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Patent Searching and Data


Title:
METHOD, ELEMENT AND FORM
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2011/152791
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
This invention concerns an element 1 intended to be laid on a base A in order to obtain at least one of walking surfaces, traffic-bearing surfaces, decorative surfaces and other types of surface. The element 1 comprises stones 2 and a grout 3. The stones 2 are arranged at a distinct distance from each other. The grout 3 forms a slab 4 that is arranged under or behind each stone 2 and that holds the stones 2 together. The grout 3 fills the spaces 5 that are present between the stones 2. The grout 3 forms and constitutes together with one surface 2.1 of each stone 2 at least one of a wear surface, a decorative surface, an upper side and a front surface 6 of the element 1. The invention concerns also a method for the manufacture of an element 1 according to the invention and a form that is to be used during the manufacture of an element 1 according to the invention.

Inventors:
FORSMAN JOHAN (SE)
Application Number:
PCT/SE2011/050687
Publication Date:
December 08, 2011
Filing Date:
June 01, 2011
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
FORSMAN JOHAN (SE)
International Classes:
E01C5/22; E01C5/02
Foreign References:
GB2239665A1991-07-10
GB1263147A1972-02-09
DE29615078U11997-01-02
US1885720A1932-11-01
DE10040909A12002-03-21
EP0655530A11995-05-31
Other References:
See also references of EP 2576910A4
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ALBIHNS.ZACCO AB (Valhallavägen 117, Stockholm, SE)
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Claims:
Claims

A method for the manufacture of an element (1 ) intended to be laid on a base (A) in order to obtain at least one of walking surfaces, traffic-bearing surfaces, decorative surfaces and other types of surface

comprising stones (2) and a grout (3) characterised by

placing of the stones (2) in a form (13), comprising a bottom (14) and side walls (15), at a distinct distance from each other and with a surface (2.1 ), intended to constitute a part of the wear surface, the decorative surface (6), of the element directed downwards and in contact with the bottom (14) of the form,

filling of the grout (3) between the stones (2) such that the grout (3) runs between the stones (2) and down to the bottom (14, 16) of the moulding form (13) such that the surfaces (2.1 ) of the stones (2) and the grout (3) will together come into contact with the bottom (14, 16) of the moulding form (13), and

additional pouring of grout (3) over the stones (2) and the grout (3) between the stones (2), such that the stones (2) are covered and the element (1 ) obtains a predetermined thickness (Y).

The method according to claim 1 comprising placing reinforcement (7) over the stones (2) in the moulding form (13).

The method according to claim 1 or 2 comprising placing a lift arrangement (8) between the stones (2) in the moulding form (13).

The method according to any one of claims 1-3 comprising the placing of a material member (9), comprising a metal construction, at least one of a steel beam, steel pipe and sheet steel, along, at or inside of at least one of the side walls (15) of the form, or constituting one of the side walls (15) of the form, for reinforcement of at least one of the wall sections (1.1 ) of the element.

The method according to any one of claims 1 -4 comprising the placing of at least one construction feature (12) that directly or indirectly makes possible the holding together of two elements (1 ) arranged next to each other against or beside each other, at or inside of one of the side walls (15) of the form.

6. The method according to any one of claims 1-5 where one or several steps or operations comprised within the method take place with the aid of automated equipment.

7. An element (1 ) intended to be laid on a base (A) in order to obtain at least one of walking surfaces, traffic-bearing surfaces, decorative surfaces and other types of surface comprising stones (2) and a grout (3) manufactured according to the method according to any one of claims 1-6, where the stones (2) are arranged at a distinct from each other,

that the grout (3) forms a slab (4) that is arranged under or behind each stone (2) and that holds the stones (2) together,

that the grout (3) fills the spaces that are present between the stones (2), and that the grout (3) together with one surface (2.1 ) of each stone (2) forms and constitutes a wear surface, a decorative surface, an upper side, a front surface (6), of the element (1 ).

8. The element (1 ) according to claim 7 where the stones (2) are at least one of natural stone, dressed natural stone, crushed natural stone with differing sizes and stones manufactured from a material, for example, ceramic glass, slate, polymer material, artificial material or various mixtures of material.

9. The element (1 ) according to claim 7 or 8 where the grout (3) is a cement-based grout.

10. The element (1 ) according to claim 7 or 8 where the grout (3) is a flexible grout.

1 1. The element (1 ) according to any one of claims 7-10 comprising reinforcement (7) placed into the element, preferably in the slab (4) that is formed by the grout.

12. The element (1 ) according to any one of claims 7-1 1 comprising at least one lift arrangement (8) that makes possible handling, lifting, of the element (1 ) during at least one of manufacture, loading and unloading during transport, mounting, placement, and other displacement.

13. The element (1 ) according to any one of claims 7-12 comprising at least one material member (9) that is arranged along at least one of the wall sections (1.1 ) of the element in order to reinforce the wall section (1.1 ).

14. The element (1 ) according to claim 13 where the material member (9) comprises a metal construction comprising at least one of a steel beam, steel pipe and construction of sheet steel that surrounds the wall sections and the lower side, the back surface, of the element.

15. The element (1 ) according to any one of claims 7-14 comprising at least one oblique wall section (11 ) that is to make contact with a second neighbouring element whereby the element (1 ) will lie flush against the neighbouring element in that region (1 1 a) of the oblique wall section (1 1 ) that is directed towards the upper side, the front surface

(6), of the element, and at a pre-determined distance (x) relative to the neighbouring element in that region (11 b) of the wall section (1 1 ) that is directed towards the lower side, the back surface (10), of the element. 16. The element (1 ) according to any one of claims 7-15 comprising at least one construction feature (12) that can be brought into contact with a second element, directly or indirectly, through at least one of a connection means (12.1 ) and a connection part (12.2), in order to hold together the two elements against or beside each other.

17. The element (1 ) according to claim 16 where at least one of the construction feature (12), the connection means (12.1 ) and the connection part (12.2) is flexible and allows a predetermined displacement of the two elements, which are held together against or beside each other, relative to each other.

18. A form (13) intended to be used for the method for the manufacture of an element (1 ) according to any one of claims 1 -6 comprising a bottom (14) and side walls (15), where the bottom (14) is provided in the direction in towards the form with at least one layer (16) of a flexible material, preferably foam rubber, some soft cellular plastic.

19. The form (13) according to claim 18 where the bottom (14) or at least one of the side walls (15), or both the bottom (14) and at least one of the side walls (15), is manufactured from sheet material, preferably of plywood type.

20. The form (13) according to claim 19 where the bottom (14) or at least one of the side walls (15), or both the bottom (14) and at least one of the side walls (15), is manufactured from sheet steel.

21. The form (13) according to any one of claims 18-20 where at least one of the side walls (15a) leans inwards such that the open side (17) of the form is smaller than the area of the bottom surface (18).

Description:
METHOD, ELEMENT AND FORM

Technical area

This invention concerns a method for the manufacture of an element intended to be placed onto a base in order to obtain walking surfaces, traffic-bearing surfaces, decorative surfaces, and other types of surface. The invention concerns also such an element and a form, a mould, to be used during its manufacture.

Background

The covering of bases, for example ground, with stone, slabs or similar that are placed manually in order to obtain walking surfaces and traffic-bearing surfaces is known. The base on which stones are placed is known as a foundation. The covering of slopes and other types of ground area at pathways, trafficways, plazas, bridges and similar with stone or similar equivalent material is also known. This material is laid manually into sand, stone dust, soil- moistened grout or other previously known stone-setting material. Laying stone is time-consuming work in which all phases of the work take time. Careful laying of the foundation is required with various soil and filler layers, which may require to be shaken or compacted, or shaken and compacted. The manual laying of stones takes time and furthermore is followed by work with the joints in which jointing sand or similar is applied and shaken down between the stones. It may actually take several months, possibly up to years, before the stones laid have become properly stable and are securely in place. This consumption of time is not only a problem of time economy; it is a problem, obviously, also for environmental reasons and for accessibility reasons, since it is the regions at and around streets and roads on which stones are to be laid and the environment, the traffic rhythm and the accessibility will be negatively affected.

Furthermore, the work environment is not optimal for those who are to carry out in various manners the work of laying stones, and the work associated with this, since this is physically demanding work, and due to the traffic that it is desired should flow close to the work and at high speeds. If the laying of stones is to be carried out in cold regions, the complete work will be made more difficult also by the external climate due to an even less optimal work environment and due to the fact that the laying of stones may take a longer time, even though the opposite would be most desirable for the result. Manual laying of stones requires very good knowledge of the laying operation itself, and the concluding work with the joints is of the highest importance. This requires long experience from the person who carries out the work if the result is to be a stone-laid area of high quality that will endure and that will remain in place during use, and that is independent of weather. There is today a lack of skilled personnel within this field, and this further makes the work of laying stones more difficult. It may also reduce the quality of the stone-laying work.

Description of the invention

One purpose of this invention is to be able to offer something that improves the work described above of making walking surfaces, traffic-bearing surfaces, decorative surfaces and other surfaces with a focus on reducing the consumption of time, reducing the disturbance to traffic, and improving the work environment, and with an extra focus on improving the actual quality of the walking surfaces, traffic-bearing surfaces, decorative surfaces and other surfaces.

This purpose is achieved with a method for the manufacture of an element intended to be placed onto a base in order to obtain at least one of walking surfaces, traffic-bearing surfaces, decorative surfaces and other types of surface according to claim 1 , such a element according to claim 7, and a form to be used during the manufacture of such an element according to claim 18.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 shows elements according to invention placed in an outdoor environment. Figure 2 shows an element according to the invention.

Figure 3 shows two elements with oblique wall sections arranged next to each other.

Figures 4a-f show two elements arranged next to each other and joined to each other in various ways.

Figure 5 shows stones and other components of the element that have been placed in a form during the manufacture of an element.

Figure 6 shows further components that have been placed in a form during manufacture of an element.

Figure 7 shows an element according to the invention during its final phase of manufacture. Figure 8 shows an element that has been lifted up from a form that has been used during the manufacture.

Figure 9 shows a form according to the invention with a bottom covered by flexible material.

Figure 10 shows a further form according to the invention with an oblique side wall.

Figures 11a-g show different forms of the element and form according to the invention.

Detailed description of embodiments

The element

This invention concerns an element 1 intended to be placed onto a base A in order to obtain at least one of walking surfaces B, traffic-bearing surfaces C, decorative surfaces D and other types of surface E. Each element 1 is a pre-fabricated part, piece, item, unit, module, that is placed together with one or more additional elements and which thus together create at least one of walking surfaces, traffic-bearing surfaces, decorative surfaces and other types of surface. The elements can be used also individually for short stretches, small areas or special reasons. See Figure 1.

The element 1 comprises stones 2 and a grout 3 that binds the stones 2 together and forms an element with an extended surface area. The stones 2 are arranged at a definite distance from each other such that the grout 3 is present everywhere between the stones 2 and functions as a jointing compound. The grout 3 forms a slab 4 that is arranged under or behind each stone 2, and that holds the stones 2 together. The grout 3 fills the spaces 5 that are present between the stones 2 such that the grout 3 forms and constitutes, together with a surface 2.1 of each stone 2, at least one of a wear surface and a decorative surface 6 of the element 1. The designation "each stone" is here used to denote each stone 2 with a surface 2.1 that is displayed, a surface that lies at the same height as the grout 3, on the wear surface of the element and that constitutes the upper side, the front, of the element. There may be one or several stones 2.2 in the element 1 whose only function is to act as filler and that may be covered by grout, not having been given such a location that they appear either on the wear surface, the decorative surface, of the element, which is its upper side, the front 6. See Figure 2. The element 1 , the modular element, is fully pre-fabricated and ready to be used: it does not require any further work when it has been laid in order for it to offer the surface that is required. Each element 1 is fully homogeneous and does not require any separate work with the joints in order to fill any remaining space between the stones 2 that form the wear surface, the decorative surface, of the element, which is its upper side, the front 6. It is simply necessary to lay each element next to the previous element and thus create the surface required. The laying of elements 1 according to the invention takes place with the aid of machines that lift and transport each element. When an element 1 has been laid onto the base, a complete area has been provided with stone and grout corresponding to the stones with joints that were previously used. An area with an appearance corresponding to traditionally laid stones has been laid during a limited time, and it can be used almost immediately. The laying of stones that creates the pattern on the base and the surface now takes place during the manufacture of an element, which can be carried out at any location, even indoors, and thus at any time of the year. It is not necessary for any person to be outdoors in a severe climate, nor to be in life-threatening traffic, in order to obtain a surface that is similar to that obtained by traditional stone laying. The time on site that the laying of one or several elements 1 requires is very limited compared with traditional stone laying, and this leads to short interruptions for the traffic that normally passes the area, and it leads to short working shifts for the people who carry out the work. The laying of stones with the aid of elements 1 gives an equivalent, and even a better, result, since the jointing has been already completed and the stones 2 are supported and stabilised by the grout 3, which removes the need for any traditional and time-consuming work with the joints. Such a element as the one here can be given also other appearances than those possible with traditional laying of stones, since the creation does not take place manually on site. The traditional bonding to a particular shape is removed and it becomes possible to choose other materials.

Thus, an element 1 according to the invention reduces the consumption of time during the creation of walking surfaces, traffic-bearing surfaces, decorative surfaces and other surfaces. Such an element 1 reduces also disturbance to traffic, and it improves the work environment and the quality of the walking surfaces and traffic-bearing surfaces B and C, the decorative surfaces D and the other surfaces E.

The base in traditional stones laying is known as the "foundation" and approximately the same preparative work is required when laying elements 1 according to the invention onto the base A as is normally constituted by an area of ground. The term "ground" is here used to denote natural ground, normally having undergone preparation, or another type of base that it is desired should be covered by stones. An element 1 according to the invention can be used to create a pre-fabricated surface in areas between indoors and outdoors, where the base may be constituted by something with a greater stability than ground. At least one of the wear surface and the decorative surface 6 of the element is directed upwards or forwards when the element 1 has been placed onto the base A ready for use. The base A may be horizontal or oblique since it may be slopes that are to be covered by elements 1 according to the invention. See Figure 1. Stones

The stones 2 that are used in the element 1 and that form at least one of the wear surface and the decorative surface 6 of the element may be of various types. The same type of stone may be used throughout the element, and it is also possible to use different stones in the same element, freely mixed or more or less strictly divided into different sections, surface parts, of the element such that different patterns arise. It is appropriate that the stones be of some form of natural stone or an artificial stone that has been manufactured in some way. The stones 2 may be at least one of dressed natural stone, for example kerbing, crushed natural stone with different sizes and slate. The stones 2 may also be manufactured from some other material, for example ceramic, ceramic glass, polymer material, rubber, artificial material and other mixtures of material.

An element 1 with only two stones 2 does not present any improvement and it not desirable. Such an element will simply be heavy and difficult to handle, while still being too small for it to be sensible to be handled using machines. This invention becomes interesting when many stones are united with the aid of the grout such that an element will cover a relatively large area of a base, with a large length or a large width, or both. The size of the area is advantageously such that it is not suitable for manual management, and requires to be handled by machines.

The grout

It is preferable that the grout 3 be a cement-based grout. It should be freely flowing and self- compacting, such that it readily penetrates between the stones and fills all cavities during the manufacture of an element 1 , such that the element becomes a compact unit. No vibration is required to compact the grout 3 if the grout is self-compacting, and this, of course, facilitates the manufacture. The grout 3 is an flexible after curing, hardening. It is flexible due to the addition of a material that confers a certain flexibility to the parts that have been formed from the grout. Reinforcement

An element 1 according to the invention comprises reinforcement 7 placed into the element, preferably in the slab 4 formed by the grout that lies under, behind, the layer of stones 2. It is appropriate that the reinforcement 7 comprise reinforcement rods that are bound together to form a structure. See Figures 2 and 7.

Lift arrangement

The element 1 comprises at least one lift arrangement 8 that makes possible handling, lifting, of the element 1 during at least one of manufacture, loading and unloading during transport, mounting, placement, and other displacement. It is appropriate that the lift arrangement 8 comprise at least one of a hook, an eye or similar, to which different types of lifting machines can be connected or bound, such that machines can be used to lift and displace each element 1. It may be appropriate that the element 1 comprise a lift arrangement 8 that is permanently located in the element 1 such that the element 1 can be displacement at any time that this is desired, even if the element 1 has been placed, set in its desired location. It may be desirable to displace the element 1 if something under the element requires adjustment or repair. This may be cables, pipes, culverts or similar. It may be desirable to displace the element 1 also for another reason such as, for example, if the ground is to be used for a longer or shorter period for a purpose for which the element 1 and the surface 6 that is offered by the element 1 are not desirable, or in which there is a risk that the element 1 be destroyed. See Figures 2 and 7.

Material member

The element 1 comprises at least one material member 9 that is arranged along at least one of the wall sections 1.1 of the element in order to reinforce the wall section 1.1. The material member 9 comprises a metal construction comprising at least one of a steel beam, a steel pipe, a steel plate and a construction from sheet steel that makes contact with or surrounds the wall section 1.1 of the element. The material member 9 in the form of sheet steel may also cover and protect the lower side, the back surface 10, of the element. The wall section 1.1 may be fully or partially provided with such a material member 9. See Figures 1 , 4d, 4f and 6.

Oblique wall section

The element 1 comprises an oblique wall section 1 1 that is to make contact with a second neighbouring element 1 whereby the element 1 will lie flush against the neighbouring element in that region 11a of the oblique wall section 1 1 that is directed towards the upper side, the front surface 6, of the element, and at a pre-determined distance X relative to the neighbouring element 1 in that region 1 1 b of the wall section that is directed towards the lower side, the back surface 10, of the element. See Figures 3 and 4c.

Construction feature The element 1 comprises a construction feature 12 that can be brought into contact with a second element 1 , directly or indirectly, through a connection means 12.1 , a connection part 12.2 or similar, in order to hold together the two elements against or beside each other. At least one of the construction feature 12, the connection means 12.1 and the connection part 12.2 is, in one embodiment, flexible, and allows a predetermined displacement of the two elements, which are held together against or beside each other, relative to each other. The flexibility can be obtained through the physical design, through, for example a link system, or through the selection of a flexible material. See Figures 4f and 6.

The construction feature 12 may be, for example, a certain design of the wall section 1.1 of the element that corresponds to the design of the neighbouring element such that the designs of the two elements lock their mutual locations relative to each other. See Figure 4a. The construction feature 12 may comprise also a part 12.3 comprised within one element 1 that is brought into interaction with a similar part in a neighbouring element, such that the elements are bound together against or beside each other. See Figure 4b. The construction feature 12 may be constituted by a material member 9 in cases where this is appropriate.

A connection means 12.1 , for example silicone or similar adhesive and at the same time elastic, flexible, means can be applied between the elements 1 such that the elements are held together. See Figure 4c.

A connection part 12.2, for example a fork, a clamp, a lock arrangement, some form of construction that is attached to the relevant element 1 , at the relevant construction feature 12, for example, at or in the vicinity of a reinforcing material member 9 which can in this case be said to constitute the construction feature 12, can be used also to hold together two elements 1 arranged next to each other. See Figures 4d and 4e. The connection part 12.2 may be fixed also at the relevant element and may comprise an intermediate part 12.2a that is flexible, and that allows motion of the two elements relative to each other. See Figure 4f. The flexibility can be obtained through the physical design, through, for example a link system, or through the selection of a flexible material. It is preferable that this connection part 12.2 comprise parts 12.2b that are brought into interaction in a manner that allows them to be removed with one or several parts of the relevant element 1 , for example a material member 9 or a construction feature 12. Each element 1 can for this purpose either be preformed or comprise parts, for example in the form of a material member 9 or a construction feature 12, that are suitable for interaction with the connection part 12.2.

The method

The invention concerns also a method for the manufacture of an element as described above. An element according to the invention is formed, moulded, in a form 13 with a bottom 14 and side walls 15. The method comprises the placing, the arrangement, of stones 2 in the form at a definite distance from each other. One surface 2.1 of each stone, the surface that is intended to constitute a part of the wear surface, the decorative surface, of the element is directed, together with the grout 3, downwards and is placed down onto and against the bottom of the form 14. Thus the stones 2 are laid with their upper sides 2.1 , the sides that are to constitute the upper side, the front surface, of the element against the bottom of the form 14. See Figures 5 and 6.

Filling of the grout 3 between the stones 2 subsequently takes place such that the grout 3 runs between the stones 2 and down to the bottom 14 of the moulding form such that the surfaces 2.1 of the stones and the grout 3 will together come into contact with the bottom 14 of the moulding form. As has been mentioned above, it is preferable that the grout 3 be a cement-based grout that should be freely flowing and self-compacting, such that it readily fills in between the stones 2 and fills all cavities such that the element 1 becomes a compact unit. No vibration is required to compact the grout if it is self-compacting, and this, of course, facilitates the manufacture. See Figure 7. As a final step, a further filling of the grout 3 over the stones 2 and the grout 3 that has already been filled between the stones 2 takes place, such that the stones 2 and the grout 3 between the stones 2 is covered and the element 1 obtains a predetermined thickness Y. This final grout 3 forms the slab 4 that is present under, behind, the stones 2 in the completed element 1 , and that constitutes also the lower side, the back surface 10, of the element. This method is to be seen as a new way of laying stones. The stone laying does not require the same preparation of the base as traditional stone laying, since the stones are simply laid down in a form in the desired pattern. It is even possible to carry out a stone laying in which no stone needs to be laid by hand. Crushed stone is instead placed into, poured into, the form 13 and grout 3 poured over it.

It is appropriate that one or several steps or operations comprised within the method take place with the aid of automated equipment. Since it is not necessary that the manufacture take place out at the location at which the element 1 will be finally laid, the manufacture can take place at any location, and advantageously indoors, such that the manufacture can take place at any time during the year. The quality of the laying of stones is determined by the component materials and a certain degree of expertise, but not at all in the same way as previously, and not within as many fields as previously.

The method comprises the placing of reinforcement 7, reinforcement rods that preferably have been bound together to form a structure, over stones in the moulding form.

The method comprises the placing of a lift arrangement 8 between the stones 2 in the form 13 such that the completed element 1 will comprise at least one arrangement 8 that makes it possible to lift the element 1 in various situations.

The method comprises also the placing of a material member 9, a metal construction, at least one of a steel beam, steel pipe and sheet steel, along, at or inside of at least one of the side walls 15 of the form, or constituting one of the side walls of the form, for reinforcement of at least one of the wall sections of the element. In the case in which sheet steel is to be used as material member 9 and furthermore to constitute a part of the form, this side wall 15 of the form will be freed from the form such that it can accompany the element 1 as part of it; while the form 13 will be supplemented by a new wall section.

The method comprises the placing of at least one construction feature 12 that directly or indirectly makes possible the holding together of two elements 1 arranged next to each other against or beside each other, at or inside of one of the side walls 15 of the form. Various designs of the construction feature 12 and thus of the interacting parts have been described above in this description.

The manufacture is ended by the solidification of the grout 3, which normally takes place for a predetermined duration depending on the grout that has been used. Removal of the completed element 1 from the form 13 then follows, unless the form is to remain in place around the element, fully or partially, and constitute a supportive material member. See Figure 8. The form

The invention concerns also the actual form 13 intended to be used during the manufacture of an element 1 according to the invention. The form 13 comprises a bottom 14 and side walls 15, where the bottom 14 is provided in the direction facing in towards the form with at least one layer 16 of a flexible material, preferably foamed rubber, somewhat soft cellular plastic. This property, the flexibility, of the bottom 14 and 16 of the form means that when the stones 2 are placed onto the bottom 14 of the form, onto the flexible material layer 16, the material layer 16 will be formed according to the appearance of the stones, the appearance of the surface 2.1 of each stone that is placed against the bottom 14 and 16 of the form 13, such that the bottom 14, the material layer 16, of the form will come into contact with the complete surface 2.1 of the stone. When the grout 3 is subsequently poured into the form 13 and between the stones 2, the grout 3 will run between the stones down to the bottom 14, the material layer 16, but there will not be any cavities between the stones 2 and the bottom 14, the material layer 16, of the form into which the grout 3 can run. This means that the surface 6 of the element 1 that is built up from stones 2 and grout 3 and that is in contact with the bottom 14, the material layer 16, of the form will comprise just stones 2 and grout 3 between the stones 2, but not under the stones 2. This results in the wear surface, the decorative surface 6, the upper surface, the front surface of the element consisting, when the element 1 is removed from the form 13, of the desired and selected stones 2 and grout 3, and being ready for use. No further work with the joints between the stones 2 in the element 1 will be necessary. See Figure 9.

The bottom 14 or at least one of the side walls 15 of the form, or both the bottom and at least one of the side walls 15 of the form, is manufactured from sheet material, preferably of plywood type. One sheet of such a material is easy to bend and can therefore be bent and used to give the element 1 a construction feature in the form of a design of the wall section of the element that corresponds to the form of the neighbouring element, such that the forms of the two elements lock their mutual placing relative to each other. The sheet can be given the form of an "S" or similar, which results in the form of an "S" for the elements that are manufactured in the form. The flexibility of such a sheet makes it possible also to form an element with the shape of a segment of a circle, a circle, or any other curved shape. See Figures 11 a-11g.

At least one of the bottom 14 and at least one of the side walls 15 of the form may also be manufactured from sheet steel. A form 13 according to this invention may comprise also at least one side wall 15a that leans inwards such that the open side 17 of the form is smaller than the surface area of the bottom 18 of the form. Such a form 13 must have a removable or folding side, appropriately the side 15a that is leaning inwards, such that will be possible to remove the element 1 from the form 13. Such a form 13 results in an element 1 with an oblique wall section 1 1 that is to come into contact with a second element 1 in the manner that has been described earlier. See Figure 10.

Other comments This description is to be seen as a guide to full understanding of the invention, and not as a limitation to the scope of the innovative concept. The technical distinctive features, the designs, the details and the detail solutions described in the application can be freely combined in various embodiments of the element 1 , the method or forms 13 according to the invention, provided that the desired function is obtained, without deviating from the innovative concept.