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Title:
METHODS FOR MONITORING C9ORF72 EXPRESSION
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2014/062736
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Disclosed herein are methods for monitoring expression of C9ORF72 mRNA and protein in an animal with C9ORF72 specific inhibitors. Such C9ORF72 specific inhibitors include antisense compounds.

Inventors:
BENNETT C FRANK (US)
FREIER SUSAN M (US)
ROTHSTEIN JEFFREY D (US)
DONNELLY CHRISTOPHER (US)
SATTLER RITA G (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2013/065131
Publication Date:
April 24, 2014
Filing Date:
October 15, 2013
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
ISIS PHARMACEUTICALS INC (US)
UNIV JOHNS HOPKINS (US)
International Classes:
C12N15/11; C12N5/00; C12N5/071; C12Q1/68
Foreign References:
Other References:
MADSEN A.: "Antisense Against C90RF72", MDA/ALS NEWSMAGAZINE, 1 July 2012 (2012-07-01), pages 1 - 2, XP055251577, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20140107]
RABIN ET AL.: "Sporadic ALS has compartment-specific aberrant exon splicing and altered cell- matrix adhesion biology.", HUM MOL GENET, vol. 19, no. 2, 15 January 2010 (2010-01-15), pages 313 - 328, XP055251581
KLEIN ET AL.: "Gain of RNA function in pathological cases: Focus on myotonic dystrophy.", BIOCHEMIE, vol. 93, no. 11, November 2011 (2011-11-01), pages 2006 - 2012, XP028302262
MULDERS ET AL.: "Triplet-repeat oligonucleotide-mediated reversal of RNA toxicity in myotonic dystrophy.", PROC NAT ACAD SCI, vol. 106, no. 33, 18 August 2009 (2009-08-18), pages 13915 - 13920, XP055007026
RENTON ET AL.: "A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C90RF72 is the cause of chromosome 9p21-linked ALS-FTD.", NEURON, vol. 72, no. 2, 20 October 2011 (2011-10-20), pages 257 - 268, XP028322561
DONNELLY ET AL.: "RNA Toxicity from the ALS/FTD C90RF72 Expansion Is Mitigated by Antisense Intervention.", NEURON, vol. 80, no. 2, 16 October 2013 (2013-10-16), pages 415 - 428, XP028757398
BIENIEK ET AL.: "Tau pathology in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with C90RF72 hexanucleotide repabeat expansion", ACTA NEUROPATHOL., vol. 125, no. 2, 28 September 2012 (2012-09-28), pages 289 - 302, XP035167374
See also references of EP 2906697A4
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
GINGRICH, Brenden et al. (2040 Main Street 14th Floo, Irvine CA, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A method comprising administering a C90RF72 antisense compound to an animal for

treating a C90RF72 associated disease and thereby normalizing expression of any of EDNl, NEDD4L, FAM3C, CHRDL1, CP, SEPP1 , and SERPINE2.

2. A method comprising administering a C90RF72 antisense compound to an animal for

treating a C90RF72 associated disease and thereby normalizing expression of any of C3, EDNRB2, and Endothelin.

3. A method comprising administering a C90RF72 antisense compound to an animal for

treating a C90RF72 associated disease and thereby normalizing expression of any of EDNl, NEDD4L, FAM3C, CHRDL1, CP, SEPP1 , and SERPINE2.

4. A method comprising administering a C90RF72 antisense compound to an animal for

treating a C90RF72 associated disease and thereby normalizing expression of any of ABCA6, ACVR2A, ADAMTS5, Cl lorf87, C3, CCL8, CCNL1 , CD44, CELF2, CFB, CHRDL1, CLU, CP, CXCL6, DCN, DKK3, EDNl, EDNRB, EFNA5, ENPP2, F10, F3, FAM3C, FOXP2, FYN, IARS, IGSF10, IL6ST, LPAR1, MLXIPL, NEDD4L, ORC4, PDE1C, PPAP2B, PRPS 1, REV3L, RSP03, SCUBE3, SEPP1, SERPINE2, SESTD1 , SPON1 , TBC1D15, TGFBR3, TNFSF10, TNFSF13B, and WDR52.

5. A method comprising administering a C90RF72 antisense compound to an animal for

treating a C90RF72 associated disease and thereby normalizing expression of any of ABCA6, ABCA9, ABCB4, ABCC3, ABCC9, ABO, ACAN, ACOT13, ACSM2A, ACS S3, ACVR2A, ACVR2B, ADAMDECl, ADAMTS5, ADHIA, ADHIB, ADHIC, ADM, AFF3, AGBL3, AHNAK2, AK4, ALDH1A3, ALDH1L2, ALMS1P, ALOX5AP, AMOT, AMPH, ANKRD32, ANLN, AN03, AN04, AOX1 , APCDD1, APLNR, APOBEC3B, APOL6, APOLD1, AR, ARHGAP11 A, ARHGAP28, ARHGAP29, ARHGEF35, ARL17A, ARL4D, ARMS2, ARNT2, ARRDC3, ARSE, ARVP6125, ATOH8, ATP2A2, AURKA, AURKB, BACH1, BAMBI, BCL3, BDH2, BICC1, BNC2, BRCA2, BRIP1 , BRWD3, BTF3L4, BUBl, BUBIB, Cl lorf87, C12orf48, C12orf64, C13orfl 8, C14orfl49, C15orf42, Clorfl91, Clorfl98, Clorf63, C1QB, C1R, CI S, C2orf63, C3, C3orfl6, C3orf31, C3orf59, C4orf29, C4orf31, C4orf49, C5orfl3, C5orf23, C6orfl05, C6orf223, C7orf63, C9, CA12, CA13, CACHD1, CADPS, CASC5, CASP10, CBWD1, CCDC144B, CCDC144C, CCDC15, CCIN, CCL28, CCL8, CCNA2, CCNB1, CCNB2, CCNF, CCNL1, CCRL1, CD4, CD68, CDC20, CDC25B, CDC45, CDC6, CDC7, CDCA2, CDCA3, CDCA8, CDH6, CDHR4, CDK1, CDK15, CDK2, CDON, CELF2, CENPA, CENPE, CENPF, CENPI, CENPK, CEP55, CFB, CGB, CGB1, CGB5, CH25H, CHRDL1 , CHR A5, CKAP2L, CKS2, CLDNl 1, CLEC2A, CLGN, CLIC2, CLIC6, CLSPN, CMKLRl, CNKSR2, CNNl, CNR2, CNTNAP3, COL8A1, COLEC12, COMP, CP, CPA4, CPE, CPLX2, CPM, CPXM1, CRABP2, CRISPLD2, CRY1, CTAGE7P, CTNNBIP1, CTSC, CTSL1, CTSS, CXCL14, CXCL6, CXCR7, CYB5A, CYBB, CYPIBI, CYP24A1, CYP26B1 , CYP27A1, CYP3A43, CYP7B1, CYTL1, CYYR1, DBF4, DCDC1 , DCN, DDIT3, DDIT4, DEFB109P1B, DENND1B, DEPDC1, DES, DGCR14, DHRS3, DIRCl, DKFZp566F0947,

DKFZp667F071 1, DKK1, DKK3, DLGAP5, DLX2, DMKN, DNA2, DPP4, DPT, DSEL, DTX3L, DTYMK, E2F8, EDN1, EDNRB, EFEMP1 , EFNA5, ELL2, EMCN, EMP1, ENKUR, ENPEP, ENPP2, ENPP5, EPB41L4A, EPSTIl , ERCC6, ERCC6L, EREG, ESMl, ETFDH, F10, F2R, F2RL2, F3, FABP3, FAM101B, FAM1 10B, FAM156A, FAM20A, FAM3C, FAM43A, FAM46C, FAM59A, FAM71A, FAM75C1 , FAM83D, FBLN1, FCER1G, FCGR2A, FDPSL2A, FER, FGD4, FIBIN, FKBP14, FLJ10038, FLJ31356, FLJ39095, FLJ39739, FLJ41170, FLRT3, FMN1 , FOLR2, FOLR3, FOSL2, FOXC2, FOXE1, FOXP2, FRRS1 , FTLP10, FUT9, FYN, G0S2, GABRE, GABRQ, GEMC1, GFRA1, GLDN, GLIPR2, GLIS3, GOLGA6B, GPNMB, GPR133, GPR31 , GPR65, GPRC5B, GRB14, GSTT1, GSTT2, GTPBP8, GTSE1, GUCY1B3, HAS 2, HAUS3, HECW2, HELLS, HIST1H1B, HIST1H2AE, HIST1H2AJ, HIST1H2BF, HIST1H2BM, HIST1H3B, HIST1H3J, HIST1H4A, HIST1H4C, HIST1H4D, HIST1H4L, HIST2H2BC, HIST2H3A, HJURP, HMGB2, HMMR, HNRNPK, HOXB2, HOXD10, HOXD11, HSD17B7P2, HTR1B, HUNK, IARS, ICAM1 , IDH1, IFI16, IFITM1 , IFITM3, IGF1 , IGSF10, IL13RA2, IL17RA, IL17RD, IL18R1, IL1R1, ILIRN, IL20RB, IL4R, IL6ST, IQGAP3, IRS1, ITGA6, ITGA8, ITGB3, ITGBL1 , JAG1, JAM2, KCNJ2, KCNJ8,

KCNK15, KIAA0509, KIAA0802, KIAA1 199, KIAA1324L, KIAA1524, KIF1 1, KIF14, KIF15, KIF16B, KIF18B, KIF20A, KIF20B, KIF23, KIF2C, KIF4A, KIFCl, KIT, KRT19, KRT34, KRTAPl-1 , KRTAP1-5, KRTAP2-2, KRTAP2-4, KRTAP4-1 1, KRTAP4-12, KRTAP4-5, KRTAP4-7, LAMA1 , LAMA4, LANCL3, LAP3, LAPTM5, LARP7, LBR, LGI1 , LHX5, LHX9, LMCD1, LMNB1, LM04, LOC100127980, LOC100128001 , LOC100128107, LOC100128191, LOC100128402, LOC100129029, LOC100130000, LOC100132167, LOC100132292, LOC100132891, LOC100216479, LOC100287877, LOC100288069, LOC100288560, LOC100505808, LOC100505813, LOC100505820, LOC100506165, LOC100506335, LOC100506456, LOC100507128, LOC100507163, LOC100507425, LOCI 16437, LOC144438, LOC153910, LOC157503, LOC256374, LOC283868, LOC285944, LOC338667, LOC339822, LOC348120, LOC349408,

LOC389332, LOC399884, LOC400684, LOC401022, LOC642006, LOC643551 ,

LOC646743, LOC646804, LOC727820, LOC728264, LOC728640, LOC729420,

LOC729978, LOH3CR2A, LOXL4, LPAR1, LRCH2, LRIG3, LRRC37A4, LRRTM1, LYPD6B, MAB21L1, MAFB, MAOA, MAPK13, MARS, MASP1, MASTL, MBD2, MBNL3, MC4R, MCM8, ME2, MEIS3P1 , MEST, METTL8, MEX3A, MFAP4, MFGE8, MGC16121 , MGC24103, MGP, MIA3, MIER1, MIR125A, MIR138-1, MIR145,

MIR199A2, MIRLET7I, MKI67, MLF2, MMD, MME, MMP10, MMP12, MMP27, MOBKL1B, MRAP2, MRPL9, MRPS1 1, MSC, MST4, MSTN, MTMR7, MTSS1L, MTUS2, MYBL2, MYCT1 , MYOCD, MYPN, MZT2A, NACA2, NAIP, NAMPT,

NAP1L3, NBEA, NBPF10, NCAPG, NCAPG2, NCAPH, NCRNA00182, NCRNA00205, NCRNA00219, NCRNA00256A, NDC80, NEDD4L, NEK2, NET02, NEU4, NEUROD6, NFIB, NFIL3, NFKBIZ, NGFR, NKX2-2, NKX2-6, MT, NOC2L, NOG, NOTCH3, NOVA1, NOX4, NPTX2, NR2F2, NR4A3, NR5A2, NTN4, NUCKS1, NUF2, NUSAP1, NUTF2, OAS2, OAS3, OBFC2A, OCLM, ODZ2, OGFRLl , OLFML2B, OLRl, ORIOQI, OR14J1, OR1J2, OR1Q1, OR2A1, OR2A7, OR2A9P, OR2B3, OR4D10, OR4L1, OR51A2, OR52W1, OR5AU1 , OR5L2, OR6B1, ORC4, OSMR, OSR2, OXTR, P2RX7, PACSIN2, PAPPA, PARP14, PBK, PCDHB13, PCDHB14, PCDHB16, PCDHB2, PCDHB3, PCDHB4, PCYT2, PDE1C, PDE4DIP, PDE5A, PDGFA, PDGFD, PDPN, PDZRN3, PEG10,

PHACTR3, PHF11 , PHLDB2, PIM1, PITPNM3, PKD2L1, PKDCC, PLA2G4A,

PLEKHA3, PLK1 , PLK4, PLSCR1, PLXNA2, PLXNC1, PM20D2, PMAIP1, PPAP2B, PPL, PPP1R12B, PRAMEF2, PRC1, PRDM1 , PRDM15, PRG4, PRICKLE 1 , PRICKLE2, PRKAA2, PRKG2, PRPS1, PRUNE2, PRY, PSIP1, psiTPTE22, PTBP2, PTGS1, PTPRC, PTPRN, PYGOl , RAB12, RAD51AP1, RASA4, RASGRF2, RBMS1, RBMX2, RCVRN, RERGL, REV3L, RGPD1, RGPD2, RGPD6, RGS4, RHBDF1, RHOJ, RIMS1, RIPK2, RNASE2, RNF122, RNU2-1, RPL22L1, RPL8, RPRD1A, RPRM, RPS26P1 1, RPS6KA6, RPS8, RPSAP52, RRP15, RSP03, RUNXITI, S100A8, SlPRl , SCIN, SCN2A, SCUBE3, SEPP1, SERPINB3, SERPINB4, SERPINB9, SERPINE2, SERPINF1 , SERPING1, SESTD1, SFRP1, SFRP4, SGK1 , SGOL1, SGOL2, SHCBP1 , SHMT1 , SKA1, SKA3, SKIL, SLC1A3, SLC39A8, SLC40A1, SLC43A3, SLC6A15, SLFNl l, SLITRK4, SMAD4, SMC4, SNHG1, SNORD32B, SOCS5, SPC24, SPC25, SPDYE8P, SPON1, SRD5A1P1, SRGAP1, SRGN, SRSF10, SSPN, SSTR1 , SSX5, ST6GALNAC5, ST8SIA2, STC1, STEAP1, STEAP2, STEAP4, STOM, SV2A, SVEP1, SYNPR, TACC2, TAGLN,

TAS2R10, TBC1D15, TBC1D2, TBX3, TEK, TES, TFAP2A, TFPI, TFPI2, TGFBR3, TGOLN2, THAP2, THBS2, THRB, THSD7A, TINAGL1, TLE3, TLE4, TLN2, TLR1 , TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TM4SF18, TMEMl 19, TMEMl 35, TMEMl 55, TMEM30B, TMEM49, TMEM65, TMTC1 , TNC, TNFAIP3, TNFRSF10C, TNFRSF1 IB, TNFSF10, TNFSF13B, TNIK, TOP2A, TOR1AIP1, TOX, TPI1, TPM2, TPM3, TPX2, TRA2B, TRAF3IP2, TRIM24, TRIM36, TRIM43, TRIM64, TROAP, TS , TTC22, TTK, UBE2C, UHRF1, UNC5B, USP8, VEGFA, VGLL3, VTI1B, VTRNA1-3, VWA5A, WDR17, WDR52, WEE1, WISP1, WISP2, WNT16, WNT2, WWC1 , XAGE3, XP04, ZC3H11A, ZC3H7B, ZDHHC15, ZFP36, ZFP82, ZMYM2, ZNF135, ZNF207, ZNF28, ZNF280B, ZNF284, ZNF285, ZNF322A, ZNF462, ZNF506, ZNF595, ZNF678, ZNF714, ZNF717, ZNF737, ZNF808, ZNHIT2, and ZWINT.

6. A method comprising administering a C90RF72 antisense compound to an animal for

treating a C90RF72 associated disease and thereby reducing nuclear retention of any of ADARB2, CYP2C9, DPH2, HMGB2, JARID2, MITF, MPP7, NDSTl, NUDT6, ORAOVl, PGA5, PTER, RANGAP1, SOX6, TCL1B, TRIM32, WBP1 1, ZNF695.

7. A method comprising:

identifying an animal having a C90RF72 associated disease; and

administering a C90RF72 antisense compound and thereby normalizing expression of any of EDN1, NEDD4L, FAM3C, CHRDL1, CP, SEPP1, and SERPINE2.

8. A method comprising:

identifying an animal having a C90RF72 associated disease; and

administering a C90RF72 antisense compound and thereby normalizing expression of any of C3, EDNRB2, and Endothelin.

9. A method comprising:

identifying an animal having a C90RF72 associated disease; and

administering a C90RF72 antisense compound and thereby normalizing expression of any of ABCA6, ACVR2A, ADAMTS5, Cl lorf87, C3, CCL8, CCNL1 , CD44, CELF2, CFB, CHRDL1, CLU, CP, CXCL6, DCN, DKK3, EDN1, EDNRB, EFNA5, ENPP2, F10, F3, FAM3C, FOXP2, FY , IARS, IGSF10, IL6ST, LPAR1, MLXIPL, NEDD4L, ORC4, PDE1C, PPAP2B, PRPS 1, REV3L, RSP03, SCUBE3, SEPP1, SERPINE2, SESTD1, SPON1 , TBC1D15, TGFBR3, TNFSF10, TNFSF13B, and WDR52.

10. A method comprising:

identifying an animal having a C90RF72 associated disease; and

administering a C90RF72 antisense compound and thereby normalizing expression of any of ABCA6, ABCA9, ABCB4, ABCC3, ABCC9, ABO, ACAN, ACOT13, ACSM2A, ACS S3, ACVR2A, ACVR2B, ADAMDECl, ADAMTS5, ADHIA, ADHIB, ADHIC, ADM, AFF3, AGBL3, AHNAK2, AK4, ALDH1A3, ALDH1L2, ALMS1P, ALOX5AP, AMOT, AMPH, A KRD32, ANLN, AN03, AN04, AOX1 , APCDD1, APLNR, APOBEC3B, APOL6, APOLDl, AR, ARHGAPl 1 A, ARHGAP28, ARHGAP29, ARHGEF35, ARL17A, ARL4D, ARMS2, AR T2, ARRDC3, ARSE, ARVP6125, ATOH8, ATP2A2, AURKA, AURKB, BACH1, BAMBI, BCL3, BDH2, BICC1, BNC2, BRCA2, BRIP1 , BRWD3, BTF3L4, BUBl, BUBIB, Cl lorf87, C12orf48, C12orf64, C13orfl 8, C14orfl49, C15orf42, Clorfl91, Clorfl98, Clorf63, C1QB, C1R, CI S, C2orf63, C3, C3orfl6, C3orf31, C3orf59, C4orf29, C4orf31, C4orf49, C5orfl3, C5orf23, C6orfl05, C6orf223, C7orf63, C9, CA12, CA13, CACHD1, CADPS, CASC5, CASP10, CBWD1, CCDC144B, CCDC144C, CCDC15, CCIN, CCL28, CCL8, CCNA2, CCNB1, CCNB2, CCNF, CCNL1, CCRL1, CD4, CD68, CDC20, CDC25B, CDC45, CDC6, CDC7, CDCA2, CDCA3, CDCA8, CDH6, CDHR4, CDK1, CDK15, CDK2, CDON, CELF2, CENPA, CENPE, CENPF, CENPI, CENPK, CEP55, CFB, CGB, CGB1, CGB5, CH25H, CHRDL1 , CHR A5, CKAP2L, CKS2, CLDN1 1, CLEC2A, CLGN, CLIC2, CLIC6, CLSPN, CMKLR1, CNKSR2, CN 1, CNR2, CNTNAP3, COL8A1, COLEC12, COMP, CP, CPA4, CPE, CPLX2, CPM, CPXM1, CRABP2, CRISPLD2, CRY1, CTAGE7P, CT BIP1, CTSC, CTSL1, CTSS, CXCL14, CXCL6, CXCR7, CYB5A, CYBB, CYP1B1, CYP24A1, CYP26B1 , CYP27A1, CYP3A43, CYP7B1, CYTL1, CYYR1, DBF4, DCDC1 , DCN, DDIT3, DDIT4, DEFB109P1B,

DENND1B, DEPDC1, DES, DGCR14, DHRS3, DIRCl, DKFZp566F0947,

DKFZp667F071 1, DKK1, DKK3, DLGAP5, DLX2, DMKN, DNA2, DPP4, DPT, DSEL, DTX3L, DTYMK, E2F8, EDN1, EDNRB, EFEMP1 , EFNA5, ELL2, EMCN, EMP1, ENKUR, ENPEP, ENPP2, ENPP5, EPB41L4A, EPSTIl , ERCC6, ERCC6L, EREG, ESMl, ETFDH, F10, F2R, F2RL2, F3, FABP3, FAM101B, FAM1 10B, FAM156A, FAM20A, FAM3C, FAM43A, FAM46C, FAM59A, FAM71A, FAM75C1 , FAM83D, FBLN1, FCER1G, FCGR2A, FDPSL2A, FER, FGD4, FIBIN, FKBP14, FLJ10038, FLJ31356, FLJ39095, FLJ39739, FLJ41170, FLRT3, FMN1 , FOLR2, FOLR3, FOSL2, FOXC2, FOXE1, FOXP2, FRRS1 , FTLP10, FUT9, FY , G0S2, GABRE, GABRQ, GEMC1, GFRA1, GLDN, GLIPR2, GLIS3, GOLGA6B, GPNMB, GPR133, GPR31 , GPR65, GPRC5B, GRB14, GSTT1, GSTT2, GTPBP8, GTSE1, GUCY1B3, HAS 2, HAUS3, HECW2, HELLS, HIST1H1B, HIST1H2AE, HIST1H2AJ, HIST1H2BF, HIST1H2BM, HIST1H3B, HIST1H3J, HIST1H4A, HIST1H4C, HIST1H4D, HIST1H4L, HIST2H2BC, HIST2H3A, HJURP, HMGB2, HMMR, H RNPK, HOXB2, HOXD10, HOXD11, HSD17B7P2, HTR1B, HUNK, IARS, ICAM1 , IDH1, IFI16, IFITM1 , IFITM3, IGF1 , IGSF10, IL13RA2, IL17RA, IL17RD, IL18R1, IL1R1, ILIRN, IL20RB, IL4R, IL6ST, IQGAP3, IRS1, ITGA6, ITGA8, ITGB3, ITGBL1, JAG1, JAM2, KCNJ2, KCNJ8, KCNK15, KIAA0509, KIAA0802, KIAAl 199, KIAA1324L, KIAA1524, KIFl 1, KIF14, KIF15, KIF16B, KIF18B, KIF20A, KIF20B, KIF23, KIF2C, KIF4A, KIFCl, KIT, KRT19, KRT34, KRTAPl-1 , KRTAP1-5, KRTAP2-2, KRTAP2-4, KRTAP4-1 1, KRTAP4-12, KRTAP4-5, KRTAP4-7, LAMA1 , LAMA4, LANCL3, LAP3, LAPTM5, LARP7, LBR, LGI1 , LHX5, LHX9, LMCD1, LMNB1, LM04, LOC100127980, LOC100128001 , LOC100128107, LOC100128191, LOC100128402, LOC100129029, LOC100130000, LOC100132167, LOC100132292, LOC100132891, LOC100216479, LOC100287877, LOC100288069, LOC100288560, LOC100505808, LOC100505813, LOC100505820, LOC100506165, LOC100506335, LOC100506456, LOC100507128, LOC100507163, LOC100507425, LOCI 16437, LOC144438, LOC153910, LOC157503, LOC256374, LOC283868, LOC285944, LOC338667, LOC339822, LOC348120, LOC349408,

LOC389332, LOC399884, LOC400684, LOC401022, LOC642006, LOC643551 ,

LOC646743, LOC646804, LOC727820, LOC728264, LOC728640, LOC729420,

LOC729978, LOH3CR2A, LOXL4, LPAR1, LRCH2, LRIG3, LRRC37A4, LRRTM1, LYPD6B, MAB21L1, MAFB, MAOA, MAPK13, MARS, MASP1, MASTL, MBD2, MBNL3, MC4R, MCM8, ME2, MEIS3P1 , MEST, METTL8, MEX3A, MFAP4, MFGE8, MGC16121 , MGC24103, MGP, MIA3, MIER1, MIR125A, MIR138-1, MIR145,

MIR199A2, MIRLET7I, MKI67, MLF2, MMD, MME, MMP10, MMP12, MMP27, MOBKL1B, MRAP2, MRPL9, MRPS1 1, MSC, MST4, MSTN, MTMR7, MTSS1L, MTUS2, MYBL2, MYCT1 , MYOCD, MYPN, MZT2A, NACA2, NAIP, NAMPT, NAP1L3, BEA, NBPF10, NCAPG, NCAPG2, NCAPH, NCRNA00182, NCRNA00205, NCRNA00219, NCRNA00256A, NDC80, NEDD4L, NEK2, NET02, NEU4, NEUROD6, NFIB, NFIL3, NFKBIZ, NGFR, NKX2-2, NKX2-6, MT, NOC2L, NOG, NOTCH3, NOVA1, NOX4, NPTX2, NR2F2, NR4A3, NR5A2, NTN4, NUCKS1, NUF2, NUSAP1, NUTF2, OAS2, OAS3, OBFC2A, OCLM, ODZ2, OGFRL1 , OLFML2B, OLR1, OR10Q1, OR14J1, OR1J2, OR1Q1, OR2A1, OR2A7, OR2A9P, OR2B3, OR4D10, OR4L1, OR51A2, OR52W1, OR5AU1, OR5L2, OR6B1, ORC4, OSMR, OSR2, OXTR, P2RX7, PACSIN2, PAPPA, PARP14, PBK, PCDHB13, PCDHB14, PCDHB16, PCDHB2, PCDHB3, PCDHB4, PCYT2, PDE1C, PDE4DIP, PDE5A, PDGFA, PDGFD, PDPN, PDZRN3, PEG10,

PHACTR3, PHF11 , PHLDB2, PIM1, PITPNM3, PKD2L1, PKDCC, PLA2G4A,

PLEKHA3, PLK1 , PLK4, PLSCR1, PLXNA2, PLXNC1, PM20D2, PMAIP1, PPAP2B, PPL, PPP1R12B, PRAMEF2, PRC1, PRDM1 , PRDM15, PRG4, PRICKLE 1 , PRICKLE2, PRKAA2, PRKG2, PRPS1, PRUNE2, PRY, PSIP1, psiTPTE22, PTBP2, PTGS1, PTPRC, PTPRN, PYGOl , RAB12, RAD51AP1, RASA4, RASGRF2, RBMS1, RBMX2, RCVRN, RERGL, REV3L, RGPD1, RGPD2, RGPD6, RGS4, RHBDF1, RHOJ, RIMS1, RIPK2, RNASE2, RNF122, RNU2-1, RPL22L1, RPL8, RPRD1A, RPRM, RPS26P1 1, RPS6KA6, RPS8, RPSAP52, RRP15, RSP03, RUNX1T1, S100A8, S1PR1 , SCIN, SCN2A, SCUBE3, SEPP1, SERPINB3, SERPINB4, SERPINB9, SERPINE2, SERPINF1, SERPING1,

SESTD1, SFRP1, SFRP4, SGK1 , SGOL1, SGOL2, SHCBP1 , SHMT1 , SKA1, SKA3, SKIL, SLC1A3, SLC39A8, SLC40A1, SLC43A3, SLC6A15, SLFNl l, SLITRK4, SMAD4, SMC4, SNHG1, SNORD32B, SOCS5, SPC24, SPC25, SPDYE8P, SPON1, SRD5A1P1, SRGAP1, SRGN, SRSF10, SSPN, SSTR1 , SSX5, ST6GALNAC5, ST8SIA2, STC1, STEAP1, STEAP2, STEAP4, STOM, SV2A, SVEP1, SYNPR, TACC2, TAGLN,

TAS2R10, TBC1D15, TBC1D2, TBX3, TEK, TES, TFAP2A, TFPI, TFPI2, TGFBR3, TGOLN2, THAP2, THBS2, THRB, THSD7A, TINAGL1, TLE3, TLE4, TLN2, TLR1 , TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TM4SF18, TMEM1 19, TMEM135, TMEM155, TMEM30B, TMEM49, TMEM65, TMTC1 , TNC, TNFAIP3, TNFRSF10C, TNFRSF1 IB, TNFSF10, TNFSF13B, TNIK, TOP2A, TOR1AIP1, TOX, TPI1, TPM2, TPM3, TPX2, TRA2B, TRAF3IP2, TRIM24, TRIM36, TRIM43, TRIM64, TROAP, TS , TTC22, TTK, UBE2C, UHRF1, UNC5B, USP8, VEGFA, VGLL3, VTI1B, VTRNA1-3, VWA5A, WDR17, WDR52, WEE1, WISP1, WISP2, WNT16, WNT2, WWC1 , XAGE3, XP04, ZC3H11A, ZC3H7B, ZDHHC15, ZFP36, ZFP82, ZMYM2, ZNF135, ZNF207, ZNF28, ZNF280B, ZNF284, ZNF285, ZNF322A, ZNF462, ZNF506, ZNF595, ZNF678, ZNF714, ZNF717, ZNF737, ZNF808, ZNHIT2, and ZWINT.

11. A method comprising:

identifying an animal having a C90RF72 associated disease; and

administering a C90RF72 antisense compound and thereby reducing nuclear retention of any of ADARB2, CYP2C9, DPH2, HMGB2, JARID2, MITF, MPP7, NDSTl, NUDT6, ORAOV1, PGA5, PTER, RANGAP1, SOX6, TCL1B, TRIM32, WBP11, ZNF695.

12. A method, comprising:

administering a C90RF72 antisense compound; and

monitoring the level of any of ADARB2, NDSTl, MITF, DPH2, NUDT6, TCL1B, PGA5, TRIM32, CYP2C9, MPP7, PTER, WBP1 1, HMGB2, ORAOVl , RAN GAP 1 , ZNF695, SOX6, JARID2, and DAZ2 as a measure of the amount of C90RF72 nucleic acid containg a hexanucleotide repeat expansion is present in a cell.

13. A method, comprising:

Identifying an animal having a C90RF72 associated disease;

administering a C90RF72 antisense compound; and

monitoring the level of any of ADARB2, NDSTl, MITF, DPH2, NUDT6, TCL1B, PGA5, TRIM32, CYP2C9, MPP7, PTER, WBP1 1, HMGB2, ORAOVl , RANGAP1, ZNF695, SOX6, JARID2, and DAZ2 as a measure of the amount of C90RF72 nucleic acid containg a hexanucleotide repeat expansion is present in a cell.

14. The method of claims 12-13, wherein the level of any of ADARB2, NDSTl, MITF, DPH2, NUDT6, TCL1B, PGA5, TRIM32, CYP2C9, MPP7, PTER, WBP11 , HMGB2, ORAOVl, RANGAP1, ZNF695, SOX6, JARID2, and DAZ2 increases after administration of an effective amount of a C90RF72 antisense compound.

15. The method of claim 12-13, wherein the level of any of ADARB2, NDSTl, MITF, DPH2, NUDT6, TCL1B, PGA5, TRIM32, CYP2C9, MPP7, PTER, WBP11 , HMGB2, ORAOVl, RANGAP1, ZNF695, SOX6, JARID2, and DAZ2 decreases after administration of an effective amount of a C90RF72 antisense compound.

16. The method of claims 12, 14, and 15, wherein the cell is in vitro.

17. The method of claims 12-15, wherein the cell is in an animal.

18. The method of any preceding claim, wherein the animal is a human.

19. The method of any preceding claim, wherein the antisense compound comprises a single- stranded antisense oligonucleotide complementary to a C90RF72 nucleic acid.

20. The method of claim 19, wherein the C90RF72 nucleic acid is a human C90RF72 nucleic acid.

21. The method of any preceding claim, wherein the C90RF72 associated disease is a C90RF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion associated disease.

22. The method of any preceding claim, wherein the C90RF72 associated disease is

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or fro nto temporal dementia (FTD).

23. The method of claim 21 , wherein C90RF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion associated disease is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or frontotemporal dementia (FTD).

24. The method of claims 22-23, wherein the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is familial ALS or sporadic ALS.

25. The method of claims 19-24, wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide

comprises at least one modification.

26. The method of claims 19-25, wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide is

specifically hybridizable to a human C90RF72 nucleic acid.

27. The method of claims 19-26, wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide is at least 75%, at least 80%, at least 85%, at least 90%, or at least 95% complementary to an equal length portion of a human C90RF72 nucleic acid.

28. The method of claims 19-27, wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide is 100% complementary to an equal length portion of a human C90RF72 nucleic acid.

29. The method of claims 25-28, wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide

comprises at least one modified internucleoside linkage.

30. The method of claim 29, wherein each internucleoside linkage of the single-stranded

antisense oligonucleotide is a modified internucleoside linkage.

31. The method of claims 29-30, wherein the modified internucleoside linkage is a

phosphorothioate internucleoside linkage.

32. The method of claims 25-31 , comprising at least one modified nucleoside.

33. The method of claims 25-32, wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide

comprises at least one modified nucleoside having a modified sugar.

34. The method of claim 33, wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide comprises at least one modified nucleoside comprising a bicyclic sugar.

35. The method of claim 34, wherein the bicyclic sugar comprises a 4' to 2' bridge selected from among: 4'-(CH2)n-0-2' bridge, wherein n is 1 or 2; and 4'-CH2-0-CH2-2'.

36. The method of claim 35, wherein the bicyclic sugar comprises a 4'-CH(CH3)-0-2' bridge.

37. The method of claim 33, wherein the at least one modified nucleoside having a modified sugar comprises a non-bicyclic 2'-modified modified sugar moiety.

38. The method of claim 37, wherein the 2'-modified sugar moiety comprises a 2'-0- methoxyethyl group.

39. The method of claim 37, wherein the 2 '-modified sugar moiety comprises a 2'-0-methyl group.

40. The method of claim 33, wherein the at least one modified nucleoside having a modified sugar comprises a sugar surrogate.

41. The method of claim 40, wherein the sugar surrogate is a morpholino.

42. The method of claim 40, wherein the sugar surrogate is a peptide nucleic acid.

43. The method of claims 32-42, wherein each nucleoside is modified.

44. The method of claims 19-43, wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide

comprises at least one modified nucleobase.

45. The method of claim 44, wherein the modified nucleobase is a 5'-methylcytosine.

46. The method of claim 25-45, wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide

comprises:

a gap segment consisting of linked deoxynucleosides;

a 5' wing segment consisting of linked nucleosides;

a 3' wing segment consisting of linked nucleosides;

wherein the gap segment is positioned immediately adjacent to and between the 5' wing segment and the 3' wing segment and wherein each nucleoside of each wing segment comprises a modified sugar.

47. The method of claim 46, wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide comprises: a gap segment consisting of ten linked deoxynucleosides;

a 5' wing segment consisting of five linked nucleosides;

a 3' wing segment consisting of five linked nucleosides;

wherein the gap segment is positioned immediately adjacent and between the 5' wing segment and the 3' wing segment, wherein each nucleoside of each wing segment comprises a 2'-0-methoxyethyl sugar; and wherein each internucleoside linkage is a phosphorothioate linkage.

48. The method of claims 19-46, wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide consists of 15 or 16 linked nucleosides.

49. The method of claims 19-46, wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide consists of 17 linked nucleosides.

50. The method of claims 19-46, wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide consists of 18 linked nucleosides.

51. The method of claims 19-46, wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide consists of 19 linked nucleosides.

52. The method of claims 19-46, wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide consists of 20 linked nucleosides.

53. The method of claims 19-46, wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide consists of 21 , 22, 23, 24, or 25 linked nucleosides.

54. The method of any preceding claim, wherein the administering is parenteral administration.

55. The method of claim 54, wherein the parenteral administration is any of injection or

infusion.

56. The method of claims 54-55, wherein the parenteral administration is any of intrathecal administration or intracerebroventricular administration.

57. The method of any preceding claim, wherein at least one symptom of a C90RF72 associated disease is ameliorated or prevented.

58. The method of any preceding claim, wherein at least one symptom of a C90RF72

hexanucleotide repeat associated disease is ameliorated or prevented.

59. The method of any preceding claim, wherein progression of at least one symptom of a

C90RF72 associated disease is slowed.

60. The method of any preceding claim, wherein progression of at least one symptom of a

C90RF72 hexanucleotide repeat associated disease is slowed.

61. The method of claims 57-60, wherein the at least one symptom is any of muscle weakness, fasciculation and cramping of muscles, difficulty in projecting the voice, shortness of breath, difficulty in breathing and swallowing, inappropriate social behavior, lack of empathy, distractibility, changes in food preferences, agitation, blunted emotions, neglect of personal hygiene, repetitive or compulsive behavior, and decreased energy and motivation.

62. A method comprising administering a C90RF72 antisense compound to a cell or tissue containing a C90RF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion and thereby normalizing expression of any of C3, EDNRB2, and Endothelin.

63. A method comprising administering a C90RF72 antisense compound to a cell or tissue containing a C90RF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion and thereby normalizing expression of any of ABCA6, ACVR2A, ADAMTS5, CI lorf87, C3, CCL8, CCNL1 , CD44, CELF2, CFB, CHRDL1 , CLU, CP, CXCL6, DCN, DKK3, EDN1, EDNRB, EFNA5, ENPP2, F10, F3, FAM3C, FOXP2, FYN, IARS, IGSF10, IL6ST, LPAR1 , MLXIPL, NEDD4L, ORC4, PDE1C, PPAP2B, PRPS 1, REV3L, RSP03, SCUBE3, SEPP1, SERPINE2, SESTD1 , SPON1 , TBC1D15, TGFBR3, TNFSF10, TNFSF13B, and WDR52.

64. A method comprising administering a C90RF72 antisense compound to a cell or tissue containing a C90RF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion and thereby normalizing expression of any of ABCA6, ABCA9, ABCB4, ABCC3, ABCC9, ABO, AC AN, ACOT13, ACSM2A, ACSS3, ACVR2A, ACVR2B, ADAMDEC1, ADAMTS5, ADH1A, ADH1B, ADH1C, ADM, AFF3, AGBL3, AHNAK2, AK4, ALDH1A3, ALDH1L2, ALMS1P, ALOX5AP, AMOT, AMPH, ANKRD32, ANLN, AN03, AN04, AOX1 , APCDD1, APLNR,

APOBEC3B, APOL6, APOLD1, AR, ARHGAP11A, ARHGAP28, ARHGAP29,

ARHGEF35, ARL17A, ARL4D, ARMS2, ARNT2, ARRDC3, ARSE, ARVP6125, ATOH8, ATP2A2, AURKA, AURKB, BACH1 , BAMBI, BCL3, BDH2, BICC1, BNC2, BRCA2, BRIP1, BRWD3, BTF3L4, BUB1 , BUB IB, Cl lorf87, C12orf48, C12orf64, C13orfl8, C14orfl49, C15orf42, Clorfl91 , Clorfl98, Clorf63, C1QB, C1R, CI S, C2orf63, C3, C3orfl6, C3orf31, C3orf59, C4orf29, C4orf31 , C4orf49, C5orfl3, C5orf23, C6orfl05, C6orf223, C7orf63, C9, CA12, CA13, CACHD1 , CADPS, CASC5, CASP10, CBWD1, CCDC144B, CCDC144C, CCDC15, CCIN, CCL28, CCL8, CCNA2, CCNB1, CCNB2, CCNF, CCNL1 , CCRL1, CD4, CD68, CDC20, CDC25B, CDC45, CDC6, CDC7, CDCA2, CDC A3, CDCA8, CDH6, CDHR4, CDK1, CDK15, CDK2, CDON, CELF2, CENPA, CENPE, CENPF, CENPI, CENPK, CEP55, CFB, CGB, CGB1 , CGB5, CH25H, CHRDL1, CHRNA5, CKAP2L, CKS2, CLDN11 , CLEC2A, CLGN, CLIC2, CLIC6, CLSPN,

CMKLR1, CNKSR2, CN 1, CNR2, CNTNAP3, COL8A1 , COLEC12, COMP, CP, CPA4, CPE, CPLX2, CPM, CPXM1, CRABP2, CRISPLD2, CRY1 , CTAGE7P, CTNNBIP1, CTSC, CTSL1, CTSS, CXCL14, CXCL6, CXCR7, CYB5A, CYBB, CYP1B1, CYP24A1, CYP26B1, CYP27A1, CYP3A43, CYP7B1, CYTL1 , CYYR1 , DBF4, DCDC1, DCN, DDIT3, DDIT4, DEFB109P1B, DE D1B, DEPDC1, DES, DGCR14, DHRS3, DIRCl , DKFZp566F0947, DKFZp667F071 1, DKK1, DKK3, DLGAP5, DLX2, DMKN, DNA2, DPP4, DPT, DSEL, DTX3L, DTYMK, E2F8, EDN1 , EDNRB, EFEMP1 , EFNA5, ELL2, EMCN, EMPl, ENKUR, ENPEP, ENPP2, ENPP5, EPB41L4A, EPSTIl, ERCC6, ERCC6L, EREG, ESMl, ETFDH, FIO, F2R, F2RL2, F3, FABP3, FAMIOIB, FAMl lOB, FAM156A, FAM20A, FAM3C, FAM43A, FAM46C, FAM59A, FAM71A, FAM75C1 , FAM83D, FBLN1 , FCER1G, FCGR2A, FDPSL2A, FER, FGD4, FIBIN, FKBP14, FLJ10038, FLJ31356, FLJ39095, FLJ39739, FLJ41 170, FLRT3, FMN1, FOLR2, FOLR3, FOSL2, FOXC2, FOXE1, FOXP2, FRRS1, FTLP10, FUT9, FYN, G0S2, GABRE, GABRQ, GEMC1, GFRA1, GLDN, GLIPR2, GLIS3, GOLGA6B, GPNMB, GPR133, GPR31, GPR65, GPRC5B, GRB14, GSTT1, GSTT2, GTPBP8, GTSE1, GUCY1B3, HAS2, HAUS3, HECW2, HELLS, HIST1H1B, HIST1H2AE, HIST1H2AJ, HIST1H2BF,

HIST1H2BM, HIST1H3B, HIST1H3J, HIST1H4A, HIST1H4C, HIST1H4D, HIST1H4L, HIST2H2BC, HIST2H3A, HJURP, HMGB2, HMMR, HNRNPK, HOXB2, HOXD10, HOXD11, HSD17B7P2, HTR1B, HUNK, IARS, ICAM1 , IDH1, IFI16, IFITM1, IFITM3, IGF1 , IGSF10, IL13RA2, IL17RA, IL17RD, IL18R1, IL1R1 , IL1RN, IL20RB, IL4R, IL6ST, IQGAP3, IRSl , ITGA6, ITGA8, ITGB3, ITGBLl, JAGl, JAM2, KCNJ2, KCNJ8, KCNK15, KIAA0509, KIAA0802, KIAA1 199, KIAA1324L, KIAA1524, KIF1 1, KIF14, KIF15, KIF16B, KIF18B, KIF20A, KIF20B, KIF23, KIF2C, KIF4A, KIFCl, KIT, KRT19, KRT34, KRTAPl-1 , KRTAP1-5, KRTAP2-2, KRTAP2-4, KRTAP4-1 1, KRTAP4-12, KRTAP4-5, KRTAP4-7, LAMA1 , LAMA4, LANCL3, LAP3, LAPTM5, LARP7, LBR, LGI1 , LHX5, LHX9, LMCD1, LMNB1, LM04, LOC100127980, LOC100128001 ,

LOC100128107, LOC100128191, LOC100128402, LOC100129029, LOC100130000, LOC100132167, LOC100132292, LOC100132891, LOC100216479, LOC100287877, LOC100288069, LOC100288560, LOC100505808, LOC100505813, LOC100505820, LOC100506165, LOC100506335, LOC100506456, LOC100507128, LOC100507163, LOC100507425, LOCI 16437, LOC144438, LOC153910, LOC157503, LOC256374, LOC283868, LOC285944, LOC338667, LOC339822, LOC348120, LOC349408,

LOC389332, LOC399884, LOC400684, LOC401022, LOC642006, LOC643551 ,

LOC646743, LOC646804, LOC727820, LOC728264, LOC728640, LOC729420,

LOC729978, LOH3CR2A, LOXL4, LPAR1, LRCH2, LRIG3, LRRC37A4, LRRTM1, LYPD6B, MAB21L1, MAFB, MAOA, MAPK13, MARS, MASP1, MASTL, MBD2, MBNL3, MC4R, MCM8, ME2, MEIS3P1 , MEST, METTL8, MEX3A, MFAP4, MFGE8, MGC16121 , MGC24103, MGP, MIA3, MIER1, MIR125A, MIR138-1, MIR145,

MIR199A2, MIRLET7I, MKI67, MLF2, MMD, MME, MMP10, MMP12, MMP27, MOBKL1B, MRAP2, MRPL9, MRPS1 1, MSC, MST4, MSTN, MTMR7, MTSS1L, MTUS2, MYBL2, MYCT1 , MYOCD, MYPN, MZT2A, NACA2, NAIP, NAMPT,

NAP1L3, NBEA, NBPF10, NCAPG, NCAPG2, NCAPH, NCRNA00182, NCRNA00205, NCRNA00219, NCRNA00256A, NDC80, NEDD4L, NEK2, NET02, NEU4, NEUROD6, NFIB, NFIL3, NFKBIZ, NGFR, NKX2-2, NKX2-6, MT, NOC2L, NOG, NOTCH3, NOVA1, NOX4, NPTX2, NR2F2, NR4A3, NR5A2, NTN4, NUCKS1, NUF2, NUSAP1, NUTF2, OAS2, OAS3, OBFC2A, OCLM, ODZ2, OGFRL1 , OLFML2B, OLR1, OR10Q1, OR14J1, OR1J2, OR1Q1, OR2A1, OR2A7, OR2A9P, OR2B3, OR4D10, OR4L1, OR51A2, OR52W1, OR5AU1 , OR5L2, OR6B1, ORC4, OSMR, OSR2, OXTR, P2RX7, PACSIN2, PAPPA, PARP14, PBK, PCDHB13, PCDHB14, PCDHB16, PCDHB2, PCDHB3, PCDHB4, PCYT2, PDE1C, PDE4DIP, PDE5A, PDGFA, PDGFD, PDPN, PDZRN3, PEG10,

PHACTR3, PHF11 , PHLDB2, PIM1, PITPNM3, PKD2L1, PKDCC, PLA2G4A,

PLEKHA3, PLK1 , PLK4, PLSCR1, PLXNA2, PLXNC1, PM20D2, PMAIP1, PPAP2B, PPL, PPP1R12B, PRAMEF2, PRC1, PRDM1 , PRDM15, PRG4, PRICKLE 1 , PRICKLE2, PRKAA2, PRKG2, PRPS1, PRUNE2, PRY, PSIP1, psiTPTE22, PTBP2, PTGS1, PTPRC, PTPRN, PYGOl , RAB12, RAD51AP1, RASA4, RASGRF2, RBMS1, RBMX2, RCVRN, RERGL, REV3L, RGPD1, RGPD2, RGPD6, RGS4, RHBDF1, RHOJ, RIMS1, RIPK2, RNASE2, RNF122, RNU2-1, RPL22L1, RPL8, RPRD1A, RPRM, RPS26P1 1, RPS6KA6, RPS8, RPSAP52, RRP15, RSP03, RUNXITI, S100A8, SlPRl , SCIN, SCN2A, SCUBE3, SEPP1, SERPINB3, SERPINB4, SERPINB9, SERPINE2, SERPINF1 , SERPING1,

SESTD1, SFRP1, SFRP4, SGK1 , SGOL1, SGOL2, SHCBP1 , SHMT1 , SKA1, SKA3, SKIL, SLC1A3, SLC39A8, SLC40A1, SLC43A3, SLC6A15, SLFNl l, SLITRK4, SMAD4, SMC4, SNHG1, SNORD32B, SOCS5, SPC24, SPC25, SPDYE8P, SPON1, SRD5A1P1, SRGAP1, SRGN, SRSF10, SSPN, SSTR1 , SSX5, ST6GALNAC5, ST8SIA2, STC1, STEAP1, STEAP2, STEAP4, STOM, SV2A, SVEP1, SYNPR, TACC2, TAGLN,

TAS2R10, TBC1D15, TBC1D2, TBX3, TEK, TES, TFAP2A, TFPI, TFPI2, TGFBR3, TGOLN2, THAP2, THBS2, THRB, THSD7A, TINAGL1, TLE3, TLE4, TLN2, TLR1 , TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TM4SF18, TMEM1 19, TMEM135, TMEM155, TMEM30B, TMEM49, TMEM65, TMTC1 , TNC, TNFAIP3, TNFRSF10C, TNFRSF1 IB, TNFSF10, TNFSF13B, TNIK, TOP2A, TOR1AIP1, TOX, TPI1, TPM2, TPM3, TPX2, TRA2B, TRAF3IP2, TRIM24, TRIM36, TRIM43, TRIM64, TROAP, TSK, TTC22, TTK, UBE2C, UHRF1, U C5B, USP8, VEGFA, VGLL3, VTI1B, VTRNA1-3, VWA5A, WDR17, WDR52, WEE1, WISP1, WISP2, WNT16, W T2, WWC1 , XAGE3, XP04, ZC3H11A, ZC3H7B, ZDHHC15, ZFP36, ZFP82, ZMYM2, ZNF135, ZNF207, ZNF28, ZNF280B, Z F284, ZNF285, Z F322A, ZNF462, ZNF506, ZNF595, ZNF678, Z F714, ZNF717, Z F737, ZNF808, Z HIT2, and ZWINT.

65. A method comprising administering a C90RF72 antisense compound to a cell or tissue containing a C90RF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion and thereby reducing nuclear retention of any of ADARB2, CYP2C9, DPH2, HMGB2, JARID2, MITF, MPP7, NDST1 , UDT6, ORAOV1, PGA5, PTER, RANGAP1, SOX6, TCL1B, TRIM32, WBP11, and Z F695.

66. The method claims 62-65, wherein the cell or tissue is human fibroblast cells.

67. The method of claims 62-65, wherein the cell or tissue is human cortex.

68. The method of claims 62-67, wherein the antisense compound comprises a single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide complementary to a C90RF72 nucleic acid.

69. The method of claim 68, wherein the C90RF72 nucleic acid is a human C90RF72 nucleic acid.

70. The method of claims 68-69, wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide

comprises at least one modification.

71. The method of claims 68-70, wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide is

specifically hybridizable to a human C90RF72 nucleic acid.

72. The method of claims 68-71 , wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide is at least 75%, at least 80%, at least 85%, at least 90%, or at least 95% complementary to an equal length portion of a human C90RF72 nucleic acid.

73. The method of claims 68-71 , wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide is 100% complementary to an equal length portion of a human C90RF72 nucleic acid.

74. The method of claims 68-73, wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide

comprises at least one modified internucleoside linkage.

75. The method of claim 74, wherein each internucleoside linkage of the single-stranded

antisense oligonucleotide is a modified internucleoside linkage.

76. The method of claims 74-75, wherein the modified internucleoside linkage is a

phosphorothioate internucleoside linkage.

77. The method of claims 68-76, comprising at least one modified nucleoside.

78. The method of claims 77, wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide comprises at least one modified nucleoside having a modified sugar.

79. The method of claim 78, wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide comprises at least one modified nucleoside comprising a bicyclic sugar.

80. The method of claim 79, wherein the bicyclic sugar comprises a 4' to 2' bridge selected from among: 4'-(CH2)n-0-2' bridge, wherein n is 1 or 2; and 4'-CH2-0-CH2-2'.

81. The method of claim 79, wherein the bicyclic sugar comprises a 4'-CH(CH3)-0-2' bridge.

82. The method of claim 78, wherein the at least one modified nucleoside having a modified sugar comprises a non-bicyclic 2'-modified modified sugar moiety.

83. The method of claim 82, wherein the 2'-modified sugar moiety comprises a 2'-0- methoxyethyl group.

84. The method of claim 82, wherein the 2 '-modified sugar moiety comprises a 2'-0-methyl group.

85. The method of claim 78, wherein the at least one modified nucleoside having a modified sugar comprises a sugar surrogate.

86. The method of claim 85, wherein the sugar surrogate is a morpholino.

87. The method of claim 85, wherein the sugar surrogate is a peptide nucleic acid.

88. The method of claims 77-87, wherein each nucleoside is modified.

89. The method of claims 60-88, wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide

comprises at least one modified nucleobase.

90. The method of claim 89, wherein the modified nucleobase is a 5'-methylcytosine.

91. The method of claim 68-90, wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide

comprises:

a gap segment consisting of linked deoxynucleosides;

a 5' wing segment consisting of linked nucleosides;

a 3' wing segment consisting of linked nucleosides;

wherein the gap segment is positioned immediately adjacent to and between the 5' wing segment and the 3' wing segment and wherein each nucleoside of each wing segment comprises a modified sugar.

92. The method of claim 91 , wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide comprises: a gap segment consisting of ten linked deoxynucleosides;

a 5' wing segment consisting of five linked nucleosides;

a 3' wing segment consisting of five linked nucleosides;

wherein the gap segment is positioned immediately adjacent and between the 5' wing segment and the 3' wing segment, wherein each nucleoside of each wing segment comprises a 2'-0-methoxyethyl sugar; and wherein each internucleoside linkage is a phosphorothioate linkage.

93. The method of claims 68-91 , wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide consists of 15 linked nucleosides.

94. The method of claims 68-91 , wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide consists of 16 linked nucleosides.

95. The method of claims 68-91 , wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide consists of 17 linked nucleosides.

96. The method of claims 68-91 , wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide consists of 18 linked nucleosides.

97. The method of claims 68-91 , wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide consists of 19 linked nucleosides.

98. The method of claims 68-92, wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide consists of 20 linked nucleosides.

99. The method of any preceding claim, wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide consists of 12 to 30 linked nucleosides and comprises a nucleobase sequence comprising at least 8, at least 9, at least 10, at least 11, at least 12, at least 13, at least 14, at least 15, at least 16, at least 17, at least 18, at least 19, or at least 20 contiguous nucleobases of SEQ ID NO: 20-24 or 28-30.

Description:
METHODS FOR MONITORING C90RF72 EXPRESSION

Sequence Listing

The present application is being filed along with a Sequence Listing in electronic format. The Sequence Listing is provided as a file entitled BIOL0215WOSEQ.txt created October 15, 2013, which is 120 Kb in size. The information in the electronic format of the sequence listing is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

Field

Provided are methods for reducing expression of C90RF72 mRNA and protein in an animal. Such methods are useful to treat, prevent, or ameliorate neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), corticalbasal degeneration syndrome (CBD), atypical Parkinsonian syndrome, and olivopontocerellar degeneration (OPCD).

Background

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized clinically by progressive paralysis leading to death from respiratory failure, typically within two to three years of symptom onset (Rowland and Shneider, N. Engl. J. Med., 2001, 344, 1688-1700). ALS is the third most common neurodegenerative disease in the Western world (Hirtz et al., Neurology, 2007, 68, 326-337), and there are currently no effective therapies. Approximately 10% of cases are familial in nature, whereas the bulk of patients diagnosed with the disease are classified as sporadic as they appear to occur randomly throughout the population (Chio et al., Neurology, 2008, 70, 533-537). There is growing recognition, based on clinical, genetic, and epidemiological data, that ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) represent an overlapping continuum of disease, characterized pathologically by the presence of TDP-43 positive inclusions throughout the central nervous system (Lillo and Hodges, J. Clin. Neurosci., 2009, 16, 1131-1135; Neumann et al., Science, 2006, 314, 130-133).

To date, a number of genes have been discovered as causative for classical familial ALS, for example, SOD1, TARDBP, FUS, OPTN, and VCP (Johnson et al, Neuron, 2010, 68, 857-864; Kwiatkowski et al, Science, 2009, 323, 1205-1208; Maruyama et al, Nature, 2010, 465, 223-226; Rosen et al., Nature, 1993, 362, 59-62; Sreedharan et al, Science, 2008, 319, 1668-1672; Vance et al., Brain, 2009, 129, 868-876). Recently, linkage analysis of kindreds involving multiple cases of ALS, FTD, and ALS-FTD had suggested that there was an important locus for the disease on the short arm of chromosome 9 (Boxer et al., J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 2011 , 82, 196-203; Morita et al, Neurology, 2006, 66, 839-844; Pearson et al. J. NeroL, 201 1, 258, 647-655; Vance et al., Brain, 2006, 129, 868-876). The chromosome 9p21 ALS-FTD locus in the last major autosomal- dominant gene whose mutation is causative of ALS. The ALS-FTD causing mutation is a large hexanucleotide (GGGGCC) repeat expansion in the first intron of the C90RF72 gene (Renton et al., Neuron, 2011 , 72, 257-268; DeJesus-Hernandez et al, Neuron, 2011, 72, 245-256). A founder haplotype, covering the C90RF72 gene, is present in the majority of cases linked to this region (Renton et al., Neuron, 2011 , 72, 257-268). This locus on chromosome 9p21 accounts for nearly half of familial ALS and nearly one-quarter of all ALS cases in a cohort of 405 Finnish patients (Laaksovirta et al, Lancet Neurol, 2010, 9, 978-985).

A founder haplotype, covering the C90RF72 gene, is present in the majority of cases linked to this region.

There are currently no effective therapies to treat such neurodegenerative diseases.

Therefore, it is an object to provide compositions and methods for the treatment of such

neurodegenerative diseases. Summary

Disclosed herein are biomarkers and methods for moritoring expression of C90RF72 mRNA and protein in an animal with C90RF72 specific inhibitors. Such C90RF72 specific inhibitors include antisense compounds.

Provided herein are methods for modulating levels of C90RF72 mRNA and protein in cells, tissues, and animals. In certain embodiments, C90RF72 specific inhibitors modulate expression of C90RF72 mRNA and protein. In certain embodiments, C90RF72 specific inhibitors are nucleic acids, proteins, or small molecules.

In certain embodiments, modulation can occur in a cell or tissue. In certain embodiments, the cell or tissue is in an animal. In certain embodiments, the animal is a human. In certain embodiments, C90RF72 mRNA levels are reduced. In certain embodiments, C90RF72 protein levels are reduced. In certain embodiments, certain C90RF72 mRNA variants are preferentially reduced. In certain embodiments, the C90RF72 mRNA variants preferentially reduced are variants containing intron 1. In certain embodiments, intron 1 contains a hexanucleotide repeat expansion. In certain embodiments, the hexanucleotide repeat expansion is associated with a C90RF72 associated disease. In certain embodiments, the hexanucleotide repeat expansion is associated with a C90RF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion associated disease. In certain embodiments, the hexanucleotide repeat expansion comprises at least 30 GGGGCC repeats. In certain embodiments, the hexanucleotide repeat expansion is associated with nuclear foci. In certain embodiments, the hexanucleotide repeat expansion is associated with misregulated expression of various genes. In certain embodiments, the hexanucleotide repeat expansion is associated with nuclear retention of various proteins. In certain embodiments, the methods described herein are useful for reducing C90RF72 mRNA, C90RF72 protein levels, and nuclear foci. Such reduction can occur in a time- dependent manner or in a dose-dependent manner. In certain embodiments, the methods described herein are useful for normalizing expression of various genes and reducing nuclear retention of various proteins.

Also provided are methods useful for preventing, treating, and ameliorating diseases, disorders, and conditions associated with C90RF72. In certain embodiments, such diseases, disorders, and conditions associated with C90RF72 are neurodegenerative diseases. In certain embodiments, the neurodegenerative disease is ALS, FTD, corticalbasal degeneration syndrome (CBD), atypical Parkinsonian syndrome, and olivopontocerellar degeneration (OPCD).

Such diseases, disorders, and conditions can have one or more risk factors, causes, or outcomes in common. Certain risk factors and causes for development of a neurodegenerative disease, and, in particular, ALS and FTD, include genetic predisposition and older age.

In certain embodiments, methods of treatment include administering a C90RF72 specific inhibitor to an individual in need thereof. In certain embodiments, the C90RF72 specific inhibitor is a nucleic acid. In certain embodiments, the nucleic acid is an antisense compound. In certain embodiments, the antisense compound is a single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide. In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide is complementary to a C90RF72 nucleic acid.

Brief Description of the Figures

Figure la is a diagram presenting the targeting regions of ASOs 1-5 with respect to the C90RF72 mRNA variant 1 , GENBANK Accession No. NM_145005.4 (designated herein as SEQ ID NO: 6) and mRNA variant 2, GENBANK Accession No. NM_018325.2 (designated herein as SEQ ID NO: 4)·

Figure lb is a gel showing the total mRNA levels of C90RF72.

Figure 2a is a graph depicting C90RF72 expression in treated and untreated cells.

Figure 2b is a gel showing expression of ENPP2 mRNA and RSP03 mRNA in treated and untreated cells.

Figure 3a is a diagram showing where C90RF72 ASO targets mRNA variant 1, GENBANK Accession No. NM_145005.4 (designated herein as SEQ ID NO: 6) and mRNA variant 2,

GENBANK Accession No. NM_018325.2 (designated herein as SEQ ID NO: 4).

Figure 4a is a gel depicting expression of C90RF72 mRNA, C3 mRNA, EDNRB mRNA, and Endothelin mRNA in treated and untreated cells in control fibroblasts and C90RF72 fibroblasts. Figure 4a is a graph showing nuclear retention of ADARB2 in human C90RF72 fibroblasts and control fibroblasts.

Figure 4b is a graph showing nuclear retention of ADARB2 in human C90RF72 fibroblasts after ASO treatment.

Figure 5 is a graph showing reduction of foci in ASO treated cells relative to control.

Figure 6 is a graph showing percent change in nuclear ADARB2 in ASO treated cells relative to control.

Figure 7 is a graph showing RNA levels of NEDD4L, FAM3C, CHRDLl , SEPPl, and SERPINE2 after ASO treatment relative to control.

Fiugre 8 is a graph showing RNA levels of ACSBG1, AURKB, CRH, and IL6ST after ASO treatment relative to control.

Detailed Description

It is to be understood that both the foregoing general description and the following detailed description are exemplary and explanatory only and are not restrictive of the invention, as claimed. Herein, the use of the singular includes the plural unless specifically stated otherwise. As used herein, the use of "or" means "and/or" unless stated otherwise. Additionally, as used herein, the use of "and" means "and/or" unless stated otherwise. Furthermore, the use of the term "including" as well as other forms, such as "includes" and "included", is not limiting. Also, terms such as

"element" or "component" encompass both elements and components comprising one unit and elements and components that comprise more than one subunit, unless specifically stated otherwise. The section headings used herein are for organizational purposes only and are not to be construed as limiting the subject matter described. All documents, or portions of documents, cited in this disclosure, including, but not limited to, patents, patent applications, published patent applications, articles, books, treatises, and GENBANK Accession Numbers and associated sequence information obtainable through databases such as National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and other data referred to throughout in the disclosure herein are hereby expressly incorporated by reference for the portions of the document discussed herein, as well as in their entirety. Definitions

Unless specific definitions are provided, the nomenclature utilized in connection with, and the procedures and techniques of, analytical chemistry, synthetic organic chemistry, and medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry described herein are those well known and commonly used in the art. Standard techniques may be used for chemical synthesis, and chemical analysis.

Unless otherwise indicated, the following terms have the following meanings:

"2'-0-methoxyethyl group" (also 2'-MOE and 2'-OCH 2 CH 2 -OCH 3 and MOE) refers to an O-methoxy-ethyl modification of the 2' position of a furanosyl ring. A 2'-0-methoxyethyl modified sugar is a modified sugar.

"2'-MOE nucleoside" (also 2'-0-methoxyethyl nucleoside) means a nucleoside comprising a 2'-0-methoxyethyl group.

"5-methylcytosine" means a cytosine modified with a methyl group attached to the 5' position. A 5-methylcytosine is a modified nucleobase.

"About" means within ±7% of a value. For example, if it is stated, "the compounds affected at least about 70% inhibition of C90RF72", it is implied that the C90RF72 levels are inhibited within a range of 63% and 77%.

"Administered concomitantly" refers to the co-administration of two pharmaceutical agents in any manner in which the pharmacological effects of both are manifest in the patient at the same time. Concomitant administration does not require that both pharmaceutical agents be administered in a single pharmaceutical composition, in the same dosage form, or by the same route of administration. The effects of both pharmaceutical agents need not manifest themselves at the same time. The effects need only be overlapping for a period of time and need not be coextensive. "Administering" means providing a pharmaceutical agent to an animal, and includes, but is not limited to administering by a medical professional and self-administering.

"Amelioration" or "ameliorate" or "ameliorating" refers to a lessening of at least one indicator, sign, or symptom of a disease, disorder, or condition. The severity of indicators may be determined by subjective or objective measures, which are known to those skilled in the art.

"Animal" refers to a human or non-human animal, including, but not limited to, mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, cats, pigs, and non-human primates, including, but not limited to, monkeys and chimpanzees.

"Antibody" refers to a molecule characterized by reacting specifically with an antigen in some way, where the antibody and the antigen are each defined in terms of the other. Antibody may refer to a complete antibody molecule or any fragment or region thereof, such as the heavy chain, the light chain, Fab region, and Fc region.

"Antisense activity" means any detectable or measurable activity attributable to the hybridization of an antisense compound to its target nucleic acid. In certain embodiments, antisense activity is a decrease in the amount or expression of a target nucleic acid or protein encoded by such target nucleic acid.

"Antisense compound" means an oligomeric compound that is capable of undergoing hybridization to a target nucleic acid through hydrogen bonding. Examples of antisense compounds include single-stranded and double-stranded compounds, such as, antisense oligonucleotides, siRNAs, shRNAs, ssRNAs, and occupancy-based compounds. Antisense mechanisms include, without limitation, RNase H mediated antisense; R Ai mechanisms, which utilize the RISC pathway and include, without limitation, siR A, ssR A and microRNA mechanisms; and occupancy based mechanisms, including, without limitation uniform modified oligonucleotides. Certain antisense compounds may act through more than one such mechanisms and/or through additional mechanisms.

"Antisense inhibition" means reduction of target nucleic acid levels or target protein levels in the presence of an antisense compound complementary to a target nucleic acid compared to target nucleic acid levels or target protein levels in the absence of the antisense compound. Inhibition may by any means including RNase H degradation, such as with a gapmer, and steric

blockage/occupancy based mechanisms, such as with a uniformly modified oligonucleotide.

"Antisense oligonucleotide" means a single-stranded oligonucleotide having a nucleobase sequence that permits hybridization to a corresponding segment of a target nucleic acid. "Bicyclic sugar" means a furanosyl ring modified by the bridging of two atoms. A bicyclic sugar is a modified sugar.

"Bicyclic nucleoside" (also BNA) means a nucleoside having a sugar moiety comprising a bridge connecting two carbon atoms of the sugar ring, thereby forming a bicyclic ring system. In certain embodiments, the bridge connects the 4'-carbon and the 2 '-carbon of the sugar ring.

"Biomarker" means a measurable substance in a cell or animal whose presence is indicative of some phenomenon such as disease. In certain embodiments, the substance is the RNA or protein expression product of a gene. In certain embodiments, the gene is any of ADARB2, CYP2C9, DPH2, HMGB2, JARID2, MITF, MPP7, NDSTl, NUDT6, ORAOVl, PGA5, PTER, RANGAPl , S0X6, TCL1B, TRIM32, WBP1 1, ZNF695, EDN1 , NEDD4L, FAM3C, CHRDL1, CP, SEPP1 , SERPINE2, and/or any other gene described herein. In certain embodiments, the disease is a C90RF72 associated disease and/or a C90RF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion associated disease.

"C90RF72 associated disease" means any disease associated with any C90RF72 nucleic acid or expression product thereof. Such diseases may include a neurodegenerative disease. Such neurodegenerative diseases may include ALS and FTD.

"C90RF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion associated disease" means any disease associated with a C90RF72 nucleic acid containing a hexanucleotide repeat expansion. In certain embodiments, the hexanucleotide repeat expansion may comprise GGGGCC, GGGGGG,

GGGGGC, or GGGGCG repeated at least 30 times. Such diseases may include a neurodegenerative disease. Such neurodegenerative diseases may include ALS and FTD.

"C90RF72 nucleic acid" means any nucleic acid encoding C90RF72. For example, in certain embodiments, a C90RF72 nucleic acid includes a DNA sequence encoding C90RF72, an RNA sequence transcribed from DNA encoding C90RF72 (including genomic DNA comprising introns and exons), and an mRNA sequence encoding C90RF72. "C90RF72 mRNA" means an mRNA encoding a C90RF72 protein.

"C90RF72 specific inhibitor" refers to any agent capable of specifically inhibiting the expression of C90RF72 mRNA and/or C90RF72 protein at the molecular level. For example, C90RF72 specific inhibitors include nucleic acids (including antisense compounds), siRNAs, aptamers, antibodies, peptides, small molecules, and other agents capable of inhibiting the expression of C90RF72 mRNA and/or C90RF72 protein. Similarly, in certain embodiments, C90RF72 specific inhibitors may affect other molecular processes in an animal. "Cap structure" or "terminal cap moiety" means chemical modifications, which have been incorporated at either terminus of an antisense compound.

"cEt" or "constrained ethyl" means a bicyclic nucleoside having a sugar moiety comprising a bridge connecting the 4'-carbon and the 2 '-carbon, wherein the bridge has the formula: 4'- CH(CH 3 )-0-2'.

"Constrained ethyl nucleoside" (also cEt nucleoside) means a nucleoside comprising a bicyclic sugar moiety comprising a 4'-CH(CH 3 )-0-2' bridge.

"Chemically distinct region" refers to a region of an antisense compound that is in some way chemically different than another region of the same antisense compound. For example, a region having 2'-0-methoxyethyl nucleosides is chemically distinct from a region having nucleosides without 2'-0-methoxyethyl modifications.

"Chimeric antisense compound" means an antisense compound that has at least two chemically distinct regions.

"Co-administration" means administration of two or more pharmaceutical agents to an individual. The two or more pharmaceutical agents may be in a single pharmaceutical composition, or may be in separate pharmaceutical compositions. Each of the two or more pharmaceutical agents may be administered through the same or different routes of administration. Co-administration encompasses parallel or sequential administration.

"Complementarity" means the capacity for pairing between nucleobases of a first nucleic acid and a second nucleic acid.

"Contiguous nucleobases" means nucleobases immediately adjacent to each other.

"Diluent" means an ingredient in a composition that lacks pharmacological activity, but is pharmaceutically necessary or desirable. For example, the diluent in an injected composition may be a liquid, e.g. saline solution.

"Dose" means a specified quantity of a pharmaceutical agent provided in a single administration, or in a specified time period. In certain embodiments, a dose may be administered in one, two, or more boluses, tablets, or injections. For example, in certain embodiments where subcutaneous administration is desired, the desired dose requires a volume not easily accommodated by a single injection, therefore, two or more injections may be used to achieve the desired dose. In certain embodiments, the pharmaceutical agent is administered by infusion over an extended period of time or continuously. Doses may be stated as the amount of pharmaceutical agent per hour, day, week, or month. "Effective amount" means the amount of pharmaceutical agent sufficient to effectuate a desired physiological outcome in an individual in need of the pharmaceutical agent. The effective amount may vary among individuals depending on the health and physical condition of the individual to be treated, the taxonomic group of the individuals to be treated, the formulation of the composition, assessment of the individual's medical condition, and other relevant factors.

"Expression" means conversion of the information from a C90RF72 gene into mR A via transcription and then to protein via translation. Expression may result in a phenotypic

manifestation of the C90RF72 gene.

"Fully complementary" or "100% complementary" means each nucleobase of a first nucleic acid has a complementary nucleobase in a second nucleic acid. In certain embodiments, a first nucleic acid is an antisense compound and a target nucleic acid is a second nucleic acid.

"Gapmer" means a chimeric antisense compound in which an internal region having a plurality of nucleosides that support R ase H cleavage is positioned between external regions having one or more nucleosides, wherein the nucleosides comprising the internal region are chemically distinct from the nucleoside or nucleosides comprising the external regions. The internal region may be referred to as a "gap" and the external regions may be referred to as the "wings."

"Gap-narrowed" means a chimeric antisense compound having a gap segment of 9 or fewer contiguous 2'-deoxyribonucleosides positioned between and immediately adjacent to 5' and 3' wing segments having from 1 to 6 nucleosides.

"Gap-widened" means a chimeric antisense compound having a gap segment of 12 or more contiguous 2'-deoxyribonucleosides positioned between and immediately adjacent to 5' and 3' wing segments having from 1 to 6 nucleosides.

"Hexanucleotide repeat expansion" (also GGGGCC exp RNA repeat) means a series of six bases (for example, GGGGCC, GGGGGG, GGGGCG, or GGGGGC) repeated at least twice. In certain embodiments, the hexanucleotide repeat expansion may be located in intron 1 of a C90RF72 nucleic acid. In certain embodiments, a pathogenic hexanucleotide repeat expansion includes at least 30 repeats of GGGGCC, GGGGGG, GGGGCG, or GGGGGC in a C90RF72 nucleic acid and is associated with disease. In certain embodiments, the repeats are consecutive. In certain embodiments, the repeats are interrupted by 1 or more nucleobases. In certain embodiments, a wild- type hexanucleotide repeat expansion includes 23 or fewer repeats of GGGGCC, GGGGGG, GGGGCG, or GGGGGC in a C90RF72 nucleic acid. In certain embodiments, the repeats are consecutive. In certain embodiments, the repeats are interrupted by 1 or more nucleobases. "Hybridization" means the annealing of complementary nucleic acid molecules. In certain embodiments, complementary nucleic acid molecules include an antisense compound and a target nucleic acid.

"Identifying an animal having a C90RF72 associated disease" means identifying an animal having been diagnosed with a C90RF72 associated disease or predisposed to develop a C90RF72 associated disease. Individuals predisposed to develop a C90RF72 associated disease include those having one or more risk factors for developing a C90RF72 associated disease, including, having a personal or family history or genetic predisposition of one or more C90RF72 associated diseases. Such identification may be accomplished by any method including evaluating an individual's medical history and standard clinical tests or assessments, such as genetic testing.

"Immediately adjacent" means there are no intervening elements between the immediately adjacent elements.

"Individual" means a human or non-human animal selected for treatment or therapy.

"Inhibiting C90RF72" means reducing expression of C90RF72 mR A and/or protein levels in the presence of a C90RF72 specific inhibitor, including a C90RF72 antisense oligonucleotide, as compared to expression of C90RF72 mRNA and/or protein levels in the absence of a C90RF72 specific inhibitor, such as a C90RF72 antisense oligonucleotide.

"Internucleoside linkage" refers to the chemical bond between nucleosides.

"Linked nucleosides" means adjacent nucleosides which are bonded together.

"Mismatch" or "non-complementary nucleobase" refers to the case when a nucleobase of a first nucleic acid is not capable of pairing with the corresponding nucleobase of a second or target nucleic acid.

"Modified internucleoside linkage" refers to a substitution or any change from a naturally occurring internucleoside bond (i.e., a phosphodiester internucleoside bond).

"Modified nucleobase" refers to any nucleobase other than adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymidine, or uracil. An "unmodified nucleobase" means the purine bases adenine (A) and guanine (G), and the pyrimidine bases thymine (T), cytosine (C), and uracil (U).

"Modified nucleotide" means a nucleotide having, independently, a modified sugar moiety, modified internucleoside linkage, or modified nucleobase. A "modified nucleoside" means a nucleoside having, independently, a modified sugar moiety or modified nucleobase.

"Modified oligonucleotide" means an oligonucleotide comprising a modified internucleoside linkage, a modified sugar, or a modified nucleobase. "Modified sugar" refers to a substitution or change from a natural sugar.

"Motif means the pattern of chemically distinct regions in an antisense compound.

"Naturally occurring internucleoside linkage" means a 3' to 5' phosphodiester linkage.

"Natural sugar moiety" means a sugar found in DNA (2'-H) or RNA (2'-OH).

"Nucleic acid" refers to molecules composed of monomeric nucleotides. A nucleic acid includes ribonucleic acids (RNA), deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA), single-stranded nucleic acids, double-stranded nucleic acids, small interfering ribonucleic acids (siRNA), and microRNAs (miRNA).

"Nucleobase" means a heterocyclic moiety capable of pairing with a base of another nucleic acid.

"Nucleobase sequence" means the order of contiguous nucleobases independent of any sugar, linkage, or nucleobase modification.

"Nucleoside" means a nucleobase linked to a sugar.

"Nucleoside mimetic" includes those structures used to replace the sugar or the sugar and the base and not necessarily the linkage at one or more positions of an oligomeric compound such as for example nucleoside mimetics having morpholino, cyclohexenyl, cyclohexyl, tetrahydropyranyl, bicyclo, or tricyclo sugar mimetics, e.g., non furanose sugar units. Nucleotide mimetic includes those structures used to replace the nucleoside and the linkage at one or more positions of an oligomeric compound such as for example peptide nucleic acids or morpholinos (morpholinos linked by -N(H)-C(=0)-0- or other non-phosphodiester linkage). Sugar surrogate overlaps with the slightly broader term nucleoside mimetic but is intended to indicate replacement of the sugar unit (furanose ring) only. The tetrahydropyranyl rings provided herein are illustrative of an example of a sugar surrogate wherein the furanose sugar group has been replaced with a tetrahydropyranyl ring system.

"Nucleotide" means a nucleoside having a phosphate group covalently linked to the sugar portion of the nucleoside.

"Oligomeric compound" or "oligomer" means a polymer of linked monomeric subunits which is capable of hybridizing to at least a region of a nucleic acid molecule.

"Oligonucleotide" means a polymer of linked nucleosides each of which can be modified or unmodified, independent one from another.

"Parenteral administration" means administration through injection or infusion. Parenteral administration includes subcutaneous administration, intravenous administration, intramuscular administration, intraarterial administration, intraperitoneal administration, or intracranial administration, e.g., intrathecal or intracerebroventricular administration.

"Peptide" means a molecule formed by linking at least two amino acids by amide bonds. Peptide refers to polypeptides and proteins.

"Pharmaceutical agent" means the substance or substances in a pharmaceutical composition that provide a therapeutic benefit when administered to an individual. For example, in certain embodiments an antisense oligonucleotide targeted to C90RF72 is a pharmaceutical agent.

"Pharmaceutical composition" means a mixture of substances suitable for administering to an individual. For example, a pharmaceutical composition may comprise one or more

pharmaceutical agents and a sterile aqueous solution.

"Pharmaceutically acceptable derivative" encompasses pharmaceutically acceptable salts, conjugates, prodrugs or isomers of the compounds described herein.

"Pharmaceutically acceptable salts" means physiologically and pharmaceutically acceptable salts of antisense compounds, i.e., salts that retain the desired biological activity of the parent oligonucleotide and do not impart undesired toxicological effects thereto.

"Phosphorothioate linkage" means a linkage between nucleosides where the phosphodiester bond is modified by replacing one of the non-bridging oxygen atoms with a sulfur atom. A phosphorothioate linkage (P=S) is a modified internucleoside linkage.

"Portion" means a defined number of contiguous (i.e., linked) nucleobases of a nucleic acid. In certain embodiments, a portion is a defined number of contiguous nucleobases of a target nucleic acid. In certain embodiments, a portion is a defined number of contiguous nucleobases of an antisense compound.

"Prevent" or "preventing" refers to delaying or forestalling the onset or development of a disease, disorder, or condition for a period of time from minutes to indefinitely. Prevent also means reducing risk of developing a disease, disorder, or condition.

"Prodrug" means a therapeutic agent that is prepared in an inactive form that is converted to an active form within the body or cells thereof by the action of endogenous enzymes or other chemicals or conditions.

"Side effects" means physiological responses attributable to a treatment other than the desired effects. In certain embodiments, side effects include injection site reactions, liver function test abnormalities, renal function abnormalities, liver toxicity, renal toxicity, central nervous system abnormalities, myopathies, and malaise. "Single-stranded oligonucleotide" means an oligonucleotide which is not hybridized to a complementary strand.

"Specifically hybridizable" refers to an antisense compound having a sufficient degree of complementarity between an antisense oligonucleotide and a target nucleic acid to induce a desired effect, while exhibiting minimal or no effects on non-target nucleic acids under conditions in which specific binding is desired, i.e., under physiological conditions in the case of in vivo assays and therapeutic treatments.

"Targeting" or "targeted" means the process of design and selection of an antisense compound that will specifically hybridize to a target nucleic acid and induce a desired effect.

"Target nucleic acid," "target RNA," and "target RNA transcript" all refer to a nucleic acid capable of being targeted by antisense compounds.

"Target segment" means the sequence of nucleotides of a target nucleic acid to which an antisense compound is targeted. "5' target site" refers to the 5 '-most nucleotide of a target segment. "3' target site" refers to the 3 '-most nucleotide of a target segment.

"Therapeutically effective amount" means an amount of a pharmaceutical agent that provides a therapeutic benefit to an individual.

"Treat" or "treating" refers to administering a pharmaceutical composition to effect an alteration or improvement of a disease, disorder, or condition.

"Unmodified nucleotide" means a nucleotide composed of naturally occuring nucleobases, sugar moieties, and internucleoside linkages. In certain embodiments, an unmodified nucleotide is an RNA nucleotide (i.e. β-D-ribonucleosides) or a DNA nucleotide (i.e. β-D-deoxyribonucleoside).

Certain Embodiments

Provided herein are biomarkers and methods for moritoring expression of a C90RF72 nucleic acid and protein in an animal with C90RF72 specific inhibitors. Such C90RF72 specific inhibitors include antisense compounds. Such biomarkers may include any of ADARB2, CYP2C9, DPH2, HMGB2, JARID2, MITF, MPP7, NDST1, NUDT6, ORAOV1, PGA5, PTER, RANGAP1 , SOX6, TCL1B, TRIM32, WBP1 1, ZNF695, EDN1 , NEDD4L, FAM3C, CHRDL1, CP, SEPP1, SERPINE2, and/or any other gene described herein.

Certain embodiments provide methods for decreasing C90RF72 mRNA and protein expression. Certain embodiments provide methods for the treatment, prevention, or amelioration of diseases, disorders, and conditions associated with C90RF72 in an individual in need thereof. Also contemplated are methods for the preparation of a medicament for the treatment, prevention, or amelioration of a disease, disorder, or condition associated with C90RF72. C90RF72 associated diseases, disorders, and conditions include neurodegenerative diseases. In certain embodiments, the neurodegenerative disease may be ALS or FTD. In certain embodiments, the neurodegenerative disease may be familial or sporadic.

Certain embodiments provide for the use of a C90RF72 specific inhibitor for treating, preventing, or ameliorating a C90RF72 associated disease. Certain embodiments provide for the use of a C90RF72 specific inhibitor for treating, preventing, or ameliorating a C90RF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion associated disease. In certain embodiments, the hexanucleotide repeat expansion may comprise GGGGCC, GGGGGG, GGGGGC, or GGGGCG. In certain embodiments, C90RF72 specific inhibitors are nucleic acids (including antisense compounds), peptides, antibodies, small molecules, and other agents capable of inhibiting the expression of C90RF72 mRNA and/or C90RF72 protein.

Provided herein are methods comprising administering a C90RF72 antisense compound to an animal for treating a C90RF72 associated disease and thereby normalizing expression of any of EDN1, NEDD4L, FAM3C, CHRDL1, CP, SEPP1, and SERPINE2.

Described herein are methods comprising administering a C90RF72 antisense compound to an animal for treating a C90RF72 associated disease and thereby normalizing expression of any of C3, EDNRB2, and Endothelin.

Provided herein are methods comprising administering a C90RF72 antisense compound to an animal for treating a C90RF72 associated disease and thereby normalizing expression of any of EDN1, NEDD4L, FAM3C, CHRDL1, CP, SEPP1, and SERPINE2.

Described herein are methods comprising administering a C90RF72 antisense compound to an animal for treating a C90RF72 associated disease and thereby normalizing expression of any of ABCA6, ACVR2A, ADAMTS5, Cl lorf87, C3, CCL8, CCNL1 , CD44, CELF2, CFB, CHRDL1 , CLU, CP, CXCL6, DCN, DKK3, EDN1, EDNRB, EFNA5, ENPP2, F10, F3, FAM3C, FOXP2, FY , IARS, IGSF10, IL6ST, LPAR1 , MLXIPL, NEDD4L, ORC4, PDE1C, PPAP2B, PRPS1 , REV3L, RSP03, SCUBE3, SEPP1, SERPINE2, SESTD1, SPON1, TBC1D15, TGFBR3,

TNFSF10, TNFSF13B, and WDR52. Described herein are methods comprising administering a C90RF72 antisense compound to an animal for treating a C90RF72 associated disease and thereby normalizing expression of any of ABCA6, ABCA9, ABCB4, ABCC3, ABCC9, ABO, ACAN, ACOT13, ACSM2A, ACS S3, ACVR2A, ACVR2B, ADAMDEC1, ADAMTS5, ADH1A, ADH1B, ADH1C, ADM, AFF3, AGBL3, AHNAK2, AK4, ALDH1A3, ALDH1L2, ALMS1P, ALOX5AP, AMOT, AMPH,

A KRD32, ANLN, AN03, AN04, AOX1 , APCDD1, APLNR, APOBEC3B, APOL6, APOLD1, AR, ARHGAPl 1 A, ARHGAP28, ARHGAP29, ARHGEF35, ARL17A, ARL4D, ARMS2, ARNT2, ARRDC3, ARSE, ARVP6125, ATOH8, ATP2A2, AURKA, AURKB, BACH1, BAMBI, BCL3, BDH2, BICC1, BNC2, BRCA2, BRIP1, BRWD3, BTF3L4, BUB1, BUB IB, Cl lorf87, C12orf48, C12orf64, C13orfl8, C14orfl49, C15orf42, Clorfl91, Clorfl98, Clorf63, C1QB, C1R, CI S,

C2orf63, C3, C3orfl6, C3orf31 , C3orf59, C4orf29, C4orf31 , C4orf49, C5orfl3, C5orf23, C6orfl05, C6orf223, C7orf63, C9, CA12, CA13, CACHD1 , CADPS, CASC5, CASP10, CBWD1,

CCDC144B, CCDC144C, CCDC15, CCIN, CCL28, CCL8, CCNA2, CCNB1, CCNB2, CCNF, CCNL1, CCRL1, CD4, CD68, CDC20, CDC25B, CDC45, CDC6, CDC7, CDCA2, CDC A3, CDCA8, CDH6, CDHR4, CDK1, CDK15, CDK2, CDON, CELF2, CENPA, CENPE, CENPF, CENPI, CENPK, CEP55, CFB, CGB, CGB1, CGB5, CH25H, CHRDL1 , CHRNA5, CKAP2L, CKS2, CLDN11 , CLEC2A, CLGN, CLIC2, CLIC6, CLSPN, CMKLR1, CNKSR2, CN 1, CNR2, CNTNAP3, COL8A1, COLEC12, COMP, CP, CPA4, CPE, CPLX2, CPM, CPXM1, CRABP2, CRISPLD2, CRY1, CTAGE7P, CT BIP1, CTSC, CTSL1, CTSS, CXCL14, CXCL6, CXCR7, CYB5A, CYBB, CYP1B1 , CYP24A1 , CYP26B1, CYP27A1 , CYP3A43, CYP7B1, CYTL1 , CYYR1, DBF4, DCDC1, DCN, DDIT3, DDIT4, DEFB109P1B, DE D1B, DEPDC1 , DES, DGCR14, DHRS3, DIRCl, DKFZp566F0947, DKFZp667F0711, DKKl, DKK3, DLGAP5, DLX2, DMK , DNA2, DPP4, DPT, DSEL, DTX3L, DTYMK, E2F8, EDN1 , EDNRB, EFEMP1, EFNA5, ELL2, EMCN, EMP1, ENKUR, ENPEP, ENPP2, ENPP5, EPB41L4A, EPSTI1, ERCC6, ERCC6L, EREG, ESM1, ETFDH, F10, F2R, F2RL2, F3, FABP3, FAM101B, FAM110B, FAM156A,

FAM20A, FAM3C, FAM43A, FAM46C, FAM59A, FAM71A, FAM75C1 , FAM83D, FBLN1, FCER1G, FCGR2A, FDPSL2A, FER, FGD4, FIBIN, FKBP14, FLJ10038, FLJ31356, FLJ39095, FLJ39739, FLJ41170, FLRT3, FMNl, FOLR2, FOLR3, FOSL2, FOXC2, FOXEl, FOXP2, FRRSl, FTLP10, FUT9, FYN, G0S2, GABRE, GABRQ, GEMC1, GFRA1, GLDN, GLIPR2, GLIS3, GOLGA6B, GPNMB, GPR133, GPR31, GPR65, GPRC5B, GRB14, GSTT1 , GSTT2, GTPBP8, GTSE1, GUCY1B3, HAS2, HAUS3, HECW2, HELLS, HIST1H1B, HIST1H2AE, HIST1H2AJ, HIST1H2BF, HIST1H2BM, HIST1H3B, HIST1H3J, HIST1H4A, HIST1H4C, HIST1H4D, HIST1H4L, HIST2H2BC, HIST2H3A, HJURP, HMGB2, HMMR, HNRNPK, HOXB2, HOXDIO, HOXD11, HSD17B7P2, HTR1B, HUNK, IARS, ICAM1 , IDH1, IFI16, IFITM1, IFITM3, IGF1, IGSF10, IL13RA2, IL17RA, IL17RD, IL18R1, IL1R1, ILIRN, IL20RB, IL4R, IL6ST, IQGAP3, IRS1, ITGA6, ITGA8, ITGB3, ITGBL1, JAG1, JAM2, KCNJ2, KCNJ8, KCNK15, KIAA0509, KIAA0802, KIAA1199, KIAA1324L, KIAA1524, KIF11, KIF14, KIF15, KIF16B, KIF18B,

KIF20A, KIF20B, KIF23, KIF2C, KIF4A, KIFCl , KIT, KRT19, KRT34, KRTAPl-1, KRTAPl-5, KRTAP2-2, KRTAP2-4, KRTAP4-1 1, KRTAP4-12, KRTAP4-5, KRTAP4-7, LAMA1 , LAMA4, LANCL3, LAP3, LAPTM5, LARP7, LBR, LGI1 , LHX5, LHX9, LMCD1 , LMNB1, LM04, LOC100127980, LOC100128001, LOC100128107, LOC100128191 , LOC100128402,

LOC100129029, LOC100130000, LOC100132167, LOC100132292, LOC100132891,

LOC100216479, LOC100287877, LOC100288069, LOC100288560, LOC100505808,

LOC100505813, LOC100505820, LOC100506165, LOC100506335, LOC100506456,

LOC100507128, LOC100507163, LOC100507425, LOCI 16437, LOC144438, LOC153910, LOCI 57503, LOC256374, LOC283868, LOC285944, LOC338667, LOC339822, LOC348120, LOC349408, LOC389332, LOC399884, LOC400684, LOC401022, LOC642006, LOC643551 , LOC646743, LOC646804, LOC727820, LOC728264, LOC728640, LOC729420, LOC729978, LOH3CR2A, LOXL4, LPAR1, LRCH2, LRIG3, LRRC37A4, LRRTM1 , LYPD6B, MAB21L1, MAFB, MAO A, MAPK13, MARS, MASP1, MASTL, MBD2, MBNL3, MC4R, MCM8, ME2, MEIS3P1, MEST, METTL8, MEX3A, MFAP4, MFGE8, MGC16121, MGC24103, MGP, MIA3, MIER1, MIR125A, MIR138-1, MIR145, MIR199A2, MIRLET7I, MKI67, MLF2, MMD, MME, MMP10, MMP12, MMP27, MOBKL1B, MRAP2, MRPL9, MRPS1 1, MSC, MST4, MSTN, MTMR7, MTSS1L, MTUS2, MYBL2, MYCT1, MYOCD, MYPN, MZT2A, NACA2, NAIP, NAMPT, NAP1L3, NBEA, NBPFIO, NCAPG, NCAPG2, NCAPH, NCRNA00182, NCRNA00205, NCRNA00219, NCRNA00256A, NDC80, NEDD4L, NEK2, NET02, NEU4, NEUROD6, NFIB, NFIL3, NFKBIZ, NGFR, NKX2-2, NKX2-6, NNMT, NOC2L, NOG, NOTCH3, NOVA1 , NOX4, NPTX2, NR2F2, NR4A3, NR5A2, NTN4, NUCKS1 , NUF2, NUSAP1, NUTF2, OAS2, OAS3, OBFC2A, OCLM, ODZ2, OGFRL1, OLFML2B, OLR1, OR10Q1, OR14J1 , OR1J2, OR1Q1, OR2A1 , OR2A7, OR2A9P, OR2B3, OR4D10, OR4L1, OR51A2, OR52W1, OR5AU1, OR5L2, OR6B1, ORC4, OSMR, OSR2, OXTR, P2RX7, PACSIN2, PAPPA, PARP14, PBK, PCDHB13, PCDHB 14, PCDHB 16, PCDHB2, PCDHB3 , PCDHB4, PCYT2, PDE 1 C, PDE4DIP, PDE5A, PDGFA, PDGFD, PDPN, PDZRN3, PEG10, PHACTR3, PHF1 1, PHLDB2, PIM1 , PITPNM3, PKD2L1 , PKDCC, PLA2G4A, PLEKHA3, PLKl, PLK4, PLSCRl , PLXNA2, PLXNCl, PM20D2, PMAIP1, PPAP2B, PPL, PPP1R12B, PRAMEF2, PRC1, PRDM1, PRDM15, PRG4, PRICKLEl, PRICKLE2, PRKAA2, PRKG2, PRPS1, PRU E2, PRY, PSIP1 , psiTPTE22, PTBP2, PTGS1, PTPRC, PTPRN, PYGOl, RAB12, RAD51AP1, RASA4, RASGRF2, RBMSl, RBMX2, RCVRN, RERGL, REV3L, RGPDl, RGPD2, RGPD6, RGS4, RHBDFl, RHOJ, RIMSl, RIPK2, RNASE2, RNF122, RNU2-1 , RPL22L1 , RPL8, RPRDl A, RPRM, RPS26P11, RPS6KA6, RPS8, RPSAP52, RRP15, RSP03, RUNX1T1, S100A8, S1PR1, SCIN, SCN2A, SCUBE3, SEPP1 , SERPINB3, SERPINB4, SERPINB9, SERPINE2, SERPINF1 , SERPING1, SESTD1, SFRP1 , SFRP4, SGK1, SGOL1, SGOL2, SHCBP1, SHMT1, SKA1, SKA3, SKIL, SLC1A3, SLC39A8, SLC40A1, SLC43A3, SLC6A15, SLFN1 1, SLITRK4, SMAD4, SMC4, SNHG1, SNORD32B, SOCS5, SPC24, SPC25, SPDYE8P, SPONl , SRD5A1P1, SRGAPl, SRGN, SRSFIO, SSPN, SSTRl, SSX5, ST6GALNAC5, ST8SIA2, STC1, STEAP1 , STEAP2, STEAP4, STOM, SV2A, SVEP1, SYNPR, TACC2, TAGLN, TAS2R10, TBC1D15, TBC1D2, TBX3, TEK, TES, TFAP2A, TFPI, TFPI2, TGFBR3, TGOLN2, THAP2, THBS2, THRB, THSD7A, TINAGL1 , TLE3, TLE4, TLN2, TLR1, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TM4SF18, TMEM1 19, TMEM135, TMEM155, TMEM30B,

TMEM49, TMEM65, TMTC1 , TNC, TNFAIP3, TNFRSF10C, TNFRSF1 IB, TNFSF10,

TNFSF13B, TNIK, TOP2A, TOR1AIP1, TOX, TPI1, TPM2, TPM3, TPX2, TRA2B, TRAF3IP2, TRIM24, TRIM36, TRIM43, TRIM64, TROAP, TSIX, TTC22, TTK, UBE2C, UHRF1, UNC5B, USP8, VEGFA, VGLL3, VTI1B, VTRNA1-3, VWA5A, WDR17, WDR52, WEE1, WISP1, WISP2, WNT16, WNT2, WWC1, XAGE3, XP04, ZC3H1 1A, ZC3H7B, ZDHHC15, ZFP36, ZFP82, ZMYM2, ZNF135, ZNF207, ZNF28, ZNF280B, ZNF284, ZNF285, ZNF322A, ZNF462, ZNF506, ZNF595, ZNF678, ZNF714, ZNF717, ZNF737, ZNF808, ZNHIT2, and ZWINT.

Described herein are methods comprising administering a C90RF72 antisense compound to an animal for treating a C90RF72 associated disease and thereby reducing nuclear retention of any of ADARB2, CYP2C9, DPH2, HMGB2, JARID2, MITF, MPP7, NDST1 , NUDT6, ORAOV1, PGA5, PTER, RANGAP1, SOX6, TCL1B, TRIM32, WBP1 1, ZNF695.

Described herein are methods, comprising identifying an animal having a C90RF72 associated disease; and administering a C90RF72 antisense compound and thereby normalizing expression of any of EDN1 , NEDD4L, FAM3C, CHRDL1, CP, SEPP1, and SERPINE2.

Described herein are methods identifying an animal having a C90RF72 associated disease; and administering a C90RF72 antisense compound and thereby normalizing expression of any of C3, EDNRB2, and Endothelin. Described herein are methods comprising, identifying an animal having a C90RF72 associated disease; and administering a C90RF72 antisense compound and thereby normalizing expression of any of ABCA6, ACVR2A, ADAMTS5, Cl lorf87, C3, CCL8, CCNL1 , CD44, CELF2, CFB, CHRDL1, CLU, CP, CXCL6, DCN, DKK3, EDN1, EDNRB, EFNA5, ENPP2, F10, F3, FAM3C, FOXP2, FYN, IARS, IGSF10, IL6ST, LPAR1 , MLXIPL, NEDD4L, ORC4, PDE1C, PPAP2B, PRPS1, REV3L, RSP03, SCUBE3, SEPP1 , SERPINE2, SESTD1, SPON1 , TBC1D15, TGFBR3, TNFSF10, TNFSF13B, and WDR52.

Described herein are methods comprising, identifying an animal having a C90RF72 associated disease; and administering a C90RF72 antisense compound and thereby normalizing expression of any of ABCA6, ABCA9, ABCB4, ABCC3, ABCC9, ABO, ACAN, ACOT13,

ACSM2A, ACS S3, ACVR2A, ACVR2B, ADAMDEC1 , ADAMTS5, ADH1A, ADH1B, ADH1C, ADM, AFF3, AGBL3, AHNAK2, AK4, ALDH1A3, ALDH1L2, ALMS1P, ALOX5AP, AMOT, AMPH, ANKRD32, ANLN, AN03, AN04, AOX1 , APCDD1, APLNR, APOBEC3B, APOL6, APOLD1, AR, ARHGAP11 A, ARHGAP28, ARHGAP29, ARHGEF35, ARL17A, ARL4D, ARMS2, AR T2, ARRDC3, ARSE, ARVP6125, ATOH8, ATP2A2, AURKA, AURKB, BACHl, BAMBI, BCL3, BDH2, BICC1, BNC2, BRCA2, BRIP1 , BRWD3, BTF3L4, BUB1, BUB IB, Cl lorf87, C12orf48, C12orf64, C13orfl 8, C14orfl49, C15orf42, Clorfl91, Clorfl98, Clorf63, CIQB, CIR, CIS, C2orf63, C3, C3orfl6, C3orf31, C3orf59, C4orf29, C4orf31, C4orf49, C5orfl3, C5orf23, C6orfl05, C6orf223, C7orf63, C9, CA12, CAB, CACHD1, CADPS, CASC5, CASP10, CBWD1, CCDC144B, CCDC144C, CCDC15, CCIN, CCL28, CCL8, CCNA2, CCNB1, CCNB2, CCNF, CCNL1 , CCRL1, CD4, CD68, CDC20, CDC25B, CDC45, CDC6, CDC7, CDCA2, CDC A3, CDCA8, CDH6, CDHR4, CDK1, CDK15, CDK2, CDON, CELF2, CENPA, CENPE, CENPF, CENPI, CENPK, CEP55, CFB, CGB, CGB1, CGB5, CH25H, CHRDL1, CHRNA5, CKAP2L, CKS2, CLDN11, CLEC2A, CLGN, CLIC2, CLIC6, CLSPN, CMKLR1, CNKSR2, CNNl, CNR2, CNTNAP3, COL8A1 , COLEC12, COMP, CP, CPA4, CPE, CPLX2, CPM, CPXMl, CRABP2, CRISPLD2, CRY1, CTAGE7P, CTNNBIP1, CTSC, CTSL1, CTSS, CXCL14, CXCL6, CXCR7, CYB5A, CYBB, CYP1B1, CYP24A1, CYP26B1, CYP27A1, CYP3A43, CYP7B1, CYTL1, CYYR1, DBF4, DCDC1, DCN, DDIT3, DDIT4, DEFB109P1B, DENND1B, DEPDC1 , DES, DGCR14, DHRS3, DIRCl, DKFZp566F0947, DKFZp667F0711 , DKK1 , DKK3, DLGAP5, DLX2, DMKN, DNA2, DPP4, DPT, DSEL, DTX3L, DTYMK, E2F8, EDN1, EDNRB, EFEMP1, EFNA5, ELL2, EMCN, EMP1, ENKUR, ENPEP, ENPP2, ENPP5, EPB41L4A, EPSTI1, ERCC6, ERCC6L, EREG, ESM1, ETFDH, F10, F2R, F2RL2, F3, FABP3, FAM101B, FAM110B, FAM156A, FAM20A, FAM3C, FAM43A, FAM46C, FAM59A, FAM71A, FAM75C1 , FAM83D, FBLN1 , FCER1G, FCGR2A, FDPSL2A, FER, FGD4, FIBIN, FKBP14, FLJ10038, FLJ31356, FLJ39095, FLJ39739, FLJ41170, FLRT3, FMN1 , FOLR2, FOLR3, FOSL2, FOXC2, FOXE1, FOXP2, FRRS1, FTLP10, FUT9, FY , G0S2, GABRE, GABRQ, GEMC1, GFRA1, GLDN, GLIPR2, GLIS3, GOLGA6B, GPNMB, GPR133, GPR31, GPR65, GPRC5B, GRB14, GSTT1, GSTT2, GTPBP8, GTSE1 , GUCY1B3, HAS2, HAUS3, HECW2, HELLS, HIST1H1B,

HIST1H2AE, HIST1H2AJ, HIST1H2BF, HIST1H2BM, HIST1H3B, HIST1H3J, HIST1H4A, HIST1H4C, HIST1H4D, HIST1H4L, HIST2H2BC, HIST2H3A, HJURP, HMGB2, HMMR, HNRNPK, HOXB2, HOXD10, HOXD11 , HSD17B7P2, HTR1B, HUNK, IARS, ICAM1, IDH1, IFI16, IFITM1, IFITM3, IGF1 , IGSF10, IL13RA2, IL17RA, IL17RD, IL18R1 , IL1R1 , IL1RN, IL20RB, IL4R, IL6ST, IQGAP3, IRS1 , ITGA6, ITGA8, ITGB3, ITGBL1, JAG1, JAM2, KCNJ2, KCNJ8, KCNK15, KIAA0509, KIAA0802, KIAA1 199, KIAA1324L, KIAA1524, KIF11, KIF14, KIF15, KIF16B, KIF18B, KIF20A, KIF20B, KIF23, KIF2C, KIF4A, KIFCl, KIT, KRT19, KRT34, KRTAPl-1, KRTAP1-5, KRTAP2-2, KRTAP2-4, KRTAP4-1 1, KRTAP4-12, KRTAP4-5, KRTAP4-7, LAMA1 , LAMA4, LANCL3, LAP3, LAPTM5, LARP7, LBR, LGI1 , LHX5, LHX9, LMCD1, LMNB1, LM04, LOC100127980, LOC100128001, LOC100128107, LOC100128191, LOC100128402, LOC100129029, LOC100130000, LOC100132167, LOC100132292,

LOC100132891, LOC100216479, LOC100287877, LOC100288069, LOC100288560,

LOC100505808, LOC100505813, LOC100505820, LOC100506165, LOC100506335,

LOC100506456, LOC100507128, LOC100507163, LOC100507425, LOCI 16437, LOC144438, LOC153910, LOC157503, LOC256374, LOC283868, LOC285944, LOC338667, LOC339822, LOC348120, LOC349408, LOC389332, LOC399884, LOC400684, LOC401022, LOC642006, LOC643551, LOC646743, LOC646804, LOC727820, LOC728264, LOC728640, LOC729420, LOC729978, LOH3CR2A, LOXL4, LPAR1, LRCH2, LRIG3, LRRC37A4, LRRTM1, LYPD6B, MAB21L1 , MAFB, MAOA, MAPK13, MARS, MASP1 , MASTL, MBD2, MBNL3, MC4R,

MCM8, ME2, MEIS3P1, MEST, METTL8, MEX3A, MFAP4, MFGE8, MGC16121, MGC24103, MGP, MIA3, MIER1, MIR125A, MIR138-1, MIR145, MIR199A2, MIRLET7I, MKI67, MLF2, MMD, MME, MMP10, MMP12, MMP27, MOBKLIB, MRAP2, MRPL9, MRPSl l, MSC, MST4, MSTN, MTMR7, MTSS 1L, MTUS2, MYBL2, MYCT1 , MYOCD, MYPN, MZT2A, NACA2, NAIP, NAMPT, NAP1L3, NBEA, NBPF10, NCAPG, NCAPG2, NCAPH, NCRNA00182, NCRNA00205, NCRNA00219, NCRNA00256A, NDC80, NEDD4L, NEK2, NET02, NEU4, NEUROD6, NFIB, NFIL3, NFKBIZ, NGFR, NKX2-2, NKX2-6, NNMT, NOC2L, NOG, NOTCH3, NOVAl, NOX4, NPTX2, NR2F2, NR4A3, NR5A2, NTN4, NUCKSl, NUF2, NUSAPl, NUTF2, OAS2, OAS3, OBFC2A, OCLM, ODZ2, OGFRLl , OLFML2B, OLRl, ORIOQI, OR14J1, OR1J2, OR1Q1, OR2A1, OR2A7, OR2A9P, OR2B3, OR4D10, OR4L1, OR51A2, OR52W1, OR5AU1 , OR5L2, OR6B1, ORC4, OSMR, OSR2, OXTR, P2RX7, PACSIN2, PAPPA, PARP14, PBK, PCDHB13, PCDHB14, PCDHB16, PCDHB2, PCDHB3, PCDHB4, PCYT2, PDE1C,

PDE4DIP, PDE5A, PDGFA, PDGFD, PDPN, PDZRN3, PEG10, PHACTR3, PHF11, PHLDB2, PIM1, PITPNM3, PKD2L1, PKDCC, PLA2G4A, PLEKHA3, PLK1 , PLK4, PLSCR1, PLXNA2, PLXNC1, PM20D2, PMAIP1, PPAP2B, PPL, PPP1R12B, PRAMEF2, PRC1 , PRDM1 , PRDM15, PRG4, PRICKLE 1, PRICKLE2, PRKAA2, PRKG2, PRPS1, PRUNE2, PRY, PSIP1, psiTPTE22, PTBP2, PTGS1, PTPRC, PTPRN, PYGOl, RAB12, RAD51AP1, RASA4, RASGRF2, RBMS1 , RBMX2, RCVRN, RERGL, REV3L, RGPD1, RGPD2, RGPD6, RGS4, RHBDF1, RHOJ, RIMS1, RIPK2, RNASE2, RNF122, RNU2-1, RPL22L1 , RPL8, RPRD1A, RPRM, RPS26P11, RPS6KA6, RPS8, RPSAP52, RRP15, RSP03, RUNX1T1, S100A8, S1PR1 , SCIN, SCN2A, SCUBE3, SEPP1, SERPINB3, SERPINB4, SERPINB9, SERPINE2, SERPINF1, SERPING1 , SESTD1, SFRP1, SFRP4, SGK1, SGOL1 , SGOL2, SHCBP1, SHMT1, SKA1, SKA3, SKIL, SLC1A3, SLC39A8, SLC40A1, SLC43A3, SLC6A15, SLFN1 1, SLITRK4, SMAD4, SMC4, SNHG1 , SNORD32B, SOCS5, SPC24, SPC25, SPDYE8P, SPON1, SRD5A1P1, SRGAP1 , SRGN, SRSF10, SSPN, SSTR1 , SSX5, ST6GALNAC5, ST8SIA2, STC1, STEAP1, STEAP2, STEAP4, STOM, SV2A, SVEP1, SYNPR, TACC2, TAGLN, TAS2R10, TBC1D15, TBC1D2, TBX3, TEK, TES, TFAP2A, TFPI, TFPI2, TGFBR3, TGOLN2, THAP2, THBS2, THRB, THSD7A, TINAGL1 , TLE3, TLE4, TLN2, TLR1, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TM4SF18, TMEM119, TMEM135, TMEM155, TMEM30B, TMEM49, TMEM65, TMTC1, TNC, TNFAIP3, TNFRSF10C, TNFRSF1 IB,

TNFSF10, TNFSF13B, TNIK, TOP2A, TOR1AIP1, TOX, TPI1, TPM2, TPM3, TPX2, TRA2B, TRAF3IP2, TRIM24, TRIM36, TRIM43, TRIM64, TROAP, TS , TTC22, TTK, UBE2C, UHRFl, UNC5B, USP8, VEGFA, VGLL3, VTI1B, VTRNAl-3, VWA5A, WDR17, WDR52, WEE1, WISP1 , WISP2, WNT16, WNT2, WWC1, XAGE3, XP04, ZC3H1 1A, ZC3H7B, ZDHHC15, ZFP36, ZFP82, ZMYM2, ZNF135, ZNF207, ZNF28, ZNF280B, ZNF284, ZNF285, ZNF322A, ZNF462, ZNF506, ZNF595, ZNF678, ZNF714, ZNF717, ZNF737, ZNF808, ZNHIT2, and ZWINT.

Described herein are methods comprising, identifying an animal having a C90RF72 associated disease; and administering a C90RF72 antisense compound and thereby reducing nuclear retention of any of ADARB2, CYP2C9, DPH2, HMGB2, JARID2, MITF, MPP7, NDSTl , NUDT6, ORAOV1, PGA5, PTER, RANGAP1, SOX6, TCL1B, TRIM32, WBP11, ZNF695. Provided herein are methods, comprising administering a C90RF72 antisense compound; and monitoring the level of any of ADARB2, NDSTl, MITF, DPH2, NUDT6, TCLIB, PGA5, TRIM32, CYP2C9, MPP7, PTER, WBPl 1, HMGB2, ORAOVl , RANGAPl, ZNF695, SOX6, JARID2, and DAZ2 as a measure of the amount of C90RF72 nucleic acid containg a

hexanucleotide repeat expansion is present in a cell.

Provided herein are methods, comprising identifying an animal having a C90RF72 associated disease; administering a C90RF72 antisense compound; and monitoring the level of any of ADARB2, NDSTl, MITF, DPH2, NUDT6, TCLIB, PGA5, TRIM32, CYP2C9, MPP7, PTER, WBPl 1, HMGB2, ORAOVl , RANGAPl, ZNF695, SOX6, JARID2, and DAZ2 as a measure of the amount of C90RF72 nucleic acid containg a hexanucleotide repeat expansion is present in a cell.

In certain embodiments, the level of any of ADARB2, NDSTl, MITF, DPH2, NUDT6, TCLIB, PGA5, TRIM32, CYP2C9, MPP7, PTER, WBPl 1, HMGB2, ORAOVl , RANGAPl, ZNF695, SOX6, JARID2, and DAZ2 increases after administration of an effective amount of a C90RF72 antisense compound.

In certain embodiments, the level of any of ADARB2, NDST 1 , MITF, DPH2, NUDT6,

TCLIB, PGA5, TRIM32, CYP2C9, MPP7, PTER, WBPl 1, HMGB2, ORAOVl , RANGAPl, ZNF695, SOX6, JARID2, and DAZ2 decreases after administration of an effective amount of a C90RF72 antisense compound.

In certain embodiments, the cell is in vitro.

In certain embodiments, the cell is in an animal.

In certain embodiments, the animal is a human.

In certain embodiments, the antisense compound comprises a single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide complementary to a C90RF72 nucleic acid.

In certain embodiments, the C90RF72 nucleic acid is a human C90RF72 nucleic acid. In certain embodiments, the C90RF72 associated disease is a C90RF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion associated disease.

In certain embodiments, the C90RF72 associated disease is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or frontotemporal dementia (FTD).

In certain embodiments, the C90RF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion associated disease is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or frontotemporal dementia (FTD).

In certain embodiments, the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is familial ALS or sporadic

ALS. In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide comprises at least one modification.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide is specifically hybridizable to a human C90RF72 nucleic acid.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide is at least 75%, at least

80%, at least 85%, at least 90%, or at least 95% complementary to an equal length portion of a human C90RF72 nucleic acid.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide is 100%

complementary to an equal length portion of a human C90RF72 nucleic acid.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide comprises at least one modified internucleoside linkage.

In certain embodiments, each internucleoside linkage of the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide is a modified internucleoside linkage.

In certain embodiments, the modified internucleoside linkage is a phosphorothioate internucleoside linkage.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded oligonucleotide comprises at least one modified nucleoside.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide comprises at least one modified nucleoside having a modified sugar.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide comprises at least one modified nucleoside comprising a bicyclic sugar.

In certain embodiments, the bicyclic sugar comprises a 4' to 2' bridge selected from among: 4'-(CH2)n-0-2' bridge, wherein n is 1 or 2; and 4'-CH 2 -0-CH 2 -2'.

In certain embodiments, the bicyclic sugar comprises a 4'-CH(CH 3 )-0-2' bridge.

In certain embodiments, the at least one modified nucleoside having a modified sugar comprises a non-bicyclic 2 '-modified modified sugar moiety.

In certain embodiments, the 2'-modified sugar moiety comprises a 2'-0-methoxyethyl group.

In certain embodiments, the 2'-modified sugar moiety comprises a 2'-0-methyl group. In certain embodiments, the at least one modified nucleoside having a modified sugar comprises a sugar surrogate.

In certain embodiments, the sugar surrogate is a morpholino. In certain embodiments, sugar surrogate is a peptide nucleic acid.

In certain embodiments, each nucleoside is modified.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide comprises at least one modified nucleobase.

In certain embodiments, the modified nucleobase is a 5'-methylcytosine.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide comprises:

a gap segment consisting of linked deoxynucleosides;

a 5' wing segment consisting of linked nucleosides;

a 3' wing segment consisting of linked nucleosides;

wherein the gap segment is positioned immediately adjacent to and between the 5' wing segment and the 3' wing segment and wherein each nucleoside of each wing segment comprises a modified sugar.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide comprises:

a gap segment consisting of ten linked deoxynucleosides;

a 5' wing segment consisting of five linked nucleosides;

a 3' wing segment consisting of five linked nucleosides;

wherein the gap segment is positioned immediately adjacent and between the 5' wing segment and the 3' wing segment, wherein each nucleoside of each wing segment comprises a 2'-0- methoxyethyl sugar; and wherein each internucleoside linkage is a phosphorothioate linkage.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide consists of 15 or 16 linked nucleosides.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide consists of 17 linked nucleosides.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide consists of 18 linked nucleosides.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide consists of 19 linked nucleosides.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide consists of 20 linked nucleosides.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide consists of 21, 22, 23,

24, or 25 linked nucleosides.

In certain embodiments, the administering is parenteral administration. In certain embodiments, the parenteral administration is any of injection or infusion.

In certain embodiments, the parenteral administration is any of intrathecal administration or intracerebroventricular administration.

In certain embodiments, at least one symptom of a C90RF72 associated disease is ameliorated or prevented.

In certain embodiments, at least one symptom of a C90RF72 hexanucleotide repeat associated disease is ameliorated or prevented.

In certain embodiments, progression of at least one symptom of a C90RF72 associated disease is slowed.

In certain embodiments, progression of at least one symptom of a C90RF72 hexanucleotide repeat associated disease is slowed.

In certain embodiments, the at least one symptom is any of muscle weakness, fasciculation and cramping of muscles, difficulty in projecting the voice, shortness of breath, difficulty in breathing and swallowing, inappropriate social behavior, lack of empathy, distractibility, changes in food preferences, agitation, blunted emotions, neglect of personal hygiene, repetitive or compulsive behavior, and decreased energy and motivation.

Described herein are methods comprising administering a C90RF72 antisense compound to a cell or tissue containing a C90RF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion and thereby normalizing expression of any of C3, EDNRB2, and Endothelin.

Described herein are methods comprising administering a C90RF72 antisense compound to a cell or tissue containing a C90RF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion and thereby normalizing expression of any of ABCA6, ACVR2A, ADAMTS5, Cl lorf87, C3, CCL8, CCNL1 , CD44, CELF2, CFB, CHRDLl, CLU, CP, CXCL6, DCN, DKK3, EDNl, EDNRB, EFNA5, ENPP2, F10, F3, FAM3C, FOXP2, FYN, IARS, IGSFIO, IL6ST, LPARl , MLXIPL, NEDD4L, ORC4, PDEIC, PPAP2B, PRPSl, REV3L, RSP03, SCUBE3, SEPPl , SERPINE2, SESTDl, SPONl , TBC1D15, TGFBR3, TNFSF10, TNFSF13B, and WDR52.

Described herein are methods comprising administering a C90RF72 antisense compound to a cell or tissue containing a C90RF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion and thereby normalizing expression of any of ABCA6, ABCA9, ABCB4, ABCC3, ABCC9, ABO, ACAN, ACOT13, ACSM2A, ACS S3, ACVR2A, ACVR2B, ADAMDECl , AD AMTS5, ADHIA, ADHIB, ADHIC, ADM, AFF3, AGBL3, AHNAK2, AK4, ALDH1A3, ALDH1L2, ALMS1P, ALOX5AP, AMOT, AMPH, ANKRD32, ANLN, AN03, AN04, AOX1 , APCDD1, APLNR, APOBEC3B, APOL6, APOLD1, AR, ARHGAP11 A, ARHGAP28, ARHGAP29, ARHGEF35, ARL17A, ARL4D, ARMS2, AR T2, ARRDC3, ARSE, ARVP6125, ATOH8, ATP2A2, AURKA, AURKB, BACHl , BAMBI, BCL3, BDH2, BICC1, BNC2, BRCA2, BRIP1 , BRWD3, BTF3L4, BUB1, BUB IB, Cl lorf87, C12orf48, C12orf64, C13orfl 8, C14orfl49, C15orf42, Clorfl91, Clorfl98, Clorf63, CIQB, CIR, CIS, C2orf63, C3, C3orfl6, C3orG l, C3orf59, C4orf29, C4orG l, C4orf49, C5orfl3, C5orf23, C6orfl05, C6orf223, C7orf63, C9, CA12, CAB, CACHD1, CADPS, CASC5, CASP10, CBWD1, CCDC144B, CCDC144C, CCDC15, CCIN, CCL28, CCL8, CCNA2, CCNB1, CCNB2, CCNF, CCNL1 , CCRL1, CD4, CD68, CDC20, CDC25B, CDC45, CDC6, CDC7, CDCA2, CDC A3, CDCA8, CDH6, CDHR4, CDK1, CDK15, CDK2, CDON, CELF2, CENPA, CENPE, CENPF, CENPI, CENPK, CEP55, CFB, CGB, CGB1, CGB5, CH25H, CHRDL1, CHRNA5, CKAP2L, CKS2, CLDN11, CLEC2A, CLGN, CLIC2, CLIC6, CLSPN, CMKLR1, CNKSR2, CNNl, CNR2, CNTNAP3, COL8A1 , COLEC12, COMP, CP, CPA4, CPE, CPLX2, CPM, CPXMl, CRABP2, CRISPLD2, CRY1, CTAGE7P, CTNNBIP1, CTSC, CTSL1, CTSS, CXCL14, CXCL6, CXCR7, CYB5A, CYBB, CYP1B1, CYP24A1, CYP26B1, CYP27A1, CYP3A43, CYP7B1, CYTL1, CYYR1, DBF4, DCDC1, DCN, DDIT3, DDIT4, DEFB109P1B, DENND1B, DEPDC1 , DES, DGCR14, DHRS3, DIRCl, DKFZp566F0947, DKFZp667F0711 , DKKl , DKK3, DLGAP5, DLX2, DMKN, DNA2, DPP4, DPT, DSEL, DTX3L, DTYMK, E2F8, EDN1, EDNRB, EFEMP1, EFNA5, ELL2, EMCN, EMP1, ENKUR, ENPEP, ENPP2, ENPP5, EPB41L4A, EPSTI1, ERCC6, ERCC6L, EREG, ESM1, ETFDH, F10, F2R, F2RL2, F3, FABP3, FAM101B, FAM110B,

FAM156A, FAM20A, FAM3C, FAM43A, FAM46C, FAM59A, FAM71 A, FAM75C1 , FAM83D, FBLN1 , FCER1G, FCGR2A, FDPSL2A, FER, FGD4, FIBIN, FKBP14, FLJ10038, FLJ31356, FLJ39095, FLJ39739, FLJ41170, FLRT3, FMN1 , FOLR2, FOLR3, FOSL2, FOXC2, FOXE1, FOXP2, FRRS1, FTLP10, FUT9, FYN, G0S2, GABRE, GABRQ, GEMC1, GFRA1, GLDN, GLIPR2, GLIS3, GOLGA6B, GPNMB, GPR133, GPR31, GPR65, GPRC5B, GRB14, GSTT1, GSTT2, GTPBP8, GTSE1 , GUCY1B3, HAS2, HAUS3, HECW2, HELLS, HIST1H1B,

HIST1H2AE, HIST1H2AJ, HIST1H2BF, HIST1H2BM, HIST1H3B, HIST1H3J, HIST1H4A, HIST1H4C, HIST1H4D, HIST1H4L, HIST2H2BC, HIST2H3A, HJURP, HMGB2, HMMR, HNRNPK, HOXB2, HOXD10, HOXD11 , HSD17B7P2, HTR1B, HUNK, IARS, ICAM1, IDH1, IFI16, IFITM1, IFITM3, IGF1 , IGSF10, IL13RA2, IL17RA, IL17RD, IL18R1 , IL1R1 , IL1RN, IL20RB, IL4R, IL6ST, IQGAP3, IRS 1 , ITGA6, ITGA8, ITGB3, ITGBL1 , JAG1 , JAM2, KCNJ2, KCNJ8, KCNK15, KIAA0509, KIAA0802, KIAA1 199, KIAA1324L, KIAA1524, KIF11, KIF14, KIF15, KIF16B, KIF18B, KIF20A, KIF20B, KIF23, KIF2C, KIF4A, KIFCl, KIT, KRT19, KRT34, KRTAPl-1, KRTAP1-5, KRTAP2-2, KRTAP2-4, KRTAP4-1 1, KRTAP4-12, KRTAP4-5,

KRTAP4-7, LAMA1, LAMA4, LANCL3, LAP3, LAPTM5, LARP7, LBR, LGI1 , LHX5, LHX9, LMCD1, LMNB1, LM04, LOC100127980, LOC100128001, LOC100128107, LOC100128191, LOC100128402, LOC100129029, LOC100130000, LOC100132167, LOC100132292,

LOC100132891, LOC100216479, LOC100287877, LOC100288069, LOC100288560,

LOC100505808, LOC100505813, LOC100505820, LOC100506165, LOC100506335,

LOC100506456, LOC100507128, LOC100507163, LOC100507425, LOCI 16437, LOC144438, LOC153910, LOC157503, LOC256374, LOC283868, LOC285944, LOC338667, LOC339822, LOC348120, LOC349408, LOC389332, LOC399884, LOC400684, LOC401022, LOC642006, LOC643551 , LOC646743, LOC646804, LOC727820, LOC728264, LOC728640, LOC729420, LOC729978, LOH3CR2A, LOXL4, LPAR1, LRCH2, LRIG3, LRRC37A4, LRRTM1, LYPD6B, MAB21L1 , MAFB, MAOA, MAPK13, MARS, MASP1 , MASTL, MBD2, MBNL3, MC4R, MCM8, ME2, MEIS3P1, MEST, METTL8, MEX3A, MFAP4, MFGE8, MGC16121, MGC24103, MGP, MIA3, MIER1, MIR125A, MIR138-1, MIR145, MIR199A2, MIRLET7I, MKI67, MLF2, MMD, MME, MMP10, MMP12, MMP27, MOBKLIB, MRAP2, MRPL9, MRPSl l, MSC, MST4, MSTN, MTMR7, MTSS 1L, MTUS2, MYBL2, MYCT1 , MYOCD, MYPN, MZT2A, NACA2, NAIP, NAMPT, NAP1L3, NBEA, NBPF10, NCAPG, NCAPG2, NCAPH, NCRNA00182,

NCRNA00205, NCRNA00219, NCRNA00256A, NDC80, NEDD4L, NEK2, NET02, NEU4, NEUROD6, NFIB, NFIL3, NFKBIZ, NGFR, NKX2-2, NKX2-6, MT, NOC2L, NOG,

NOTCH3, NOVAl , NOX4, NPTX2, NR2F2, NR4A3, NR5A2, NTN4, NUCKS 1 , NUF2, NUSAP 1 , NUTF2, OAS2, OAS3, OBFC2A, OCLM, ODZ2, OGFRLl , OLFML2B, OLRl, ORIOQI, OR14J1, OR1J2, OR1Q1, OR2A1, OR2A7, OR2A9P, OR2B3, OR4D10, OR4L1, OR51A2, OR52W1, OR5AU1 , OR5L2, OR6B1, ORC4, OSMR, OSR2, OXTR, P2RX7, PACSIN2, PAPPA, PARP14, PBK, PCDHB13, PCDHB14, PCDHB16, PCDHB2, PCDHB3, PCDHB4, PCYT2, PDE1C, PDE4DIP, PDE5A, PDGFA, PDGFD, PDPN, PDZRN3, PEG10, PHACTR3, PHF11, PHLDB2, PIM1, PITPNM3, PKD2L1, PKDCC, PLA2G4A, PLEKHA3, PLK1 , PLK4, PLSCR1, PLXNA2, PLXNC1, PM20D2, PMAIP1, PPAP2B, PPL, PPP1R12B, PRAMEF2, PRC1 , PRDM1 , PRDM15, PRG4, PRICKLE 1, PRICKLE2, PRKAA2, PRKG2, PRPS1, PRUNE2, PRY, PSIP1, psiTPTE22, PTBP2, PTGS1, PTPRC, PTPRN, PYGOl, RAB12, RAD51AP1, RASA4, RASGRF2, RBMS1 , RBMX2, RCVRN, RERGL, REV3L, RGPD1, RGPD2, RGPD6, RGS4, RHBDF1, RHOJ, RIMS1, RIPK2, RNASE2, RNF122, RNU2-1, RPL22L1 , RPL8, RPRD1A, RPRM, RPS26P11, RPS6KA6, RPS8, RPSAP52, RRP15, RSP03, RUNXITI, S100A8, SlPRl , SCIN, SCN2A, SCUBE3, SEPPl, SERPINB3, SERPINB4, SERPINB9, SERPINE2, SERPINF1, SERPING1 , SESTD1, SFRP1, SFRP4, SGK1, SGOL1 , SGOL2, SHCBP1, SHMT1, SKA1, SKA3, SKIL, SLC1A3, SLC39A8, SLC40A1, SLC43A3, SLC6A15, SLFN1 1, SLITRK4, SMAD4, SMC4, SNHG1 , SNORD32B, SOCS5, SPC24, SPC25, SPDYE8P, SPON1, SRD5A1P1, SRGAP1 , SRGN, SRSF10, SSPN, SSTR1 , SSX5, ST6GALNAC5, ST8SIA2, STC1, STEAP1, STEAP2, STEAP4, STOM, SV2A, SVEPl, SYNPR, TACC2, TAGLN, TAS2R10, TBC1D15, TBC1D2, TBX3, TEK, TES, TFAP2A, TFPI, TFPI2, TGFBR3, TGOLN2, THAP2, THBS2, THRB, THSD7A, TINAGL1, TLE3, TLE4, TLN2, TLR1, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TM4SF18, TMEM119, TMEM135, TMEM155, TMEM30B, TMEM49, TMEM65, TMTC1, TNC, TNFAIP3, TNFRSF10C, TNFRSF1 IB,

TNFSF10, TNFSF13B, TNIK, TOP2A, TOR1AIP1, TOX, TPI1, TPM2, TPM3, TPX2, TRA2B,

TRAF3IP2, TRIM24, TRIM36, TRIM43, TRIM64, TROAP, TS , TTC22, TTK, UBE2C, UHRFl, UNC5B, USP8, VEGFA, VGLL3, VTI1B, VTRNAl-3, VWA5A, WDR17, WDR52, WEE1, WISP1 , WISP2, WNT16, WNT2, WWC1, XAGE3, XP04, ZC3H1 1A, ZC3H7B, ZDHHC15, ZFP36, ZFP82, ZMYM2, ZNF135, ZNF207, ZNF28, ZNF280B, ZNF284, ZNF285, ZNF322A, ZNF462, ZNF506, ZNF595, ZNF678, ZNF714, ZNF717, ZNF737, ZNF808, ZNHIT2, and ZWINT.

Described herein are methods comprising administering a C90RF72 antisense compound to a cell or tissue containing a C90RF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion and thereby reducing nuclear retention of any of ADARB2, CYP2C9, DPH2, HMGB2, JARID2, MITF, MPP7, NDSTl, NUDT6, ORAOV1, PGA5, PTER, RANGAP1, SOX6, TCL1B, TRIM32, WBP11, and ZNF695.

In certain embodiments, the cell or tissue is human fibroblast cells.

In certain embodiments, the cell or tissue is human cortex.

In certain embodiments, the antisense compound comprises a single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide complementary to a C90RF72 nucleic acid.

In certain embodiments, the C90RF72 nucleic acid is a human C90RF72 nucleic acid.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide comprises at least one modification.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide is specifically hybridizable to a human C90RF72 nucleic acid.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide is at least 75%, at least 80%, at least 85%, at least 90%, or at least 95% complementary to an equal length portion of a human C90RF72 nucleic acid. In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide is 100% complementary to an equal length portion of a human C90RF72 nucleic acid.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide comprises at least one modified internucleoside linkage.

In certain embodiments, each internucleoside linkage of the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide is a modified internucleoside linkage.

In certain embodiments, the modified internucleoside linkage is a phosphorothioate internucleoside linkage.

In certain embodiments, the antisense oligonucleotides comprises at least one modified nucleoside.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide comprises at least one modified nucleoside having a modified sugar.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide comprises at least one modified nucleoside comprising a bicyclic sugar.

In certain embodiments, the bicyclic sugar comprises a 4' to 2' bridge selected from among: 4'-(CH2)n-0-2' bridge, wherein n is 1 or 2; and 4'-CH 2 -0-CH 2 -2'.

In certain embodiments, the bicyclic sugar comprises a 4'-CH(CH 3 )-0-2' bridge.

In certain embodiments, the at least one modified nucleoside having a modified sugar comprises a non-bicyclic 2 '-modified modified sugar moiety.

In certain embodiments, the 2'-modifIed sugar moiety comprises a 2'-0-methoxyethyl group.

In certain embodiments, the 2'-modifIed sugar moiety comprises a 2'-0-methyl group. In certain embodiments, the at least one modified nucleoside having a modified sugar comprises a sugar surrogate.

In certain embodiments, the sugar surrogate is a morpholino.

In certain embodiments, the sugar surrogate is a peptide nucleic acid.

In certain embodiments, each nucleoside is modified.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide comprises at least one modified nucleobase.

In certain embodiments, the modified nucleobase is a 5'-methylcytosine.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide comprises:

a gap segment consisting of linked deoxynucleosides; a 5' wing segment consisting of linked nucleosides;

a 3' wing segment consisting of linked nucleosides;

wherein the gap segment is positioned immediately adjacent to and between the 5' wing segment and the 3' wing segment and wherein each nucleoside of each wing segment comprises a modified sugar.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide comprises:

a gap segment consisting of ten linked deoxynucleosides;

a 5' wing segment consisting of five linked nucleosides;

a 3' wing segment consisting of five linked nucleosides;

wherein the gap segment is positioned immediately adjacent and between the 5' wing segment and the 3' wing segment, wherein each nucleoside of each wing segment comprises a 2'-0- methoxyethyl sugar; and wherein each internucleoside linkage is a phosphorothioate linkage.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide consists of 15 linked nucleosides.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide consists of 16 linked nucleosides.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide consists of 17 linked nucleosides.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide consists of 18 linked nucleosides.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide consists of 19 linked nucleosides.

In certain embodiments, the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide consists of 20 linked nucleosides.

In certain embodiments, wherein the single-stranded antisense oligonucleotide consists of 12 to 30 linked nucleosides and comprises a nucleobase sequence comprising at least 8, at least 9, at least 10, at least 11 , at least 12, at least 13, at least 14, at least 15, at least 16, at least 17, at least 18, at least 19, or at least 20 contiguous nucleobases of SEQ ID NO: 20-24 or 28-30.

Antisense Compounds

Oligomeric compounds include, but are not limited to, oligonucleotides, oligonucleosides, oligonucleotide analogs, oligonucleotide mimetics, antisense compounds, antisense

oligonucleotides, and siRNAs. An oligomeric compound may be "antisense" to a target nucleic acid, meaning that is is capable of undergoing hybridization to a target nucleic acid through hydrogen bonding.

In certain embodiments, an antisense compound has a nucleobase sequence that, when written in the 5' to 3' direction, comprises the reverse complement of the target segment of a target nucleic acid to which it is targeted. In certain such embodiments, an antisense oligonucleotide has a nucleobase sequence that, when written in the 5' to 3' direction, comprises the reverse complement of the target segment of a target nucleic acid to which it is targeted.

In certain embodiments, an antisense compound targeted to a C90RF72 nucleic acid is 12 to 30 subunits in length. In other words, such antisense compounds are from 12 to 30 linked subunits. In certain embodiments, the antisense compound is 8 to 80, 12 to 50, 15 to 30, 18 to 24, 19 to 22, or 20 linked subunits. In certain embodiments, the antisense compounds are 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, or 80 linked subunits in length, or a range defined by any two of the above values. In some embodiments the antisense compound is an antisense

oligonucleotide, and the linked subunits are nucleosides.

In certain embodiments antisense oligonucleotides targeted to a C90RF72 nucleic acid may be shortened or truncated. For example, a single subunit may be deleted from the 5' end (5' truncation), or alternatively from the 3' end (3' truncation). A shortened or truncated antisense compound targeted to a C90RF72 nucleic acid may have two subunits deleted from the 5 ' end, or alternatively may have two subunits deleted from the 3' end, of the antisense compound.

Alternatively, the deleted nucleosides may be dispersed throughout the antisense compound, for example, in an antisense compound having one nucleoside deleted from the 5' end and one nucleoside deleted from the 3' end.

When a single additional subunit is present in a lengthened antisense compound, the additional subunit may be located at the 5' or 3' end of the antisense compound. When two or more additional subunits are present, the added subunits may be adjacent to each other, for example, in an antisense compound having two subunits added to the 5' end (5' addition), or alternatively to the 3' end (3' addition), of the antisense compound. Alternatively, the added subunits may be dispersed throughout the antisense compound, for example, in an antisense compound having one subunit added to the 5' end and one subunit added to the 3' end. It is possible to increase or decrease the length of an antisense compound, such as an antisense oligonucleotide, and/or introduce mismatch bases without eliminating activity. For example, in Woolf et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:7305-7309, 1992), a series of antisense oligonucleotides 13-25 nucleobases in length were tested for their ability to induce cleavage of a target RNA in an oocyte injection model. Antisense oligonucleotides 25 nucleobases in length with 8 or 1 1 mismatch bases near the ends of the antisense oligonucleotides were able to direct specific cleavage of the target mRNA, albeit to a lesser extent than the antisense oligonucleotides that contained no mismatches. Similarly, target specific cleavage was achieved using 13 nucleobase antisense oligonucleotides, including those with 1 or 3 mismatches.

Gautschi et al (J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 93:463-471, March 2001) demonstrated the ability of an oligonucleotide having 100% complementarity to the bcl-2 mRNA and having 3 mismatches to the bcl-xL mRNA to reduce the expression of both bcl-2 and bcl-xL in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, this oligonucleotide demonstrated potent anti -tumor activity in vivo.

Maher and Dolnick (Nuc. Acid. Res. 16:3341-3358,1988) tested a series of tandem 14 nucleobase antisense oligonucleotides, and a 28 and 42 nucleobase antisense oligonucleotides comprised of the sequence of two or three of the tandem antisense oligonucleotides, respectively, for their ability to arrest translation of human DHFR in a rabbit reticulocyte assay. Each of the three 14 nucleobase antisense oligonucleotides alone was able to inhibit translation, albeit at a more modest level than the 28 or 42 nucleobase antisense oligonucleotides.

Antisense Compound Motifs

In certain embodiments, antisense compounds targeted to a C90RF72 nucleic acid have chemically modified subunits arranged in patterns, or motifs, to confer to the antisense compounds properties such as enhanced inhibitory activity, increased binding affinity for a target nucleic acid, or resistance to degradation by in vivo nucleases.

Chimeric antisense compounds typically contain at least one region modified so as to confer increased resistance to nuclease degradation, increased cellular uptake, increased binding affinity for the target nucleic acid, and/or increased inhibitory activity. A second region of a chimeric antisense compound may optionally serve as a substrate for the cellular endonuclease RNase H, which cleaves the RNA strand of an RNA:DNA duplex.

Antisense compounds having a gapmer motif are considered chimeric antisense

compounds. In a gapmer an internal region having a plurality of nucleotides that supports RNaseH cleavage is positioned between external regions having a plurality of nucleotides that are chemically distinct from the nucleosides of the internal region. In the case of an antisense oligonucleotide having a gapmer motif, the gap segment generally serves as the substrate for endonuclease cleavage, while the wing segments comprise modified nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the regions of a gapmer are differentiated by the types of sugar moieties comprising each distinct region. The types of sugar moieties that are used to differentiate the regions of a gapmer may in some embodiments include β-D-ribonucleosides, β-D-deoxyribonucleosides, 2'-modified nucleosides (such 2'-modified nucleosides may include 2'-MOE, and 2'-0-Ο¾, among others), and bicyclic sugar modified nucleosides (such bicyclic sugar modified nucleosides may include those having a 4'-(CH 2 )n-0-2' bridge, where n=l or n=2 and 4'-CH 2 -0-CH 2 -2'). Preferably, each distinct region comprises uniform sugar moieties. The wing-gap-wing motif is frequently described as "X-Y-Z", where "X" represents the length of the 5' wing region, "Y" represents the length of the gap region, and "Z" represents the length of the 3' wing region. As used herein, a gapmer described as "X-Y-Z" has a configuration such that the gap segment is positioned immediately adjacent to each of the 5' wing segment and the 3' wing segment. Thus, no intervening nucleotides exist between the 5' wing segment and gap segment, or the gap segment and the 3' wing segment. Any of the antisense compounds described herein can have a gapmer motif. In some embodiments, X and Z are the same, in other embodiments they are different. In a preferred embodiment, Y is between 8 and 15 nucleotides. X, Y or Z can be any of 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 30 or more nucleotides. Thus, gapmers described herein include, but are not limited to, for example 5-10-5, 5-10-4, 4-10-4, 4-10-3, 3-10-3, 2-10-2, 5-9-5, 5-9-4, 4-9-5, 5-8-5, 5-8-4, 4-8-5, 5-7- 5, 4-7-5, 5-7-4, or 4-7-4.

In certain embodiments, the antisense compound has a "wingmer" motif, having a wing- gap or gap-wing configuration, i.e. an X-Y or Y-Z configuration as described above for the gapmer configuration. Thus, wingmer configurations described herein include, but are not limited to, for example 5-10, 8-4, 4-12, 12-4, 3-14, 16-2, 18-1, 10-3, 2-10, 1-10, 8-2, 2-13, 5-13, 5-8, or 6-8.

In certain embodiments, antisense compounds targeted to a C90RF72 nucleic acid possess a 5-10-5 gapmer motif.

In certain embodiments, antisense compounds targeted to a C90RF72 nucleic acid possess a 5 - 10-4 gapmer motif.

In certain embodiments, antisense compounds targeted to a C90RF72 nucleic acid possess a 4- 10-4 gapmer motif. In certain embodiments, antisense compounds targeted to a C90RF72 nucleic acid possess a 4- 10-3 gapmer motif.

In certain embodiments, antisense compounds targeted to a C90RF72 nucleic acid possess a 5-9-5 gapmer motif.

In certain embodiments, an antisense compound targeted to a C90RF72 nucleic acid has a gap-narrowed motif. In certain embodiments, a gap-narrowed antisense oligonucleotide targeted to a C90RF72 nucleic acid has a gap segment of 9, 8, 7, or 6 2'-deoxynucleotides positioned immediately adjacent to and between wing segments of 5, 4, 3, 2, or 1 chemically modified nucleosides. In certain embodiments, the chemical modification comprises a bicyclic sugar. In certain embodiments, the bicyclic sugar comprises a 4' to 2' bridge selected from among: 4'-(CH 2 ) n - 0-2' bridge, wherein n is 1 or 2; and 4'-CH 2 -0-CH 2 -2'. In certain embodiments, the bicyclic sugar is comprises a 4'-CH(CH 3 )-0-2' bridge. In certain embodiments, the chemical modification comprises a non-bicyclic 2'-modified sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, the non-bicyclic 2'- modified sugar moiety comprises a 2'-0-methylethyl group or a 2'-0-methyl group.

In certain embodiments, an antisense compound targeted to a C90RF72 nucleic acid is uniformly modified. In certain embodiments, the antisense compound comprises 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, or 25 nucleosides. In certain embodiments, each nucleoside is chemically modified. In certain embodiments, the chemical modification comprises a non-bicyclic 2'-modifIed sugar moiety. In certain embodiments, the 2'-modifIed sugar moiety comprises a 2'-0- methoxyethyl group. In certain embodiments, the 2'-modifIed sugar moiety comprises a 2'-0- methyl group. In certain embodiments, uniformly modified antisense compound may target C90RF72, or any portion thereof, such as a hexanucleotide repeat expansion. In certain

embodiments, targeting the hexanucleotide repeat expansion with a uniformly modified antisense compound reduced the repeat R A by blocking the interaction with R A binding proteins. In certain embodiments, this results in the toxic RNA being absent from foci and being degraded instead.

Target Nucleic Acids, Target Regions and Nucleotide Sequences

Nucleotide sequences that encode C90RF72 include, without limitation, the following: the complement of GENBANK Accession No. NM_001256054.1 (incorporated herein as SEQ ID NO: 1), GENBANK Accession No. NT_008413.18 truncated from nucleobase 27535000 to 27565000 (incorporated herein as SEQ ID NO: 2), GENBANK Accession No. BQ068108.1 (incorporated herein as SEQ ID NO: 3), GENBANK Accession No. NM_018325.3 (incorporated herein as SEQ ID NO: 4), GENBANK Accession No. DN993522.1 (incorporated herein as SEQ ID NO: 5), GENBANK Accession No. NM_145005.5 (incorporated herein as SEQ ID NO: 6), GENBANK Accession No. DB079375.1 (incorporated herein as SEQ ID NO: 7), GENBANK Accession No. BU194591.1 (incorporated herein as SEQ ID NO: 8), Sequence Identifier 4141 014 A

(incorporated herein as SEQ ID NO: 9), and Sequence Identifier 4008 73 A (incorporated herein as SEQ ID NO: 10).

It is understood that the sequence set forth in each SEQ ID NO in the Examples contained herein is independent of any modification to a sugar moiety, an internucleoside linkage, or a nucleobase. As such, antisense compounds defined by a SEQ ID NO may comprise, independently, one or more modifications to a sugar moiety, an internucleoside linkage, or a nucleobase. Antisense compounds described by Isis Number (Isis No) indicate a combination of nucleobase sequence and motif.

In certain embodiments, a target region is a structurally defined region of the target nucleic acid. For example, a target region may encompass a 3 ' UTR, a 5 ' UTR, an exon, an intron, an exon/intron junction, a coding region, a translation initiation region, translation termination region, or other defined nucleic acid region. The structurally defined regions for C90RF72 can be obtained by accession number from sequence databases such as NCBI and such information is incorporated herein by reference. In certain embodiments, a target region may encompass the sequence from a 5' target site of one target segment within the target region to a 3' target site of another target segment within the same target region.

Targeting includes determination of at least one target segment to which an antisense compound hybridizes, such that a desired effect occurs. In certain embodiments, the desired effect is a reduction in mRNA target nucleic acid levels. In certain embodiments, the desired effect is reduction of levels of protein encoded by the target nucleic acid or a phenotypic change associated with the target nucleic acid.

A target region may contain one or more target segments. Multiple target segments within a target region may be overlapping. Alternatively, they may be non-overlapping. In certain embodiments, target segments within a target region are separated by no more than about 300 nucleotides. In certain emodiments, target segments within a target region are separated by a number of nucleotides that is, is about, is no more than, is no more than about, 250, 200, 150, 100, 90, 80, 70, 60, 50, 40, 30, 20, or 10 nucleotides on the target nucleic acid, or is a range defined by any two of the preceeding values. In certain embodiments, target segments within a target region are separated by no more than, or no more than about, 5 nucleotides on the target nucleic acid. In certain embodiments, target segments are contiguous. Contemplated are target regions defined by a range having a starting nucleic acid that is any of the 5' target sites or 3' target sites listed herein.

Suitable target segments may be found within a 5' UTR, a coding region, a 3' UTR, an intron, an exon, or an exon/intron junction. Target segments containing a start codon or a stop codon are also suitable target segments. A suitable target segment may specifcally exclude a certain structurally defined region such as the start codon or stop codon.

The determination of suitable target segments may include a comparison of the sequence of a target nucleic acid to other sequences throughout the genome. For example, the BLAST algorithm may be used to identify regions of similarity amongst different nucleic acids. This comparison can prevent the selection of antisense compound sequences that may hybridize in a non-specific manner to sequences other than a selected target nucleic acid (i.e., non-target or off-target sequences).

There may be variation in activity (e.g., as defined by percent reduction of target nucleic acid levels) of the antisense compounds within a target region. In certain embodiments, reductions in C90RF72 mRNA levels are indicative of inhibition of C90RF72 expression. Reductions in levels of a C90RF72 protein are also indicative of inhibition of target mRNA expression. Reduction in the presence of expanded C90RF72 RNA foci are indicative of inhibition of C90RF72 expression. Further, phenotypic changes are indicative of inhibition of C90RF72 expression. For example, improved motor function and respiration may be indicative of inhibition of C90RF72 expression.

Hybridization

In some embodiments, hybridization occurs between an antisense compound disclosed herein and a C90RF72 nucleic acid. The most common mechanism of hybridization involves hydrogen bonding (e.g., Watson-Crick, Hoogsteen or reversed Hoogsteen hydrogen bonding) between complementary nucleobases of the nucleic acid molecules.

Hybridization can occur under varying conditions. Stringent conditions are sequence- dependent and are determined by the nature and composition of the nucleic acid molecules to be hybridized.

Methods of determining whether a sequence is specifically hybridizable to a target nucleic acid are well known in the art. In certain embodiments, the antisense compounds provided herein are specifically hybridizable with a C90RF72 nucleic acid. Complementarity

An antisense compound and a target nucleic acid are complementary to each other when a sufficient number of nucleobases of the antisense compound can hydrogen bond with the

corresponding nucleobases of the target nucleic acid, such that a desired effect will occur (e.g., antisense inhibition of a target nucleic acid, such as a C90RF72 nucleic acid).

Non-complementary nucleobases between an antisense compound and a C90RF72 nucleic acid may be tolerated provided that the antisense compound remains able to specifically hybridize to a target nucleic acid. Moreover, an antisense compound may hybridize over one or more segments of a C90RF72 nucleic acid such that intervening or adjacent segments are not involved in the hybridization event (e.g., a loop structure, mismatch or hairpin structure).

In certain embodiments, the antisense compounds provided herein, or a specified portion thereof, are, or are at least, 70%, 80%, 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100% complementary to a C90RF72 nucleic acid, a target region, target segment, or specified portion thereof. Percent complementarity of an antisense compound with a target nucleic acid can be determined using routine methods.

For example, an antisense compound in which 18 of 20 nucleobases of the antisense compound are complementary to a target region, and would therefore specifically hybridize, would represent 90 percent complementarity. In this example, the remaining noncomplementary nucleobases may be clustered or interspersed with complementary nucleobases and need not be contiguous to each other or to complementary nucleobases. As such, an antisense compound which is 18 nucleobases in length having 4 (four) noncomplementary nucleobases which are flanked by two regions of complete complementarity with the target nucleic acid would have 77.8% overall complementarity with the target nucleic acid and would thus fall within the scope of the present invention. Percent complementarity of an antisense compound with a region of a target nucleic acid can be determined routinely using BLAST programs (basic local alignment search tools) and PowerBLAST programs known in the art (Altschul et al, J. Mol. Biol, 1990, 215, 403 410; Zhang and Madden, Genome Res., 1997, 7, 649 656). Percent homology, sequence identity or

complementarity, can be determined by, for example, the Gap program (Wisconsin Sequence Analysis Package, Version 8 for Unix, Genetics Computer Group, University Research Park,

Madison Wis.), using default settings, which uses the algorithm of Smith and Waterman (Adv. Appl. Math., 1981, 2, 482 489). In certain embodiments, the antisense compounds provided herein, or specified portions thereof, are fully complementary (i.e., 100% complementary) to a target nucleic acid, or specified portion thereof. For example, an antisense compound may be fully complementary to a C90RF72 nucleic acid, or a target region, or a target segment or target sequence thereof. As used herein, "fully complementary" means each nucleobase of an antisense compound is capable of precise base pairing with the corresponding nucleobases of a target nucleic acid. For example, a 20 nucleobase antisense compound is fully complementary to a target sequence that is 400 nucleobases long, so long as there is a corresponding 20 nucleobase portion of the target nucleic acid that is fully complementary to the antisense compound. Fully complementary can also be used in reference to a specified portion of the first and /or the second nucleic acid. For example, a 20 nucleobase portion of a 30 nucleobase antisense compound can be "fully complementary" to a target sequence that is 400 nucleobases long. The 20 nucleobase portion of the 30 nucleobase oligonucleotide is fully complementary to the target sequence if the target sequence has a corresponding 20 nucleobase portion wherein each nucleobase is complementary to the 20 nucleobase portion of the antisense compound. At the same time, the entire 30 nucleobase antisense compound may or may not be fully complementary to the target sequence, depending on whether the remaining 10 nucleobases of the antisense compound are also complementary to the target sequence.

The location of a non-complementary nucleobase may be at the 5' end or 3' end of the antisense compound. Alternatively, the non-complementary nucleobase or nucleobases may be at an internal position of the antisense compound. When two or more non-complementary nucleobases are present, they may be contiguous (i.e., linked) or non-contiguous. In one embodiment, a non- complementary nucleobase is located in the wing segment of a gapmer antisense oligonucleotide.

In certain embodiments, antisense compounds that are, or are up to 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, or 20 nucleobases in length comprise no more than 4, no more than 3, no more than 2, or no more than 1 non-complementary nucleobase(s) relative to a target nucleic acid, such as a C90RF72 nucleic acid, or specified portion thereof.

In certain embodiments, antisense compounds that are, or are up to 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30 nucleobases in length comprise no more than 6, no more than 5, no more than 4, no more than 3, no more than 2, or no more than 1 non- complementary nucleobase(s) relative to a target nucleic acid, such as a C90RF72 nucleic acid, or specified portion thereof. The antisense compounds provided herein also include those which are complementary to a portion of a target nucleic acid. As used herein, "portion" refers to a defined number of contiguous (i.e. linked) nucleobases within a region or segment of a target nucleic acid. A "portion" can also refer to a defined number of contiguous nucleobases of an antisense compound. In certain embodiments, the antisense compounds, are complementary to at least an 8 nucleobase portion of a target segment. In certain embodiments, the antisense compounds are complementary to at least a 9 nucleobase portion of a target segment. In certain embodiments, the antisense compounds are complementary to at least a 10 nucleobase portion of a target segment. In certain embodiments, the antisense compounds, are complementary to at least an 1 1 nucleobase portion of a target segment. In certain embodiments, the antisense compounds, are complementary to at least a 12 nucleobase portion of a target segment. In certain embodiments, the antisense compounds, are complementary to at least a 13 nucleobase portion of a target segment. In certain embodiments, the antisense compounds, are complementary to at least a 14 nucleobase portion of a target segment. In certain embodiments, the antisense compounds, are complementary to at least a 15 nucleobase portion of a target segment. Also contemplated are antisense compounds that are complementary to at least a 9, 10, 1 1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, or more nucleobase portion of a target segment, or a range defined by any two of these values.

Identity

The antisense compounds provided herein may also have a defined percent identity to a particular nucleotide sequence, SEQ ID NO, or compound represented by a specific Isis number, or portion thereof. As used herein, an antisense compound is identical to the sequence disclosed herein if it has the same nucleobase pairing ability. For example, a RNA which contains uracil in place of thymidine in a disclosed DNA sequence would be considered identical to the DNA sequence since both uracil and thymidine pair with adenine. Shortened and lengthened versions of the antisense compounds described herein as well as compounds having non-identical bases relative to the antisense compounds provided herein also are contemplated. The non-identical bases may be adjacent to each other or dispersed throughout the antisense compound. Percent identity of an antisense compound is calculated according to the number of bases that have identical base pairing relative to the sequence to which it is being compared. In certain embodiments, the antisense compounds, or portions thereof, are at least 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or 100% identical to one or more of the antisense compounds or SEQ ID NOs, or a portion thereof, disclosed herein.

In certain embodiments, a portion of the antisense compound is compared to an equal length portion of the target nucleic acid. In certain embodiments, an 8, 9, 10, 11 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, or 25 nucleobase portion is compared to an equal length portion of the target nucleic acid.

In certain embodiments, a portion of the antisense oligonucleotide is compared to an equal length portion of the target nucleic acid. In certain embodiments, an 8, 9, 10, 1 1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, or 25 nucleobase portion is compared to an equal length portion of the target nucleic acid.

Modifications

A nucleoside is a base-sugar combination. The nucleobase (also known as base) portion of the nucleoside is normally a heterocyclic base moiety. Nucleotides are nucleosides that further include a phosphate group covalently linked to the sugar portion of the nucleoside. For those nucleosides that include a pentofuranosyl sugar, the phosphate group can be linked to the 2', 3' or 5' hydroxyl moiety of the sugar. Oligonucleotides are formed through the covalent linkage of adjacent nucleosides to one another, to form a linear polymeric oligonucleotide. Within the oligonucleotide structure, the phosphate groups are commonly referred to as forming the internucleoside linkages of the oligonucleotide.

Modifications to antisense compounds encompass substitutions or changes to

internucleoside linkages, sugar moieties, or nucleobases. Modified antisense compounds are often preferred over native forms because of desirable properties such as, for example, enhanced cellular uptake, enhanced affinity for nucleic acid target, increased stability in the presence of nucleases, or increased inhibitory activity.

Chemically modified nucleosides may also be employed to increase the binding affinity of a shortened or truncated antisense oligonucleotide for its target nucleic acid. Consequently, comparable results can often be obtained with shorter antisense compounds that have such chemically modified nucleosides.

Modified Internucleoside Linkages The naturally occuring internucleoside linkage of RNA and DNA is a 3' to 5' phosphodiester linkage. Antisense compounds having one or more modified, i.e. non-naturally occurring, internucleoside linkages are often selected over antisense compounds having naturally occurring internucleoside linkages because of desirable properties such as, for example, enhanced cellular uptake, enhanced affinity for target nucleic acids, and increased stability in the presence of nucleases.

Oligonucleotides having modified internucleoside linkages include internucleoside linkages that retain a phosphorus atom as well as internucleoside linkages that do not have a phosphorus atom. Representative phosphorus containing internucleoside linkages include, but are not limited to, phosphodiesters, phosphotriesters, methylphosphonates, phosphoramidate, and phosphorothioates. Methods of preparation of phosphorous-containing and non-phosphorous-containing linkages are well known.

In certain embodiments, antisense compounds targeted to a C90RF72 nucleic acid comprise one or more modified internucleoside linkages. In certain embodiments, the modified internucleoside linkages are interspersed throughout the antisense compound. In certain

embodiments, the modified internucleoside linkages are phosphorothioate linkages. In certain embodiments, each internucleoside linkage of an antisense compound is a phosphorothioate internucleoside linkage. Modified Sugar Moieties

Antisense compounds can optionally contain one or more nucleosides wherein the sugar group has been modified. Such sugar modified nucleosides may impart enhanced nuclease stability, increased binding affinity, or some other beneficial biological property to the antisense compounds. In certain embodiments, nucleosides comprise chemically modified ribofuranose ring moieties. Examples of chemically modified ribofuranose rings include without limitation, addition of substitutent groups (including 5' and 2' substituent groups, bridging of non-geminal ring atoms to form bicyclic nucleic acids (BNA), replacement of the ribosyl ring oxygen atom with S, N(R), or C(Ri)(R 2 ) (R, Ri and R 2 are each independently H, Ci-Ci 2 alkyl or a protecting group) and combinations thereof. Examples of chemically modified sugars include 2'-F-5'-methyl substituted nucleoside (see PCT International Application WO 2008/101157 Published on 8/21/08 for other disclosed 5',2'-bis substituted nucleosides) or replacement of the ribosyl ring oxygen atom with S with further substitution at the 2'-position (see published U.S. Patent Application US2005-0130923, published on June 16, 2005) or alternatively 5 '-substitution of a BNA (see PCT International Application WO 2007/134181 Published on 11/22/07 wherein LNA is substituted with for example a 5'-methyl or a 5'-vinyl group).

Examples of nucleosides having modified sugar moieties include without limitation nucleosides comprising 5*-vinyl, 5*-methyl (R or S), 4'-S, 2'-F, 2'-OCH 3 , 2'-OCH 2 CH 3 , 2'-

OCH 2 CH 2 F and 2'-0(CH 2 ) 2 OCH 3 substituent groups. The substituent at the 2' position can also be selected from allyl, amino, azido, thio, O-allyl, O-C Ci 0 alkyl, OCF 3 , OCH 2 F, 0(CH 2 ) 2 SCH 3 , 0(CH 2 ) 2 -0-N(R m )(R n ), 0-CH 2 -C(=0)-N(R m )(R n ), and 0-CH 2 -C(=0)-N(Ri)-(CH 2 ) 2 -N(R m )(R n ), where each Ri, R m and R n is, independently, H or substituted or unsubstituted Ci-Cio alkyl.

As used herein, "bicyclic nucleosides" refer to modified nucleosides comprising a bicyclic sugar moiety. Examples of bicyclic nucleosides include without limitation nucleosides comprising a bridge between the 4' and the 2' ribosyl ring atoms. In certain embodiments, antisense compounds provided herein include one or more bicyclic nucleosides comprising a 4' to 2' bridge. Examples of such 4' to 2' bridged bicyclic nucleosides, include but are not limited to one of the formulae: 4'- (CH 2 )-0-2- (LNA); 4'-(CH 2 )-S-2'; 4'-(CH 2 ) 2 -0-2' (E A); 4'-CH(CH 3 )-0-2' and 4'-CH(CH 2 OCH 3 )- 0-2' (and analogs thereof see U.S. Patent 7,399,845, issued on July 15, 2008); 4'-C(CH 3 )(CH 3 )-0-2' (and analogs thereof see published International Application WO/2009/006478, published January 8, 2009); 4'-CH 2 -N(OCH 3 )-2' (and analogs thereof see published International Application

WO/2008/150729, published December 1 1, 2008); 4'-CH 2 -0-N(CH 3 )-2' (see published U.S. Patent Application US2004-0171570, published September 2, 2004 ); 4'-CH 2 -N(R)-0-2', wherein R is H, Ci-Ci 2 alkyl, or a protecting group (see U.S. Patent 7,427,672, issued on September 23, 2008); 4'- CH 2 -C(H)(CH 3 )-2' (see Chattopadhyaya et al, J. Org. Chem., 2009, 74, 118-134); and 4'-CH 2 -C- (=CH 2 )-2' (and analogs thereof see published International Application WO 2008/154401, published on December 8, 2008).

Further reports related to bicyclic nucleosides can also be found in published literature (see for example: Singh et al, Chem. Commun., 1998, 4, 455-456; Koshkin et al, Tetrahedron, 1998, 54, 3607-3630; Wahlestedt et al, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2000, 97, 5633-5638; Kumar et al, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 1998, 8, 2219-2222; Singh et al, J. Org. Chem., 1998, 63, 10035-10039; Srivastava et al, J. Am. Chem. Soc, 2007, 129(26) 8362-8379; Elayadi et al, Curr. Opinion Invest. Drugs, 2001 , 2, 558-561 ; Braasch et al, Chem. Biol, 2001, 8, 1-7; and Orum et al, Curr. Opinion Mol. Ther., 2001, 3, 239-243; U.S. Patent Nos. 6,268,490; 6,525,191; 6,670,461; 6,770,748;

6,794,499; 7,034,133; 7,053,207; 7,399,845; 7,547,684; and 7,696,345; U.S. Patent Publication No. US2008-0039618; US2009-0012281; U.S. Patent Serial Nos. 60/989,574; 61/026,995; 61/026,998; 61/056,564; 61/086,231; 61/097,787; and 61/099,844; Published PCT International applications WO 1994/014226; WO 2004/106356; WO 2005/021570; WO 2007/134181; WO 2008/150729; WO 2008/154401; and WO 2009/006478. Each of the foregoing bicyclic nucleosides can be prepared having one or more stereochemical sugar configurations including for example a-L-ribofuranose and β-D-ribofuranose (see PCT international application PCT/DK98/00393, published on March 25, 1999 as WO 99/14226).

In certain embodiments, bicyclic sugar moieties of BNA nucleosides include, but are not limited to, compounds having at least one bridge between the 4' and the 2' position of the pentofuranosyl sugar moiety wherein such bridges independently comprises 1 or from 2 to 4 linked groups independently selected from -[C(R a )(R b )]n-, -C(R a )=C(R b )-, -C(R a )=N-, -C(=0)-, -C(=NR a )-, -C(=S)-, -0-, -Si(R a ) 2 -, -S(=0) x -, and -N(R a )-;

wherein:

x is 0, 1, or 2;

n is 1, 2, 3, or 4;

each R a and Rb is, independently, H, a protecting group, hydroxyl, Ci-Ci 2 alkyl, substituted Ci-Ci 2 alkyl, C 2 -Ci 2 alkenyl, substituted C 2 -Ci 2 alkenyl, C 2 -Ci 2 alkynyl, substituted C 2 -Ci 2 alkynyl, C 5 -C 2 o aryl, substituted C 5 -C 2 o aryl, heterocycle radical, substituted heterocycle radical, heteroaryl, substituted heteroaryl, C5-C7 alicyclic radical, substituted C5-C7 alicyclic radical, halogen, OJi, NJiJ 2 , SJi, N 3 , COOJi, acyl (C(=0)-H), substituted acyl, CN, sulfonyl (S(=0) 2 -Ji), or sulfoxyl (S(=0)-Ji); and

each Ji and J 2 is, independently, H, Ci-Ci 2 alkyl, substituted Ci-Ci 2 alkyl, C 2 -Ci 2 alkenyl, substituted C 2 -Ci 2 alkenyl, C 2 -Ci 2 alkynyl, substituted C 2 -Ci 2 alkynyl, C 5 -C 2 o aryl, substituted C5- C 2 o aryl, acyl (C(=0)-H), substituted acyl, a heterocycle radical, a substituted heterocycle radical, Ci-Ci 2 aminoalkyl, substituted Ci-Ci 2 aminoalkyl or a protecting group.

In certain embodiments, the bridge of a bicyclic sugar moiety is -[C(R a )(Rb)] n - , -[C(R a )(R b )] n -0-, -C(R a R b )-N(R)-0- or -C(R a R b )-0-N(R)-. In certain embodiments, the bridge is 4'-CH 2 -2', 4'-(CH 2 ) 2 -2', 4'-(CH 2 )3-2', 4'-CH 2 -0-2', 4'-(CH 2 ) 2 -0-2', 4'-CH 2 -0-N(R)-2' and 4'-CH 2 - N(R)-0-2'- wherein each R is, independently, H, a protecting group or Ci-Ci 2 alkyl.

In certain embodiments, bicyclic nucleosides are further defined by isomeric configuration.

For example, a nucleoside comprising a 4 '-2' methylene-oxy bridge, may be in the a-L

configuration or in the β-D configuration. Previously, a-L-methyleneoxy (4'-CH 2 -0-2') BNA's have been incorporated into antisense oligonucleotides that showed antisense activity (Frieden et ah, Nucleic Acids Research, 2003, 21, 6365-6372).

In certain embodiments, bicyclic nucleosides include, but are not limited to, (A) a-L- methyleneoxy (4'-CH 2 -0-2') BNA , (B) β-D-methyleneoxy (4'-CH 2 -0-2') BNA , (C) ethyleneoxy (4'-(CH 2 )2-0-2') BNA , (D) aminooxy (4'-CH 2 -0-N(R)-2') BNA, (E) oxyamino (4'-CH 2 -N(R)-0- 2') BNA, and (F) methyl(methyleneoxy) (4'-CH(CH 3 )-0-2') BNA, (G) methylene-thio (4'-CH 2 -S- 2') BNA, (H) methylene-amino (4'-CH 2 -N(R)-2') BNA, (I) methyl carbocyclic (4'-CH 2 -CH(CH 3 )- 2') BNA, and (J) propylene carbocyclic (4'-(CH 2 ) 3 -2') BNA as depicted below.

(A) (B) (C)

wherein Bx is the base moiety and R is independently H, a protecting group or Ci-Ci 2 alkyl.

In certain embodiments, bicyclic nucleosides are provided having Formula I:

wherein:

Bx is a heterocyclic base moiety; -Qa-Qb-Qc- is -CH 2 -N(R C )-CH 2 -, -C(=0)-N(R c )-CH 2 -, -CH 2 -0-N(R c )-, -CH 2 -N(R c )-0- or - N(R c )-0-CH 2 ;

Rc is Ci-Ci 2 alkyl or an amino protecting group; and

T a and Tb are each, independently H, a hydroxyl protecting group, a conjugate group, a reactive phosphorus group, a phosphorus moiety or a covalent attachment to a support medium.

In certain embodiments, bicyclic nucleosides are provided having Formula II:

wherein:

Bx is a heterocyclic base moiety;

T a and Tb are each, independently H, a hydroxyl protecting group, a conjugate group, a reactive phosphorus group, a phosphorus moiety or a covalent attachment to a support medium;

Z a is Ci-C 6 alkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 alkynyl, substituted Ci-C 6 alkyl, substituted C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, substituted C 2 -C 6 alkynyl, acyl, substituted acyl, substituted amide, thiol or substituted thio.

In one embodiment, each of the substituted groups is, independently, mono or poly substituted with substituent groups independently selected from halogen, oxo, hydroxyl, OJ c , NJ c Jd, SJ C , N 3 , OC(=X)J c , and NJ e C(=X)NJ c J d , wherein each J c , J d and J e is, independently, H, Ci-C 6 alkyl, or substituted Ci-C 6 alkyl and X is O or NJ C .

In certain embodiments, bicyclic nucleosides are provided having Formula III:

wherein:

Bx is a heterocyclic base moiety;

T a and Tb are each, independently H, a hydroxyl protecting group, a conjugate group, a reactive phosphorus group, a phosphorus moiety or a covalent attachment to a support medium; Z b is Ci-C 6 alkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 alkynyl, substituted Ci-C 6 alkyl, substituted C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, substituted C 2 -C 6 alkynyl or substituted acyl (C(=0)-).

In certain embodiments, bicyclic nucleosides are provided having Formula IV:

wherein:

Bx is a heterocyclic base moiety;

T a and T b are each, independently H, a hydroxyl protecting group, a conjugate group, a reactive phosphorus group, a phosphorus moiety or a covalent attachment to a support medium;

R d is Ci-C 6 alkyl, substituted Ci-C 6 alkyl, C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, substituted C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 alkynyl or substituted C 2 -C 6 alkynyl;

each q a , q b , q c and qa is, independently, H, halogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, substituted Ci-C 6 alkyl, C 2 - C 6 alkenyl, substituted C 2 -C 6 alkenyl, C 2 -C 6 alkynyl or substituted C 2 -C 6 alkynyl, Ci-C 6 alkoxyl, substituted Ci-C 6 alkoxyl, acyl, substituted acyl, Ci-C 6 aminoalkyl or substituted Ci-C 6 aminoalkyl;

In certain embodiments, bicyclic nucleosides are provided having Formula V:

wherein:

Bx is a heterocyclic base moiety;

T a and T b are each, independently H, a hydroxyl protecting group, a conjugate group, a reactive phosphorus group, a phosphorus moiety or a covalent attachment to a support medium; q a , q b , q e and q f are each, independently, hydrogen, halogen, C 1 -C 12 alkyl, substituted C 1 -C 12 alkyl, C2-C12 alkenyl, substituted C2-C12 alkenyl, C2-C12 alkynyl, substituted C2-C12 alkynyl, C1-C12 alkoxy, substituted C1-C12 alkoxy, OJj, SJj, SOJj, S0 2 Jj, NJjJ k , N 3 , CN, C(=0)OJj, C(=0)NJjJ k , C(=0)Jj, 0-C(=0)NJjJ k , N(H)C(=NH)NJjJ k , N(H)C(=0)NJjJ k or (H)C(=S)NJjJ k ; or q e and q f together are =C(q g )(q h );

q g and q h are each, independently, H, halogen, C1-C12 alkyl or substituted C1-C12 alkyl. The synthesis and preparation of the methyleneoxy (4'-CH2-0-2') BNA monomers adenine, cytosine, guanine, 5-methyl-cytosine, thymine and uracil, along with their oligomerization, and nucleic acid recognition properties have been described (Koshkin et al., Tetrahedron, 1998, 54, 3607-3630). BNAs and preparation thereof are also described in WO 98/39352 and WO 99/14226.

Analogs of methyleneoxy (4'-CH 2 -0-2') BNA and 2'-thio-BNAs, have also been prepared (Kumar et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 1998, 8, 2219-2222). Preparation of locked nucleoside analogs comprising oligodeoxyribonucleotide duplexes as substrates for nucleic acid polymerases has also been described (Wengel et al., WO 99/14226 ). Furthermore, synthesis of 2'-amino-BNA, a novel comformationally restricted high-affinity oligonucleotide analog has been described in the art (Singh et al., J. Org. Chem., 1998 , 63, 10035-10039). In addition, 2'-amino- and 2'-methylamino- BNA's have been prepared and the thermal stability of their duplexes with complementary RNA and DNA strands has been previously reported.

cyclic nucleosides are provided having Formula VI:

wherein:

Bx is a heterocyclic base moiety;

T a and T b are each, independently H, a hydroxyl protecting group, a conjugate group, a reactive phosphorus group, a phosphorus moiety or a covalent attachment to a support medium; each qi, q j , q^ and qi is, independently, H, halogen, C1-C12 alkyl, substituted C1-C12 alkyl, C2- C12 alkenyl, substituted C2-C12 alkenyl, C2-C12 alkynyl, substituted C2-C12 alkynyl, C1-C12 alkoxyl, substituted C Ci 2 alkoxyl, OJ j , SJ j , SOJ j , S0 2 J j , NJ j J k , N 3 , CN, C(=0)OJ j , C(=0)NJ j J k , C(=0)J j , O- C(=0)NJ j J k , N(H)C(=NH)NJ j J k , N(H)C(=0)NJ j J k or N(H)C(=S)NJ j J k ; and

qi and q j or qi and q k together are =C(q g )(q h ), wherein q g and q h are each, independently, H, halogen, C1-C12 alkyl or substituted C1-C12 alkyl.

One carbocyclic bicyclic nucleoside having a 4'-(CH2) 3 -2' bridge and the alkenyl analog bridge 4'-ΟΗ=ΟΗ-ΟΗ 2 -2' have been described (Freier et al., Nucleic Acids Research, 1997, 25(22), 4429-4443 and Albaek et al, J. Org. Chem., 2006, 71, 7731-7740). The synthesis and preparation of carbocyclic bicyclic nucleosides along with their oligomerization and biochemical studies have also been described (Srivastava et al, J. Am. Chem. Soc, 2007, 129(26), 8362-8379).

As used herein, "4'-2' bicyclic nucleoside" or "4' to 2' bicyclic nucleoside" refers to a bicyclic nucleoside comprising a furanose ring comprising a bridge connecting two carbon atoms of the furanose ring connects the 2' carbon atom and the 4' carbon atom of the sugar ring.

As used herein, "monocylic nucleosides" refer to nucleosides comprising modified sugar moieties that are not bicyclic sugar moieties. In certain embodiments, the sugar moiety, or sugar moiety analogue, of a nucleoside may be modified or substituted at any position.

As used herein, "2'-modified sugar" means a furanosyl sugar modified at the 2' position. In certain embodiments, such modifications include substituents selected from: a halide, including, but not limited to substituted and unsubstituted alkoxy, substituted and unsubstituted thioalkyl, substituted and unsubstituted amino alkyl, substituted and unsubstituted alkyl, substituted and unsubstituted allyl, and substituted and unsubstituted alkynyl. In certain embodiments, 2' modifications are selected from substituents including, but not limited to: 0[(CH 2 ) n O] m CH 3 , 0(CH 2 ) n NH 2 , 0(CH 2 ) n CH 3 , 0(CH 2 ) n F, 0(CH 2 ) n ONH 2 , OCH 2 C(=0)N(H)CH 3, and

0(CH 2 ) n ON[(CH 2 ) n CH 3 ] 2 , where n and m are from 1 to about 10. Other 2'- substituent groups can also be selected from: Ci-Ci 2 alkyl, substituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, alkaryl, aralkyl, O-alkaryl or O-aralkyl, SH, SCH 3 , OCN, CI, Br, CN, F, CF 3 , OCF 3 , SOCH 3 , S0 2 CH 3 , ON0 2 , N0 2 , N 3 , NH 2 , heterocycloalkyl, heterocycloalkaryl, aminoalkylamino, polyalkylamino, substituted silyl, an RNA cleaving group, a reporter group, an intercalator, a group for improving pharmacokinetic properties, or a group for improving the pharmacodynamic properties of an antisense compound, and other substituents having similar properties. In certain embodiments, modifed nucleosides comprise a 2'- MOE side chain (Baker et al, J. Biol Chem., 1997, 272, 1 1944-12000). Such 2'-MOE substitution have been described as having improved binding affinity compared to unmodified nucleosides and to other modified nucleosides, such as 2'- O-methyl, O-propyl, and (9-aminopropyl.

Oligonucleotides having the 2'-MOE substituent also have been shown to be antisense inhibitors of gene expression with promising features for in vivo use (Martin, Helv. Chim. Acta, 1995, 78, 486- 504; Altmann et al, Chimia, 1996, 50, 168-176; Altmann et al, Biochem. Soc. Trans., 1996, 24, 630-637; and Altmann et al, Nucleosides Nucleotides, 1997 ' , 16, 917-926).

As used herein, a "modified tetrahydropyran nucleoside" or "modified THP nucleoside" means a nucleoside having a six-membered tetrahydropyran "sugar" substituted in for the pentofuranosyl residue in normal nucleosides (a sugar surrogate). Modified THP nucleosides include, but are not limited to, what is referred to in the art as hexitol nucleic acid (HNA), anitol nucleic acid (ANA), manitol nucleic acid (MNA) (see Leumann, Bioorg. Med. Chem., 2002, 10, -854), fluoro HNA (F-HNA) or those compounds having Formula VII:

VII wherein independently for each of said at least one tetrahydropyran nucleoside analog of Formula VII:

Bx is a heterocyclic base moiety;

T a and Tb are each, independently, an internucleoside linking group linking the tetrahydropyran nucleoside analog to the antisense compound or one of T a and T b is an

internucleoside linking group linking the tetrahydropyran nucleoside analog to the antisense compound and the other of T a and T b is H, a hydroxyl protecting group, a linked conjugate group or a 5' or 3'-terminal group;

qi, q 2 , q 3 , q4, q 5 , q 6 and q 7 are each independently, H, Ci-C 6 alkyl, substituted Ci-C 6 alkyl, C 2 -C6 alkenyl, substituted C 2 -C6 alkenyl, C 2 -C6 alkynyl or substituted C 2 -C6 alkynyl; and each of Ri and R 2 is selected from hydrogen, hydroxyl, halogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkoxy, NJiJ 2 , SJi, N 3 , OC(=X)Ji, OC(=X)NJi J 2 , NJ 3 C(=X)NJiJ 2 and CN, wherein X is O, S or NJi and each J J 2 and J 3 is, independently, H or Ci-C 6 alkyl.

In certain embodiments, the modified THP nucleosides of Formula VII are provided wherein qi, q 2 , q 3 , q4, q 5 , q 6 and q 7 are each H. In certain embodiments, at least one of qi, q 2 , q 3 , q4, q 5 , q 6 and q 7 is other than H. In certain embodiments, at least one of qi, q 2 , q 3 , q4, q 5 , q 6 and q 7 is methyl. In certain embodiments, THP nucleosides of Formula VII are provided wherein one of Ri and R 2 is fluoro. In certain embodiments, Ri is fluoro and R 2 is H; Ri is methoxy and R 2 is H, and Ri is H and R 2 is methoxyethoxy.

As used herein, "2 '-modified" or "2 '-substituted" refers to a nucleoside comprising a sugar comprising a substituent at the 2' position other than H or OH. 2 '-modified nucleosides, include, but are not limited to, bicyclic nucleosides wherein the bridge connecting two carbon atoms of the sugar ring connects the 2 ' carbon and another carbon of the sugar ring; and nucleosides with non- bridging 2'substituents, such as allyl, amino, azido, thio, O-allyl, O-Ci-Cio alkyl, -OCF 3 , 0-(CH 2 ) 2 - O-CH 3 , 2'-0(CH 2 ) 2 SCH 3 , 0-(CH 2 ) 2 -0-N(R m )(R n ), or 0-CH 2 -C(=0)-N(R m )(R n ), where each R m and R n is, independently, H or substituted or unsubstituted C1-C10 alkyl. 2'-modifed nucleosides may further comprise other modifications, for example at other positions of the sugar and/or at the nucleobase.

As used herein, "2'-F" refers to a nucleoside comprising a sugar comprising a fluoro group at the 2' position.

As used herein, "2'-OMe" or "2'-OCH 3 " or "2'-0-methyl" each refers to a nucleoside comprising a sugar comprising an -OCH 3 group at the 2' position of the sugar ring.

As used herein, "MOE" or "2'-MOE" or "2'-OCH 2 CH 2 OCH 3 " or "2'-0-methoxyethyl" each refers to a nucleoside comprising a sugar comprising a -OCH 2 CH 2 OCH 3 group at the 2' position of the sugar ring.

As used herein, "oligonucleotide" refers to a compound comprising a plurality of linked nucleosides. In certain embodiments, one or more of the plurality of nucleosides is modified. In certain embodiments, an oligonucleotide comprises one or more ribonucleosides (R A) and/or deoxyribonucleosides (DNA).

Many other bicyclo and tricyclo sugar surrogate ring systems are also known in the art that can be used to modify nucleosides for incorporation into antisense compounds (see for example review article: Leumann, Bioorg. Med. Chem., 2002, 10, 841-854).

Such ring systems can undergo various additional substitutions to enhance activity.

Methods for the preparations of modified sugars are well known to those skilled in the art. In nucleotides having modified sugar moieties, the nucleobase moieties (natural, modified or a combination thereof) are maintained for hybridization with an appropriate nucleic acid target.

In certain embodiments, antisense compounds comprise one or more nucleosides having modified sugar moieties. In certain embodiments, the modified sugar moiety is 2'-MOE. In certain embodiments, the 2' -MOE modified nucleosides are arranged in a gapmer motif. In certain embodiments, the modified sugar moiety is a bicyclic nucleoside having a (4'-CH(CH 3 )-0-2') bridging group. In certain embodiments, the (4'-ΟΗ(ΟΗ 3 )-0-2') modified nucleosides are arranged throughout the wings of a gapmer motif. Compositions and Methods for Formulating Pharmaceutical Compositions

Antisense oligonucleotides may be admixed with pharmaceutically acceptable active or inert substances for the preparation of pharmaceutical compositions or formulations. Compositions and methods for the formulation of pharmaceutical compositions are dependent upon a number of criteria, including, but not limited to, route of administration, extent of disease, or dose to be administered.

An antisense compound targeted to a C90RF72 nucleic acid can be utilized in

pharmaceutical compositions by combining the antisense compound with a suitable

pharmaceutically acceptable diluent or carrier. A pharmaceutically acceptable diluent includes phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). PBS is a diluent suitable for use in compositions to be delivered parenterally. Accordingly, in one embodiment, employed in the methods described herein is a pharmaceutical composition comprising an antisense compound targeted to a C90RF72 nucleic acid and a pharmaceutically acceptable diluent. In certain embodiments, the pharmaceutically acceptable diluent is PBS. In certain embodiments, the antisense compound is an antisense oligonucleotide.

Pharmaceutical compositions comprising antisense compounds encompass any

pharmaceutically acceptable salts, esters, or salts of such esters, or any other oligonucleotide which, upon administration to an animal, including a human, is capable of providing (directly or indirectly) the biologically active metabolite or residue thereof. Accordingly, for example, the disclosure is also drawn to pharmaceutically acceptable salts of antisense compounds, prodrugs, pharmaceutically acceptable salts of such prodrugs, and other bioequivalents. Suitable pharmaceutically acceptable salts include, but are not limited to, sodium and potassium salts.

A prodrug can include the incorporation of additional nucleosides at one or both ends of an antisense compound which are cleaved by endogenous nucleases within the body, to form the active antisense compound.

Conjugated Antisense Compounds

Antisense compounds may be covalently linked to one or more moieties or conjugates which enhance the activity, cellular distribution or cellular uptake of the resulting antisense oligonucleotides. Typical conjugate groups include cholesterol moieties and lipid moieties.

Additional conjugate groups include carbohydrates, phospholipids, biotin, phenazine, folate, phenanthridine, anthraquinone, acridine, fluoresceins, rhodamines, coumarins, and dyes. Antisense compounds can also be modified to have one or more stabilizing groups that are generally attached to one or both termini of antisense compounds to enhance properties such as, for example, nuclease stability. Included in stabilizing groups are cap structures. These terminal modifications protect the antisense compound having terminal nucleic acid from exonuclease degradation, and can help in delivery and/or localization within a cell. The cap can be present at the 5'-terminus (5'-cap), or at the 3'-terminus (3'-cap), or can be present on both termini. Cap structures are well known in the art and include, for example, inverted deoxy abasic caps. Further 3' and 5'- stabilizing groups that can be used to cap one or both ends of an antisense compound to impart nuclease stability include those disclosed in WO 03/004602 published on January 16, 2003.

Cell culture and antisense compounds treatment

The effects of antisense compounds on the level, activity or expression of C90RF72 nucleic acids can be tested in vitro in a variety of cell types. Cell types used for such analyses are available from commerical vendors {e.g. American Type Culture Collection, Manassus, VA; Zen- Bio, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC; Clonetics Corporation, Walkersville, MD) and are cultured according to the vendor's instructions using commercially available reagents (e.g. Invitrogen Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA). Illustrative cell types include, but are not limited to, HepG2 cells, Hep3B cells, and primary hepatocytes. In vitro testing of antisense oligonucleotides

Described herein are methods for treatment of cells with antisense oligonucleotides, which can be modified appropriately for treatment with other antisense compounds.

In general, cells are treated with antisense oligonucleotides when the cells reach approximately 60-80% confluency in culture.

One reagent commonly used to introduce antisense oligonucleotides into cultured cells includes the cationic lipid transfection reagent LIPOFECTIN (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). Antisense oligonucleotides are mixed with LIPOFECTIN in OPTI-MEM 1 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) to achieve the desired final concentration of antisense oligonucleotide and a LIPOFECTIN

concentration that typically ranges 2 to 12 ug/mL per 100 nM antisense oligonucleotide.

Another reagent used to introduce antisense oligonucleotides into cultured cells includes

LIPOFECTAMINE (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). Antisense oligonucleotide is mixed with

LIPOFECTAMINE in OPTI-MEM 1 reduced serum medium (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) to achieve the desired concentration of antisense oligonucleotide and a LIPOFECTAMINE concentration that typically ranges 2 to 12 ug/mL per 100 nM antisense oligonucleotide.

Another technique used to introduce antisense oligonucleotides into cultured cells includes electroporation.

Cells are treated with antisense oligonucleotides by routine methods. Cells are typically harvested 16-24 hours after antisense oligonucleotide treatment, at which time RNA or protein levels of target nucleic acids are measured by methods known in the art and described herein. In general, when treatments are performed in multiple replicates, the data are presented as the average of the replicate treatments.

The concentration of antisense oligonucleotide used varies from cell line to cell line.

Methods to determine the optimal antisense oligonucleotide concentration for a particular cell line are well known in the art. Antisense oligonucleotides are typically used at concentrations ranging from 1 nM to 300 nM when transfected with LIPOFECTAMINE. Antisense oligonucleotides are used at higher concentrations ranging from 625 to 20,000 nM when transfected using

electroporation.

RNA Isolation

RNA analysis can be performed on total cellular RNA or poly(A)+ mRNA. Methods of RNA isolation are well known in the art. RNA is prepared using methods well known in the art, for example, using the TRIZOL Reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) according to the manufacturer's recommended protocols.

Analysis of inhibition of target levels or expression

Inhibition of levels or expression of a C90RF72 nucleic acid can be assayed in a variety of ways known in the art. For example, target nucleic acid levels can be quantitated by, e.g., Northern blot analysis, competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or quantitaive real-time PCR. RNA analysis can be performed on total cellular RNA or poly(A)+ mRNA. Methods of RNA isolation are well known in the art. Northern blot analysis is also routine in the art. Quantitative real-time PCR can be conveniently accomplished using the commercially available ABI PRISM 7600, 7700, or 7900 Sequence Detection System, available from PE-Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA and used according to manufacturer's instructions. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Target RNA Levels

Quantitation of target RNA levels may be accomplished by quantitative real-time PCR using the ABI PRISM 7600, 7700, or 7900 Sequence Detection System (PE- Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) according to manufacturer's instructions. Methods of quantitative real-time PCR are well known in the art.

Prior to real-time PCR, the isolated RNA is subjected to a reverse transcriptase (RT) reaction, which produces complementary DNA (cDNA) that is then used as the substrate for the real-time PCR amplification. The RT and real-time PCR reactions are performed sequentially in the same sample well. RT and real-time PCR reagents are obtained from Invitrogen (Carlsbad, CA). RT real-time-PCR reactions are carried out by methods well known to those skilled in the art.

Gene (or RNA) target quantities obtained by real time PCR are normalized using either the expression level of a gene whose expression is constant, such as cyclophilin A, or by quantifying total RNA using RIBOGREEN (Invitrogen, Inc. Carlsbad, CA). Cyclophilin A expression is quantified by real time PCR, by being run simultaneously with the target, multiplexing, or separately. Total RNA is quantified using RIBOGREEN RNA quantification reagent (Invetrogen, Inc. Eugene, OR). Methods of RNA quantification by RIBOGREEN are taught in Jones, L.J., et al, (Analytical Biochemistry, 1998, 265, 368-374). A CYTOFLUOR 4000 instrument (PE Applied Biosystems) is used to measure RIBOGREEN fluorescence.

Probes and primers are designed to hybridize to a C90RF72 nucleic acid. Methods for designing real-time PCR probes and primers are well known in the art, and may include the use of software such as PRIMER EXPRESS Software (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA).

Analysis of Protein Levels

Antisense inhibition of C90RF72 nucleic acids can be assessed by measuring C90RF72 protein levels. Protein levels of C90RF72 can be evaluated or quantitated in a variety of ways well known in the art, such as immunoprecipitation, Western blot analysis (immunoblotting), enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), quantitative protein assays, protein activity assays (for example, caspase activity assays), immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry or fluorescence- activated cell sorting (FACS). Antibodies directed to a target can be identified and obtained from a variety of sources, such as the MSRS catalog of antibodies (Aerie Corporation, Birmingham, MI), or can be prepared via conventional monoclonal or polyclonal antibody generation methods well known in the art. Antibodies useful for the detection of mouse, rat, monkey, and human C90RF72 are commercially available.

In vivo testing of antisense compounds

Antisense compounds, for example, antisense oligonucleotides, are tested in animals to assess their ability to inhibit expression of C90RF72 and produce phenotypic changes, such as, improved motor function and respiration. In certain embodiments, motor function is measured by rotarod, grip strength, pole climb, open field performance, balance beam, hindpaw footprint testing in the animal. In certain embodiments, respiration is measured by whole body plethysmograph, invasive resistance, and compliance measurements in the animal. Testing may be performed in normal animals, or in experimental disease models. For administration to animals, antisense oligonucleotides are formulated in a pharmaceutically acceptable diluent, such as phosphate- buffered saline. Administration includes parenteral routes of administration, such as intraperitoneal, intravenous, and subcutaneous. Calculation of antisense oligonucleotide dosage and dosing frequency is within the abilities of those skilled in the art, and depends upon factors such as route of administration and animal body weight. Following a period of treatment with antisense

oligonucleotides, RNA is isolated from CNS tissue or CSF and changes in C90RF72 nucleic acid expression are measured. Targeting C90RF72

Antisense oligonucleotides described herein may hybridize to a C90RF72 nucleic acid in any stage of RNA processing. For example, described herein are antisense oligonucleotides that are complementary to a pre-mRNA or a mature mRNA. Additionally, antisense oligonucleotides described herein may hybridize to any element of a C90RF72 nucleic acid. For example, described herein are antisense oligonucleotides that are complementary to an exon, an intron, the 5' UTR, the 3' UTR, a repeat region, a hexanucleotide repeat expansion, a splice junction, an exon: exon splice junction, an exonic splicing silencer (ESS), an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE), exon la, exon lb, exon lc, exon Id, exon le, exon 2, exon 3, exon 4, exon 5, exon 6, exon 7, exon 8, exon 9, exon 10, exon 1 1, intron 1, intron 2, intron 3, intron 4, intron 5, intron 6, intron 7, intron 8, intron 9, or intron 10 of a C90RF72 nucleic acid.

In certain embodiments, antisense oligonucleotides described herein hybridize to all variants of C90RF72. In certain embodiments, the antisense oligonucleotides described herein selectively hybridize to certain variants of C90RF72. In certain embodiments, the antisense oligonucleotides described herein selectively hybridize to variants of C90RF72 containing a hexanucleotide repeat expansion. In certain embodiments, such variants of C90RF72 containing a hexanucleotide repeat expansion include SEQ ID NO: 1-3 and 6-10. In certain embodiments, such hexanucleotide repeat expansion comprises at least 30 repeats of any of GGGGCC, GGGGGG, GGGGGC, or GGGGCG.

In certain embodiments, the antisense oligonucleotides described herein inhibit expression of all variants of C90RF72. In certain embodiments, the antisense oligonucleotides described herein inhibit expression of all variants of C90RF72 equally. In certain embodiments, the antisense oligonucleotides described herein preferentially inhibit expression of certain variants of C90RF72. In certain embodiments, the antisense oligonucleotides described herein preferentially inhibit expression of variants of C90RF72 containing a hexanucleotide repeat expansion. In certain embodiments, such variants of C90RF72 containing a hexanucleotide repeat expansion include SEQ ID NO: 1-3 and 6-10. In certain embodiments, such hexanucleotide repeat expansion comprises at least 30 repeats of any of GGGGCC, GGGGGG, GGGGGC, or GGGGCG. In certain embodiments, the hexanucleotide repeat expansion forms nuclear foci. In certain embodiments, antisense oligonucleotides described herein are useful for reducing nuclear foci. Nuclear foci may be reduced in terms of percent of cells with foci as well as number of foci per cell. In certain embodiments, the hexanucleotide repeat expanstion causes various expresion of various genes to be misregulated. In certain embodiments, antisense oligonucleotides described herein are useful for normalizing expression of various misregulated genes. In certain embodiments, the hexanucleotide repeat expansion causes nuclear retention of various proteins. In certain embodiments, the antisense oligonucleotides described herein are useful for reducing nuclear retention of various proteins.

Based on earlier studies directed to repeat expansions, it is not possible to predict if antisense oligonucleotides targeting C90RF72 outside of the hexanucleotide repeat expansion would successfully inhibit expression of C90RF72 for two reasons. First, the C90RF72 repeat expansion is located in an intron and it is not known if the RNA in the foci contains only the repeats or also the flanking intronic sequence. For example, an earlier study on myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2), which is a disease caused by a CCTG expansion mutation in intron 1 of the ZNF9 gene, determined that large DM2 expansions did not prevent allele-specific pre-mRNA splicing, nuclear export of the transcripts, or steady-state mRNA or protein levels. The study further demonstrated that the ribonuclear inclusions found associated with the disease are enriched for the CCUG expansion, but not the flanking intronic sequences. These data suggest that the downstream molecular effects of the DM2 mutation may be triggered by the accumulation of CCUG repeat tract alone. Therefore, this study implies that targeting the CCUG repeat expansion alone would lead to amelioration of the disease, since targeting the flanking sequences, especially the region

downstream of the repeat expansion, would not affect the formation of ribonuclear inclusions

(Margolis et al. Hum. Mol. Genet., 2006, 15: 1808-1815). Second, it is not known how fast intron 1 of C90RF72, which contains the repeats, is excised and accumulates in foci. Thus, it is not possible to predict if targeting the pre-mRNA would result in elimination of the repeat RNA and foci. C90FF72 Features

Antisense oligonucleotides described herein may hybridize to any C90RF72 variant at any state of processing within any element of the C90RF72 gene. For example, antisense

oligonucleotides described herein may hybridize to an exon, an intron, the 5 ' UTR, the 3 ' UTR, a repeat region, a hexanucleotide repeat expansion, a splice junction, an exomexon splice junction, an exonic splicing silencer (ESS), an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE), exon la, exon lb, exon lc, exon Id, exon le, exon 2, exon 3, exon 4, exon 5, exon 6, exon 7, exon 8, exon 9, exon 10, exon 11, intron 1, intron 2, intron 3, intron 4, intron 5, intron 6, intron 7, intron 8, intron 9, or intron 10. For example, antisense oligonucleotides may target any of the exons characterized below in Tables 1-5 for the various C90RF72 variants described below. Antisense oligonucleotides described herein may also target variants not characterized below and such variants are characterized in GENBANK. Moreover, antisense oligonucleotides described herein may also target elements other than exons and such elements are characterized in GENBANK.

Table 1

Functional Segments for NM 001256054.1 (SEQ ID NO: 1)

Start site Stop site

mRNA mRNA in in

Exon

start stop reference reference

Number

site site to SEQ to SEQ

ID NO: 2 ID NO: 2

exon 1C 1 158 1 137 1294 exon 2 159 646 7839 8326 exon 3 647 706 9413 9472 exon 4 707 802 12527 12622 exon 5 803 867 13354 13418 exon 6 868 940 14704 14776 exon 7 941 1057 16396 16512 exon 8 1058 1293 18207 18442 exon 9 1294 1351 24296 24353 exon 10 1352 1461 26337 26446 exon 11 1462 3339 26581 28458

Table 2

Functional Segments for NM_018325.3 (SEQ ID NO: 4)

Table 3

Functional Segments for NM 145005.5 (SEQ ID NO: 6)

Table 4

Functional Segments for DB079375.1 (SEQ ID NO: 7)

Table 5

Functional Segments for BUI 94591.1 (SEQ ID NO: 8)

Certain Indications

In certain embodiments, provided herein are methods of treating an individual comprising administering one or more pharmaceutical compositions described herein. In certain embodiments, the individual has a neurodegenerative disease. In certain embodiments, the individual is at risk for developing a neurodegenerative disease, including, but not limited to, ALS or FTD. In certain embodiments, the individual has been identified as having a C90RF72 associated disease. In certain embodiments, the individual has been identified as having a C90RF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion associated disease. In certain embodiments, provided herein are methods for

prophylactically reducing C90RF72 expression in an individual. Certain embodiments include treating an individual in need thereof by administering to an individual a therapeutically effective amount of an antisense compound targeted to a C90RF72 nucleic acid.

In one embodiment, administration of a therapeutically effective amount of an antisense compound targeted to a C90RF72 nucleic acid is accompanied by monitoring of C90RF72 levels in an individual, to determine an individual's response to administration of the antisense compound. An individual's response to administration of the antisense compound may be used by a physician to determine the amount and duration of therapeutic intervention.

In certain embodiments, administration of an antisense compound targeted to a C90RF72 nucleic acid results in reduction of C90RF72 expression by at least 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 or 99%, or a range defined by any two of these values. In certain embodiments, administration of an antisense compound targeted to a C90RF72 nucleic acid results in improved motor function and respiration in an animal. In certain embodiments, administration of a C90RF72 antisense compound improves motor function and respiration by at least 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 or 99%, or a range defined by any two of these values.

In certain embodiments, pharmaceutical compositions comprising an antisense compound targeted to C90RF72 are used for the preparation of a medicament for treating a patient suffering or susceptible to a neurodegenerative disease including ALS and FTD.

Certain Combination Therapies

In certain embodiments, one or more pharmaceutical compositions described herein are coadministered with one or more other pharmaceutical agents. In certain embodiments, such one or more other pharmaceutical agents are designed to treat the same disease, disorder, or condition as the one or more pharmaceutical compositions described herein. In certain embodiments, such one or more other pharmaceutical agents are designed to treat a different disease, disorder, or condition as the one or more pharmaceutical compositions described herein. In certain embodiments, such one or more other pharmaceutical agents are designed to treat an undesired side effect of one or more pharmaceutical compositions described herein. In certain embodiments, one or more pharmaceutical compositions described herein are co-administered with another pharmaceutical agent to treat an undesired effect of that other pharmaceutical agent. In certain embodiments, one or more pharmaceutical compositions described herein are co-administered with another

pharmaceutical agent to produce a combinational effect. In certain embodiments, one or more pharmaceutical compositions described herein are co-administered with another pharmaceutical agent to produce a synergistic effect.

In certain embodiments, one or more pharmaceutical compositions described herein and one or more other pharmaceutical agents are administered at the same time. In certain embodiments, one or more pharmaceutical compositions described herein and one or more other pharmaceutical agents are administered at different times. In certain embodiments, one or more pharmaceutical compositions described herein and one or more other pharmaceutical agents are prepared together in a single formulation. In certain embodiments, one or more pharmaceutical compositions described herein and one or more other pharmaceutical agents are prepared separately.

In certain embodiments, pharmaceutical agents that may be co-administered with a pharmaceutical composition described herein include Riluzole (Rilutek), Lioresal (Lioresal), and Dexpramipexole.

In certain embodiments, pharmaceutical agents that may be co-administered with a

C90RF72 specific inhibitor described herein include, but are not limited to, an additional C90RF72 inhibitor. In certain embodiments, the co-adminstered pharmaceutical agent is administered prior to administration of a pharmaceutical composition described herein. In certain embodiments, the coadministered pharmaceutical agent is administered following administration of a pharmaceutical composition described herein. In certain embodiments the co-administered pharmaceutical agent is administered at the same time as a pharmaceutical composition described herein. In certain embodiments the dose of a co-administered pharmaceutical agent is the same as the dose that would be administered if the co-administered pharmaceutical agent was administered alone. In certain embodiments the dose of a co-administered pharmaceutical agent is lower than the dose that would be administered if the co-administered pharmaceutical agent was administered alone. In certain embodiments the dose of a co-administered pharmaceutical agent is greater than the dose that would be administered if the co-administered pharmaceutical agent was administered alone.

In certain embodiments, the co-administration of a second compound enhances the effect of a first compound, such that co-administration of the compounds results in an effect that is greater than the effect of administering the first compound alone. In other embodiments, the co- administration results in effects that are additive of the effects of the compounds when administered alone. In certain embodiments, the co-administration results in effects that are supra-additive of the effects of the compounds when administered alone. In certain embodiments, the first compound is an antisense compound. In certain embodiments, the second compound is an antisense compound. EXAMPLES

Non-limiting disclosure and incorporation by reference

While certain compounds, compositions, and methods described herein have been described with specificity in accordance with certain embodiments, the following examples serve only to illustrate the compounds described herein and are not intended to limit the same. Each of the references recited in the present application is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

Example 1 : Effect of antisense inhibition of human C90RF72 in human primary fibroblasts

Antisense oligonucleotides were designed targeting various regions of the C90RF72 gene (the complement of GENBANK Accession No. NT 008413.18 truncated from nucleotides 27535000 to

27565000, designated herein as SEQ ID NO: 2). The target start site, target region, and description of each antisense oligonucleotide are specified in Table 6 below. The italicized and underlined nucleosides denote 2'- O-methyl RNA bases; the bolded nucleosides indicate a DNA phosphorothioate backbone. As observed from the Table, several of the antisense oligonucleotides target intron 1 and, therefore, target the pre-mRNA sequence of C90RF72. Intron 1 of C90RF72 contains the hexanucleotide repeat.

Additional antisense oligonucleotides were designed targeting various regions of the C90RF72 gene.

The antisense oligonucleotides in Table 7 were designed as 5-10-5 MOE gapmers. The gapmers are 20 nucleosides in length, wherein the central gap segment comprises ten 2'-deoxynucleosides and is flanked by wing segments on both the 5' end and on the 3' end comprising five nucleosides each. Each nucleoside in the 5' wing segment and each nucleoside in the 3' wing segment has a MOE modification. The internucleoside linkages throughout each gapmer are phosphorothioate linkages. All cytosine residues throughout each gapmer are 5-methylcytosines. Each antisense oligonucleotide listed in Table 7 is targeted to the SEQ ID

NO: 2.

Table 6

Antisense oligonucleotides targeting SEQ ID NO: 2

Table 7

Antisense oligonucleotides targeting SEQ ID NO: 2

The antisense oligonucleotides were tested in human primary fibroblasts. Human primary fibroblasts were plated at 20,000 cells/well and transfected using Cytofectin reagent with 100 nM of antisense oligonucleotide. After an incubation period of 3 days, C90RF72 total mRNA levels were measured by RT- qPCR (Figure lb). The figure presents the total mRNA levels of C90RF72. GAPDH mRNA levels are also presented to show equal RNA loading of the gel. The data indicates that treatment with ASOs 1, 4, and 5 produce the strongest knockdown of C90RF72 total mRNA. Table 8 also presents the results of treatment of the cells with ISIS 577816, ISIS 577083, and ISIS 577061.

Figure la also presents the targeting regions of ASOs 1-5 with respect to the C90RF72 mRNA variant 1, GENBANK Accession No. NM 145005.4 (designated herein as SEQ ID NO: 6) and mRNA variant 2, GENBANK Accession No. NM 018325.2 (designated herein as SEQ ID NO: 4). The percent expression levels of the total mature mRNA levels of each variant (V 1 and V2), as well as the expression levels of the pre-mRNA levels of each variant is presented in Table 8. The individual RNA levels were measured with the NanoString nCounter™ gene expression system (NanoString® Technologies).

Table 8

% expression of C90RF72 mRNA variants 1 and 2 after ASO treatment

Example 2: Effect of antisense inhibition of human C90RF72 on aberrant gene expression in

ALS/FTD patient fibroblast

To examine the effects of C90RF72 mutation on gene expression and potential splicing events, several ALS/FTD-derived fibroblast cell lines were propagated and gene array analyses were performed. Gene array analyses were performed using Human Exon 1.0 ST array (Affymetrix). Induced pluripotent cell lines (iPSC) line 34, iPSC# 850 (expansion copy number 916); line 50 iPSC# 816 (copy number 1,150); and line 75, iPSC# 1280 (copy number 950) were used.

C9orf75 line 50 was compared with cell line 75. Patient-derived cell lines showed a very similar gene expression profile (R 2 = 0.991), even though the patients, from whom the fibroblasts were derived, were not related to each other. Hence, the data suggests that different patient-derived fibroblasts exhibit a similar transcriptome, supporting a C90RF72-specific ASO therapeutic intervention approach.

The gene expression profile of the C90RF72 fibroblasts was compared with fibroblasts obtained from ALS patients carrying a different familial gene mutation for SOD1 (SOD1 D90A ). There was very little overlap of altered genes in the C90RF72 fibroblasts when compared to the ALS mutant SOD1 fibroblasts. The gene expression profile of the C90RF72 fibroblasts was compared with healthy control fibroblasts.

To confirm that the data from C90RF72 fibroblasts simulated events in vivo, postmortem brain tissue was obtained from C90RF72 ALS patients and analyzed. The dysregulated genes discovered in the human fibroblast analyses were similarly altered in the cerebellar tissue of ALS C90RF72 patients. The expression of one of the genes, ENPP2, which was observed to be upregulated in C90RF72 fibroblasts, was similarly upregulated in human cerebellar tissue. The expression of another gene, RSP03, which was not significantly altered in the C90RF72 fibroblasts, was not altered in human cerebellar tissue either. The results are presented in Figure 2b. Table 9 provides a comprehensive listing of all aberrantly expressed genes that are either upregulated or downregulated in C90RF72 fibroblasts as well as the motor cortex from ALS patient brain tissue, compared to healthy controls. The data suggests that the C90RF72 cell lines may be a suitable surrogate to define human CNS relevant biomarkers and to monitor response to ASO therapy.

Table 9

Dysregulated Genes

CD4 FLJ41 170

CDC20 FOLR2

CDC25B FTLP10

CDC45 FUT9

CDC6 GOLGA6B

CDC7 GPNMB

CDCA2 GPR65

CDC A3 GSTT1

CDCA8 GSTT1

CDH6 GTPBP8

CDK1 HAUS3

CDK15 HIST1H4L

CDK2 HNRNPK

CDON HSD17B7P2

CENPA HTR1B

CENPE IDH1

CENPF IFI16

CENPI IFITM3

CENPK IL17RA

CEP55 IL18R1

CGB IL4R

CGB1 KIAA0509

CGB 5 KIAA0802

CHRNA5 LAMA1

CKAP2L LANCL3

CKS2 LANCL3

CLDN1 1 LAP 3

CLDN1 1 LAPTM5

CLEC2A LARP7

CLGN LGI1

CLIC2 LHX5

CLIC6 LOCI 00128001

CLSPN LOC100128107

CMKLR1 LOC100128402

CNKSR2 LOCI 00129029

C N1 LOCI 00130000

COL8A1 LOC100132167

COLEC12 LOC100132292

COMP LOCI 00216479

CPA4 LOC100287877

CPE LOC100288069

CPM LOC100288560

CPXM1 LOC100505808

CRABP2 LOC100505813

CRISPLD2 LOC100505820

CTSL1 LOC100506165

CXCL14 LOC100506335

CXCR7 LOC100506456

CYP1B1 LOC100507128

CYP24A1 LOC100507163

CYP27A1 LOC100507425

CYP7B1 LOCI 16437

CYTL1 LOC144438

CYYR1 LOC153910

DBF4 LOC157503

DDIT3 LOC256374 DDIT4 LOC283868

DEPDC1 LOC285944

DES LOC339822

DHRS3 LOC348120

DIRCl LOC349408

DKK1 LOC389332

DLGAP5 LOC399884

DLX2 LOC646743

DMKN LOC646804

DPP4 LOC729978

DPT LRRTM1

DSEL ME2

DTX3L METTL8

DTYMK MIA3

DTYMK MIER1

E2F8 MIR125A

EDN1 MIR138-1

EDNRB MIRLET7I

EFEMP1 MLF2

EMCN MOBKL1B

ENPP2 MRPL9

ENPP5 MRPS1 1

EPB41L4A MTMR7

EPSTI1 NACA2

ERCC6 NAIP

ERCC6 NCRNA00182

ERCC6L NCRNA00205

EREG NEU4

ESM1 NEUROD6

F2R NFIL3

F2RL2 NOC2L

F3 NPTX2

FABP3 NR2F2

FAM101B NUCKS1

FAM20A NUTF2

FAM43A OCLM

FAM46C OR10Q1

FAM83D OR14J1

FBLN1 OR2B3

FGD4 OR4D10

FIBIN OR4L1

FLJ10038 OR51A2

FLRT3 OR52W1

FMN1 OR5AU1

FOLR3 OR5L2

FOSL2 OR6B1

FOXC2 PACSIN2

FOXE1 PARP14

FOXP2 PCDHB4

FRRS1 PCYT2

GABRE PHF11

GABRQ PHLDB2

GEMC1 PKD2L1

PLEKHA3

GFRA1 PMAIP1

GLDN PPP1R12B GLIPR2 PRAMEF2

GLIS3 PRY

GPR133 PTPRC

GPR31 PYGOl

GPR65 RASGRF2

GPRC5B RBMX2

GRB14 RCVRN

GSTT2 RERGL

GTS El RGPD6

GUCY1B3 RHBDF1

HAS2 RNASE2

HECW2 RNU2-1

HELLS RPL8

HIST1H1B RPRD1A

HIST1H2AE RPRM

HIST1H2AJ RPS6KA6

HIST1H2BF RPS8

HIST1H2BM RRP15

HIST1H3B RRP15

HIST1H3J S 100A8

HIST1H4A SCIN

HIST1H4C SKIL

HIST1H4D SLITRK4

HIST2H2BC SMAD4

HIST2H2BC SMAD4

HIST2H3A SNORD32B

HJURP SOCS5

HMGB2 SPDYE8P

HMMR SRGN

HOXD10 SRSF10

HOXD1 1 SSX5

HUNK SYNPR

ICAM1 TACC2

IFI16 TAS2R10

IFITM1 TEK

IGF1 TES

IGSF10 TGOLN2

IL13RA2 THAP2

IL17RA THSD7A

IL17RD TLR1

IL1R1 TLR5

IL1RN TLR6

IL20RB TLR7

IQGAP3 TM4SF18

IRS1 TMEM135

ITGA6 TMEM49

ITGA8 TNFSF13B

ITGB3 TOR1AIP1

ITGBL1 TPI1

JAG1 TPM3

JAM2 TRIM24

KCNJ2 TRIM36

KCNJ8 TRIM43

KCNK15 TRIM64

KIAA1 199 TSIX

KIAA1324L TSIX KIAA1524 TSIX

KIF1 1 TTC22

KIF14 VTI1B

KIF15 XAGE3

KIF16B XP04

KIF18B ZC3H11A

KIF20A ZC3H7B

KIF20B ZFP82

KIF23 ZMYM2

KIF2C ZNF135

KIF4A ZNF207

KIFC1 ZNF28

KIT ZNF284

KRT19 ZNF285

KRT34 ZNF322A

KRTAPl-1 ZNF506

KRTAP1-5 ZNF595

KRTAP2-2 ZNF678

KRTAP2-4 ZNF717

KRTAP4-1 1 ZNF737

KRTAP4-1 1 ZNF808

KRTAP4-12 ZNHIT2

KRTAP4-5

KRTAP4-7

LAMA4

LBR

LHX9

LMCD1

LMNB1

LM04

LOCI 00127980

LOC100128191

LOC338667

LOC400684

LOC401022

LOC643551

LOC727820

LOC727820

LOC727820

LOC728264

LOC728640

LOC729420

LOH3CR2A

LOXL4

LRCH2

LRIG3

LRRC37A4

LYPD6B

MAB21L1

MAFB

MAOA

MAOA

MAPK13

MASP1

MASTL

MBD2 MBNL3

MC4R

MCM8

MEIS3P1

MEST

MEX3A

MFAP4

MFGE8

MGC16121

MGC24103

MGP

MIR145

MIR199A2

MIRLET7I

MKI67

MMD

MME

MMP10

MMP12

MMP27

MRAP2

MSC

MST4

MSTN

MTSS1L

MTUS2

MYBL2

MYCT1

MYOCD

MYPN

MZT2A

NAP1L3

NBEA

NBPF10

NCAPG

NCAPG2

NCAPH

NCRNA00219

NCRNA00256A

NDC80

NEK2

NET02

NFIB

NFKBIZ

NGFR

NKX2-2

NKX2-6 NMT

NOG

NOTCH3

NOVA1

NOX4

NOX4

NR4A3

NR5A2

NTN4 RAD51AP1

RASA4

RASA4

RASA4

RBMS 1

REV3L

RGS4

RHOJ

RIMS1

RPL22L1

RPSAP52

RSP03

RUNX1T1

RUNX1T1

RUNX1T1

S1PR1

SCN2A

SCUBE3

SEPP1

SERPINB3

SERPINB4

SERPINB9

SERPINE2

SERPINF1

SERPING1

SFRP1

SFRP4

SGK1

SGOL1

SGOL2

SHCBP1

SHMT1

SKA1

SKA3

SLC1A3

SLC39A8

SLC40A1

SLC43A3

SLC6A15

SLFN1 1

SMC4

SNHG1

SPC24

SPC25

SPON1

SRGAP1

ST6GALNAC5

ST8SIA2

STC1

STEAP1

STEAP2

STEAP4

STOM

SV2A SVEP1

TBC1D2

TBX3

TFAP2A

TFPI

TFPI2

THBS2

THRB

TINAGL1

TLE3

TLE4

TLN2

TLR4

TMEM119

TMEM155

TMEM30B

TMEM49

TMEM65

TNC

TNFAIP3

TNFRSFIOC

TNFRSFl lB

TNIK

TOP2A

TOX

TPX2

TPX2

TRA2B

TRAF3IP2

TROAP

TTK

UBE2C

UHRF1

UNC5B

USP8

VEGFA

VGLL3

VTRNA1-3

VWA5A

WDR17

WEE1

WISP1

WISP2

WNT16

WNT2

WWC1

ZDHHC15

ZDHHC15

ZFP36

ZNF280B

ZNF462

ZNF714

ZWINT

ADH1A

ADH1B

CFB ADH1C

NEDD4L

TNFSF10

IL1R1

PLSCR1

NAMPT

NFIB

LOC727820

PDE4DIP

TGFBR3

FAM3C

PDE4DIP

G0S2

CHRDL1

RGPD2

SESTD1

PLA2G4A

FOXP2

LOC727820

FYN

DCN

CCL8

ABCA9

CA12

PPAP2B

EFNA5

AOX1

WDR52

RGPD1

IL6ST

IGSF10

TNFSF13B

SERPINE2

CP

ADAMDECl

CXCL6

NFIL3

FAM110B

ACVR2A

REV3L

PPL

CELF2

LPAR1

TBC1D15

LOC727820

ORC4

ABCA6

CCNL1

OSR2

PDZRN3

LOCI 00132891

OSMR

ENKUR

TMTC1

C7orf63

RSP03 PDE1C

LOC642006

IARS

AFF3

TAGLN

SSTR1

TPM2

SSPN

ALDH1L2

MARS

PRPS1

PITPNM3

RPS26P11

OXTR

HOXB2

SRD5A1P1

Cl lorf87

KRTAP1-5

F10

DKK3

Of these genes, the most highly differentially expressed genes known to be expressed in the CNS were selected and are summarized in Table 10. These genes express secreted proteins and may therefore be considered as biomarker candidate genes for ALS/FTD. Treatment of fibroblasts with a mixture of ASOs 1 -5 and the ISIS oligonucleotides at a final concentration of 100 nM resulted in normalization of the gene expression of a large number of these genes. For instance, treatment of C90RF72 fibroblasts with ASO reduced the expression of ENPP2 expression from a -50% increase (p<0.05 vs. control fibroblasts) in C90RF72 fibroblasts compared to healthy fibroblasts to a 50% decrease (p<0.05 vs. C90RF72 fibroblasts) after ASO treatment (Figure 2a).

Table 10

List of genes upregulated or downregulated in C90RF72 fibroblasts compared to control fibroblasts and effect of ASO treatment

NMJ45234 CHRDL1 Yes No Yes Yes

NM_001831.3 CLU Yes Yes Yes Yes

NM_000096 CP Yes Yes Yes Yes

NM_002993 CXCL6 Yes No Yes Yes

NM_001920 DCN No Yes Yes Yes

NM_015881 DKK3 No No Yes Yes

NM_000610.3 EDN1 Yes Yes Yes Yes

NM_000115.3 EDNRB No Yes Yes No

NM_001962 EFNA5 No Yes Yes No

NM___006209.4 ENPP2 No Yes Yes Yes

NM_000504 F10 Yes Yes Yes Yes

NM_001993.4 F3 Yes No Yes Yes

NM_014888 FAM3C No Yes No Yes

NR_033766 FOXP2 Yes ND ND No

NM_002037 FYN No ND ND No

NM_013417 IARS No ND ND No

NM_178822 IGSF10 Yes Yes Yes Yes

NM_002184 IL6ST No No Yes Yes

NM_057159 LPAR1 No ND ND No

NM J 2951 .2 MLXIPL No ND ND No

NM_001144966 NEDD4L No No Yes No

NMJ81741 ORC4 No ND ND No

NM_001191059 PDE1C No ND Yes ND

NM_003713 PPAP2B No ND ND No

NM_002764 PRPS1 No ND ND ND

NM_002912 REV3L No No Yes No

NM_032784 RSP03 Yes No Yes Yes

NM_152753 SCUBE3 Yes ND ND Yes

NM_005410.2 SEPP1 No No Yes Yes

NM_006216 SERPINE2 No No Yes Yes

NMJ78123 SESTD1 Yes ND ND ND

NM_006108 SPON1 Yes Yes Yes Yes

NR_027449 TBC1D15 No ND ND No

NM_003243 TGFBR3 No No Yes No

NM_003810 TNFSF10 Yes No Yes Yes

NM_006573 TNFSF13B Yes Yes Yes Yes

NM_001164496 WDR52 No ND ND ND

NM_007038 ADAMTS5 Yes ND ND Yes

The effect of treatment with another gapmer ASO, ASO#l, was assessed in C90RF72 fibroblasts. C90RF72 fibroblasts were plated at 20,000 cells/well and transfected using Cytofectin reagent with 100 nM of ASO#l. After an incubation period of 3 days, mRNA levels of C90RF72, as well as some of the above mentioned potential biomarker genes were measured by RT-qPCR. The data is presented in Figure 3. The results indicate that treatment with ASO#l significantly reduced C90RF72 mRNA levels. Furthermore, there was normalization of the altered gene expression of all the tested genes, complement component C3, endothelin receptor 2 (EDNRB2), and endothelin. Endothelin has been previously implicated in ALS-FTD (Lederer, C.W. et al., BMC Genomics 2007. 8: 26; Rabin, S.J., et al., Hum. Mol. Genet. 2010. 19:313-28). The expression of the housekeeping gene, GAPDH, is shown as a loading control. The data strongly suggest that knocking down C90RF72 mRNA may be successful in normalization of aberrant gene expression events induced by the C90RF72 repeat expansion.

Example 3: Effect of antisense inhibition of human C90RF72 on nuclear retention of RNA-binding proteins in ALS/FTD patient fibroblast

The effect of C90RF72 mutation on the binding of RNA-binding proteins to the repeat expansion, a proteome array analysis, was examined. The effect of treatment with ISIS 576816 targeting C90RF72 on this binding was also investigated.

C90RF72 fibroblasts were analyzed by proteome array analysis (method adapted from Hu, S. et al.,

Cell. 2009. 139: 610-22). The results of the analysis revealed significant interactions between numerous RNA- and DNA-binding proteins, as presented in Table 11. Immunostaining with an ADARB2 antibody using the protocol described in Donnelly et al (Donnelly, C.J. et al., EMBO J. 2011. 30: 4665-4677) of one of the candidate proteins, ADARB2, in human C90RF72 fibroblasts revealed increased nuclear retention of the protein when compared with healthy control fibroblasts. There was a -40% increase in nuclear retention in C90RF72 fibroblasts compared to the control (Figure 4A). This data suggest that RNA-binding proteins and splicing proteins have a high affinity to the hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C90RF72 patient cells.

To test whether treatment with ISIS 576816 targeting C90RF72 would rescue human fibroblasts from this phenotype, C90RF72 fibroblasts were plated at 20,000 cells/well and transfected using Cytofectin (Isis) reagent with 100 nM of ISIS 576816. The cells were then stained for ADARB2. The results are presented in Figure 4B. The data indicates that antisense inhibition of C90RF72 mRNA reduced the nuclear staining of ADARB2 back to levels observed in control healthy fibroblasts.

Table 11

List of genes of RNA- and DNA-binding proteins from proteome array analysis of C90RF72 fibroblasts

PGA5 Pepsinogen 5 Group 1 (pepsinogen A) XM_002821692.2

TRIM32 tripartite motif-containing protein 32/E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase NM_001099679.1

Cytochrome P450, family 2, subtype family C, polypeptide 9/(S)-limonene

CYP2C9 NM 000771.3

7-monooxygenase

MPP7 Membrane protein, palmitoylated 7/MAGUK p55 subfamily member NM_173496.3

PTER Phosphodiesterase related protein NM_001001484.1

WBP11 WW domain binding protein 1 l/Nwp-38 NM_016312.2

HMGB2 High mobility group box 2 NM_001130688.1

ORAOV1 Oral cancer overexpressed 1 NM_153451.2

RANGAP

Ran GTPase-activating protiein 1 NM_002883.2 1

ZNF695 Zinc finger protein 695 NM OO 1204221.1

SOX6 SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 6 NM 001145811.1

JARID2 Jumonji NM_004973.2

ADARB2 adenosine deaminase RNA-specific, B2 NM_018702.3

Example 4: In vivo rodent inhibition and tolerability with treatment of C90RF72 antisense

oligonucleotides

In order to assess the tolerability of inhibition of C90RF72 expression in vivo, antisense

oligonucleotides targeting a murine C90RF72 nucleic acid were designed and assessed in mouse and rat models.

ISIS 571883 was designed as a 5-10-5 MOE gapmer, 20 nucleosides in length, wherein the central gap segment comprises ten 2'-deoxynucleosides and is flanked by wing segments on both the 5' end and on the 3' end comprising five nucleosides each. Each nucleoside in the 5' wing segment and each nucleoside in the 3' wing segment has a MOE modification. The internucleoside linkages are phosphorothioate linkages. All cytosine residues throughout the gapmer are 5-methylcytosines. ISIS 571883 has a target start site of nucleoside 33704 on the murine C90RF72 genomic sequence, designated herein as SEQ ID NO: 11 (the complement of GENBANK Accession No. NT l 66289.1 truncated from nucleosides 3587000 to 3625000).

ISIS 603538 was designed as a 5-10-5 MOE gapmer, 20 nucleosides in length, wherein the central gap segment comprises ten 2'-deoxynucleosides and is flanked by wing segments on both the 5' end and on the 3' end comprising five nucleosides each. Each nucleoside in the 5' wing segment and each nucleoside in the 3' wing segment has a MOE modification. The internucleoside linkages are either phosphorothioate linkages or phosphate ester linkages (Gs Ao Co Co Gs Cs Ts Ts Gs As Gs Ts Ts Ts Gs Co Co Ao Cs A; wherein 's' denotes a phosphorothioate internucleoside linkage, Ό' denotes a phosphate ester linkage; and A, G, C, T denote the relevant nucleosides). All cytosine residues throughout the gapmer are 5-methylcytosines. ISIS 603538 has a target start site of nucleoside 2872 on the rat C90RF72 mRNA sequence, designated herein as SEQ ID NO: 12 (GENBANK Accession No. NM_001007702.1). Mouse experiment 1

Groups of 4 C57BL/6 mice each were injected with 50 μg, 100 μg, 300 μg, 500 μg, or 700 μg of ISIS 571883 administered via an intracerebroventricular bolus injection. A control group of four C57/BL6 mice were similarly treated with PBS. Animals were anesthetized with 3% isofluorane and placed in a stereotactic frame. After sterilizing the surgical site, each mouse was injected -0.2 mm anterio-posterior from the bregma na d 3 mm dorsoventral to the bregma with the above-mentioned doses of ISIS 571883 using a Hamilton syringe. The incision was closed with sutures. The mice were allowed to recover for 14 days, after which animals were euthanized according to a humane protocol approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Brain and spinal cord tissue were harvested and snap frozen in liquid nitrogen. Prior to freezing, brain tissue was cut transversely five sections using a mouse brain matrix.

RNA analysis

RNA was extracted from a 2-3 mm brain section posterior to the injection site, from brain frontal cortex and from the lumbar section of the spinal cord tissue for analysis of C90RF72 mRNA expression. C90RF72 mRNA expression was measured by RT-PCR. The data is presented in Table 12. The results indicate that treatment with increasing doses of ISIS 571883 resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of C90RF72 mRNA expression.

The induction of the microglial marker AIF-1 as a measure of CNS toxicity was also assessed. The data is presented in Table 13. The results indicate that treatment with increasing doses of ISIS 571883 did not result in significant increases in AIF-1 mRNA expression. Hence, the injection of ISIS 571883 was deemed tolerable in this model.

Table 12

Table 13

Percentage expression of AIF-1 mRNA expression compared to the PBS control

500 131 124

700 122 116

Mouse experiment 2

Groups of 4 C57BL/6 mice each were injected with 500 μg of ISIS 571883 administered via an intracerebroventricular bolus injection in a procedure similar to that described above. A control group of four C57/BL6 mice were similarly treated with PBS. The mice were tested at regular time points after ICV administration.

Behavior analysis

Two standard assays to assess motor behavior were employed; the rotarod assay and grip strength assay. In case of the rotarod assays, the time of latency to fall was measured. The data for the assays is presented in Tables 14 and 15. The results indicate that there were no significant changes in the motor behavior of the mice as a result of antisense inhibition of ISIS 571883 or due to the ICV injection. Hence, antisense inhibition of C90RF72 was deemed tolerable in this model.

Table 14

Latency to fall (sec) in the rotarod assay

Table 15

Rat experiment

Groups of 4 Sprague-Dawley rats each were injected with 700 μg, 1,000 μg, or 3,000 μg of ISIS 603538 administered via an intrathecal bolus injection. A control group of four Sprague-Dawley rats were similarly treated with PBS. Animals were anesthetized with 3% isofluorane and placed in a stereotactic frame. After sterilizing the surgical site, each rat was injected with 30 of ASO solution administered via 8 cm intrathecal catheter 2 cm into the spinal canal with a 50 flush. The rats were allowed to recover for 4 weeks, after which animals were euthanized according to a humane protocol approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.

RNA analysis

RNA was extracted from 2-3 mm brain section posterior to the injection site, from brain frontal cortex and from the cervical and lumbar sections of the spinal cord tissue for analysis of C90RF72 mRNA expression. C90RF72 mRNA expression was measured by RT-PCR. The data is presented in Table 16. The results indicate that treatment with increasing doses of ISIS 603538 resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of C90RF72 mRNA expression.

The induction of the microglial marker AIF-1 as a measure of CNS toxicity was also assessed. The data is presented in Table 17. The results indicate that treatment with increasing doses of ISIS 603538 did not result in significant increases in AIF-1 mRNA expression. Hence, the injection of ISIS 603538 was deemed tolerable in this model.

Table 16

Percentage inhibition of C9QRF72 mRNA expression compared to the PBS control

Table 17

Percentage expression of AIF-1 mRNA expression compared to the PBS control

Body weight analysis

Body weights of the rats were measured at regular time point intervals. The data is presented in Table 18. The results indicate that treatment with increasing doses of ISIS 603538 did not have any significant changes in the body weights of the rats.

Table 18

Body weights of the rats (% initial body weight)

3000 100 92 98 102 105

Example 5 : RNA binding protein ADARB2 interacts with GGGGCC RNA

A proteome array was utilized to identify protein-binding partners for the GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion. A 5'Cy5-labeled GGGGCC x6 .5 RNA was synthesized and hybridized to a proteome array containing nearly two-thirds of the annotated human proteome as yeast-expressed, full-length ORFs with N- terminal GST-His 6 fusion proteins (a total of 16,368 full length human proteins repeated 2 - 3 time per chip). See, JEONG et al., "Rapid Identification of Monospecific Monoclonal Antibodies Using a Human Proteome Microarray." Mol. Cell. Proteomics (2012) 11(6): 0111.016253-1 to 0111.016253-10. A 5'Cy5-labeled scrambled RNA of the same G:C content as the 5'Cy5-labeled GGGGCC x6 .5 RNA was used as a negative control. For each RNA sequence, 3 proteome arrays were hybridized in parallel as technical replicates. Using this method, 19 ORFs were identified (see Table 19) that consistently exhibited high affinity for the GGGGCCx 6 .5 RNA as compared to the scrambled RNA determined via the ΔΖ-score [GGGGCCx 6 5 RNA Z- score - G:C scrambled RNA Z-score]. Among this list, ADARB2 was studied further.

Table 19. Proteins that Interact with GGGGCC RNA sequence using proteome array.

azoosperm a

Z scores are generated by hybridizing a Cy5-labelled GC-scrambled or GGGGCC><6.5 RNA to a proteome array and quantifying the average signal intensity of a single spot on the proteome array that corresponds to a full length ORF (n = 3 arrays). High signal intensity indicates a strong binding between the ORF and the labeled RNA. ( ΔΖ = Z-GGGGCC - Z-GC Scrambled). A positive ΔΖ indicates specific affinity for the GGGGCC RNA as compared to the scrambled RNA of the same GC content. Simultaneous RNA FISH and RBP immunofluorescence (RNA FISH-IF) studies in C90RF72 iPSNs revealed that ADARB2 protein colocalizes with the nuclear GGGGCC RNA foci, with unchanged levels of mRNA. In addition, RBP:RNA coimmunoprecipitation (RNA co-IP) studies were used to isolate C90RF72 RNA from the RNA co-IP using primers to exon la and the intronic region 5' of the GGGGCC expanded repeat indicating that ADARB2 interacts with endogenous C90RF72 RNA in living cells. Finally, an electrophoretic gel shift assay (EMSA) was performed with recombinant ADARB2 purified from E. coli. Titrating ADARB2 shows depletion of free RNA and shift to slower mobility or a well shift, the latter of which is presumably due to multimerization of the protein* RNA complexes. Taken together, these data indicate that both biochemically and in living cells, ADARB2 protein interacts with C90RF72 RNA and has a high binding affinity for the GGGGCC repeat RNA sequence, which could be useful as a readout to monitor C90RF72-specific drug efficacy.

To determine if these in vitro observations are recapitulated in vivo, the colocalization of AD ARB 2 protein to GGGGCC RNA foci in human postmortem C90RF72 patient tissue was examined. RNA FISH-IF confirmed that AD ARB 2 colocalizes with GGGGCC RNA foci in motor cortex of C90RF72 ALS patients, while there is no nuclear accumulation or colocalization in non-C9 ALS tissue.

ADARB2 interacts with endogenous C90RF72 RNA through the GGGGCC repeat sequence. To determine if ADARB2 is required for RNA foci formation, iPSNs were treated with siRNA against ADARB2 and performed RNA FISH for the nuclear GGGGCC RNA foci. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ADARB2 resulted in a statistically significant 48.99% reduction in the number of iPSNs with RNA foci. These studies suggest that an interaction between ADARB2 and the C90RF72 RNA expansion plays a role in the formation or maintenance of the RNA foci in vitro supporting the hypothesis that interactions of RBPs with the GGGGCC repeat may play a role in C90RF72 exp - RNA toxicity. Moreover, ADARB2 statistically accumulates in the nucleus of C90RF72 iPSN by immunostaining and this was recapitulated in C90RF72 ALS post-mortem tissue.

Example 6: Identification of pharmacodynamic biomarkers to monitor C90RF72 therapy in human CSF and/or blood

Sequestration of RBPs and the presence of nuclear foci suggest that the hexanucleotide repeat expansion may alter the cellular transcriptome which provide a readout for therapeutic intervention. Using five C90RF72 ALS fibroblast lines, unique gene expressions changes (p<0.05) were identified as compared to healthy controls, and accounted for significantly altered genes from SOD l mut fibroblasts. Using 4 iPSN lines, a unique population of genes were identified that were dysregulated as compared to

control, subtracting the aberrantly expressing genes from SOD D90A iPSN lines. iPSNs that carry a SOD1 D90A mutation exhibited a large number of dysregulated genes when compared to control cells, although a subset of expression abnormalities were common between C90RF72 and SOD1 D90A iPSNs. Taken together, these data indicate that the C90RF72 transcriptome is different from the SODl mu transcriptome in both fibroblasts and iPSNs. This can be visualized when comparing the expression levels of statistically significant genes in C90RF72 iPSNs to that of SOD1 D90A iPSNs.

Commonalities between C90RF72 iPS-derived neurons and post-mortem motor cortex (n = 3) were examined to evaluate if cultured iPSNs recapitulate the C90RF72 ALS human brain transcriptome and can, therefore, be used to evaluate future therapeutics. A large number of aberrantly expressed genes (p<0.05) were identified in C90RF72 ALS motor cortex (compared to control) of which a subset overlapped with genes aberrantly expressed in C90RF72 iPSNs, including those expressed concordantly. When comparing C90RF72 fibroblasts to C90RF72 iPSN and motor cortex, fewer genes were found to be common suggesting that these cell types are not very similar. Only a population of altered genes is shared between the postmortem C90RF72 human motor cortex and the C90RF72 iPSNs, most likely due to the cellular heterogeneity of the human motor cortex as compared to a neuron-enriched iPSN culture system. All C90RF72 cell and tissue gene arrays consistently showed a larger number of downregulated genes than upregulated genes, which was not observed in the SODl mut samples.

With the goal of identifying genes that might be utilized as therapeutic biomarkers, genes that exhibited altered expression in C90RF72 iPSNs, fibroblasts, or human motor cortex via exon microarray were selected. Also selected, were genes coding for proteins that are expressed in the CNS and, the majority of which, are secreted as this would allow for quantification of the protein levels in patient cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Twenty-six target genes were selected and tested their expression in C90RF72 autopsied CNS tissue against non-ALS control tissue using nanostring gene expression methodologies. Sixteen of the target genes tested were also aberrantly expressed in C90RF72 ALS patient tissue, of which 7 showed the same direction of dysregulation (up or down) when compared to iPSNs: EDN1, NEDD4L, FAM3C, CHRDL1, CP, SEPP1, and SERPINE2. These genes 7 genes can be used as pharmacodynamic biomarkers to monitor C90RF72 therapy in human CSF and/or blood.

Example 7: Antisense oligonucleotides reduce nuclear ADARB2 protein signals in C90RF72 iPSNs and normalize C90RF72 gene expression pattern

Antisense oligonucleotides were designed targeting various regions of the C90RF72 gene (the complement of GENBANK Accession No. NT 008413.18 truncated from nucleotides 27535000 to

27565000, designated herein as SEQ ID NO: 2). The antisense oligonucleotides are either 2'-0-methyl modified oligonucleotides (denoted "2'OMe") or 2'-MOE antisense oligonucleotides (denoted "2'MOE"). The oligonucleotides are either 5-10-5 MOE gapmers, 5-10-5 2'O-methyl gapmers, or full MOE

oligonucleotides. The 5-10-5 MOE gapmers are 20 nucleosides in length, wherein the central gap segment comprises ten 2'-deoxynucleosides and is flanked by wing segments on both the 5' end and on the 3' end comprising five nucleosides each. Each nucleoside in the 5' wing segment and each nucleoside in the 3' wing segment has a MOE modification. The 5-10-5 2'OMe gapmers are 20 nucleosides in length, wherein the central gap segment comprises ten 2'-deoxynucleosides and is flanked by wing segments on both the 5' end and on the 3' end comprising five nucleosides each. Each nucleoside in the 5' wing segment and each nucleoside in the 3' wing segment has a 2'OMe modification. The full MOE oligonucleotide is 20 nucleotids in length, wherein each nucleoside has a MOE modification. The internucleoside linkages throughout each oligonucleotide are phosphorothioate linkages (denoted "PT backbone"). All cytosine residues throughout each MOE gapmer are 5-methylcytosines. The target start site, target region, and function (RNase H or blocking) of each antisense oligonucleotide are specified in Table 20 below. The blocking ASO binds the GGGGCC exp RNA repeat to block any RBP interaction but does not degrade the transcript. Each antisense oligonucleotide listed in Table 7 is targeted to the SEQ ID NO: 2.

Table 20

Antisense oligonucleotides targeting SEQ ID NO: 2

RNase H-mediated antisense oligonucleotides significantly reduced both the percentage of cells that contain GGGGCC exp RNA foci and the number of foci per cell in both fibroblasts and iPSN cultures regardless of the ASO target location or effect on C90RF72 RNA levels (Figure 7). In an ADARB2:RNA foci colocalization study, ASOs A, B, C, D, and E reduced the nuclear ADARB2 protein signals in C90RF72 iPSNs as determined by immunostaining (Figure 8), suggesting that ADARB2 colocalization with RNA foci is due to protein: GGGGCC exp RNA interaction.

ASO treatment also normalized the dysregulated gene expression of our candidate biomarker genes NEDD4L, FAM3C, CHRDL1, SEPP1, and SERPINE2 in C90RF72 iPSNs (Figure 9) independent of the ASO target region. These genes can serve as biomarkers to monitor ASO therapy efficacy. Genes that were not altered between control and C90RF72 iPSNs did not change when treated with ASOs, suggesting that ASO treatment does not have untoward effects on general gene transcription (Figure 10).




 
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