12013-10-24
US20130287116A12013-10-31
US20170332099A12017-11-16
US10404980B12019-09-03
Other References:
AKLOUF ET AL.: "Low Complexity Versatile Video Coding (WC) for Low Bitrate Applications", 8TH EUROPEAN WORKSHOP ON VISUAL INFORMATION PROCESSING (EUVIP 2019, October 2019 (2019-10-01), XP033682775, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20200122]
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
MA, Johnny et al. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A method for video decoding in a decoder, comprising:

receiving a split direction syntax element, a first index syntax element, and a second index syntax element that are associated with a coding block of a picture, the coding block coded with a triangular prediction mode and partitioned into a first triangular prediction unit and a second triangular prediction unit according to a split direction indicated by the split direction syntax element, the first and second index syntax elements indicating a first merge index and a second merge index, respectively, to a merge candidate list constructed for the first and second triangular prediction units;

determining the split direction, the first merge index, and the second merge index based on the split direction syntax element, the first index syntax element, and the second index syntax element, and

reconstructing the coding block according to the determined split direction, the determined first merge index, and the determined second merge index.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the determining comprises:

determining a triangular prediction index indicating a combination of the split direction, the first merge index, and the second merge index based on the split direction syntax element, the first index syntax element, and the second index syntax element, and determining the split direction, the first merge index, and the second merge index based on the determined triangular prediction index.

3. The method of claim 1, wherein the determining comprises:

determining the split direction according to the split direction indicated by the split direction syntax element; and

calculating the first merge index and the second merge index according to the split direction syntax element, the first index syntax element, and the second index syntax element.

4. The method of claim 1, wherein the split direction syntax element has a value of 0 or 1

5. The method of claim 1, wdierein the first index syntax element has a value of 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4, and the second index syntax element has a value of 0, 1, 2, or 3.

6. The method of claim l, wherein the determining comprises: determining the split direction is from a top-left comer to a bottom-right corner based on a determination that the split direction syntax element is a first value; and

determining the split direction is from a top-right corner to a bottom-left corner based on a determination that the split direction syntax element is a second value.

7. The method of claim 1, wherein the determining comprises:

determining a triangular prediction index indicating a combination of the split direction, the first merge index and the second merge index according to,

triangular prediction index = a * the first index syntax element + b* the second index syntax element + c * the split direction syntax element,

where a, b, and c are integers.

8. The method of claim 7, wherein a equals 8, b equals 2, and c equals 1.

9. The method of claim 7, wherein the determining comprises:

determining the split direction indicating whether the coding block is split from a top- left corner to a bottom-right corner, or from a top-right corner to a bottom-left corner according to a least significant bit of the triangular prediction index.

10. The method of claim 7, wherein the determining comprises:

determining the first and second merge indices based on the triangular prediction index.

11. The method of claim 7, wherein the determining comprises:

determining the split direction indicating whether the coding block is split from one of a first direction from a top-left comer to a bottom-right comer and a second direction from a top-right comer to a bottom-left comer,

when the split direction is a first one of the first and second directions,

determining the first merge index from bits of the triangular prediction index excluding the last 3 bits,

when a value represented by the third last and second last bits of the triangular prediction index is smaller than the determined first merge index, determining the second merge index to be the value represented by the third last and second last bits of the triangular prediction index, and when the value represented by the third last and second last bits of the triangular prediction index is greater than or equal to the determined first merge index, determining the second merge index to be the value represented by the third last and second last bits of the triangular prediction index plus 1; and

when the split direction is a second one of the first and second directions,

determining the second merge index from bits of the triangular prediction index excluding the last 3 bits,

when a value represented by the third last and second last bits of the triangular prediction index is smaller than the determined second merge index, determining the first merge index to be the value represented by the third last and second last bits of the triangular prediction index, and

when the value represented by the third last and second last bits of the triangular prediction index is greater than or equal to the determined second merge index, determining the first merge index to be the value represented by the third last and second last bits of the triangular prediction index plus 1.

12. The method of claim 1, wherein the determining comprises:

determining the split direction according to a value of the split direction syntax element;

determining the first merge index to have a value of the first index syntax element; determining the second merge index to have a value of the second index syntax element wlien the second index syntax element has a value smaller than the first index syntax element; and

determining the second merge index to have a value of the second index syntax element value plus 1 when the second index syntax element has a value greater than or equal to the first index syntax element.

13. The method of claim 1, wherein the determining comprises:

determining the split direction indicating whether the coding block is split from one of a first direction from a top-left corner to bottom-right corner and a second direction from a top-right corner to a botom-left comer;

when the split direction is a first one of the first and second directions,

determining the first merge index to be a value of the first index syntax element. when the second index syntax element is smaller than the first index syntax element, determining the second merge index to be a value of the second index syntax element, and

when the second index syntax element is greater than or equal to the first index syntax element, determining the second merge index to be the value of the second index syntax element plus 1 ; and

when the split direction is a second one of the first and second directions,

determining the second merge index to be the value of the first index syntax element,

when the second index syntax element is smaller than the first index syntax element, determining the first merge index to be the value of the second index syntax element, and

when the second index syntax element is greater than or equal to the first index syntax element, determining the first merge index to be the value of the second index syntax element plus 1.

14. The method of claim 1, wherein the first and second index syntax elements are coded in different way to represent different meanings depending on whether the coding block is split from a top-left corner to a bottom-right comer, or from a top-right corner to a bottom-left corner.

15. The method of claim 1, wherein at least one of the first and second index syntax element is coded with truncated unary coding.

16. The method of claim 1, wherein a bin in the first index syntax element and a bin in the second index syntax element are context coded.

17. The method of claim 1, wherein a first bin of one of the split direction syntax element, the first index syntax element, and the second index syntax element is context coded.

18. The method of claim 1, wherein the split direction syntax element, the first index syntax element, and the second index syntax element are transmitted in a bit stream in one of the following order: the split direction syntax element, the first index syntax element, and the second index syntax element;

the split direction syntax element, the second index syntax element, and the first index syntax element;

the first index syntax element, the split direction syntax element, and the second index syntax element;

the first index syntax element, the second index syntax element, and the split direction syntax element;

the second index syntax element, the split direction syntax element, and the first index syntax element; and

the second index syntax element, the first index syntax element, and the split direction syntax element.

19. An apparatus of video decoding, compri sing:

processing circuitry configured to

receive a split direction syntax element, a first index syntax element, and a second index syntax element that are associated with a coding block of a picture, the coding block coded with a triangular prediction mode and partitioned into a first triangular prediction unit and a second triangular prediction unit according to a split direction indicated by the split direction syntax element, the first and second index syntax elements indicating a first merge index and a second merge index, respectively, to a merge candidate list constructed for the first and second triangular prediction units;

determine the split direction, the first merge index, and the second merge index based on the split direction syntax element, the first index syntax element, and the second index syntax element, and

reconstruct the coding block according to the determined split direction, the determined first merge index, and the determined second merge index.

20. A non-transitory computer-readable medium storing instructions which, when executed by a computer for video decoding, cause the computer to perform a method of video decoding, the method comprising:

receiving a split direction syntax element, a first index syntax element, and a second index syntax element that are associated with a coding block of a picture, the coding block coded with a triangular prediction mode and partitioned into a first triangular prediction unit and a second triangular prediction unit according to a split direction indicated by the split direction syntax element, the first and second index syntax elements indicating a first merge index and a second merge index, respectively, to a merge candidate list constructed for the first and second triangular prediction units;

determining the split direction, the first merge index, and the second merge index based on the split direction syntax element, the first index syntax element, and the second index syntax element; and

reconstructing the coding block according to the determined split direction, the determined first merge index, and the determined second merge index.

Description:
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR VIDEO CODING

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

[0001 j This present disclosure claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Patent

Application No. 16/425,404,“Method and Apparatus for Video Coding” filed on May 29, 2019, which claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional Application No 62/778,832, “Signaling and Derivation for Triangular Prediction Parameters” filed on December 12, 2018. The entire disclosures of the prior applications are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0002] The present disclosure describes embodiments generally related to video coding.

BACKGROUND

[0003] The background description provided herein is for the purpose of generally presenting the context of the disclosure. Work of the presently named inventors, to the extent the work is described in this background section, as well as aspects of the description that may not otherwise qualify as prior art at the time of filing, are neither expressly nor impliedly admitted as prior art against the present disclosure.

[0004] Video coding and decoding can be performed using inter-picture prediction with motion compensation. Uncompressed digital video can include a series of pictures, each picture having a spatial dimension of, for example, 1(920) x 1080 luminance samples and associated chrominance samples. The series of pictures can have a fixed or variable picture rate (informally also known as frame rate), of, for example 60 pictures per second or 60 Hz. Uncompressed video has significant bitrate requirements. For example, 1080p60 4:2:0 video at 8 bit per sample (l(920)xl080 luminance sample resolution at 60 Hz frame rate) requires close to 1.5 Gbit/s bandwidth. An hour of such video requires more than 600 GBytes of storage space.

[0005] One purpose of video coding and decoding can be the reduction of redundancy in the input video signal, through compression. Compression can help reduce the

aforementioned bandwidth or storage space requirements, in some cases by two orders of magnitude or more. Both lossless and lossy compression, as well as a combination thereof can be employed . Lossl ess compression refers to techniques where an exact copy of the 1 original signal can be reconstructed from the compressed original signal. When using lossy compression, the reconstructed signal may not be identical to the original signal, but the distortion between original and reconstructed signals is small enough to make the

reconstructed signal useful for the intended application. In the case of video, lossy compression is widely employed. The amount of distortion tolerated depends on the application; for example, users of certain consumer streaming applications may tolerate higher distortion than users of television distribution applications. The compression ratio achievable can reflect that: higher allowahle/tolerable distortion can yield higher compression ratios.

[0006] Motion compensation can be a lossy compression technique and can relate to techniques where a block of sample data from a previously reconstructed picture or part thereof (reference picture), after being spatially shifted in a direction indicated by a motion vector (MV henceforth), is used for the prediction of a newly reconstructed picture or picture part. In some cases, the reference picture can be the same as the picture currently under reconstruction. MVs can have two dimensions X and Y, or three dimensions, the third being an indication of the reference picture in use (the latter, indirectly, can be a time dimension).

[0007] In some video compression techniques, an MV applicable to a certain area of sample data can be predicted from other MVs, for example from those related to another area of sample data spatially adjacent to the area under reconstruction, and preceding that MV in decoding order. Doing so can substantially reduce the amount of data required for coding the MV, thereby removing redundancy and increasing compression. MV prediction can work effectively, for example, because when coding an input video signal derived from a camera (known as natural video) there is a statistical likelihood that areas larger than the area to which a single MV is applicable move in a similar direction and, therefore, can in some cases be predicted using a similar motion vector derived from MVs of neighboring area. That results in the MV found for a given area to be similar or the same as the MV predicted from the surrounding MVs, and that in turn can be represented, after entropy coding, in a smaller number of bits than what would be used if coding the MV directly. In some cases, MV prediction can be an example of lossless compression of a signal (namely: the MVs) derived from the original signal (namely: the sample stream). In other cases, MV prediction itself can be lossy, for example because of rounding errors when calculating a predictor from several surrounding MVs

[0008] Various MV prediction mechanisms are described in H.265/HEVC (ITU-T Rec 1 1.265, "High Efficiency Video Coding", December 2016). Out of the many MV prediction mechanisms that H.265 offers, described here is a technique henceforth referred to as "spatial merge".

[0009] Referring to FIG. 1, a current block (101) comprises samples that have been found by the encoder during the motion search process to be predictable from a previous block of the same size that has been spatially shifted. Instead of coding that MV directly, the MV can be derived from metadata associated with one or more reference pictures, for example from the most recent (in decoding order) reference picture, using the MV associated with either one of five surrounding samples, denoted AO, Al, and BO, Bl, B2 (102 through 106, respectively). In H.265, the MV prediction can use predictors from the same reference picture that the neighboring block is using.

SUMMARY

[0010] Aspects of the disclosure provide methods and apparatuses for video encoding/decoding. In some examples, an apparatus for video decoding includes processing circuitry. The processing circuitry can be configured to receive a split direction syntax element, a first index syntax element, and a second index syntax element that are associated with a coding block of a picture. The coding block can be coded with a triangul ar prediction mode. The coding block can be partitioned into a first triangular prediction unit and a second triangular prediction unit according to a split direction indicated by the split direction syntax element. The first and second index syntax elements can indicate a first merge index and a second merge index, respectively, to a merge candidate list constructed for the first and second triangular prediction units. The split direction, the first merge index, and the second merge index can be determined based on the split direction syntax element, the first index syntax element, and the second index syntax element. The coding block can be reconstructed according to the determined split direction, the determined first merge index, and the determined second merge index

[0011] Aspects of the disclosure also provide a non-transitory computer-readable medium storing instructions which when executed by a computer for video decoding cause the computer to perform the method for video decoding.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0012] Further features, the nature, and various advantages of the disclosed subject matter will be more apparent from the following detailed description and the accompanying drawings in which;

[0013] FIG. 1 is a schematic illustration of a current block and its surrounding spatial merge candidates in one example. [0014] FIG. 2 is a schematic illustration of a simplified block diagram of a communication system (200) in accordance with an embodiment.

[0015] FIG. 3 is a schematic illustration of a simplified block diagram of a communication system (300) in accordance with an embodiment.

[0016] FIG. 4 is a schematic illustration of a simplified block diagram of a decoder in accordance with an embodiment.

[0017] FIG. 5 is a schematic illustration of a simplified block diagram of an encoder in accordance with an embodiment.

[0018] FIG. 6 shows a block diagram of an encoder in accordance with another embodiment.

[0019] FIG. 7 show's a block diagram of a decoder in accordance with another embodiment.

[0020] FIG. 8 show's an example of candidate positions for constructing a merge candidate list in accordance with an embodiment

[0021] FIG. 9 shows examples of partitioning a coding unit into two triangular prediction units in accordance with an embodiment.

[0022] FIG. 10 shows an example of spatial and temporal neighboring blocks used to construct a merge candidate list in accordance with an embodiment.

[0023] FIG. 1 1 shows an example of a lookup table used to derive a split direction and partition motion information based on a triangle partition index in accordance with an embodiment.

[0024] FIG. 12 show ' s an example of a coding unit applying a set of weighting factors in an adaptive blending process in accordance with an embodiment.

[0025] FIG. 13 shows an example of motion vector storage in a triangular prediction mode in accordance with an embodiment.

[0026] FIGs. 14A-14D show' examples of deriving bi-predietion motion vectors based on motion vectors of two triangular prediction uni ts in accordance with an embodiment.

[0027] FIG. 15 shows an example of a triangular prediction process in accordance with some embodiments.

[0028] FIG. 16 is a schematic illustration of a computer system in accordance with an embodiment.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS

I. Video Coding Encoder and Decoder [0029] FIG. 2 illustrates a simplified block diagram of a communication system (200) according to an embodiment of the present disclosure. The communication system (200) includes a plurali ty of terminal devices that can communicate with each other, via, for example, a network (250). For example, the communication system (200) includes a first pair of terminal devices (210) and (220) interconnected via the network (250). In the FIG. 2 example, the first pair of terminal devices (210) and (220) performs unidirectional transmission of data. For example, the terminal device (210) may code video data (e.g., a stream of video pictures that are captured by the terminal device (210)) for transmission to the other terminal device (220) via the network (250). The encoded video data can be transmitted in the form of one or more coded video bitstreams. The terminal device (220) may receive the coded video data from the network (250), decode the coded video data to recover the video pictures and display video pictures according to the recovered video data. Unidirectional data transmission may be common in media serving applications and the like.

[0030] In another example, the communication system (200) includes a second pair of terminal devices (230) and (240) that performs bidirectional transmission of coded video data that may occur, for example, during videoconferencing. For bidirectional transmission of data, in an example, each terminal device of the terminal devices (230) and (240) may code video data (e.g., a stream of video pictures that are captured by the terminal device) for transmission to the other terminal device of the terminal devices (230) and (240) via the network (250). Each terminal device of the terminal devices (230) and (240) also may receive the coded video data transmitted by the other terminal device of the terminal devices (230) and (240), and may decode the coded video data to recover the video pictures and may display video pictures at an accessible display device according to the recovered video data.

[0031] In the FIG. 2 example, the terminal devices (210), (220), (230) and (240) may be illustrated as servers, personal computers and smart phones but the principles of the present disclosure may be not so limited. Embodiments of the present disclosure find application with laptop computers, tablet computers, media players and/or dedicated video conferencing equipment. The network (250) represents any number of networks that convey coded video data among the terminal devices (210), (220), (230) and (240), including for example wireline (wired) and/or wireless communication networks. The communication network (250) may exchange data in circuit-switched and/or packet-switched channels.

Representative networks include telecommunications networks, local area networks, wide area networks and/or the Internet. For the purposes of the present discussion, the architecture and topology of the network (250) may be immaterial to the operation of the present disclosure unless explained herein below.

[0032] FIG. 3 illustrates, as an example for an application for the disclosed subject matter, the placement of a video encoder and a video decoder in a streaming environment.

The disclosed subject matter can be equally applicable to other video enabled applications, including, for example, video conferencing, digital TV, storing of compressed video on digital media including CD, DVT), memory' stick and the like, and so on.

[0033] A streaming system may include a capture subsystem (313), that can include a video source (301), for example a digital camera, creating for example a stream of video pictures (302) that are uncompressed. In an example, the stream of video pictures (302) includes samples that are taken by the digital camera. The stream of video pictures (302), depicted as a bold line to emphasize a high data volume when compared to encoded video data (304) (or coded video bitstreams), can be processed by an electronic device (320) that includes a video encoder (303) coupled to the video source (301). The video encoder (303) can include hardware, software, or a combination thereof to enable or implement aspects of the disclosed subject matter as described in more detail below. The encoded video data (304) (or encoded video bitstream (304)), depicted as a thin line to emphasize the lower data volume when compared to the stream of video pictures (302), can be stored on a streaming server (305) for future use. One or more streaming client subsystems, such as client subsystems (306) and (308) in FIG. 3 can access the streaming server (305) to retrieve copies (307) and (309) of the encoded video data (304). A client subsystem (306) can include a video decoder (310), for example, in an electronic device (330). The video decoder (310) decodes the incoming copy (307) of the encoded video data and creates an outgoing stream of video pictures (311) that can be rendered on a display (312) (e.g., display screen) or other rendering device (not depicted). In some streaming systems, the encoded video data (304), (307), and (309) (e.g., video bitstreams) can be encoded according to certain video coding/compression standards. Examples of those standards include ITU-T Recommendation H.265. In an example, a video coding standard under development is informally known as Versatile Video Coding (VVC). The disclosed subject matter may be used in the context of VVC.

[0034] It is noted that the electronic devices (320) and (330) can include other components (not shown). For example, the electronic device (320) can include a video decoder (not shown) and the electronic device (330) can include a video encoder (not shown) as well. [0035] FIG. 4 shows a block diagram of a video decoder (410) according to an embodiment of the present disclosure. The video decoder (410) can be included in an electronic device (430). The electronic device (430) can include a receiver (431) (e.g., receiving circuitry). The video decoder (410) can be used in the place of the video decoder (310) in the FIG. 3 example.

[0036] The receiver (431 ) may receive one or more coded video sequences to be decoded by the video decoder (410); in the same or another embodiment, one coded video sequence at a time, where the decoding of each coded video sequence is independent from other coded video sequences. The coded video sequence may be received from a channel (401), which may be a hardware/software link to a storage device which stores the encoded video data. The receiver (431) may receive the encoded video data with other data, for example, coded audio data and/or ancillary data streams, that may be forwarded to their respective using entities (not depicted). The receiver (431) may separate the coded video sequence from the other data. To combat network jitter, a buffer memory (415) may be coupled in between the receiver (431) and an entropy decoder / parser (420) ("parser (420)" henceforth). In certain applications, the buffer memory (415) is part of the video decoder (410). In others, it can be outside of the video decoder (410) (not depicted). In still others, there can be a buffer memory ' (not depicted) outside of the video decoder (410), for example to combat network jitter, and in addition another buffer memory (415) inside the video decoder (410), for example to handle playout timing. When the receiver (431) is receiving data from a store/forward device of sufficient bandwidth and controllability, or from an isosynchronous network, the buffer memory (415) may not be needed, or can be small. For use on best effort packet networks such as the Internet, the buffer memory (415) may be required, can be comparatively large and can be advantageously of adaptive size, and may at least partially be implemented in an operating system or similar elements (not depicted) outside of the video decoder (410).

[0037] The video decoder (410) may include the parser (420) to reconstruct symbols (421) from the coded video sequence. Categories of those symbols include information used to manage operation of the video decoder (410), and potentially information to control a rendering device such as a render device (412) (e.g., a display screen) that is not an integral part of the electronic device (430) but can be coupled to the electronic device (430), as was shown in FIG. 4. The control information for the rendering device(s) may be in the form of Supplemental Enhancement Information (SEI messages) or Video Usability ' · Information (VUI) parameter set fragments (not depicted). The parser (420) may parse / entropy-decode the coded video sequence that is received. The coding of the coded video sequence can be in accordance with a video coding technology or standard, and can follow various principles, including variable length coding, Huffman coding, arithmetic coding with or without context sensitivity, and so forth. The parser (420) may extract from the coded video sequence, a set of subgroup parameters for at least one of the subgroups of pixels in the video decoder, based upon at least one parameter corresponding to the group. Subgroups can include Groups of Pictures (GOPs), pictures, tiles, slices, macroblocks, Coding Units (CUs), blocks, Transform Units (TUs), Prediction Units (PUs) and so forth. The parser (420) may also extract from the coded video sequence information such as transform coefficients, quantizer parameter values, motion vectors, and so forth

[0038] The parser (420) may perform an entropy decoding / parsing operation on the video sequence received from the buffer memory (415), so as to create symbols (421).

[0039] Reconstruction of the symbols (421) can involve multiple different units depending on the type of the coded video picture or parts thereof (such as: inter and intra picture, inter and intra block), and other factors. Which units are involved, and how, can be controlled by the subgroup control information that was parsed from the coded video sequence by the parser (420) The flow of such subgroup control information between the parser (420) and the multiple units below is not depicted for clarity.

[0040] Beyond the functional blocks already mentioned, the video decoder (410) can be conceptually subdivided into a number of functional units as described below. In a practical implementation operating under commercial constraints, many of these units interact closely with each other and can, at least partly, be integrated into each other.

However, for the purpose of describing the disclosed subject mater, the conceptual subdivision into the functional units below is appropriate.

[0041] A first unit is the scaler / inverse transform unit (451). The scaler / inverse transform unit (451) receives a quantized transform coefficient as well as control information, including which transform to use, block size, quantization factor, quantization scaling matrices, etc. as symbol(s) (421) from the parser (420). The scaler / inverse transform unit (451) can output blocks comprising sample values, that can be input into aggregator (455).

[0042] In some cases, the output samples of the scaler / inverse transform (451) can pertain to an intra coded block; that is: a block that is not using predictive information from previously reconstructed pictures, but can use predictive information from previously reconstructed parts of the current picture. Such predictive information can be provided by an intra picture prediction unit (452) In some cases, the intra picture prediction unit (452) generates a block of the same size and shape of the block under reconstruction, using surrounding already reconstructed information fetched from the current picture buffer (458). The current picture buffer (458) buffers, for example, partly reconstructed current picture and/or fully reconstructed current picture. The aggregator (455), in some cases, adds, on a per sample basis, the prediction information the intra prediction unit (452) has generated to the output sample information as provided by the scaler / inverse transform unit (451)

[0043] In other cases, the output samples of the scaler / inverse transform unit (451) can pertain to an inter coded, and potentially motion compensated block. In such a case, a motion compensation prediction unit (453) can access reference picture memory (457) to fetch samples used for prediction. After motion compensating the fetched samples in accordance with the symbols (421) pertaining to the block, these samples can be added by the aggregator (455) to the output of the scaler / inverse transform unit (451) (in this case called the residual samples or residual signal) so as to generate output sample information. The addresses within the reference picture memory (457) from where the motion compensation prediction unit (453) fetches prediction samples can he controlled by motion vectors, available to the motion compensation prediction unit (453) in the form of symbols (421) that can have, for example X, Y, and reference picture components. Motion compensation also can include interpolation of sample values as fetched from the reference picture memory'

(457) when sub-sample exact motion vectors are in use, motion vector prediction

mechanisms, and so forth.

[0044] The output samples of the aggregator (455) can be subject to various loop filtering techniques in the loop filter unit (456). Video compression technologies can include in-loop filter technologies that are controlled by parameters included in the coded video sequence (also referred to as coded video bitstream) and made available to the loop filter unit (456) as symbols (421) from the parser (420), but can also be responsive to meta-information obtained during the decoding of previous (in decoding order) parts of the coded picture or coded video sequence, as well as responsive to previously reconstructed and loop-filtered sample values.

[0045] The output of the loop filter unit (456) can be a sample stream that can be output to the render device (412) as well as stored in the reference picture memory (457) for use in future inter-picture prediction.

[0046] Certain coded pictures, once fully reconstructed, can be used as reference pictures for future prediction. For example, once a coded picture corresponding to a current picture is fully reconstructed and the coded picture has been identified as a reference picture (by, for example, the parser (420)), the current picture buffer (458) can become a part of the reference picture memory (457), and a fresh current picture buffer can be reallocated before commencing the reconstruction of the following coded picture.

[0047] The video decoder (410) may perform decoding operations according to a predetermined video compression technology in a standard, such as ITU-T Rec. H.265. The coded video sequence may conform to a syntax specified by the video compression technology or standard being used, in the sense that the coded video sequence adheres to both the syntax of the video compression technology or standard and the profiles as documented in the video compression technology or standard. Specifically, a profile can select certain tools as the only tools available for use under that profile from ail the tools available in the video compression technology or standard. Also necessary for compliance can be that the complexity of the coded video sequence is within bounds as defined by the level of the video compression technology or standard. In some cases, levels restrict the maximum picture size, maximum frame rate, maximum reconstruction sample rate (measured in, for example megasamples per second), maximum reference picture size, and so on. Limits set by levels can, in some cases, be further restricted through Hypothetical Reference Decoder (HRD) specifications and metadata for HRD buffer management signaled in the coded video sequence.

[0048] In an embodiment, the receiver (431) may receive additional (redundant) data with the encoded video. The additional data may be included as part of the coded video sequence(s). The additional data may be used by the video decoder (410) to properly decode the data and/or to more accurately reconstruct the original video data. Additional data can be in the form of, for example, temporal, spatial, or signal noise ratio (SNR) enhancement layers, redundant slices, redundant pictures, forward error correction codes, and so on.

[0049] FIG. 5 shows a block diagram of a video encoder (503) according to an embodiment of the present disclosure. The video encoder (503) is included in an electronic device (520). The electronic device (520) includes a transmitter (540) (e.g., transmitting circuitry). The video encoder (503) can be used in the place of the video encoder (303) in the FIG. 3 example.

[0050] The video encoder (503) may receive video samples from a video source (501) (that is not part of the electronic device (520) in the FIG. 5 example) that may capture video image(s) to be coded by the video encoder (503). In another example, the video source (501) is a part of the electronic device (520). [0051] The video source (501) may provide the source video sequence to be coded by the video encoder (503) in the form of a digital video sample stream that can be of any suitable bit depth (for example: 8 bit, 10 bit 12 bit, ), any colorspace (for example, BT.601 Y CrCB, RGB, ...), and any suitable sampling structure (for example Y CrCb 4:2:0, Y CrCb 4:4:4). In a media serving system, the video source (501) may be a storage device storing previously prepared video. In a videoconferencing system, the video source (501) may be a camera that captures local image information as a video sequence. Video data may be provided as a plurality of individual pictures that impart motion when viewed in sequence. The pictures themselves may be organized as a spatial array of pixels, wherein each pixel can comprise one or more samples depending on the sampling structure, color space, etc. in use.

A person skilled in the art can readily understand the relationship between pixels and samples. The description below focuses on samples.

[0052] According to an embodiment, the video encoder (503) may code and compress the pictures of the source video sequence into a coded video sequence (543) in real time or under any other time constraints as required by the application. Enforcing appropriate coding speed is one function of a controller (550). In some embodiments, the controller (550) controls other functional units as described below and is functionally coupled to the other functional units. The coupling is not depicted for clarity. Parameters set by the controller (550) can include rate control related parameters (picture skip, quantizer, lambda value of rate-distortion optimization techniques, ...), picture size, group of pictures (GOP) layout, maximum motion vector search range, and so forth. The controller (550) can he configured to have other suitable functions that pertain to the video encoder (503) optimized for a certain system design.

[0053] In some embodiments, the video encoder (503) is configured to operate in a coding loop. As an oversimplified description, in an example, the coding loop can include a source coder (530) (e.g., responsible for creating symbols, such as a symbol stream, based on an input picture to be coded, and a reference picture(s)), and a (local) decoder (533) embedded in the video encoder (503). The decoder (533) reconstructs the symbols to create the sample data in a similar manner as a (remote) decoder also would create (as any compression between symbols and coded video bitstream is lossless in the video compression technologies considered in the disclosed subject mater). The reconstructed sample stream (sample data) is input to the reference picture memory (534). As the decoding of a symbol stream leads to bit-exact results independent of decoder location (local or remote), the content in the reference picture memory (534) is also bit exact between the local encoder and remote encoder. In other words, the prediction part of an encoder "sees" as reference picture samples exactly the same sample values as a decoder would "see" when using prediction during decoding. This fundamental principle of reference picture synchronicity (and resulting drift, if synchronicity cannot be maintained, for example because of channel errors) is used in some related arts as well.

[0054] The operation of the "local" decoder (533) can he the same as of a "remote” decoder, such as the video decoder (410), which has already been described in detail above in conjunction with FIG. 4. Briefly referring also to FIG. 4, however, as symbols are available and encoding/decoding of symbols to a coded video sequence by an entropy coder (545) and the parser (420) can he lossless, the entropy decoding parts of the video decoder (410), including the buffer memory (415), and parser (420) may not be fully implemented in the local decoder (533).

[0055] An observation that can be made at this point is that any decoder technology except the parsing/entropy decoding that is present in a decoder also necessarily needs to be present, in substantially identical functional form, in a corresponding encoder. For this reason, the disclosed subject matter focuses on decoder operation. The description of encoder technologies can be abbreviated as they are the inverse of the comprehensively described decoder technologies. Only in certain areas a more detail description is required and provided below.

[0056] During operation, in some examples, the source coder (530) may perform motion compensated predictive coding, which codes an input picture predictively with reference to one or more previously-coded picture from the video sequence that were designated as "reference pictures”. In this manner, the coding engine (532) codes differences between pixel blocks of an input picture and pixel blocks of reference picture(s) that may be selected as prediction reference(s) to the input picture.

[0057] The local video decoder (533) may decode coded video data of pictures that may be designated as reference pictures, based on symbols created by the source coder (530). Operations of the coding engine (532) may advantageously be lossy processes. When the coded video data may be decoded at a video decoder (not shown in FIG. 5 ), the

reconstructed video sequence typically may be a replica of the source video sequence with some errors. The local video decoder (533) replicates decoding processes that may be performed by the video decoder on reference pictures and may cause reconstructed reference pictures to be stored in the reference picture cache (534). In this manner, the video encoder (503) may store copies of reconstructed reference pictures locally that have common content as the reconstructed reference pictures that will be obtained by a far-end video decoder (absent transmission errors).

[0058] The predictor (535) may perform prediction searches for the coding engine (532). That is, for a new picture to be coded, the predictor (535) may search the reference picture memory (534) for sample data (as candidate reference pixel blocks) or certain metadata such as reference picture motion vectors, block shapes, and so on, that may serve as an appropriate prediction reference for the new' pictures. The predictor (535) may operate on a sample block-by-pixel block basis to find appropriate prediction references. In some cases, as determined by search results obtained by the predictor (535), an input picture may have prediction references drawn from multiple reference pictures stored in the reference picture memory' (534).

[0059] The controller (550) may manage coding operations of the source coder (530), including, for example, setting of parameters and subgroup parameters used for encoding the video data.

[0060] Output of all aforementioned functional units may be subjected to entropy coding in the entropy coder (545). The entropy coder (545) translates the symbols as generated by the various functional units into a coded video sequence, by lossless

compressing the symbols according to technologies such as Huffman coding, variable length coding, arithmetic coding, and so forth.

[0061] The transmitter (540) may buffer the coded video sequence(s) as created by the entropy coder (545) to prepare for transmission via a communication channel (560), which may be a hardware/software link to a storage device which would store the encoded video data. The transmitter (540) may merge coded video data from the video coder (503) with other data to be transmitted, for example, coded audio data and/or ancillary data streams (sources not shown).

[0062] The controller (550) may manage operation of the video encoder (503).

During coding, the controller (550) may assign to each coded picture a certain coded picture type, which may affect the coding techniques that may be applied to the respective picture. For example, pictures often may be assigned as one of the following picture types:

[0063] An Intra Picture (I picture) may be one that may be coded and decoded without using any other picture in the sequence as a source of prediction. Some video codecs allow for different types of intra pictures, including, for example Independent Decoder Refresh (“IDR”) Pictures. A person skilled in the art is aware of those variants of I pictures and their respective applications and features. [0064] A predictive picture (P picture) may be one that may be coded and decoded using intra prediction or inter prediction using at most one motion vector and reference index to predict the sample values of each block.

[0065] A bi-directionally predictive picture (B Picture) may be one that may be coded and decoded using intra prediction or inter prediction using at most two motion vectors and reference indices to predict the sample values of each block. Similarly , multiple-predictive pictures can use more than two reference pictures and associated metadata for the

reconstruction of a single block

[0066] Source pictures commonly may be subdivided spatially into a plurality of sample blocks (for example, blocks of 4x4, 8x8, 4x8, or 16x16 samples each) and coded on a block-by-block basis. Blocks may be coded predictively with reference to other (already coded) blocks as determined by the coding assignment applied to the blocks' respective pictures. For example, blocks of I pictures may be coded non-predictively or they may be coded predictively with reference to already coded blocks of the same picture (spatial prediction or intra prediction). Pixel blocks of P pictures may be coded predictively, via spatial prediction or via temporal prediction with reference to one previously coded reference picture. Blocks of B pictures may be coded predictively, via spatial prediction or via temporal prediction with reference to one or two previously coded reference pictures.

[0067] The video encoder (503) may perform coding operations according to a predetermined video coding technology or standard, such as ITU-T Rec. H.265. In its operation, the video encoder (503) may perform various compression operations, including predictive coding operations that exploit temporal and spatial redundancies in the input video sequence. The coded video data, therefore, may confor to a syntax specified by the video coding technology or standard being used.

[0068] In an embodiment, the transmitter (540) may transmit additional data with the encoded video. The source coder (530) may include such data as part of the coded video sequence. Additional data may comprise temporal/spatial/SNR enhancement layers, other forms of redundant data such as redundant pictures and slices, SEI messages, VUI parameter set fragments, and so on.

[0069] A video may be captured as a plurality of source pictures (video pictures) in a temporal sequence. Intra-picture prediction (often abbreviated to intra prediction) makes use of spatial correlation in a given picture, and inter-picture prediction makes uses of the (temporal or other) correlation between the pictures. In an example, a specific picture under encoding/decoding, which is referred to as a current picture, is partitioned into blocks. When a block in the current picture is similar to a reference block in a previously coded and still buffered reference picture in the video, the block in the current picture can be coded by a vector that is referred to as a motion vector. The motion vector points to the reference block in the reference picture, and can have a third dimension identifying the reference picture, in case multiple reference pictures are in use.

[0070] In some embodiments, a bi-prediction technique can be used in the inter picture prediction. According to the bi-prediction technique, two reference pictures, such as a first reference picture and a second reference picture that are both prior in decoding order to the current picture in the video (but may be in the past and future, respectively, in display order) are used. A block in the current picture can be coded by a first motion vector that points to a first reference block in the first reference picture, and a second motion vector that points to a second reference block in the second reference picture. The block can be predicted by a combination of the first reference block and the second reference block.

[0071] Further, a merge mode technique can be used in the inter-picture prediction to improve coding efficiency.

[0072] According to some embodiments of the disclosure, predictions, such as inter picture predictions and intra-picture predictions are performed in the unit of blocks. For example, according to the HEVC standard, a picture in a sequence of video pictures is partitioned into coding tree units (CTU) for compression, the CTUs in a picture have the same size, such as 64x64 pixels, 32x32 pixels, or 16x16 pixels. In general, a CTU includes three coding tree blocks (CTBs), which are one luma CTB and two chroma CTBs. Each CTU can be recursively quadtree split into one or multiple coding units (CUs). For example, a CTU of 64x64 pixels can be split into one CU of 64x64 pixels, or 4 CUs of 32x32 pixels, or 16 CUs of 16x16 pixels. In an example, each CU is analyzed to determine a prediction type for the CU, such as an inter prediction type or an intra prediction type. The CU is split into one or more prediction units (PUs) depending on the temporal and/or spatial predictability. Generally, each PU includes a luma prediction block (PB), and two chroma PBs. In an embodiment, a prediction operation in coding (encoding/decoding) is performed in the unit of a prediction block. Using a luma prediction block as an example of a prediction block, the prediction block includes a matrix of values (e.g , luma values) for pixels, such as 8x8 pixels, 16x16 pixels, 8x16 pixels, 16x8 pixels, and the like.

[0073] FIG. 6 shows a diagram of a video encoder (603) according to another embodiment of the disclosure. The video encoder (603) is configured to receive a processing block (e.g., a prediction block) of sample values within a current video picture in a sequence of video pictures, and encode the processing block into a coded picture that is part of a coded video sequence. In an example, the video encoder (603) is used in the place of the video encoder (303) in the FIG. 3 example.

[0074] In an HE VC example, the video encoder (603) receives a matrix of sample values for a processing block, such as a prediction block of 8x8 samples, and the like. The video encoder (603) determines whether the processing block is best coded using intra mode, inter mode, or bi-prediction mode using, for example, rate-distortion optimization. When the processing block is to be coded in intra mode, the video encoder (603) may use an intra prediction technique to encode the processing block into the coded picture; and when the processing block is to be coded in inter mode or bi-prediction mode, the video encoder (603) may use an inter prediction or bi-prediction technique, respectively, to encode the processing block into the coded picture. In certain video coding technologies, merge mode can be an inter picture prediction submode where the motion vector is derived from one or more motion vector predictors without the benefit of a coded moti on vector component outside the predictors. In certain other video coding technologies, a motion vector component applicable to the subject block may be present. In an example, the video encoder (603) includes other components, such as a mode decision module (not shown) to determine the mode of the processing blocks.

[0075] In the FIG. 6 example, the video encoder (603) includes the inter encoder (630), an intra encoder (622), a residue calculator (623), a switch (626), a residue encoder (624), a general controller (621), and an entropy encoder (625) coupled together as shown in FIG. 6.

[0076] The inter encoder (630) is configured to receive the samples of the current block (e.g., a processing block), compare the block to one or more reference blocks in reference pictures (e.g , blocks in previous pictures and later pictures), generate inter prediction information (e.g., description of redundant information according to inter encoding technique, motion vectors, merge mode information), and calculate inter prediction results (e.g., predicted block) based on the inter prediction information using any suitable technique. In some examples, the reference pictures are decoded reference pictures that are decoded based on the encoded video information.

[0077] The intra encoder (622) is configured to receive the samples of the current block (e.g., a processing block), in some cases compare the block to blocks already coded in the same picture, generate quantized coefficients after transform, and in some cases also intra prediction information (e.g., an intra prediction direction information according to one or more intra encoding techniques). In an example, the intra encoder (622) also calculates intra prediction results (e.g., predicted block) based on the intra prediction information and reference blocks in the same picture.

[0078] The general controller (621) is configured to determine general control data and control other components of the video encoder (603) based on the general control data.

In an example, the general controller (621) determines the mode of the block, and provides a control signal to the switch (626) based on the mode. For example, when the mode is the intra mode, the general controller (621) controls the switch (626) to select the intra mode result for use by the residue calculator (623), and controls the entropy encoder (625) to select the intra prediction information and include the intra prediction information in the bitstream, and when the mode is the inter mode, the general controller (621) controls the switch (626) to select the inter prediction result for use by the residue calculator (623), and controls the entropy encoder (625) to select the inter prediction information and include the inter prediction information in the bitstream.

[0079] The residue calculator (623) is configured to calculate a difference (residue data) between the received block and prediction results selected from the intra encoder (622) or the inter encoder (630). The residue encoder (624) is configured to operate based on the residue data to encode the residue data to generate the transform coefficients. In an example, the residue encoder (624) is configured to convert the residue data from a spatial domain to a frequency domain, and generate the transform coefficients. The transform coefficients are then subject to quantization processing to obtain quantized transform coefficients. In various embodiments, the video encoder (603) also includes a residue decoder (628). The residue decoder (628) is configured to perform inverse-transform, and generate the decoded residue data. The decoded residue data can be suitably used by the intra encoder (622) and the inter encoder (630). For example, the inter encoder (630) can generate decoded blocks based on the decoded residue data and inter prediction information, and the intra encoder (622) can generate decoded blocks based on the decoded residue data and the intra prediction information. The decoded blocks are suitably processed to generate decoded pictures and the decoded pictures can be buffered in a memory circuit (not shown) and used as reference pictures in some examples.

[0080] The entropy encoder (625) is configured to format the bitstream to include the encoded block. The entropy encoder (625) is configured to include various information according to a suitable standard, such as the HE VC standard. In an example, the entropy encoder (625) is configured to include the general control data, the selected prediction information (e.g., intra prediction information or inter prediction information), the residue information, and other suitable information in the bitstream. Note that, according to the disclosed subject matter, when coding a block in the merge submode of either inter mode or bi-prediction mode, there is no residue information.

[0081] FIG. 7 shows a diagram of a video decoder (710) according to another embodiment of the disclosure. The video decoder (710) is configured to receive coded pictures that are part of a coded video sequence, and decode the coded pictures to generate reconstructed pictures. In an example, the video decoder (710) is used in the place of the video decoder (310) in the FIG. 3 example.

[0082] In the FIG. 7 example, the video decoder (710) includes an entropy decoder

(771), an inter decoder (780), a residue decoder (773), a reconstruction module (774), and an intra decoder (772) coupled together as shown in FIG. 7.

[0083] The entropy decoder (771) can be configured to reconstruct, from the coded picture, certain symbols that represent the syntax elements of which the coded picture is made up. Such symbols can include, for example, the mode in which a block is coded (such as, for example, intra mode, inter mode, bi-predicted mode, the latter two in merge submode or another submode), prediction information (such as, for example, intra prediction information or inter prediction information) that can identify certain sample or metadata that is used for prediction by the intra decoder (772) or the inter decoder (780), respectively, residual information in the form of, for example, quantized transform coefficients, and the like. In an example, when the prediction mode is inter or bi-predicted mode, the inter prediction information is provided to the inter decoder (780); and when the prediction type is the intra prediction type, the intra prediction information is provided to the intra decoder

(772). The residual information can be subject to inverse quantization and is provided to the residue decoder (773).

[0084] The inter decoder (780) is configured to receive the inter prediction information, and generate inter prediction results based on the inter prediction information.

[0085] The intra decoder (772) is configured to receive the intra prediction information, and generate prediction results based on the intra prediction information.

[0086] The residue decoder (773) is configured to perform inverse quantization to extract de-quantized transform coefficients, and process the de-quantized transform coefficients to convert the residual from the frequency domain to the spatial domain. The residue decoder (773) may also require certain control information (to include the Quantizer Parameter (QP)), and that information may be provided by the entropy decoder (771) (data path not depicted as this may be low volume control information only).

[0087] The reconstruction module (774) is configured to combine, in the spatial domain, the residual as output by the residue decoder (773) and the prediction results (as output by the inter or intra prediction modules as the ease may be) to form a reconstructed block, that may be part of the reconstructed picture, which in turn may be part of the reconstructed video. It is noted that other suitable operations, such as a deblocking operation and the like, can be performed to improve the visual quality.

[0088] It is noted that the video encoders (303), (503), and (603), and the video decoders (310), (410), and (710) can be implemented using any suitable technique. In an embodiment, the video encoders (303), (503), and (603), and the video decoders (310), (410), and (710) can be implemented using one or more integrated circuits. In another embodiment, the video encoders (303), (503), and (503), and the video decoders (310), (410), and (710) can be implemented using one or more processors that execute software instructions.

P. Triangular Prediction

L Coding in Merge Mode

[0089] A picture can be partitioned into blocks, for example, using a tree structure based partition scheme. The resulting blocks can then be processed with different processing modes, such as an intra prediction mode, an inter prediction mode (e.g., merge mode, skip mode, advanced motion vector prediction (AVMP) mode), and the like. When a currently processed block, referred to as a current block, is processed with a merge mode, a neighbor block can be selected from a spatial or temporal neighborhood of the current block. The current block can be merged with the selected neighbor block by sharing a same set of motion data (or referred to as motion information) from the selected neighbor block. This merge mode operation can be performed over a group of neighbor blocks, such that a region of neighbor blocks can be merged together and share a same set of motion data. During transmission from an encoder to a decoder, an index indicating the motion data of the selected neighbor block can be transmitted for the current block, instead of transmission of the whole set of motion data. In this way, an amount of data (bits) that are used for transmission of motion information can be reduced, and coding efficiency can be improved.

[0090] In the above example, the neighbor block, which provides the motion data, can be selected from a set of candidate positions. The candidate positions can be predefined with respect to the current block. For example, the candidate positions can include spatial candidate positions and temporal candidate positions. Each spatial candidate position is associated with a spatial neighbor block neighboring the current block. Each temporal candidate position is associated with a temporal neighbor block located in another coded picture (e.g., a previously coded picture). Neighbor blocks overlapping the candidate positions (referred to as candidate blocks) are a subset of the spatial or temporal neighbor blocks of the current block. In this way, the candidate blocks can be evaluated for selection of a to-be-merged block instead of the whole set of neighbor blocks

[0091] FIG. 8 shows an example of candidate positions. From those candidate positions, a set of merge candidates can be selected to construct a merge candidate list. For example, the candidate positions as defined in FIG. 8 can be used in the HE VC standard. As shown, a current block (810) is to be processed with merge mode. A set of candidate positions {Al, Bl, B0, A0, B2, CO, Cl } are defined for the merge mode processing.

Specifically, candidate positions (Al, Bl, B0, A0, B2} are spatial candidate positions that represent positions of candidate blocks that are in the same picture as the current block (810). In contrast, candidate positions (CO, Cl} are temporal candidate positions that represent positions of candidate blocks that are in another coded picture and neighbor or overlap a co located block of the current block (810). As shown, the candidate position C 1 can be located near (e.g., adjacent to) a center of the current block (810).

[0092] A candidate position can be represented by a block of samples or a sample in different examples. In FIG. 8, each candidate position is represented by a block of samples, for example, having a size of 4x4 samples. A size of such a block of samples corresponding to a candidate position can be equal to or smaller than a minimum allowable size of PBs (e.g., 4x4 samples) defined for a tree-based partitioning scheme used for generating the current block (810). Under such a configuration, a block corresponding to a candidate position can always be covered within a single neighbor PB. In an alternative example, a sample position (e.g., a bottom-right sample within the block Al, or a top-right sample within the block A0) may be used to represent a candidate position. Such a sample is referred to as a

representative sample, while such a position is referred to as a representative position

[0093] In one example, based on the candidate positions (Al, Bl, B0, A0, B2, CO,

Cl } defined in FIG. 8, a merge mode process can be performed to select merge candidates from the candidate positions (Al, Bl, BO, A0, B2, CO, Cl } to construct a candidate list. The candidate list can have a predefined maximum number of merge candidates, Cm. Each merge candidate in the candidate list can include a set of motion data that can be used for motion-compensated prediction. [0094] The merge candidates can be listed in the candidate list according to a certain order. For example, depending on how the merge candidate is derived, different merge candidates may have different probabilities of being selected. The merge candidates having higher probabilities of being selected are positioned in front of the merge candidates having lower probabilities of being selected. Based on such an order, each merge candidate is associated with an index (referred to as a merge index). In one embodiment, a merge candidate having a higher probability of being selected will have a smaller index value such that fewer bits are needed for coding the respective index.

[0095] In one example, the motion data of a merge candidate can include horizontal and vertical motion vector displacement values of one or two motion vectors, one or two reference picture indexes associated with the one or two motion vectors, and optionally an identifi cation of which reference picture list is associated with each index.

[0096] In an example, according to a predefined order, a first number of merge candidates, Ca, is derived from the spatial candidate positions according to the order (Al,

Bl, B0, A0, B2}, and a second number of merge candidates, Cb=Cm-Ca, is derived from the temporal candidate positions according to the order {CO, Cl ) The numerals Al, Bl, B0, A0, B2, CO, Cl for representing candidate positions can also be used to refer to merge candidates. For example, a merge candidate obtained from candidate position Al is referred to as the merge candidate Al

[0097] In some scenarios, a merge candidate at a candidate position may be unavailable. For example, a candidate block at a candidate position can be intra-predicted, outside of a slice or tile including the current block (810), or not in a same coding tree block (CTB) row as the current block (810). In some scenarios, a merge candidate at a candidate position may be redundant. For example, one neighbor block of the current block (810) can overlap two candidate positions. The redundant merge candidate can be removed from the candidate list (e.g., by performing a pruning process). When a total number of available merge candidates (with redundant candidates being removed) in the candidate list is smaller than the maximum number of merge candidates Cm, additional merge candidates can be generated (e.g., according to a preconfigured rule) to fill the candidate list such that the candidate list can be maintained to have a fixed length. For example, additional merge candidates can include combined bi-predictive candidates and zero motion vector candidates.

[0098] After the candidate list is constructed, at an encoder, an evaluation process can be performed to select a merge candidate from the candidate list. For example, rate-distortion (RD) performance corresponding to each merge candidate can be calculated, and the one with the best RD performance can be selected. Accordingly, a merge index associated with the selected merge candidate can be determined for the current block (810) and signaled to a decoder.

[0099] At a decoder, the merge index of the current block (810) can be received. A similar candidate list construction process, as described above, can be performed to generate a candidate list that is the same as the candidate list generated at the encoder side. After the candidate list is constructed, a merge candidate can be selected from the candidate list based on the received merge index without performing any further evaluations in some examples. Motion data of the selected merge candidate can be used for a subsequent motion- compensated prediction of the current block (810).

[0100] A skip mode is also introduced in some examples. For example, in the skip mode, a current block can be predicted using a merge mode as described above to determine a set of motion data, however, no residue is generated, and no transform coefficients are transmitted A skip flag can be associated with the current block. The skip flag and a merge index indicating the related motion information of the current block can be signaled to a video decoder. For example, at the beginning of a CU in an inter-picture prediction slice, a skip flag can be signaled that implies the following; the CU only contains one PU (2Nx2N); the merge mode is used to derive the motion data; and no residual data is present in the bitstream. At the decoder side, based on the skip flag, a prediction block can be determined based on the merge index for decoding a respective current block without adding residue information. Thus, various methods for video coding with merge mode disclosed herein can be utilized in combination with a skip mode.

2 Triangular Prediction Mode

[0101] A triangular prediction mode can be employed for inter prediction in some embodiments. In an embodiment, the triangular prediction mode is applied to CUs that are 8x8 samples or larger in size and are coded in skip or merge mode. In an embodiment, for a CU satisfying these conditions (8x8 samples or larger in size and coded in skip or merge mode), a CU-ievel flag is signaled to indicate whether the triangular prediction mode is applied or not.

[0102] When the triangular prediction mode is used, in some embodiments, a CU is split evenly into two triangle-shaped partitions, using either the diagonal split or the anti diagonal split as shown in FIG. 9. In FIG. 9, a first CU (910) is split from a top-left corner to a bottom-right comer resulting in two triangular prediction units, PUT and PU2. A second CU (920) is split from a top-right corner to a bottom-left comer resulting in two triangular prediction units, PU1 and PU2. Each triangular prediction unit PU1 or PU2 in the CU (910) or (920) is inter-predicted using its own motion information. In some embodiments, only uni -prediction is allowed for each triangular prediction unit. Accordingly, each triangular prediction unit has one motion vector and one reference picture index. The uni -prediction motion constraint can be applied to ensure that, similar to a conventional bi-prediction method, not more than two motion compensated predictions are performed for each CU. In this way, processing complexity can be reduced. The uni-prediction motion information for each triangular prediction unit can be derived from a uni -prediction merge candidate list. In some other embodiments, bi-prediction is allowed for each triangular prediction unit.

Accordingly, the bi-prediction motion information for each triangular prediction unit can be derived from a bi-prediction merge candidate list.

[0103] In some embodiments, when a CU-level flag indicates that a current CU is coded using the triangle partition mode, an index, referred to as triangle partition index, is further signaled. For example, the triangle partition index can have a value in a range of [0, 39] Using this triangle partition index, the direction of the triangle partition (diagonal or anti-diagonal), as well as the motion information for each of the partitions (e.g., merge indices to the respective uni -prediction candidate list) can be obtained through a look-up table at the decoder side. After predicting each of the triangular prediction unit based on the obtained motion information, in an embodiment, the sample values along the diagonal or anti-diagonal edge of the current CU are adjusted by performing a blending process with adaptive weights. As a result of the blending process, a prediction signal for the whole CU can be obtained. Subsequently, a transform and quantization process can be applied to the whole CU in a way similar to other prediction modes. Finally, a motion fi eld of a CU predicted using the triangle partition mode can be created, for example, by storing motion information in a set of 4x4 units partitioned from the CU. The motion field can be used, for example, in a subsequent motion vector prediction process to construct a merge candidate list.

[0104] In some embodiments, a merge candidate list for prediction of two triangular prediction units of a coding block processed with a triangular prediction mode can be constructed based on a set of spatial and temporal neighboring blocks of the coding block. In one embodiment, the merge candidate list is a uni-prediction candidate list. The uni prediction candidate list includes five uni-prediction motion vector candidates in an embodiment. For example, the five uni -predicti on motion vector candidates are derived from seven neighboring blocks including five spatial neighboring blocks (labelled with numbers of 1 to 5 in FIG. 10) and two temporal co-located blocks (labelled with numbers of 6 to 7 in FIG. 10).

[0105] In an example, the motion vectors of the seven neighboring blocks are collected and put into the uni-prediction candidate list according to the following order: first, the motion vectors of the uni-predicted neighboring blocks; then, for the bi-predicted neighboring blocks, the L0 motion vectors (that is, the L0 motion vector part of the bi prediction MV), the LI motion vectors (that is, the LI motion vector part of the bi-prediction MV), and averaged motion vectors of the L0 and LI motion vectors of the bi-prediction MVs. In an example, if the number of candidates is less than five, zero motion vectors are added to the end of the list. In some other embodiments, the merge candidate list may include less than 5 or more than 5 uni-prediction or bi-prediction merge candidates that are selected from candidate positions that are the same or different from that shown in FIG. 10.

4. Lookup Table and Table Indices

[0106] In an embodiment, a CU is coded with a triangular partition mode with a merge candidate list including five candidates. Accordingly, there are 40 possible ways to predict the CU when 5 merge candidates are used for each triangular PU. In other words, there can be 40 different combinations of split directions and merge indices: 2 (possible split directions) x (5 (possible merge indices for a first triangular prediction unit) x 5 (possible merge indices for a second triangular prediction unit) - 5 (a number of possibilities when the pair of first and second prediction units shares a same merge index)). For example, when a same merge index is determined for the two triangular prediction units, the CU can be processed using a regular merge mode, for example, described in the section of II. 1, instead of the triangular predication mode.

[0107] Accordingly, in an embodiment, a triangular partition index in the range of [0, 39] can be used to represent which one of the 40 combinations is used based on a lookup table FIG. 11 shows an exemplar} lookup table (1100) used to derive the split direction and merge indices based on a triangular partition index. As shown in the lookup table (1100), a first ro (1101) includes the triangular partition indices ranging from 0 to 39; a second row (1 102) includes possible split directions represented by 0 or 1; a third row (1 103) includes possible first merge indices corresponding to a first triangular prediction unit and ranging from 0 to 4; and, a fourth row 1 104 includes possible second merge indices corresponding to a second triangular prediction unit and ranging from 0 to 4. [0108] For example, when a triangular partition index having a value of 1 is received at a decoder, based on a column (1120) of the lookup table (1100), it can be determined that the split direction is a partition direction represented by the value of 1, and the first and second merge indices are 0 and 1, respectively. As the triangle partition indices are associated with a lookup table, a triangle partition index is also referred to as a table index in this disclosure.

5, Adaptive Blending along the Triangular Partition Edge

[0109] In an embodiment, after predicting each triangular prediction unit using respective motion information, a blending process is applied to the two prediction signals of the two triangular prediction units to derive samples around the diagonal or anti -diagonal edge. The blending process adaptively chooses between two groups of weighting factors depending on the motion vector difference between the two triangular prediction units. In an embodiment, the two weighting factor groups are as follows:

(1) 1st weighting factor group: ( 7/8, 6/8, 4/8, 2/8, 1/8} for samples of a luma component and {7/8, 4/8, 1/8} for samples of chroma component; and

(2) 2nd weighting factor group: {7/8, 6/8, 5/8, 4/8, 3/8, 2/8, 1/8} for samples of a luma component and {6/8, 4/8, 2/8} for samples of a chroma component.

The second weighting factor group has more luma weighting factors and blends more luma samples along the partition edge.

[0110] In an embodiment, the following condition is used to select one of the two weighting factor groups. When reference pictures of the two triangle partitions are different from each other, or when a motion vector difference between the two triangle partitions is larger than a threshold (e.g , 16 luma samples), the 2nd weighting factor group is selected. Otherwise, the 1st weighting factor group is selected.

[0111] FIG. 12 shows an example of a CU applying the first weighting factor group. As shown, a first coding block (1201) includes luma samples, and a second coding block (1202) includes chroma samples. A set of pixels along a diagonal edge in the coding block (1201) or (1202) are labeled with the numbers 1, 2, 4, 6, and 7 corresponding to the weighting factors 7/8, 6/8, 4/8, 2/8, and 1/8, respectively. For example, for a pixel labelled with the number of 2, a sample value of the pixel after a blending operation can be obtained according to:

the blended sample value ::: 2/8 x PI + 6/8 x P2,

where PI and P2 represent sample values at the respective pixel but belonging to predictions of a first triangular prediction unit and a second triangular prediction unit, respectively. 6. Motion Vector Storage in a Motion Field

[0112] FIG. 13 shows an example of how motion vectors of two triangular prediction units in a CU coded with a triangular prediction mode are combined and stored to form a motion field useful for subsequent motion vector prediction. As shown, a first coding block (1301) is partitioned along a first diagonal edge (1303) into two triangular prediction units from a top-left corner to a bottom-right corner, while a second coding block (1302) is partitioned along a second diagonal edge (1304) into two triangular prediction units from a top-right corner to a bottom-left comer. A first motion vector corresponding to a first triangular prediction unit of the coding block (1301) or (1302) is represented as Mvl, while a second motion vector corresponding to a second triangular prediction unit of the coding block (1301) or (1302) is represented as Mv2. Taking the coding block (1301) as an example, at the decoder side, two merge indices corresponding to the first and second triangular prediction units in the coding block (1301) can be determined based on received syntax information. After a merge candidate list is constructed for the coding block (1301), Mvl and Mv2 can be determined according to the two merge indices.

[0113] In an embodiment, the coding block (1301) is partitioned into multiple squares having a size of 4x4 samples. Corresponding to each 4x4 square, either a uni-prediction motion vector (e.g., Mvl or Mv2) or two motion vectors (forming bi-prediction motion information) are stored depending on the position of a 4x4 square in the respective coding block (1301). As shown in the FIG. 13 example, a uni-prediction motion vector, either Mvl or Mv2, is stored in each 4x4 square that does not overlap the diagonal edge (1303) partitioning the coding block (1301). In contrast, two motion vectors are stored in each 4x4 square overlapping the diagonal edge (1303) partitioning the respective coding block (1301). For the coding block (1302), the motion vectors can be organized and stored in a way similar to the coding block (1301).

[0114] The pair of bi-prediction motion vectors stored in the 4x4 squares overlapping the respective diagonal edges can be derived from Mvl and Mv2 according to the following rules in an embodiment:

(1) In the case that Mvl and Mv2 are motion vectors towards different directions (e.g , associated with different reference picture list L0 or LI), Mvl and Mv2 are combined to form the pair of bi-prediction motion vectors.

(2) In the case that both Mvl and Mv2 are towards a same direction (e.g , associated with a same reference picture list L0 (or LI)):

(2. a) When the reference picture of Mv2 is the same as a picture in the reference picture list LI (or ! .()}, Mv2 is changed to be associated with that reference picture in the reference picture list Ll(or L0). Mvl and Mv2 with modified associated reference picture list are combined to form the pair of bi-prediction motion vectors.

(2 b) When the reference picture of Mv l is the same as a picture in the reference picture list LI (or ! .()), Mvl is changed to be associated with the reference picture in the reference picture list Ll(LO). The Mvl with modified associated reference picture list and Mv2 are combined to form the pair of bi-prediction motion vectors.

(2.c) Otherwise, only Mvl is stored for the respective 4x4 square.

[0115] FIGs. 14A-14D show examples of the derivation of the pair of bi-prediction motion vectors according to exemplary set of rules. TWO reference picture lists are used in FIGs. 14A-14D: a first reference picture list L0 includes reference pictures with picture order count (POC) numbers of POC 0 and POC 8, and having reference picture indices (refldx) of 0 and 1, respectively. While a second reference picture list LI includes reference pictures with POC numbers of POC 8 and POC 16, and having reference picture indices of 0 and 1, respectively.

[0116] FIG. 14A corresponds to the rule (1). As shown in FIG. 14 A, Mvl is associated with POC 0 in L0, and thus has a reference picture index refldx = 0, while Mv2 is associated with POC 8 in LI, and thus has a reference picture index refldx = 0. As Mvl and Mv2 are associated with different reference picture lists, Mvl and Mv2 together are used as the pair of bi-direction motion vectors.

[0117] FIG. 14B corresponds to the rule (2. a). As shown, Mvl and Mv2 are associated with a same reference picture list L0. Mv2 points to POC8 that is also a member of LI . Accordingly, Mv2 is modified to be associated with POC8 in LI, and the value of the respective reference index is changed from 1 to 0.

[0118] FIG. 14C and FIG. 14D correspond to the rules (2b) and (2c).

7. Syntax Elements for Signaling Triangular Prediction Parameters

[0119] In some embodiments, a triangular prediction unit mode is applied to CUs in skip or merge mode. A block size of the CUs cannot be smaller than 8x8. For a CU coded in a skip or merge mode, a CU level flag is signaled to indicate whether the triangular prediction unit mode is applied or not for the current CU. In an embodiment when the triangular prediction unit mode is applied to the CU, a table index indicating the direction for splitting the CU into two triangular prediction units and the motion vectors (or respective merge indices) of the two triangular prediction units are signaled. The table index ranges from 0 to 39 A look-up table is used for deriving the splitting direction and motion vectors from the table index.

III. Signaling and Derivation of Triangular Prediction Parameters

L Signaling Triangular Prediction Parameters

[0120] As descried above, three parameters, a split direction, a first merge index corresponding to a first triangular prediction unit, and a second merge index corresponding to a second triangular prediction unit, are generated when a triangular prediction mode is applied to a coding block. As described, in some examples, the three triangular prediction parameters are signaled from an encoder side to a decoder side by signaling a table index. Based on a lookup table (e.g , the lookup table (1 100) in the FIG. 1 1 example), the three triangular prediction parameters can be derived using the table index received at the decoder side. However, additional memory space is required for storing the lookup table at a decoder, which may become a burden in some implementations of the decoder. For example, the additional memory may lead to an increase in cost and power consumption of the decoder.

[0121] The present disclosure provides a solution to solve the above problem.

Specifically, instead of signaling a table index and relying on a lookup table to interpret the table index, three syntax elements are signaled from an encoder side to a decoder side. The three triangular prediction parameters (the split direction and two merge indices) can be derived or determined at the decoder side based on the three syntax elements without using the lookup table. The three syntax elements can be signaled in any order for the respective coding block in an embodiment.

[0122] In an embodiment, the three syntax elements include a split direction syntax element, a first index syntax element, and a second index syntax element. The split direction syntax element can be used to determine the split direction parameter. The first and second index syntax elements in combination can be used to determine the parameters of the first and second merge indices. In an embodiment, an index (referred to as a triangular prediction index, in contrast to the table index) can first be derived based on the first and second index syntax elements and the split direction syntax element. The three triangular prediction parameters can subsequently be determined based on the triangular prediction index.

[0123] There are various ways for configuring or coding the three syntax elements in order to signal information of the three triangular prediction parameters. For the split direction syntax element, in an embodiment, the split direction syntax element takes a value of 0 or 1 to indicate whether the split direction is from a top-left corner to a bottom-right corner or from a top-right comer to a bottom-left comer. [0124] For the first and second index syntax elements, in an embodiment, the first index syntax element is configured to have a value of the parameter of the first merge index, while the second index syntax element is configured to have a value of the second merge index when the second merge index is smaller than the first merge index, and have a value of the second merge index minus one when the second merge index is greater than the first merge index (the second and first merge indices are supposed to take different value as described above, so the second and first merge indices would not equal each other).

[0125] As an example, in an embodiment, a merge candidate list has a length of 5 merge candidates. Accordingly, the first index syntax element takes a value of 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4, while the second index syntax element takes a value of 0, 1, 2, or 3. For example, in a case that the first merge index parameter has a value of 2, and the second merge index parameter has a value of 4, to signal the first and second merge indices, the first and second index syntax elements would have a value of 2 and 3, respectively.

[0126] In an embodiment, a coding block is located at a position having coordinates of (xCb, yCb) with respect to a reference point in a current picture, where xCb and yCb represents the horizontal and vertical coordinates of the current coding block, respectively. In some embodiments, xCh and yCb are aligned with the horizontal and vertical coordinates with 4x4 granularity. Accordingly, the split direction syntax element is represented as split_dir[xCb][yCb] The first index syntax element is represented as

merge triangle idx0[xCb][yCb]. The second syntax element is represented as

m erge_tri angl e_j dx 1 [xCb ] [y Cb ] .

[0127] The three syntax elements can be signaled in arbitrary orders in a bitstream. For example, the three syntax elements can be signaled in one of the following orders: 1. spfit_dir, merge_triangle_idxO, merge_triangle_idxl; 2. split di r, merge_triangle_idxl, merge triangle idxO; 3. merge triangle idxO, split dir, merge triangle idxl; 4.

merge_triangle_idxO, merge_triangle_idxl, split dir; 5. merge_triangle_idxl, split dir, merge triangle idxO; 6. merge triangle idxl, merge triangle idxO, split dir.

2, Deriving Triangular Prediction Parameters

2, 1 Deriving Triangular Prediction Parameters Based on Syntax Elements

[0128] In an embodiment, the three triangular prediction parameters are derived based on the three syntax elements received at a decoder side. For example, the split direction parameter can be determined according to a value of the split direction syntax element. The first merge index parameter can be determined to have a value of the first index syntax element. The second merge index param eter can be determined to have a value of the second index syntax element when the second index syntax element has a value smaller than the first index syntax element. In contrast, the second merge index parameter can be determined to have a value of the second index syntax element value plus 1 when the second index syntax element has a value greater than or equal to the first index syntax element.

[0129] An example of pseudocode implementing the above derivation process is shown below;

m = merge triangle idx0[xCb][yCb];

n = raerge_triangle_idxl [xCb][yCb];

n = n + (n >= m ? 1 : 0),

where m and n represent the parameters of the first and second merge indices, respectively, and merge triangle idx0[xCb][yCb] and merge triangle idxl [xCb][yCb] represent the first and second index syntax elements, respectively.

2. 2 Deriving Triangular Prediction Parameters Based on the Triangular Prediction Index derived from Syntax Elements

[0130] In an embodiment, a triangular prediction index is first derived based on the three syntax elements received at a decoder side. The three triangular prediction parameters are subsequently determined based on this triangular prediction index. For example, values of the three syntax elements in binary bits can be combined into a bit string that forms the triangular prediction index. Later, the bits of the respective syntax elements can be extracted from the bit string and used to determine the three triangular prediction parameters.

[0131] In an embodiment, the triangular prediction index is derived as a linear function of the three syntax elements according to:

mergeTriangleIdx[xCb][yCb] ::: a * merge triangle idx0[xCb][yCb] + b * merge_triangle_idxl [xCb][yCb] + c * split_dir[xCb][yCb],

where mergeTriangleIdx[xCb][yCb] represents the triangular prediction index, a, b and c are integer constants, and merge_triangle_idxO[xCb][yCb], merge__triangle__idxl [xCb][yCb] and split dir[xCb][yCb] represent the three signaled syntax elements, namely the first index syntax element, the second index syntax element and the split direction syntax element, respectively.

[0132] As an example, in the above example where the merge candidate list includes 5 merge candidates, the constants can take the following values: a=8, b=2, and c=l . In this scenario, the above linear function is equivalent to left-shifting the value of the first index syntax element 3 bits, left-shifting the value of the second index syntax element 2 bits, and then combining the bits of three syntax elements into a bit string by the addition operation. [0133] In other examples, a merge candidate list may have a length different from the length of 5. Accordingly, the first and second merge index parameters may have values in a range different from [0, 4] The respective first and second index syntax elements may also have values in different ranges. The constant a, b, and c may accordingly take different values in order to properly combine the three syntax elements into a bit string. In addition, the order of the three syntax elements may be arranged in a way different from the above example.

[0134] After the triangular prediction index is determined as described above, the three triangular prediction parameters can be determined based on the determined triangular prediction index. In one embodiment, corresponding to the above example where a :=: 8, b=2, and c=l, the split direction can be determined according to:

triangleDir ::: mergeTriang!eIdx[xCb][yCb] & 1,

where triangleDir represents the split direction parameter, and the last digit of the triangular prediction index is extracted by the binary AND operation (&) to be a value of the split direction parameter.

[0135] In an embodiment, corresponding to the above example where a=8, b : =2, and c=l , the first and second merge indices can be determined according to the following pseudocode:

m : = mergeTriangleIdx[xCb][yCb] » 3; //excluding the last three bits n = (mergeTriangieIdx[xCb][yCb] » 1) & 3; //extracting the second last and the third last bits

n = n + (n >= m ? 1 : 0).

As shown, the bits in the triangular prediction index excluding the last three bits are used as the first merge index parameter. The second last and third last bits in the triangular prediction index are used as the second merge index parameter if a value of the second last and third last bits is smaller than the first merge index value. Otherwise, the value of the second last and third last bits plus 1 is used as the second merge index parameter.

2, 3 Adaptive Configuration of Syntax Elements

[0136] In some embodiments, the first and second index syntax elements can be configured to represent different meanings depending on the split direction of a coding unit. Or, in other w'ords, the first and second index syntax elements can be coded in different way depending on which split direction is used to partition a coding unit. For example, corresponding to different split directions, probability distributions of values of the two merge indices may be different due to characteristics of a current picture or local features in a current picture. Accordingly, the two index syntax elements can be adaptively coded according to the respective split direction to save bits used for index syntax element coding.

[0137] For example, as shown in FIG. 9 example, the two triangular prediction units, PU1 and PU2, are defined corresponding to the respective split direction in the coding blocks (910) and (920) When the first split direction from top-left to right-bottom is used as in the coding block (910), the first index syntax element can be used to carry a merge index corresponding to PU1 while the second index syntax element can be used to cany merge index information corresponding to PU2, In contrast, when the second split direction from top-right to left-bottom is used as in the coding block (920), the first index syntax element can be used to carry' a merge index corresponding to PU2 while the second index syntax element can be used to carry merge index information corresponding to PU1.

[0138] Corresponding to the adapti ve coding of the index syntax elements at an encoder side, suitable decoding operations can be performed at a decoder side. A first example of pseudocode implementing adapti vely decoding the index syntax elements is shown below :

if (triangleDir = = 0)

{

m = merge triangle Jdx0[xCb][yCb];

n = merge_triangle_idxl [xCb][yCb];

n = n + (n >= m ? 1 : 0);

}

else

n = merge_triangle_idxO[xCb][yCb];

m = merge triangle idxl[xCb][yCb];

m = m + (m >= n ? 1 : 0);

}

[0139] A second example of pseudocode implementing adaptively decoding the index syntax elements is shown below where the triangular prediction index is employed:

if (triangleDir ::: = 0)

{

m = : mergeTriangleIdx[xCb][yCb] » 3;

n = (mergeTriangleIdx[xCb][yCb] » 1) & 3;

n = n + (n >= m ? 0); }

else

{

n = mergeTriangleIdx[xCb][yCb] » 3;

m ::: (mergeTriangleIdx[xCb][yCb] » 1) & 3;

m = : m + (m >= n ? 1 : 0);

}

[0140] In the above first and second examples of the pseudocode, the split direction (represented as triangle Dir) can be determined directly from the split direction syntax element or can he determined according to the triangular prediction index in different embodiments.

3, Entropy Coding of the Three Syntax Elements

3.1 Binarization of the Three Syntax Elements

[0141] The three syntax elements (split direction syntax element, first and second index syntax elements) used for signaling the three triangular prediction parameters (split direction and first and second merge indices) can be coded with different binarization methods in various embodiments

[0142] In one embodiment, the first index syntax element is coded with truncated unary coding. In another embodiment, the first index syntax element is coded with truncated binary coding. In one example, the maximum valid value of the first index syntax element equals 4 In another embodiment, a combination of a prefix and fixed length binarization is used for coding the first index syntax element. In one example, a prefix bin is first signaled to indicate whether the first index syntax element is 0. When the first index syntax element is not zero, additional bins are coded with a fixed-length to indicate the actual value of the first index syntax element. Examples of truncated unary coding, truncated binary coding, and prefix and fixed-length coding with a maximum valid value equal to 4 are shown in Table 1.

Table 1

[0143] In one embodiment, the second index syntax element is coded with truncated unary coding. In another embodiment, the second index syntax element is coded with binary coding (i.e., fixed length coding with 2 bits). Examples of truncated unary coding and binary coding with a maximum valid value equal 3 are shown in Table 2.

Table 2

3,2 Context-based Coding

[0144] In some embodiments, certain restrictions are applied on probability models used in the entropy coding of the three syntax elements for signaling the three triangular prediction parameters.

[0145] In one embodiment, it is restricted to use no more than a total of N context coded bins for the three syntax elements of a coding block processed with a triangular prediction mode. For example, N is an integer that can be 0, 1, 2, 3, and the like. In one embodiment, when N is equal to 0, all bins of these three syntax elements can be coded with equal probability.

[0146] In one embodiment, when N is equal to 1, there is only one context coded bin in the group of these three syntax elements. In one example, one bin in the split direction syntax element is context coded, and the remaining bins in the split direction syntax element, and all bins in the first and second index syntax elements are coded with equal probability. In another example, one bin in the second index syntax element is context coded, and the remaining bins in the second index syntax element, and all bins in the split direction element and the first index syntax element are coded with equal probability.

[0147] In one embodiment, when N is equal to 2, there are two context coded bins in the group of these three syntax elements. In one example, one bin in the first index syntax element and another bin in the second index syntax element are context coded, and the remaining bins of these three syntax elements are all coded with equal probability.

[0148] In one embodiment, when a context model is applied on a syntax element, only the first bin of the syntax element is applied with the context model. The remaining bins of the syntax element are coded with equal probability.

4, An Example Triangular Prediction Process [0149] FIG. 15 shows a flow chart outlining a process (1500) according to an embodiment of the disclosure. The process (1500) can be used in the reconstruction of a block coded in triangular prediction mode, so as to generate a prediction block for the block under reconstruction. In various embodiments, the process (1500) is executed by processing circuitry, such as the processing circuitry in the terminal devices (210), (220), (230) and (240), the processing circuitry that performs functions of the video decoder (310), the processing circuitry that performs functions of the video decoder (410), the processing circuitry that performs functions of the entropy decoder (771), the inter decoder (780) and the like. In some embodiments, the process (1500) is implemented by software instructions, thus when the processing circuitry executes the software instructions, the processing circuitry performs the process (1500). The process starts at (S 1501) and proceeds to (S15I0).

[0150] At (S1510), three syntax elements (a split direction syntax element, a first index syntax element, and a second index syntax element) are received at a video decoder in a video bitstream. The three syntax elements carry information of three triangular prediction parameters (a split direction parameter, a first merge index parameter, and a second merge index parameter) of a coding block that is coded with a triangular prediction mode. For example, the coding unit is partitioned into a first triangular predication unit and a second triangular predication unit according to a split direction indicated by the split direction syntax element. The first and second triangular prediction units may be associated with the first and second merge indices, respectively, that are associated with a merge candidate list constructed for the coding block

[0151] At (SI 520), the three triangular prediction parameters (the split direction, the first merge index, and the second merge index) can be determined according to the three syntax elements received at (S1510). For example, various techniques described in the sections of III 2 can be employed to derive the three triangular prediction parameters.

[0152] At (S1530), the coding block can be reconstructed according to the split direction, the first merge index, and the second merge index determined at (SI 520). For example, the merge candidate list can be constructed for the coding block. Based on the merge candidate list and the first merge index to the merge candidate list, a first uni- prediction motion vector and a first reference picture index associated with the first uni- prediction motion vector can be determined. Similarly, based on the merge candidate list and the second merge index to the merge candidate list, a second uni-prediction motion vector and a second reference picture index associated with the second uni-prediction motion vector can be determined. Subsequently, a first prediction corresponding to the first triangular prediction unit can be determined according to the first uni-prediction motion vector and the first reference picture index associated with the first uni -prediction motion vector. Similarly, a second prediction corresponding to the second triangular prediction unit can be determined according to the second uni-prediction motion vector and the second reference picture index associated with the second uni-prediction motion vector. Thereafter, an adaptive weighting process can be applied to samples along a diagonal edge between the first and second triangular prediction units based on the first and second predictions to derive a final prediction of the coding block. The process (1500) can proceed to (SI 599), and terminates at S1599.

IV. Computer System

[0153] The techniques described above, can be implemented as computer software using computer-readable instructions and physically stored in one or more computer-readable media. For example, FIG. 16 show's a computer system (1600) suitable for implementing certain embodiments of the disclosed subject matter.

[0154] The computer software can be coded using any suitable machine code or computer language, that may be subject to assembly, compilation, linking, or like

mechanisms to create code comprising instructions that can be executed directly, or through interpretation, micro-code execution, and the like, by one or more computer central processing units (CPUs), Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), and the like.

[0155] The instructions can be executed on various types of computers or components thereof, including, for example, personal computers, tablet computers, servers, smartphones, gaming devices, internet of things devices, and the like.

[0156] The components shown in FIG. 16 for computer system (1600) are exemplary in nature and are not intended to suggest any limitation as to the scope of use or functionality of the computer software implementing embodiments of the present disclosure. Neither should the configuration of components be interpreted as having any dependency or requirement relating to any one or combination of components illustrated in the exemplary embodiment of a computer system (1600).

[0157] Computer system (1600) may include certain human interface input devices. Such a human interface input device may be responsive to input by one or more human users through, for example, tactile input (such as: keystrokes, swipes, data glove movements), audio input (such as; voice, clapping), visual input (such as: gestures), olfactory input (not depicted). The human interface devices can also be used to capture certain media not necessarily directly related to conscious input by a human, such as audio (such as: speech. music, ambient sound), images (such as: scanned images, photographic images obtain from a still image camera), video (such as two-dimensional video, three-dimensional video including stereoscopic video).

[0158] Input human interface devices may include one or more of (only one of each depicted): keyboard (1601), mouse (1602), trackpad (1603), touch screen (1610), data-glove (not shown), joystick (1605), microphone (1606), scanner (1607), camera (1608).

[0159] Computer system (1600) may also include certain human interface output devices. Such human interface output devices may be stimulating the senses of one or more human users through, for example, tactile output, sound, light, and smell/taste. Such human interface output devices may include tactile output devices (for example tactile feedback by the touch-screen (1610), data-glove (not shown), or joystick (1605), but there can also be tactile feedback devices that do not serve as input devices), audio output devices (such as: speakers (1609), headphones (not depicted)), visual output devices (such as screens (1610) to include CRT screens, LCD screens, plasma screens, OLED screens, each with or without touch-screen input capability, each with or without tactile feedback capability— some of which may be capable to output two dimensional visual output or more than three dimensional output through means such as stereographic output; virtual-reality glasses (not depicted), holographic displays and smoke tanks (not depicted)), and printers (not depicted).

[0160] Computer system (1600) can also include human accessible storage devices and their associated media such as optical media including CD/DVD ROM/RW (1620) with CD/DVD or the like media (1621), thumb-drive (1622), removable hard drive or solid state drive (1623), legacy magnetic media such as tape and floppy disc (not depicted), specialized ROM/ASIC/PLD based devices such as security dongles (not depicted), and the like.

[0161] Those skilled in the art should also understand that term“computer readable media” as used in connection with the presently disclosed subject matter does not encompass transmission media, carrier waves, or other transitory signals.

[0162] Computer system (1600) can also include an interface to one or more communication networks. Networks can for example be wireless, wireline, optical.

Networks can further be local, wide-area, metropolitan, vehicular and industrial, real-time, delay-tolerant, and so on. Examples of networks include local area networks such as Ethernet, wireless LANs, cellular networks to include GSM, 3G, 4G, 5G, LTE and the like, TV wireline or wireless wide area digital networks to include cable TV, satellite TV, and terrestrial broadcast TV, vehicular and industrial to include CANBus, and so forth. Certain networks commonly require external network interface adapters that attached to certain general purpose data ports or peripheral buses (1649) (such as, for example USB ports of the computer system (1600)); others are commonly integrated into the core of the computer system (1600) by attachment to a system bus as described below (for example Ethernet interface into a PC computer system or cellular network interface into a smartphone computer system). Using any of these networks, computer system (1600) can communicate with other entities. Such communication can be uni-directional, receive only (for example, broadcast TV), uni-directional send-only (for example CANbus to certain CANbus devices), or bi directional, for example to other computer systems using local or wide area digital networks. Certain protocols and protocol stacks can be used on each of those networks and network interfaces as described above.

[0163] Aforementioned human interface devices, human-accessible storage devices, and network interlaces can be attached to a core (1640) of the computer system (1600).

[0164] The core (1640) can include one or more Central Processing Units (CPU) (1641), Graphics Processing Units (GPU) (1642), specialized programmable processing units in the form of Field Programmable Gate Areas (FPGA) (1643), hardware accelerators for certain tasks (1644), and so forth. These devices, along with Read-only memory (ROM) (1645), Random-access memory' (1646), internal mass storage such as internal non-user accessible hard drives, SSDs, and the like (1647), may be connected through a system bus (1648). In some computer systems, the system bus (1648) can be accessible in the form of one or more physical plugs to enable extensions by additional CPUs, GPU, and the like. The peripheral devices can be attached either directly to the core’s system bus (1648), or through a peripheral bus (1649). Architectures for a peripheral bus include PCI, USB, and the like.

[0165] CPUs (1641), GPUs (1642), FPGAs (1643), and accelerators (1644) can execute certain instructions that, in combination, can make up the aforementioned computer code. That computer code can be stored in ROM (1645) or RAM (1646). Transitional data can be also be stored in RAM (1646), whereas permanent data can be stored for example, in the internal mass storage (1647) Fast storage and retrieve to any of the memory devices can be enabled through the use of cache memory, that can be closely associated with one or more CPU (1641), GPU (1642), mass storage (1647), ROM (1645), RAM (1646), and the like.

[0166] The computer readable media can have computer code thereon for performing various computer-implemented operations. The media and computer code can be those specially designed and constructed for the purposes of the present disclosure, or they can be of the kind well known and available to those having skill in the computer software arts. [0167] As an example and not by way of limitation, the computer system having architecture (1600), and specifically the core (1640) can provide functionality as a result of processor(s) (including CPUs, GPUs, FPGA, accelerators, and the like) executing software embodied in one or more tangible, computer-readable media. Such computer-readable media can be media associated with user-accessible mass storage as introduced above, as well as certain storage of the core (1640) that are of non-transitory nature, such as core-internal mass storage (1647) or ROM (1645). The software implementing various embodiments of the present disclosure can be stored in such devices and executed by core (1640) A computer- readable medium can include one or more memory devices or chips, according to particular needs. The software can cause the core (1640) and specifically the processors therein

(including CPU, GPU, FPGA, and the like) to execute particular processes or particular parts of particular processes described herein, including defining data structures stored in RAM (1646) and modifying such data structures according to the processes defined by the software. In addition or as an alternative, the computer system can provide functionality as a result of logic hardwired or otherwise embodied in a circuit (for example: accelerator (1644)), which can operate in place of or together with software to execute particular processes or particular parts of particular processes described herein. Reference to software can encompass logic, and vice versa, where appropriate. Reference to a computer-readable media can encompass a circuit (such as an integrated circuit (IC)) storing software for execution, a circuit embodying logic for execution, or both, where appropriate. The present disclosure encompasses any suitable combination of hardware and software.

Appendix A: Acronyms

JEM: joint exploration model

VVC: versatile video coding

BMS: benchmark set

MV: Motion Vector

HE VC: High Efficiency Video Coding

SEI: Supplementary Enhancement Information

VUI: Video Usability Information

GOPs: Groups of Pictures

TUs: Transform Units,

PUs: Prediction Units

CTUs: Coding Tree Units

CTBs: Coding Tree Blocks PBs: Prediction Blocks

HRD: Hypothetical Reference Decoder

SNR: Signal Noise Ratio

CPUs: Central Processing Units

GPUs: Graphics Processing Units

CRT: Cathode Ray Tube

LCD: Liquid-Crystal Display

OLED: Organic Light-Emitting Diode

CD: Compact Disc

DVD: Digital Video Disc

ROM: Read-Only Memory

RAM: Random Access Memory

ASIC: Application- Specific Integrated Circuit

PLD: Programmable Logie Device

LAN: Local Area Network

GSM: Global System for Mobile communications

LTE: Long-Term Evolution

CANBus: Controller Area Network Bus

USB: Universal Serial Bus

PCI: Peripheral Component Interconnect

FPGA: Field Programmable Gate Areas

SSD: solid-state drive

IC: Integrated Circuit

CU: Coding Unit

[0168] While this disclosure has described several exemplary embodiments, there are alterations, permutations, and various substitute equivalents, which fall within the scope of the disclosure. It will thus be appreciated that those skilled in the art will be able to devise numerous systems and methods which, although not explicitly shown or described herein, embody the principles of the disclosure and are thus within the spirit and scope thereof.