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Title:
METHODS FOR PREPARATION OF GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS AND USES THEREOF
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2012/094540
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
Methods for synthesis and preparation of alpha-glycosphingolipids are provided. Methods for synthesis of α-galactosyl ceramide, and pharmaceutically active analogs and variants thereof are provided. Novel alpha-glycosphingolipids are provided, wherein the compounds are immunogenic compounds which serve as ligands for NKT (natural killer T) cells.

Inventors:
LIANG PI-HUI (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2012/020388
Publication Date:
July 12, 2012
Filing Date:
January 05, 2012
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
LIANG PI-HUI (US)
UNIV NAT TAIWAN
International Classes:
C07H15/06; A61K39/39; A61P31/04; A61P31/12; A61P35/00; C07H15/04; C07H15/18
Domestic Patent References:
WO2008128062A12008-10-23
Foreign References:
US5849716A1998-12-15
US20070238871A12007-10-11
US20070238871A12007-10-11
Other References:
J. AM. CHEM. SOC., vol. 128, 2006, pages 9022 - 9023
PROC. NATL. ACAD. SCI. U. S. A., vol. 104, 2007, pages 10299 - 10304
HELVETICA CHIMICA ACTA, vol. 470, 1957, pages 1145
CHEM. COMMUN., 1991, pages 820
TETRAHEDRON LETT, vol. 37, 1996, pages 6029 - 6032
TETRAHEDRON, vol. 54, 1998, pages 3141 - 3150
J ORG CHEM, vol. 70, 2005, pages 10260 - 10270
J ORG CHEM, vol. 67, 2002, pages 4559 - 4564
CHEM COMMUN, 2007, pages 2336 - 2338
J. AM. CHEM. SOC., vol. 126, 2004, pages 13602 - 13603
J. ORG. CHEM., vol. 70, 2005, pages 10260 - 10270
SYNTHESIS, 2004, pages 847 - 850
BIOORG. MED. CHEM. LETT., vol. 16, 2006, pages 2195 - 2199
ORG LETT, vol. 4, 2002, pages 1267 - 1270
PLETTENBURG, O. ET AL., J. ORG. CHEM., vol. 67, 2002, pages 4559 - 4564
ZHOU, X. T. ET AL., ORG LETT, vol. 4, 2002, pages 1267 - 1270
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BASU, Shantanu (2225 E Bayshore Road Suite 200Palo Alto, California, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A process for preparing a chiral compound comprising an R-form or S- form of a

glycosphingo lipid of formula (1)

wherein Ri=OH, NH2, NHCOR2, R2 = H or an alkyl, alkenyl, or alkyl terminating in aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, or substituted heteroaryl, X=alkyl group, R3= OH or H, R4= OH or

H, R5= aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, or substituted heteroaryl, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein the compound of formula 1 is prepared by

(a) deprotecting a compound of formula (2):

wherein PG is a hydroxyl protecting group, with hydrogen under hydrogenation catalysis.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is selected from Pd/C, Pd(OH2), or Raney-Ni, wherein Ri=OH.

3. The method of claim 1, wherein the compound of formula 2 is prepared by the step of amide bond formation with coupling reagents by coupling a compound of formula (3):

4H2g

(3) with a com ound of formula (4):

where X=alkyl group, alkenyl, R3=H, OH, ¾= H, OH, R5= aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, or substituted heteroaryl, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

4. The method of claim 3, wherein the compound of formula 3 is reduced by the compound of formula:

5. The method of claim 4, wherein the reduction is achieved using lithium aluminium hydride, sodium borohydride, a borane complex, phospine complex, enzyme reduction, hydrogenation, or transfer hydrogenation.

6. The method of claim 5, wherein the compound of formula 5 is prepared by

(a) reacting a compound of formula (6):

wherein PG is a hydroxy 1 protecting group and LG is a leaving group,

with a compound represented by the structure of formula (7):

N3 OPG

J l^14n2g

OPG (7)

followed by;

(b) alpha-glycosylation in the presence of Lewis acid, to obtain a compound of formula (5).

7. The method of claim 6, where alpha-glycosylation is achieved using TMSOTf, Tf20, BF3 OEt2, TfOH, Me2S2-Tf20 as catalysts and optionally, using molecular sieves to de -hydrate.

8. The method of claim 1 wherein Ri NH2, NHCOR2, R2 = H or an alkyl, alkenyl, or alkyl terminating in aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, or substituted heteroaryl, the compound is prepared from a compound of formula (8):

wherein PG is a hydroxyl protective group.

9. The method of claim 8, wherein the compound of formula 8 is prepared by reacting the compound of formula (9):

with a compound represented by alkanoic acid, aryl acid, aryl-alkanoic acid, substituted array-alkanoic acid, and heterocyclic acid.

10. The method of claim 9, wherein the compound of formula 9 is prepared by reducing the azide of the compound of formula (10):

(10)

1 1. The method of claim 10, wherein the compound of formula 10 is prepared by substituting the leaving group with sodium azide from the compound of formula (11):

where R is leaving group.

12. The method of claim 11 , wherein the compound of formula 11 is prepared from the com ound of formula (12):

by substitution conducted in the presence of base and methanesulfonyl chloride or

toluenesulfonyl chloride.

13. The method of claim 12, wherein the compound of formula 12 is prepared by hydrolysis from the compound of formula (13):

(13)

where R is a hydroxyl protective group unstable in acid or base.

14. The method of claim 13, wherein the compound of formula 13 is prepared by amide bond formation of the compound represented by the structure of formula (14):

15. The method of claim 14, wherein the compound of formula 14 is prepared by azide reduction of compound of formula (15):

4H2g

(15)

16. The method of claim 15, wherein the compound of formula 15 is prepared by glycosylation of compound of formula (16):

with a compound represented by the structure of formula (7) to form an alpha glycosidic bond in the presence of Lewis acid as catalyst,

wherein PG is a hydroxyl protecting group, LG is a leaving group, and R is ester.

17. The method of claim 1, wherein the compound of formula 1 is

l-0-(a-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-(l l-(4-(4-fluorophenoxy) phenyl) undecanoyl)

amino-D-n¾o-octadecan-l,3,4-triol (C34) having the formula:

18. A compound 1 -0-(a-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-( 11 -(4-(4-fluorophenoxy) phenyl) undecanoyl) amino-D-rz'¾o-octadecan-l,3,4-triol (C34) prepared by a method according to claim 1 and having the formula:

A chiral compound comprising an R-form or S- form of a glycosphingolipid of formula 1

( 1 )

or a pharmaceutically active isoform, variant, substituent, derivative, salt, or ester thereof.

20. A compound selected from the group consisting of:

where R is alkyl, group, alkenyl, alkyl terminating with aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, or substituted heteroaryl;

where R is alkyl, group, alkenyl, alkyl terminating with aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, or substituted heteroaryl; , or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

21. A compound according to claim 20, wherein the compound is prepared by a process according to claim 1.

22. A pharmaceutical composition for use as an antitumor, antiviral, antibacterial or adjuvant agent, comprising a compound prepared by a process according to claim 1 and having a TH-1 biased cytokine secretion profile, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or excipient.

23. A process for increasing TH-1 biased cytokine secretion in a subject comprising:

administering a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound prepared by a process according to claim 1 and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or excipient in an amount sufficient for increasing TR-1 biased cytokine secretion, to a patient in need thereof.

24. The process of claim 23, wherein the cytokine is selected from IL-2, IFN-gamma and IL-4.

25. The process of claim 23, wherein the increase inTn-l biased cytokine secretion results in an antitumor, antiviral, antibacterial or adjuvant activity.

26. The process of claim 23, wherein the compound is C34 prepared by a method according to claim 1 and having the formula:

Description:
METHODS FOR PREPARATION OF GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS AND USES THEREOF

CROSSREFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the priority of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Serial No. 61/430,117 filed January 5, 2011 entitled "METHODS FOR PREPARATION OF

GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS AND USES THEREOF" which is incorporated by reference herein.

TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0002] This present invention relates to novel glycosphingolipid analogues, intermediates for the production thereof. In particular, the invention relates to novel processes for the preparation of glycosphingo lipids. More particularly, the invention relates to methods for synthesis and uses of novel alpha- linked glycospingo lipid compounds..

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0003] Studies show NKT cells, a unique lymphocyte subpopulation, are characterized by the coexpression of an invariant antigen receptor and NK receptors. Human NKT cells (Va24-J l 8) are activated by a specific glycolipid antigen, in a CD ld-dependent manner. CD Id molecules are heterodimers, composed of a heavy polypeptide chain non-covalently associated with a

2-microglobulin, and have substantial structural similarity to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I proteins. After activation, NKT cells exhibit MHC-independent antitumor activity against tumor cells in vitro and in vivo through several mechanisms. Activated Va24 NKT cells produce a high level of cytokines, such as IFN-γ, thereby bridging innate and adaptive immunity through the activation of other effector cells including dendritic cells (DC), NK cells, and CD8 + T cells. NKTs play a regulatory role in the immune system, thus they are attractive targets for immunotherapy.

[0004] At present, the most well studied CD ld-presented antigen is alpha-galactosylceramide (aGalCer, KRN-7000). It initially drew interest when extracts derived from the marine sponge, Agelas mauritianus, demonstrated novel anti-tumor properties. Kirin Beer pharmaceutical company (US Pat. No. 5849716). This potent activity was later traced to a family of alpha-linked glycospingolipids (GSLs), from which aGalCer was structurally optimized. The GSLs consists of a sugar moiety alpha-linked to a ceramide which is formed by an amide bond of a fatty acid with a long chain base.

[0005] Upon activation by aGalCer, NKT cells release proinflammatory (Thl) and

immunomodulatory (Th2) cytokine. The production of T H 1 cytokines is thought to correlate with antitumor, antiviral/antibacterial, and adjuvant activities, whereas T R 2 cytokine production is thought to subdue autoimmune diseases. aGalCer has been the subject of clinical trials for its anti-cancer potential, but it was terminated during phase I. The non-specific nature of the cytokine profile induced by aGalCer, both Thl and Th2, makes it less effective as a therapeutic treatment. This interpretation has encouraged many groups to focus on the searching for compounds which increase the selectivity toward either the T H 1 or T H 2 cytokines response. Wong et al. have synthesized a series of glycolipids bearing aromatic groups on the acyl side chain and found these molecules to skew the cytokine release profile towards a T H 1 response (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 9022-9023. US 2007/0238871). In vivo experiment on mice with aggressive lung cancer tumors (TCI cell line) and breast cancer tumors (4T1 cell line) have showed that the lung cancer-bearing mice treated with the new glycolipids had significantly prolonged survival time compared to those treated with aGalCer. In breast cancer-bearing mice, treatment with the new glycolipids inhibited the tumor growth rate by 75% of untreated group, as compared to 50% inhibition in mice treated with a-GalCer (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2007, 104, 10299-10304).

[0006] Therefore, there is a need for efficient means for synthesis of alpha-glycosphingolipids, such as aGalCer compounds, as well as a need for synthesis of novel alpha-glycosphingolipid compounds with immunomodulatory effects.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0007] The present invention provides novel methods for synthesizing galactosylsphingolipids, including novel compounds related to a-galactosyl ceramides and active analogs thereof, such as C34.

[0008] The invention provides, in one embodiment, a compound represented by the structure of formula (1):

wherein Ri=OH, NH 2 , NHCOR 2 ; R 2 = H or an alkyl, alkenyl, or alkyl terminating in aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, or substituted heteroaryl; X=alkyl group, alkenyl; R 3 , R4=H, OH; R 5 = aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, or substituted heteroaryl.

[0009] In one embodiment of the invention, the compound of formula 1 may be obtained by a process that includes, inter alia, the step of removing the benzylidene protecting group and hydrogenating of the compound represented by the structure of formula (2):

where PG is a hydroxy 1 protecting group.

[0010] In another embodiment, the hydroxyl protecting group may be benzyl.

[0011] In one embodiment of the invention, the compound of formula 2 where X= (CH 2 )8, R 3 =H, R4=H, R 5 =4-F-phenyoxy-phenyl, may be obtained by a process which includes, inter alia, the step of amide bond formation between compounds of formula (3) and formula (4).

where, in one embodiment, PG is benzyl

where in one embodiment, X=alkyl group, alkenyl, R 3 =H, OH, R4= H, OH, R 5 =aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, or substituted heteroaryl.

[0012] In one embodiment of the invention, the compound of formula (3), wherein R is benzyl, may be obtained by a process that includes, inter alia, the step of: reducing the azide group of a compound represented by the structure of formula (5):

[0013] In one embodiment of the invention, the compound of formula 5, wherein PG is benzyl, may be obtained by a process including, inter alia, the step of: reacting a compound represented by the structure of formula (6)

wherein PG is a hydroxyl protecting group and LG is a leaving group, with a compound represented by the structure of formula (7)

N 3 OPG

C 4 H 2 9

OPG (?)

wherein PG is a hydroxyl protecting group, to form an alpha glycosidic bond, thus obtaining the compound of formula (5). In another embodiment, the leaving group of formula (6) may be any one of:

In one embodiment of the invention, the compound of formula 1 may be obtained by a that includes, inter alia, the step of removing the benzylidene protecting group and

hydrogenating of the compound represented by the structure of formula (8):

(8) wherein PG is hydroxyl protective group. In another embodiment, the PG may be, inter alia, benzyl.

[0014] In one embodiment of the invention, the compound of formula (8) may be obtained by a process including, inter alia, the step of: reacting a compound represented by the structure of formula (9) with a compound represented by alkanoic acid, aryl acid, aryl-alkanoic acid, substituted aryl-alkanoic acid, and heterocyclic acid.

wherein PG is a hydroxyl protecting group.

[0015] In one embodiment of the invention, the compound (9) may be obtained from the process including, inter alia, the step of: reducing the azide of a compound represented by the structure of formula (10)

where PG is hydroxyl protective group.

[0016] In one embodiment of the invention, the compound (10) may be obtained from the process including, inter alia, the step of: substituting of a compound represented by the structure if formula (11)

where R is leaving group, thereby obtaining the compound of formula (11).

[0017] In another embodiment, the R may be, inter alia, methanesulfonyl or toluenesulfonyl. In one embodiment of the invention, the compound of formula (11) may be obtained by a process including, inter alia, the step of: conducting a substitution of the hydroxyl moiety of the compound represented by the structure of formula (12)

[0018] In another embodiment, the substitution may be conducted in the presence of base and methanesulfonyl chloride or toluenesulfonyl chloride.

[0019] In one embodiment of the invention, the compound (12) may be obtained from the process including, inter alia, the step of: hydrolysis of the compound represented by the structure of formula (13)

where R is hydroxyl protective group, in one embodiment, R is alkyl ester. In another embodiment, R is acetate.

[0020] In one embodiment of the invention, the compound (13) may be obtained from the process including, inter alia, the step of: amide bond formation of the compound represented by the structure of formula (14),

and the compound represented by the structure of formula (4).

[0021] In one embodiment of the invention, the compound (14) may be obtained from the process including, inter alia, the step of: reducing the azide of a compound represented by the structure of formula (15).

[0022] In one embodiment of the invention, the compound (15) may be obtained from the process including, inter alia, the step of: reacting a compound represented by the structure of formula (16)

wherein PG is a hydroxyl protecting group, LG is a leaving group, and R is ester, with a compound represented by the structure of formula (7), wherein PG is a hydroxyl protecting group, to form an alpha glycosidic bond, thus obtaining the compound of formula (15).

[0023] In another embodiment, the leaving group may be any one of:

[0024] In one embodiment of the invention, the compound of formula (17) may be obtained by the process including, inter alia, the step of: removing the hydroxyl protecting group PG1, thereby obtaining the compound of formula (17), the PG1 may be, inter alia, trityl.

[0025] These and other aspects will become apparent from the following description of the preferred embodiment taken in conjunction with the following drawings, although variations and modifications therein may be affected without departing from the spirit and scope of the novel concepts of the disclosure. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0026] The following drawings form part of the present specification and are included to further demonstrate certain aspects of the present disclosure, the inventions of which can be better understood by reference to one or more of these drawings in combination with the detailed description of specific embodiments presented herein.

[0027] Fig 1 is a schematic illustration depicting synthesis of C34, A15-21. Scheme 1. Reagents and conditions: (a) TfN 3 , K 2 C0 3 , CuS0 4 , DCM, MeOH, H 2 0; (b) trityl chloride, triethylamine, toluene; (c) benzyl chloride (BnCl), NaH, DMF, Toluene; (d) HC1, toluene, MeOH; (e) A5, Me 2 S 2 -Tf 2 0, THF, 4 A MS; (f) LiAlH 4 , THF; (g) RC0 2 H, HBTU, NMM, DCM; (h) Pd(OH) 2 , H 2 , MeOH, DCM.

[0028] Fig 2 is a schematic illustration depicting synthesis of compound A23-A25. Scheme 2. Reagents and conditions: (a) Pd(OH) 2 , H 2 (80 psi), MeOH, DCM, AcOH; (b) RC0 2 H, HBTU, NMM, DCM MeOH.

[0029] Fig 3 is a schematic illustration depicting synthesis of formula (4). Scheme 3.

[0030] Fig 4 is schematic illustration depicting synthesis of compounds C5-C7. Scheme 4. Reagents and conditions: (a) PPh 3 , THF, H 2 0; (b) Ph(CH 2 ) n C0 2 H, HBTU, NMM, DCM; (c) Pd(OH) 2 , H 2 , DCM, MeOH.

[0031] Fig 5 is schematic illustration depicting synthesis of compounds C20-C31. Scheme 5.

Reagents and conditions: (a) TsCl, pyridine; (b) NaN 3 , DMF; (c) PPh 3 , THF, H 2 0; (d)

RCH 2 C0 2 H, HBTU, NMM, MeOH, DCM.

[0032] Fig 6 shows glycosphingolipid-induced IL-2 secretion in A20CDld and mNK1.2 cells system. Data are given as mean + SD; "-" indicates no compound.

[0033] Fig 7 shows INF-gamma cytokine secretion results by the splenocytes from female C57BL/6 mouse.

[0034] Fig 8 shows IL-4 cytokine secretion results by the splenocytes from female C57BL/6 mouse.

[0035] Fig 9 shows cytokine secretion ratios obtained from the comparison of Figs. 7 & 8.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0036] The terms used in this specification generally have their ordinary meanings in the art, within the context of the invention, and in the specific context where each term is used. Certain terms that are used to describe the invention are discussed below, or elsewhere in the

specification, to provide additional guidance to the practitioner regarding the description of the invention. For convenience, certain terms may be highlighted, for example using italics and/or quotation marks. The use of highlighting has no influence on the scope and meaning of a term; the scope and meaning of a term is the same, in the same context, whether or not it is highlighted. It will be appreciated that same thing can be said in more than one way. Consequently, alternative language and synonyms may be used for any one or more of the terms discussed herein, nor is any special significance to be placed upon whether or not a term is elaborated or discussed herein. Synonyms for certain terms are provided. A recital of one or more synonyms does not exclude the use of other synonyms. The use of examples anywhere in this specification including examples of any terms discussed herein is illustrative only, and in no way limits the scope and meaning of the invention or of any exemplified term. Likewise, the invention is not limited to various embodiments given in this specification.

[0037] Unless otherwise defined, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention pertains. In the case of conflict, the present document, including definitions will control.

[0038] The novel methods of the synthesis of formula (1) in general comprise binding the ceramide with saccharide, but it is also possible to first bond with the phytosphingosine and then to derive the amino group into the amide group to complete the formula 1.

[0039] As an example of such synthesis, it is also possible to synthesize the compound represented by formula (1) where galactose C6' is hydroxyl group via the following steps (see FIG. 1-3).

[0040] Phytosphingosine hydrochloride ( (2S, 3S, 4R)-2-amino-l,3,4-octadecanetriol) is a starting material, although there are several methods as described in Curr. Org. Chem. 2002, 6, 365-391 for the synthesis of phytosphingosine. The commercial source— phytosphingosine hydrochloride is prepared from the appropriate yeast fermentation broth which can be obtained a reasonable price in large quantities (Evonik Degussa Taiwan Ltd.). The isomeric sphingosines having a configuration different from that of the natural sphingosine can be prepared according to the methods described in Helvetica Chimica Acta 1957, 470, 1145; or Chem. Commun. 1991, 820.

[0041] In the first step, the amino group of phytosphingosine was converted to an azido group by a diazo transfer reaction by fresh prepared TfN 3 to afford Al. The preparation of TfN 3 can be found in Tetrahedron Lett 1996, 37, 6029-6032. Trityl protection of primary alcohol Al gave crude A2 which was directly subjected to benzylation conditions of NaH and BnCl to afford compound A3. In the present route, while benzyl group is employed as the protective group of the hydroxyl group, other appropriate groups such as benzoate, (p-methoxy)-benzyl, or isopropylidene may also be used. Toluene was selected as the solvent to synthesize compounds from Al to A3. The benzylation reaction of second alcohols failed to proceed in toluene as sole solvent. To overcome the low reactivity of the benzylation in toluene, a co-solvent system of 10% DMF in toluene was employed to improve the solubility of NaH and intermediate alkoxide. After aqueous workup, crude A3 was obtained as a solution in toluene and subjected to acidic deprotection to give glycosyl acceptor A4. Various acid can be used in the trityl group deprotection, such as hydrochloride, sulfuric acid, hydrogen bromide, trifluoroacetic acid, BF 3 .OEt, nitric acid, acidic resin (e.g. Amberlite IR120 ® ) and so on.

[0042] Previously, various glycosylation methods have been applied in glycolipids syntheses, including glycosyl fluoride, glycosyl trichloroacetoimidate, glycosyl bromide and glycosyl iodide 20"23 . Tetrahedron 1998, 54, 3141-3150; J Org Chem 2005, 70, 10260-10270; J Org Chem 2002, 67, 4559-4564; Chem Commun 2007, 2336-2338. The glycosyl imidate has been initially employed in our synthesis with excellent yield (89%>) and anomeric selectivity (α/β = 9/1). Due to the imidate being easily hydrolyzed and usually needed to be prepared fresh, using this leaving group for glycosylation in the large-scale synthesis might encounter storage and purification problems. Alternatively, thioglycoside A5 as a donor can be achieved using Lewis acid, such as TMSOTf, Tf 2 0, BF 3 · OEt 2 , TfOH, Me 2 S 2 -Tf 2 0 as catalysts and using molecular sieves to de-hydrate. Compound A5 contains azido group which favors glycosylation, while the amino group of phytosphingosine is protected by amide or cabamate (t-butyl carbamate ) as seen in US5849716; US 2007/0238871; J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 13602-13603; J. Org. Chem. 2005, 70, 10260-10270; Tetrahedron 1998, 54, 3141-3150; Synthesis 2004, 847-850; Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2006, 16, 2195-2199. The 2-NH and 1-OH may form a intramolecular hydrogen bonding which hampers it as a nucleophile to attack the activated glycoside and results in low yields in glycosylation. After the glycosylation between A4 and A5, column purification can afford A6 both in pure a-form, and pure β-form.

[0043] Compound A6 which contain azido group can be reduced by using any of lithium aluminium hydride, sodium borohydride, a borane complex, phospine complex, enzyme reduction, hydrogenation, or transfer hydrogenation. Instead of using phospine complex which generates side product-phosphine oxide which is difficult to remove, the reduction of azide by lithium aluminium hydride (L1AIH 4 ) gave higher purity amine A7. Compound A7 was coupled with various prepared carboxylic acids (see Fig 3 for the preparative methods) to give corresponding amide compounds. Global deprotection of these compounds was achieved under hydrogeno lysis conditions in the presence of catalytic Pd(OH) 2 and H 2 in mix solvents of MeOH and CH 2 CI 2 to yield analogues of C34, compounds A15-21.

[0044] The reductive dehalogenation of aryl halides on acyl chain is carried out by the hydrogenation reaction of the chloro- and bromo-acyl containing compounds. Therefore, to avoid dehalogenation reaction, A6 was deprotected and reduced by hydrogenesis in the presence of catalytic Pd(OH) 2 and H 2 . After that resulting amine A22 was coupled with appropriate acids (see Fig 3 for the preparation methods) in the coupling conditions, analogues A23-25 were yielded (Fig 2). For this process many methods of reaction are known, particularly for amidation. It is also possible to use acyl chloride, and acid anhydride or a carboxylic acid. The carboxylic acid is used in a condensation reaction in the presence of an appropriate condensing agent. The appropriate condensing agent used in the reaction includes dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC),

1- ethyl-3-(3'dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimine (EDC), as well as

2- (lH-benzotriazole-l-yl)-l,l,3,3-tetramethyluronium hexafluoro- phosphate (HBTU), hydroxybenzotrazole (HOBt) or the like. In order to progress rapidly the reaction, an organic base such as triethylamine, pyridine, N-methylmorpholine, dimethylaniline,

4-dimethylaminopyridine, N-methylpiperidine, N-methylpyrrolidine is added. The solvent may be any one inert solvents which will not be involved in the reaction such as tetrahydrofuran, ethyl ether, toluene, chloroform, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate, acetone or the like.

[0045] For the preparation of various substituted phenylalkanoic acids, the Wittig reaction is employed as can be seen in Fig 3. In this process, the ω-bromo-alkanoic acids are mixed with triphenyl phosphine in the presence of the solvent. The reaction is generally carried out with an appropriate solvent, but when the reaction is low, it can be increased by performing the reaction in the absence of a solvent. The solvent may be any of inert solvents which will not be involved in the reaction, e.g. toluene, benzene, diglyme, dimethyl sulfide or the like.

[0046] As another example of the synthesis, it is also possible to synthesize the compound represented by the formula (1) by carrying out various substitutions at galactose C6' position via the following steps (see FIG. 4-5).

[0047] The synthesis of C6 modified analogues began with compound CI as described in Org Lett 2002, 4, 1267-1270. Reduction of azide, then amidation with different commercial aromatic acids and fully deprotection yielded C5-C6 (Fig 4, Scheme 4). In addition, to avoid a tedious protective group interconvertion for the preparation from compound CI, a different strategy was employed in the synthesis of C6" and acyl chain bi-modified compounds (Fig 5). The C6" hydroxyl group of A15 can be tosylated or mesylated by toluene sulfonyl chloride or methane sulfonyl chloride in the presence of base, such as pyridine, dimethylpyridine, triethylamine, diethylpropylamine, DBU or the like, and then the corresponding tosylate or mesylate group can be substituted with azide by sodium azide to give C18. Staudinger reduction of azide, amidation with variety of acids yielded C20-31.

Use of the compound of the present invention

[0048] The compounds represented by the formula (1) exhibit the following physiological activities, can be used as immunotherapeutic agent against cancers or as immunostimulating agent against the other diseases.

[0049] APC activating activity: IL-2 secretions can be measured in the A20CDld and mNKl .2 cells system as APC and effector cells as shown in Example 2.

[0050] Immunostimulating activity: IFN-γ and 11-4 Cytokine secretions can be measured as hown in Example 2 which female C57BL/6 mouse (16w4d) was sacrificed and spleen was harvested for the assay.

[0051] Anti-tumor agent: The compound of the present invention has Thl biased cytokine secretion profile and can be used an antitumor activity and an immunostimulating effect.

[0052] While the compounds in current invention can be used as the immunotherapeutic agent against tumor they may be used alone or combined with chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

[0053] The compounds of the present invention as anti-tumor agents or immunostimulating agent may be administered in any appropriate dosage routes. The compound is generally formed into a preparation which is in the form of diluted and formed with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier (liposome, or micelle). When the compound of present invention is used, it can be administrated orally or parent rally to human or mammalian. For example, the compounds of present invention when used as injection, they can be administered intravenously,

intramuscularly, subcutaneously or inhalation in a form such as solution, suspension or emulsion with appropriate solvent. In this case, polysorbatesm or macrogol, cholesterol can be added as a solubilizing agent, if necessary. When the compounds in the present invention are administered orally, they can be in a form of tablet, powder, granule, or dry syrup into an appropriate additive.

EXAMPLES

[0054] Without intent to limit the scope of the invention, exemplary instruments, apparatus, methods and their related results according to the embodiments of the present invention are given below. Note that titles or subtitles may be used in the examples for convenience of a reader, which in no way should limit the scope of the invention. Moreover, certain theories are proposed and disclosed herein; however, in no way they, whether they are right or wrong, should limit the scope of the invention so long as the invention is practiced according to the invention without regard for any particular theory or scheme of action. Example 1

[0055] The synthetic method and physicochemical properties of the compounds of the present invention are described below (referring to the number of compounds in the process of synthesis, see the reaction schemes as shown in FIG. 1 - FIG. 5).

[0056] In the schemes shown herein, the following abbreviations are used:

THF: tetrahydrofuran

DMF: N, N-dimethyl formide

MS-4A: Molecule Sieves-4A (dehydrating agent)

CH 2 C1 2 : dichloromethane

NMM: N-methyl morpholine

HBTU: 0-benzotriazole-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-uronium-hexafluoro-pho sphate

TMSOTf: trimethylsilyl trifluoromethansulfonate

Tf 2 0: trifluoromethansulfonic anhydride

CDC1 3 : dl -chloroform

NMR: nuclear magnetic resonance

HRMS: high resolution mass

ESI: electron spray ionization

[0057] The other abbreviations have the same meanings as those in the schemes shown above. Synthetic Scheme 1 (Fig 1)

[0058] The routes show specifically the process for preparing the compound C34, A13, A14, A15, A16, A18, A19, A20, A21 and the compounds according to the present inventionl can also be synthesized in accordance with this process.

[0059] Synthesis of (2 l S,3 l S,4i?)-2-azido-D-n¾o-octadecane-l,3,4-triol (Al)

[0060] To the solution of sodium azide (64.3 g, 989 mmol) in 250 mL water was added dichloromethane (350 mL). The biphasic mixture was cooled to 5°C in an ice bath and triflic anhydride (47.5 mL, 283 mmol) was added over a 20 min period, keeping the temperature under 10 °C. After stirring for 2.5 h in an ice bath, the reaction mixture was quenched with 70 mL sat. K 2 CC"3. The organic phase was isolated and the aqueous phase was extracted with CH 2 C1 2 (200 mL). The organic phases were combined to afford triflyl azide solution in dichloromethane.

[Caution! Triflyl azide is explosive, needed to be stored with solvent.]

[0061] To a solution of cupric sulfate (0.35 g, 1.4 mmol) in water (150 mL) was added phytosphingosine hydrochloride (highly pure form of phytosphingosine hydrochloride [(2S, 3S, 4R)-2-amino-l,3,4-octadecanetriol] from the appropriate yeast fermentation broth is commercial available for a reasonable price in large quantities, 50.0 g, 141 mmol), potassium carbonate (29.28 g, 211.9 mmol) and methanol (1.0 L). The suspension was cooled to 0-5 °C in a salt ice bath and the triflyl azide solution (in 550 mL CH 2 CI 2 ) was added over a 10 min period. After stirring the reaction mixture for 12 h at rt, the mixture was concentrated. The residue was slurried in water (1.0 L) and stirred at room temperature for 12 h. The precipitate was filtered and washed with water (500 mL><2). The residue was dried by azeotropic distillation (70-80 °C, 200-250 mniHg) with toluene (1.5 L) to afford

(2 l S,3 l S,4i?)-2-azido-D-r¾o-octadecane-l,3,4-triol (Al) (47.0 g, 137 mmol, 97%) as off-white solids, mp: 87 °C. 1H-NMR (CD 3 OD, 400 MHz) δ 3.85 (dd, J= 11.6, 3.3 Hz, 1H), 3.69 (dd, J = 11.6, 7.9 Hz, 1H), 3.50-3.55 (m, 1H), 3.43-3.47 (m, 2H), 1.22-1.60 (m, 26H), 0.83 (t, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CD 3 OD, 100 MHz) δ 74.6, 71.5, 65.3, 61.2, 32.5, 31.7, 29.4, 29.4, 29.1, 25.4, 22.4, 13.1. HRMS (ESI) calculated for CisHsyNsOsNa [M+Na] + : 366.2733, found:

366.2729.

[0062] Synthesis of (2 l S,3 l S,4i?)-2-azido-3,4-di-0-benzyl-D-rz¾o- octadecan-l,3,4-triol (A4)

[0063] To the mixture of (2 l S * ,35 * ,4i?)-2-azido-D-n ' ¾o-octadecane-l,3,4-triol (47.0 g, 137 mmol) in toluene (1.0 L) was added triethylamine (46 mL, 332 mmol) and trityl chloride (42.0 g, 151 mmol). After stirring at 50-55 ° C for 6 h, triethylamine (4.6 mL, 33 mmol) and triphenylmethyl chloride (4.20 g, 15.1 mmol) were added and then stirred for an additional 15 h. Water (1.0 L) was added and the mixture was stirred for 3 min. The organic phase was washed with water (1.0 L, 500 mL) and concentrated to afford crude

(25',35',4i?)-2-azido-l-trityl-D-rz ' ¾o-octadecan-l,3,4-triol (A2). The analytical sample for NMR was purified by column chromatography. 1H-NMR (CDC1 3 , 400 MHz) δ 7.22-7.47 (m, 15H), 3.62 (dd, J= 3.7, 10.1 Hz, 2H), 3.53 (m, 2H), 3.40 (dd, J= 6, 10.1 Hz, 1H), 2.35 (brs, 1H), 1.83 (brs, 1H), 1.20-1.52 (m, 26H), 0.87 (t, J= 6.8 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CDC1 3 , 100 MHz) δ 143.35, 128.54, 128.01, 127.27, 87.78, 74.19, 72.18, 63.48, 62.31, 31.90, 31.74, 29.67, 29.64, 29.60, 29.55, 29.34, 25.59, 22.67, 14.10.

[0064] To the solution of crude (25',35',4i?)-2-azido-l-trityl-D-n¾o-octadecan- 1,3,4-triol (A2) in toluene (750 mL) and DMF (75 mL) was added sodium hydride (60% in mineral oil, 21.9 g, 548 mmol) in three portions over a 10 min period. The mixture was stirred for 30 min after which benzyl chloride (50.5 mL, 0.438 mmol) was added to the reaction mixture. The mixture was warmed to 50-60 ° C and stirred for 18 h. The mixture was then cooled to 0 ° C and water (50 mL) was added dropwise. The organic phase was washed with sat. ammonium chloride (500 mL><2) and water (500 mLx2). The organic phase was filtered through Celite pad and the filtrate was concentrated to afford crude (25',35',4i?)-2-azido-2,3-di-benzyl-l- trityl-D-n£o- octadecan-l,3,4-triol (A3).

[0065] To the solution of A3 in toluene/methanol (600 mL, 1/1) was added aqueous HC1 (33%, 6.0 mL). The mixture was warmed to 50-60 ° C and stirred for 20 h. The reaction mixture was quenched with 1.0 N NaOH (55 mL) and concentrated. The residue was partitioneded with toluene (500 mL) and water (500 mL). The organic phase was concentrated and the residue was purified by column chromatography (crude 100 g, silica gel 500 g, ethyl acetate/n-hexane = 1/10) to afford (25,35,4R)-2-azido-2,3- di-benzyl-D-n£o-octadecan-l,3,4-triol (A4) (27.5 g, 52.5 mmol, 38% over 4 steps) as yellow oil. 1H-NMR (CDC1 3 , 200 MHz) δ 7.26-7.39 (m, 10H), 4.69 (d, J= 1.4 Hz, 2H), 4.59 (d, J= 4.3 Hz, 2H), 3.59-3.94 (m, 5H), 1.26-1.61 (m, 26H), 0.88 (t, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CDC1 3 , 50 MHz) δ 137.9, 137.6, 128.5, 128.4, 128.1, 127.97, 127.81, 127.10, 80.38, 78.96, 73.59, 72.49, 63.03, 62.20, 21.90, 30.16, 29.66, 29.35, 25.43, 22.67, 14.11. HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 32 H 49 N 3 0 3 Na [M+Na] + : 546.3672, found: 546.3689

[0066] Synthesis of 4-methylphenyl 2,3-O-dibenzyl -4,6-O-benzylidene -1-thiol-D-galacto pyranoside (A5)

[0067] Compound A5 may be prepared according to the method described in Plettenburg, O. et al. J. Org. chem. 2002, 67, 4559-4564.

[0068] Data of compound A5 : 1H-NMR (CDC1 3 , 400 MHz) δ 7.58 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.50 (m, 2H), 7.23-7.42 (m, 15H), 6.98 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H), 5.46 (s, 1H), 4.69 (m, 4H), 3.54 (d, J= 9.5 Hz, 1H), 4.35 (dd, J= 12.3, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 4.12 (d, J= 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.03 (dd, J= 9.8, 3.6 Hz, 1H), 3.82 (t, J= 9.3 Hz, 1H), 3.60 (dd, J= 9.2, 3.4 Hz, 1H), 3.39 (s, 1H), 2.28 (s, 3H).

[0069] Synthesis of 2-azido-3 ,4-di-O-benzyl- 1 -O-(2,3-di-O-benzyl-4,6-O- benzylidene-a-D-galactopyranosyl)-D-rz ' £o-octadecan- 1 ,3 ,4-triol (A6)

OBn

[0070] To the solution of dimethyl disulfide (10.0 mL, 113 mmol) in dichloromethane (75 mL) was added triflic anhydride (17 mL, 100 mmol) at 0-5 ° C in a salt ice bath. After stirring the reaction mixture in the salt ice bath for 30 min, Me 2 S 2 -Tf 2 0 was obtained as a 1.0 M solution in dichloromethane and it can be stored in an ice bath for 3 hours.

[0071] Compound A4 (27.3 g, 52.2 mmol), A5 (34.7 g, 62.6 mmol) and 4 A molecular sieve (33 g) were mixed and dried under vacuum for 1 h and THF (520 mL) was added to the mixture. The mixture was cooled to -10 ° C in a salt ice bath before adding Me 2 S 2 Tf 2 0 (1.0 M solution in CH 2 CI 2 , 94 mL, 94 mmol). After stirring for 20 min, the reaction mixture was quenched with triethylamine (22 mL) and then diluted with dichloromethane (200 mL). The mixture was filtered through Celite and washed with dichloromethane (50 mL). The combined filtrate was concentrated and partitioned with dichloromethane (500 mL) and water (500 mL). The organic phase was concentrated and the residue was purified by column chromatography (crude weight = 153 g, 600 g silica gel, ethyl acetate: n-hexane = 1 : 15 to 1 : 12 to 1 : 10) to afford

2-azido-3,4-di-0-benzyl-l-0-(2,3-di-O-benzyl-4,6-O- benzylidene-a-D-galactopyranosyl)-D-n ' £o-octadecan-l,3,4-triol (A6) (32.07 g, 33.60 mmol, 64%) as off-white wax. mp: 59 ° C. 1H-NMR (CDC1 3 , 400 MHz) δ 7.22-7.50 (m, 25H), 5.44 (s, 1H), 4.96 (d, J= 3.4 Hz, 1H), 4.85 (d, J= 11.9 Hz, 1H), 4.79 (d, J= 12.3 Hz, 1H), 4.73 (d, J = 12.3 Hz, 1H), 4.66-4.69 (m, 2H), 4.59 (d, J= 8.5 Hz, 1H), 4.56 (d, J= 12.8 Hz, 1H), 4.48 (d, J = 11.5 Hz, 1H), 4.15 (d, J= 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.06-4.12 (m, 1H), 3.98-4.04 (m, 3H), 3.86 (dd, J = 12.5, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 3.68-3.73 (m, 3H), 3.60-3.62 (m, 1H), 3.55 (s, 1H), 1.25-1.55 (m, 26H), 0.87 (t, J= 7.1 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 , 100 MHz) δ 138.75, 138.36, 138.01, 137.82, 128.85, 128.37, 128.34, 128.26, 128.22, 128.09, 127.90, 127.79, 127.75, 127.70, 127.66, 127.61, 127.50, 127.45, 126.33, 101.05, 99.13, 79.41, 78.95, 76.68, 75.80, 75.44, 74.66, 73.77, 73.49, 72.06, 72.03, 69.31, 68.43, 62.97, 61.80, 31.91, 30.01, 29.75, 29.69, 29.67, 29.65, 29.63, 29.60, 29.35, 25.44, 22.68, 14.10. [α 5 +63.1 (c 1.0, CHC1 3 ). HRMS (ESI) calculated for CjgHysNsOsNa [M+Na] + : 976.5452, found: 976.5483.

[0072] Synthesis of 3,4-di-0-benzyl-l-0-(2,3-di-O-benzyl-4,6-O- benzylidene-a-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-( 11 -(4-(4-fluorophenoxy)phenyl)undecanoyl)amino-D -n ' £o-octadecan-l,3,4-triol (A8)

[0073] To the solution of compound A7 (32.07 g, 33.61 mmol) in THF (340 mL) was cooled in an ice bath and lithium aluminum hydride (1.910 g, 50.33 mmol) was added in two portions. The mixture was returned to room temperature (rt) and stirred for 70 min. The mixture was cooled to 0 ° C before subsequently quenching with water (1.9 mL), 1.0 N NaOH (3.8 mL) and water (1.9 mL). The mixture was filtered through Celite pad and washed with dichloromethane (100 mL). The filtrate was concentrated and partitioned with dichloromethane (350 mL) and water (350 mL).

[0074] 1 l-(4-(4-Fluorophenoxy)phenyl))undecanoic acid (B4) (11.27 g, 30.26 mmol) was added to the isolated organic phase, followed by NMM (9.2 mL, 84 mmol) and HBTU (19.12 g, 50.41 mmol). After stirring at room temperature for 12 h, the mixture was filtered and washed with 50 mL CH 2 CI 2 . The combined filtrate was washed with sat. ammonium chloride (400 mL) and water (400 mL). The organic phase was concentrated and purified by column

chromatography (crude weight = 46 g, 350 g silica gel, ethyl acetate/n-hexane = 1/6 to 1/5 to 1/4) to afford A8 (36.06 g, 28.11 mmol, 84 %) as off-white wax. 1H-NMR (CDC1 3 , 400 MHz) δ 6.86-7.51 (m, 33H), 5.84 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H), 5.44(s, 1H), 4.94 (d, J= 3.5 Hz, 1H), 4.83 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 4.69-4.74 (m, 3H), 4.63 (d, J= 11.6 Hz, 1H), 4.57 (d, J= 11.6 Hz, lH), 4.50 (d, J = 3.9 Hz, 1H), 4.47 (d, J= 3.9 Hz, 1H), 4.24-4.31 (m, 1H), 4.16 (d, J= 3.1 Hz, 1H) 4.03-4.12 (m, 3H), 3.92 (dd, J= 10.3, 3.6 Hz, 2H), 3.73-3.79 (m, 2H), 3.56 (s, 1H), 3.51-3.53 (m, 1H), 2.55 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 1.87-1.91 (m, 2H), 1.19-1.69 (m, 42H), 0.87 (t, J= 6.6 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C-NMR (CDCI 3 , 100 MHz) δ 172.89, 159.76, 157.36, 155.36, 153.36, 153.33, 138.63, 138.52, 138.50, 138.38, 137.81, 137.79, 129.53, 128.84, 128.64, 128.42, 128.35, 128.31, 128.29, 128.08, 127.88, 127.80, 127.69, 127.59, 127.57, 127.55, 126.29, 120.08, 120.00, 118.31, 116.24, 116.01, 100.99, 99.59, 79.81, 79.48, 76.68, 76.14, 75.68, 74.33, 73.81, 73.28, 71.88, 71.69, 69.39, 68.13, 62.91, 60.36, 50.32, 36.69, 35.17, 31.90, 31.61, 30.24, 29.78, 29.69, 29.67, 29.65, 29.59, 29.56, 29.51, 29.42, 29.35, 29.29, 25.81, 25.68, 22.66, 14.17, 14.10. HRMS (ESI) calculated for C82H105FNO10 [M+H] + : 1282.7723, found: 1282.7731.

[0075] Synthesis of l-O-(a-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-(l l-(4-(4-fluorophenoxy) phenyl) undecanoyl) amino-D-n¾o-octadecan-l,3,4-triol (C34)

[0076] To the solution of A8 (36.06 g, 28.11 mmol) in dichloromethane/methanol (200 mL, dichloromethane/methanol = 1/1) was added palladium hydroxide (1.8 g). The mixture was stirred under hydrogen (5 bar) at room temperature for 10 h. The reaction mixture was filtered through Celite pad and washed with dichloromethane/methanol (100 mL,

dichloromethane/methanol = 1/1). The combined filtrate was concentrated and purified by column chromatography (300 g silica gel, dichloromethane/methanol = 15/1 to 10/1) to afford crude C34 (17.46 g, 20.93 mmol, purity = 95.72 area % by HPLC) as off-white solids in 75% yield. Ethanol (87.5 mL) was added to the crude C34 and warmed to 50 ° C, acetone (87.5 mL) was then added. The solution was cooled to rt over a 3 h period and then cooled in an ice bath. The precipitate was filtered and washed with acetone (200 mL) to afford C34 (16.02 g, 19.21 mmol, 68%, purity = 97.15 area % by HPLC) as white solids in 92% recovery, mp: 163 ° C. 1H-NMR (CDCI 3 /CD 3 OD = 1/1, 400 MHz) δ 7.26 (d, J= 8.5 Hz, 2H), 7.07-7.17 (m, 4H), 7.00 (dd, J= 6.6, 2.0 Hz, 2H), 5.03 (d, J= 3.7 Hz, 1H), 4.33 (q, J= 4.7 Hz, 1H), 4.05 (d, J= 2.7 Hz, 1H), 4.01 (dd, J= 4.6, 10.8 Hz, 1H), 3.79-3.97 (m, 6H), 3.64-3.72 (m, 2H), 2.71 (t, J= 7.4 Hz, 2H), 2.34 (t, J= 7.5 Hz, 2H), 1.29-1.43 (m, 42H), 1.01 (t, J = 6.6 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR

(CDCI 3 /CD 3 OD = 1/1, 100 MHz) δ 173.99, 154.82, 152.97, 137.34, 128.95, 119.39, 119.31, 117.71, 115.52, 115.29, 99.21, 73.92, 71.28, 70.41, 69.69, 69.17, 68.37, 66.63, 61.12, 49.92, 35.74, 34.50, 31.66, 31.27, 31.02, 29.10, 29.06, 28.99, 28.95, 28.88, 28.85, 28.77, 28.70, 28.60, 25.28, 25.23, 21.99, 13.10. [α 5 +57.0 (c 1.0, CH 2 C1 2 /CH 3 0H: 1/1). HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 47 H 77 FNO 3 [M+H] + : 834.5532, found: 834.5595.

[0077] Synthesis of 3,4-di-0-benzyl-l-0-(2,3-di-O-benzyl-4,6-O- benzylidene-a-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-( 11 -(4-phenoxyphenyl)undecanoyl)amino-D-rz ' ¾o-oct adecan-l,3,4-triol (A9)

[0078] By the similar procedure of synthesis of A8, compound A6 (100 mg, 0.105 mmol) compound B12 (33 mg, 0.093 mmol) are the starting materials to give compound A9 (45 mg, 0.036 mmol, 38%) as white wax. 1H-NMR (CDC1 3 , 400 MHz) δ 7.48-7.52 (m, 2H), 7.20-7.41 (m, 25H), 7.12 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 2H), 7.06 (t, J= 7.3 Hz, 1H), 6.96-7.00 (m, 2H), 6.92 (d, J= 10.4 Hz, 2H), 5.83 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 1H), 5.45(s, 1H), 4.94 (d, J= 3.6, 1H), 4.84 (d, J= 11.6 Hz, 1H), 4.69-4.75 (m, 3H), 4.63 (d, J= 11.6 Hz, 1H), 4.57 (d, J= 11.6 Hz, 1H), 4.49 (d, J= 11.6 Hz, 1H), 4.48 (d, J= 11.6 Hz, 1H), 4.24-4.31 (m, 1H), 4.17 (d, J= 3.2 Hz, 1H) 4.03-4.12 (m, 3H), 3.87-3.96 (m, 3H), 3.74-3.80 (m, 2H), 3.56 (s, 1H), 3.50-3.56 (m, 1H), 2.57 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 1.82-1.95 (m, 2H), 1.15-1.65 (m, 42H), 0.88 (t, J= 6.6 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CDC1 3 , 100 MHz) δ 172.89, 159.69, 154.86, 138.62, 138.51, 138.50, 138.38, 137.89, 137.79, 129.60, 129.49, 128.83, 128.41, 128.34, 128.31, 128.29, 128.07, 127.87, 127.82, 127.80, 127.68, 127.57, 127.55, 126.29, 122.79, 118.92, 118.41, 100.98, 99.60, 79.82, 79.48, 76.14, 75.68, 74.33, 73.80, 73.27, 71.88, 71.69, 69.38, 68.14, 62.91, 50.32, 36.70, 35.21, 31.90, 31.61, 30.24, 29.78, 29.69, 29.67, 29.65, 29.59, 29.56, 29.51, 29.41, 29.34, 29.29, 25.80, 25.68, 22.66, 14.10. HRMS (ESI) calculated for C82H106NO10 [M+H] + : 1264.7817, found: 1264.7834.

[0079] Synthesis of 3,4-di-0-benzyl-l-O-(2,3-di-0- benzyl-4,6-0-benzylidene-a-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-(l l-(4-isopropoxyphenyl)undecanoyl)a mino-D-n¾o-octadecan-l ,3,4-triol (A10)

[0080] By the similar procedure of synthesis of A8, compound A6 (100 mg, 0.105 mmol) and B13 (30 mg, 0.094 mmole) were used as starting materials to afford A10 (72.0 mg, 0.059 mmol, 63%) as white wax. 1H-NMR (CDC1 3 , 400 MHz) δ 7.21-7.55 (m, 25H), 7.06 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 2H), 7.78-7.84 (m, 2H), 5.86 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 1H), 5.46 (s, 1H), 4.95 (d, J= 3.2, 1H), 4.85 (d, J= 11.6 Hz, 1H), 4.71-4.80 (m, 3H), 4.63 (d, J= 11.6 Hz, 1H), 4.58 (d, J= 11.6 Hz, 1H), 4.46-4.54 (m, 3H), 4.18 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.05-4.14 (m, 3H), 3.88-3.97 (m, 3H), 3.75-3.82 (m, 2H), 3.58 (s, 1H), 3.51-3.57 (m, 1H), 2.53 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 1.83-1.96 (m, 2H), 1.15-1.71 (m, 48H), 0.89 (t, J= 6.6 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CDC1 3 , 100 MHz) δ 172.84, 139.68, 138.60, 138.49, 138.46, 138.36, 137.77, 128.81, 128.39, 128.32, 128.28, 128.26, 128.05, 127.86, 127.79, 127.78, 127.66, 127.54, 126.26, 124.00, 116.89, 116.72, 100.96, 99.54, 79.75, 79.46, 76.10, 75.66, 74.29, 73.79, 73.25, 71.84, 71.65, 69.35, 68.08, 62.88, 50.28, 36.66, 35.04, 31.87, 31.20, 30.19, 29.75, 29.67, 29.64, 29.50, 29.48, 29.38, 29.37, 29.31, 29.04, 25.87, 25.64, 22.64, 14.07. HRMS (ESI) calculated for CygHiosNOio [M+H] + : 1230.7973, found: 1230.7968.

[0081] Synthesis of 3,4-di-0-benzyl-l-0-(2,3-di-O-benzyl-4,6-O-benzylidene-a-D- galactopyranosyl)-2-( 1 1 -(3 ,4-difluorophenyl)undecanoyl)amino-D-n ' ¾o-octadecan- 1 ,3 ,4-trio 1 (A11)

[0082] By the similar procedure of synthesis of A8, compound A7 (100 mg, 0.105 mmol) and B14 (28 mg, 0.093 mmole) were used as starting materials to afford All (63 mg, 0.052 mmol, 56%). mp: 98 ° C. 1H-NMR (CDC1 3 , 400 MHz) δ 7.21-7.54 (m, 25H), 6.92-7.06 (m, 2H), 6.81-6.87 (m, 1H), 5.87 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 5.45(s, 1H), 4.95 (d, J = 3.2, 1H), 4.84 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 4.69-4.79 (m, 3H), 4.63 (d, J= 11.6 Hz, 1H), 4.58 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 4.50 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 4.49 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 4.25-4.33 (m, 1H), 4.17 (d, J = 2.8 Hz, 1H) 4.04-4.13 (m, 2H), 3.88-3.97 (m, 3H), 3.74-3.81 (m, 2H), 3.57 (s, 1H), 3.51-3.56 (m, 1H), 2.54 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H), 1.82-1.96 (m, 2H), 1.15-1.69 (m, 42H), 0.89 (t, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CDC1 3 , 100 MHz) δ 172.84, 150.02 (dd, J= 245, 13 Hz), 148.55 (dd, J = 244, 13 Hz), 139.68, 138.60, 138.49, 138.46, 138.36, 137.77, 128.81 , 128.39, 128.32, 128.28, 128.26, 128.05, 127.86, 127.79, 127.78, 127.66, 127.54, 126.26, 124.00, 116.89, 116.72, 100.96, 99.54, 79.75, 79.46, 76.01 , 75.66, 74.29, 73.79, 73.25, 71.84, 71.65, 69.35, 68.08, 62.88, 50.28, 36.66, 35.04, 31.87, 31.20, 30.19, 29.75, 29.67, 29.64, 29.50, 29.48, 29.38, 29.37, 29.31 , 29.04, 25.78, 25.64, 22.64, 14.07. HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 76 H 100 F 2 NO 9 [M+H] + : 1208.7366, found: 1208.7398.

[0083] Synthesis of 3,4-di-0-benzyl-l-O-(2,3-di-0-benzy-4,6-0-benzylidene- a-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-(l l-(2,4-difluorophenyl)undecanoyl)amino-D-n ' ¾o-octadecan-l ,3, 4-triol (A12)

[0084] By the similar procedure of synthesis of A8, compound A6 (100 mg, 0.105 mmol) and B15 (28 mg, 0.093 mmole) were used as starting materials to afford A12 (70 mg, 0.058 mmol, 62%) as white wax. 1H-NMR (CDC1 3 , 400 MHz) δ 7.20-7.55 (m, 25H), 7.04-7.14 (m, 1H), 6.69-6.81 (m, 2H), 5.89 (d, J= 8.3 Hz, 1H), 5.45(s, 1H), 4.95 (d, J= 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.85 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 4.70-4.79 (m, 3H), 4.64 (d, J= 11.6 Hz, 1H), 4.58 (d, J= 11.6 Hz, lH), 4.50 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 4.49 (d, J= 11.6 Hz, 1H), 4.25-4.33 (m, 1H), 4.17 (d, J= 2.8 Hz, 1H) 4.04-4.13 (m, 2H), 3.88-3.97 (m, 3H), 3.74-3.80 (m, 2H), 3.57 (s, 1H), 3.51-3.56 (m, 1H), 2.57 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 1.82-1.96 (m, 2H), 1.15-1.69 (m, 42H), 0.88 (t, J= 6.6 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CDC1 3 , 100 MHz) δ 172.90, 162.30, 138.59, 138.50, 138.45, 138.36, 137.78, 130.89, 128.82, 128.40, 128.33, 128.30, 128.27, 128.06, 127.87, 127.79, 127.68, 127.55, 126.27, 110.07, 103.41, 99.53, 79.75, 79.47, 76.11, 75.67, 74.29, 73.81, 73.27, 71,85, 71.65, 69.36, 68.05, 62.89, 50.29, 36.67, 31.88, 30.19, 30.15, 29.76, 29.67, 29.65, 29.51, 29.37, 29.32, 29.17, 28.38, 25.78, 25.66, 22.65, 14.08. HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 76 H 100 F 2 NO 9 [M+H] + : 1208.7366, found: 1208.7377.

[0085] Synthesis of l-0-(a-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-(l l-(4-phenoxyphenyl) undecanoyl) amino-D-πδο- 1,3,4-octadecantriol (A15)

[0086] By the procedure similar to C34, A15 (21 mg, 0.026 mmol, 72%) was obtained form A9 (45 mg, 0.036 mmol), as off-white solids, mp: 131 ° C. 1H-NMR (CD 3 OD/CDCI 3 = 1/1, 400

MHz) δ 7.45 (t, J= 8.3 Hz, 2H), 7.28 (d, J= 7.7 Hz, 2H), 7.20 (t, J= 7.3 Hz, 1H), 7.10 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 2H), 7.04 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, 2H), 5.04 (d, J= 3.3 Hz, 1H), 4.26 (q, J= 7.1 Hz, 1H), 3.79-4.13 (m, 10H), 2.73 (t, J= 7.7 Hz, 2H), 2.36 (t, J= 7.5 Hz, 2H), 1.65-1.82 (m, 4H), 1.41 (brs, 38H), 0.89 (t, J= 7.5 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CD 3 OD/ CDCI3 = 1/1, 100 MHz) δ 174.09, 157.18, 154.36, 137.40, 128.98, 128.92, 122.22, 118.25, 117.71, 99.18, 73.88, 71.30, 70.41, 69.68, 69.17, 68.37, 66.63, 61.10, 60.01, 35.80, 34.56, 31.61, 31.29, 31.04, 29.08, 29.02, 28.91, 28.80, 28.72, 28.64, 25.30, 22.01, 19.90, 13.15. [α 5 +37.4 (c 1.0, CH 2 C1 2 /CH 3 0H: 1/1). HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 47 H 78 NO 10 [M+H] + : 816.5626, found: 816.5637.

[0087] Synthesis of l-O-(a-D-Galactopyranosyl)-2-(l l-(4-isopropoxy) phenyl)undecanoyl) amino-D- n ' ¾o-l,3,4-octadecantriol (A16)

[0088] By the procedure similar to C34, compound A16 (34 mg, 0.044 mmol, 74%) was obtained from A10 (72 mg, 0.059 mmol). The data of A16: mp: 120 ° C. 1H-NMR

(CD3OD/CDCI3 = 1/1, 400 MHz) δ 7.16 (d, J= 8.5 Hz, 2H), 6.90 (d, J= 8.5 Hz, 2H), 5.01 (d, J = 3.7 Hz, 1H), 4.58-4.66 (m, 1H), 4.32 (m, 1H), 4.03 (d, J= 2.6 Hz, 1H), 3.99 (dd, J= 10.6, 4.8, 1H), 3.88-3.96 (m, 2H), 3.78-3.88 (m, 4H), 3.62-3.73 (m, 2H), 2.64 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 2.32 (t, J= 7.4 Hz, 2H), 1.61-1.81 (m, 4H), 1.32-1.52 (m, 44H), 0.99 (t, J= 6.8 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CD 3 0D/CDC1 3 = 1/1, 100 MHz) <H 74.06, 155.10, 134.52, 128.54, 115.33, 99.16, 73.81, 71.25, 70.40, 69.65, 69.62, 69.12, 68.33, 66.60, 61.04, 35.75, 35.70, 34.35, 31.53, 31.25, 31.08, 29.09, 29.03, 28.97, 28.94, 28.87, 28.85, 28.76, 28.68, 28.59, 25.27, 25.22, 21.96, 21.08, 20.88, 13.08.

5 +36.2 (c 1.0, CH 2 C1 2 /CH 3 0H: 1/1). HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 4 4H 79 NOioNa [M+Na] + : 804.5602, found: 804.5641.

[0089] Synthesis of l-O-(a-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-(l l-(3,4-difiuorophenyl)undecanoyl) amino-D-πδο- 1,3,4-octadecantriol (A17)

[0090] By the procedure similar to C34, compound A17 (37 mg, 0.049 mmol, 94%) was obtained from All (63 mg, 0.052 mmol). The data of A18: mp: 140 ° C. 1H-NMR

(CD 3 0D/CDC1 3 = 1/1, 400 MHz) δ 7 '.06-7 '.22 (m, 2H), 6.98-7.04 (m, 1H), 5.03 (d, J= 3.3 Hz, 1H), 4.29-4.36 (m, 1H), 4.05 (d, J= 2.5 Hz, 1H), 4.00 (dd, J= 10.5, 4.8, 1H), 3.89-3.96 (m, 2H), 3.78-3.89 (m, 4H), 3.64-3.73 (m, 2H), 2.69 (t, J= 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.34 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 1.63-1.83 (m, 4H), 1.33-1.48 (m, 38H), 1.00 (t, J= 6.5 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CD 3 0D/CDC1 3 = 1/1, 100 MHz) δ 174. 07, 149.33 (d, J= 247, 13 Hz), 147.95 (d, J= 244, 13 Hz), 139.47, 123.56, 116.22, 116.06, 99.18, 73.86, 71.82, 70.40, 69.67, 69.15, 68.34, 66.63, 61.08, 45.00, 35.78, 35.73, 34.40, 31.58, 31.28, 30.66, 29.12, 29.06, 29.00, 28.91, 28.85, 28.77, 28.71, 28.44, 25.28, 21.99, 13.12. [α 5 +44.4 (c 1.0, CH 2 C1 2 /CH 3 0H: 1/1). HRMS (ESI) calculated for

C 4 iH 72 F 2 N0 9 [M+H] + : 760.5175, found: 760.5222. [0091] Synthesis of l-0-(a-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-(l l-(2,4-difluorophenyl) undecanoyl) ammo-D-ribo- 1,3,4-octadecantriol (A18)

[0092] By the procedure similar to C34, compound A18 (39 mg, 0.051 mmol, 88%) was obtained from compound A12 (70 mg, 0.058 mmol). The data of A18: mp: 149 ° C. 1H-NMR (CD 3 OD/CDCI 3 = 1/1, 400 MHz) δ 7.29 (q, J= 8.1 Hz, 1H), 6.87-6.97 (m, 2H), 5.05 (d, J= 3.7 Hz, 1H), 4.30-4.38 (m, 1H), 4.07 (d, J= 2.9 Hz, 1H), 4.03 (dd, J= 10.6, 4.4 Hz, 1H), 3.91-3.98 (m, 2H), 3.66-3.75 (m, 4H), 3.64-3.73 (m, 2H), 2.73 (t, J= 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.36 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 1.65-1.86 (m, 4H), 1.24-1.60 (m, 38H), 1.02 (t, J= 6.6 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CD3OD/CDCI 3 = 1/1, 100 MHz) <H 74.09, 161.65, 159.20, 130.48, 124.73, 110.06, 102.62, 99.19, 73.90, 71.31, 70.40, 69.69, 69.17, 68.36, 66.66, 61.11, 50.12, 35.81, 35.76, 31.63, 31.30, 29.59, 29.16, 29.14, 29.09, 29.02, 28.92, 28.87, 28.78, 28.76, 28.73, 28.56, 27.72, 25.30, 22.01, 13.16. [α 5 +46.0 (c 1.0, CH 2 CI 2 /CH 3 OH: 1/1). HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 4 iH 7 iF 2 N0 9 Na [M+Na] + : 782.4995, found: 782.5034.

[0093] Synthesis of l-O-(a-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-((10i?,115)-l l-(3,4- difluorophenyl)- 10,11 -dihydroxyundecanoyl)amino-D-n£o- 1 ,3 ,4-octadecantriol and l-O-(a-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-((10S,l \R)-\ 1-

(3,4-difluorophenyl) -10,l l-dihydroxyundecanoyl)amino-D-n ' ¾o-l,3,4- octadecantriol (A19) as a mixture of anti-diol isomers

[0094] To the solution of A7 (101 mg, 0.109 mmol) in dichloromethane (3 mL) was added anti-B21 (32 mg, 0.097 mmol), HBTU (62 mg, 0.16 mmol) and NMM (24 pL, 0.23 mmol). After stirring at room temperature for 12 h, the mixture was concentrated and the residue was purified by column chromatography (ethyl acetate/n-hexane = 1/4 to 1/2 to 1/1). The resulting white wax was dissolved in dichloromethane/methanol (1/1, 10 mL) and Pd(OH) 2 (10 mg) was then added. After stirring at room temperature under hydrogen for 15 h, the mixture was filtered through Celite pad and washed with dichloromethane/methanol (1/1). The filtrate was concentrated and the residue was purified by column chromatography

(dichloromethane/methanol = 10/1 then 8/1) to afford A19 (34 mg, 0.043 mmol, 44%) as off-white solids, mp: 105 ° C. 1H-NMR (CDCI3/CD3OD = 1/1, 400 MHz) δ 7.17-7.40 (m, 3H), 5.01 (d, J= 3.6 Hz, 1H), 4.62 (d, J= 4.8 Hz, 0.75H), 4.50 (d, J= 6.0 Hz, 0.25H), 4.28-4.36 (m, 1H), 4.03 (d, J= 2.8 Hz, 1H), 3.99 (dd, J= 4.8, 10.8 Hz, 1H), 3.87-3.95 (m, 2H), 3.76-3.87 (m, 4H), 3.61-3.71 (m, 2H), 2.31 (t, J= 7.4 Hz, 2H), 1.31-1.83 (m, 40H), 0.99 (t, J= 6.9 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 /CD 3 OD = 1/1, 100 MHz) δ 173.97, 149.42 (dd, J= 245, 13 Hz), 148.86 (dd, J= 245, 13 Hz), 136.65, 122.46, 116.09, 115.77, 115.27, 115.10, 99.16, 75.70, 75.35, 74.74, 74.21, 73.94, 71.25, 70.40, 69.65, 69.10, 68.31, 66.52, 61.03, 49.91, 35.63, 31.94, 31.69, 31.23, 31.18, 29.09, 29.04, 29.00, 28.95, 28.83, 28.76, 28.68, 28.65, 28.53, 25.17, 25.08, 24.96, 21.94, 13.04. [α 5 +58.3 (c 1.0, CH 2 C1 2 /CH 3 0H: 1/1). HRMS (ESI) calculated for

C 4 iH 7 iF 2 NOiiNa [M+Na] + : 814.4893, found: 814.4859.

[0095] Synthesis of 1 -0-(a-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-(( 10S,1 IS)- 11-(3,4- difluorophenyl)- 10,11 -dihydroxyundecanoyl)amino-D-n£o- 1 ,3 ,4-octadecantriol and l-O-(a-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-((10i?,l li?)-l l-(3,4- difluorophenyl)-10,l l-dihydroxyundecanoyl)amino-D-n ' ¾o-l,3,4-octadecantriol, (A20) as a mixture of syn-diol isomers

[0096] To the solution of A7 (101 mg, 0.109 mmol) in dichloromethane (3 mL) was added Syn-A21 (14 mg, 0.042 mmol), HBTU (62 mg, 0.16 mmol) and NMM (24 pL, 0.22 mmol). After stirring at room temperature for 12 h, the mixture was concentrated and the residue was purified by column chromatography (ethyl acetate/n-hexane = 1/4 to 1/2 to 1/1). The resulting white wax was dissolved in dichloromethane/methanol (1/1, 10 mL) and Pd(OH) 2 (10 mg) was then added. After stirring at room temperature under hydrogen for 15 h, the mixture was filtered through Celite pad and washed with dichloromethane/methanol (1/1). The filtrate was concentrated and the residue was purified by column chromatography

(dichloromethane/methanol = 10/1 then 8/1) to afford A20 (20 mg, 0.025 mmol, 60%) as white solids, mp: 80 ° C. 1H-NMR (CDCI 3 /CD 3 OD = 1/1, 400 MHz) δ 7.19-7.49 (m, 3H), 5.02 (d, J = 3.6 Hz, 1H), 4.52 (d, J= 6 Hz, 1H), 4.30-4.37 (m, 1H), 4.04 (d, J= 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.01 (dd, J = 4.4, 10.8 Hz, 1H), 3.89-3.96 (m, 2H), 3.78-3.88 (m, 4H), 3.63-3.73 (m, 3H), 2.33 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 1.26-1.84 (m, 40H), 1.01 (t, J= 6.8 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CDC1 3 /CD 3 0D = 1/1, 100 MHz) <H 74.00, 149.58 (dd, J= 245, 12 Hz), 149.07 (dd, J= 245, 12 Hz), 138.90, 122.46, 116.13, 115.14, 99.21, 75.47, 74.79, 74.01, 71.28, 70.41, 69.69, 69.15, 68.34, 66.57, 61.09, 49.90, 35.67, 31.98, 31.77, 31.27, 29.12, 29.03, 28.98, 28.80, 28.68, 28.56, 25.20, 25.00, 21.98, 13.08. [α 5 +50.0 (c 1.0, CH 2 CI 2 /CH 3 OH: 1/1). HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 4 iH 7 iF 2 NOiiNa [M+Na] + : 814.4893, found: 814.4893.

[0097] Synthesis of l-0-(a-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-(l l-(4-bromophenyl) -10,11- dihydroxyundecanoyl) ammo-D-ribo- 1,3,4 -octadecantriol (A21)

[0098] By the procedure similar to A19, compound A21 (18 mg, 0.024 mmol, 28%) was obtained from A7 (90 mg, 0.094 mmol) and B19 (32 mg, 0.086 mmol). The data of A21:

off-white wax. 1H-NMR (CD3OD/CDCI 3 = 1/1, 400 MHz) δ 7.26-7.51 (m, 5H), 5.02-5.10 (m, 1H), 5.02 (d, J= 4.0 Hz, 1H), 4.23-4.29 (m, 1H), 4.06-4.15 (m, 1H), 3.97-4.03 (m, 2H), 3.83-3.96 (m, 6H), 3.68 (t, J= 10.2 Hz, 1H), 2.84-2.89 (m, 1H), 2.52 (t, J= 7.4 Hz, 2H), 1.27-1.89 (m, 40H), 1.02 (t, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CD 3 OD/CDCI 3 = 1/1, 150 MHz) δ 174.08, 173.54, 138.50, 128.72, 127.55, 125.39, 99.10, 72.40, 71.92, 70.84, 70.16, 69.92, 69.57, 69.24, 68.23, 63.43, 61.13, 52.30, 43.34, 36.69, 36.39, 35.91, 35.69, 35.26, 33.69, 32.83, 32.03, 31.67, 31.25, 30.90, 30.59, 29.81, 29.30, 29.01, 28.97, 28.86, 28.77, 28.67, 28.54, 28.46, 25.22, 25.00, 24.36, 24.27, 21.97, 13.09. [α 5 +22.7 (c 1.0, CH 2 C1 2 /CH 3 0H: 1/1). HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 4 iH 74 NOn [M+H] + : 778.5081, found: 778.5073.

Scheme 2: Synthesis of compound A23-25

[0099] Synthesis of l-0-(a-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-amino-D-n ' £o-l,3,4- octadecantriol (A22)

[0100] To the solution of A7 (520 mg, 0.545 mmol) in dichloromethane/methanol (1/1, 20 mL) was added Pd(OH) 2 (220 mg) and three drops of acetic acid. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature under 80 psi hydrogen for 16 h. The mixture was filtered through Celite and the filter cake was washed with methanol. The filtrate was concentrated and dried in vacuum to afford crude A22 (302 mg, quantitative) as white solids. HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 24 H 49 NO 8 H [M+H] + : 480.3536, found: 480.3515.

[0101] Synthesis of l-0-(a-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-(l l-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)undecanoyl) amino-D-ribo-1 ,3,4-octadecantriol (A23)

[0102] To the solution of A22 (50 mg, 0.10 mmol) in dichloromethane/methanol (1/1, 3 mL) was added B16 (34 mg, 0.10 mmol), HBTU (59 mg, 0.16 mmol) and NMM (23 pL, 0.21 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 12 h. The mixture was concentrated and the residue was purified by column chromatography (dichloromethane/methanol = 15/1 to 12/1 to 9/1) to afford A23 (16 mg, 0.020 mmol, 20%) as off-white solids, mp: 147 °C. 1H-NMR (CD3OD/CDCI3 = 1/1, 400 MHz) δ 7.51 (s, 1H), 7.35 (s, 2H), 5.08 (d, J= 3.3 Hz, 1H),

4.33- 4.43 (m, 1H), 4.08-4.12 (m, 1H), 4.06 (dd, J= 10.7, 4.0 Hz, 1H), 3.82-4.02 (m, 6H), 3.67-3.77 (m, 2H), 2.86 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 2.39 (t, J= 7.5 Hz, 2H), 1.66-1.88 (m, 4H),

1.34- 1.60 (m, 38H), 1.06 (t, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CD 3 OD/CDCI 3 = 1/1, 100 MHz) δ 174.05, 138.47, 133.89, 131.36, 130.64, 128.41, 126.35, 99.25, 73.99, 71.36, 70.42, 69.74, 69.22, 68.42, 66.71, 61.19, 49.97, 35.82, 32.41, 31.76, 31.34, 29.20, 29.17, 29.12, 29.06, 28.95, 28.91, 28.81, 28.76, 28.69, 25.33, 25.29, 22.06, 13.21. [α 5 +46.8 (c 1.0, CH 2 C1 2 /CH 3 0H: 1/1).

HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 4 iH 7 iCl 2 N0 9 Na [M+Na] + : 814.4404, found: 814.4311

[0103] Synthesis of l-O-(a-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-(l l-(4-chlorophenyl) undecanoyl) amino-D-ribo- 1,3,4-octadecantriol (A24)

[0104] By the procedure similar to A23, compound A24 (18 mg, 0.024 mmol, 22%) was obtained from A22 (52 mg, 0.11 mmol) and B17 (32 mg, 0.11 mmol). The data of A24: off-white solids, mp: 136 °C. 1H-NMR (CD 3 OD/CDCI 3 = 1/1, 400 MHz) δ 7.28 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 2H), 7.17 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 2H), 4.96 (d, J= 3.6 Hz, 1H), 4.21-4.29 (m, 1H), 3.98 (d, J= 2.5 Hz, 1H), 3.95 (dd, J= 10.6, 4.4, 1H), 3.83-3.90 (m, 2H), 3.72-3.82 (m, 4H), 3.58-3.68 (m, 2H), 2.64 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 2.28 (t, J= 7.8 Hz, 2H), 1.57-1.77 (m, 4H), 1.20-1.51 (m, 38H), 0.95 (t, J= 6.7 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CD 3 0D/CDC1 3 = 1/1, 100 MHz) δ 173.99, 140.73, 130.53, 129.08, 127.51, 99.15, 73.79, 71.23, 70.34, 69.62, 69.17, 68.32, 66.58, 61.06, 49.87, 35.67, 34.52, 31.53, 31.23, 30.73, 29.01, 28.95, 28.87, 28.81, 28.75, 28.65, 28.46, 25.24, 21.94, 13.03. [α 5 +41.7 (c 1.0, CH 2 C1 2 /CH 3 0H: 1/1). HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 4 iH 72 ClN0 9 Na [M+Na] + : 780.4793, found: 780.4779.

[0105] Synthesis of 1 -O-(a-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-( 11 -(4-bromophenyl) undecanoyl) amino-D-πδο- 1,3,4-octadecantriol (A25)

[0106] By the procedure similar to A23, compound A25 (22 mg, 0.027 mmol, 25%) was obtained from A22 (52 mg, 0.11 mmol) and B28 (56 mg, 0.16 mmol). The data of A25:

off-white wax. 1H-NMR (CD 3 0D/CDC1 3 = 1/1, 400 MHz) δ 7.28 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 2H), 7.20-7.47 (m, 2H), 5.00 (d, J= 3.6 Hz, 1H), 4.28-4.33 (m, 1H), 4.02 (d, J= 2.8 Hz, 1H), 3.98 (dd, J= 10.6, 4.6 Hz, 1H), 3.863-3.94 (m, 2H), 3.77-3.87 (m, 4H), 3.62-3.70 (m, 2H), 2.69 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 2.31 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 1.29-1.81 (m, 42H), 0.98 (t, J= 6.6 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR

(CD 3 0D/CDC1 3 = 1/1, 100 MHz) δ \Ί\ 2\, 141.18, 130.44, 129.44, 118.39, 99.41, 74.54, 70.41, 70.13, 69.58, 69.50, 69.07, 68.41, 67.22, 60.95, 49.68, 35.58, 34.51, 31.36, 31.18, 30.62, 28.95, 28.90, 28.81, 28.76, 28.68, 28.61, 28.40, 27.00, 25.21, 24.88, 21.89, 19.90, 19.74, 19.57, 12.96.

5 +40.7 (c 1.0, CH 2 C1 2 /CH 3 0H: 1/1). HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 4 iH 73 BrN0 9 [M+H] + : 802.4469, found: 802.4216.

(3) Synthetic Scheme 3: Synthesis of aryl-alkanoic acid

[0107] Synthesis of (9-carboxynonyl)triphenylphosphonium bromide (B2)

[0108] 10-Bromodecanoic acid (19.65 g, 78.24 mmol) and triphenylphosphine (21.45 g, 81.78 mmol) were mixed and stirred at 150 °C for 24 h. Wittig reagent B2 as light yellow syrup was obtained in 100% yield and used without further purification. [0109] Synthesis of 1 l-(4-(4-fluorophenoxy)phenyl))undecanoic acid (B4)

[0110] To the mixture of B2 (19.89 g, 38.81 mmol) and THF (150 mL) was added potassium t-butoxide (10.40 g, 92.68 mmol) at 0 °C. The reaction mixture became a red solution. The reaction mixture was warmed to rt and stirred for 1 h. 4-(4-fluorophenoxy)benzaldehyde (Bl) (7.50 g, 34.7 mmol) was added to the reaction mixture at 0 °C and was stirred for an additional 30 min at rt. The reaction mixture was neutralized with 1.0 N HCl and concentrated. The residue was partitioned with ethyl acetate (200 mL), water (200 mL) (pH value was adjusted to 5 by adding 1.0 N HCl) and brine (200 mL). The organic phase was isolated and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was recrystallized with ethanol/water (1/1, 80 mL) and washed with water to afford B3 (9.99 g, 27.0 mmol, 78%) as white solids. B3 was dissolved in ethanol/ethyl acetate (1/1, 80 mL) and Pd/C (10%, 1.08 g) was added after then. The mixture was stirred at room temperature under hydrogen for 12 h. The reaction mixture was filtered through Celite pad and washed with ethyl acetate. The filtrate was concentrated and

recrystallized with methanol/water (5/1, 12 mL), filtered and washed with water to afford 1 l-(4-(4-fluorophenoxy) phenyl))undecanoic acid (B4) (9.080 g, 24.38 mmol, 90%>) as white solids, mp: 73 °C. 1H-NMR (CDC1 3 , 400 MHz) δ 6.85-7.13 (m, 8H), 2.56 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 2.33 (t, J= 7.4 Hz, 2H), 1.22-1.65 (m, 16H). 13 C-NMR (CDC1 3 , 100 MHz) δ 179.69, 159.78, 157.38, 155.36, 153.39, 137.88, 129.56, 120.09, 120.01, 118.33, 116.25, 116.02, 35.18, 33.97, 31.59, 29.69, 29.48, 29.44, 29.38, 29.24, 29.20, 29.03, 24.65. HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 23 H 29 F0 3 Na [M+Na] + : 395.1998, found: 395.2003.

0111] Synthesis of 1 l-(4-phenoxy)phenylundecanoic acid (B12)

[0112] Similar to the route for compound B4, compound B12 (1.34 g, 3.78 mmol, 97%>) was synthesized from B2 (3.47 g, 6.76 mmol) and 4-phenoxybenzaldehyde (1.03 g, 5.20 mmol). Data for compound B12: off-white solids, mp: 55°C. 1H-NMR (CDC1 3 , 400 MHz) δ 6.93-7.35 (m, 9H), 2.60 (t, J= 7.4 Hz, 2H), 2.37 (t, J= 7.3 Hz, 2H), 1.65 (m, 4H), 1.33 (m, 12H).

1 3 C-NMR (CDC1 3 , 100 MHz) ^ 180.35, 157.71, 154.83, 137.87, 130.13, 129.51, 122.73, 118.97, 118.32, 35.18, 34.10, 31.55, 29.45, 29.42, 29.36, 29.22, 29.18, 29.00, 24.63. HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 23 H 30 O 3 Na [M+Na] + : 377.2093, found: 377.2053. 0113] Synthesis of 1 l-(4-isopropoxy)phenylundecanoic acid (B13)

[0114] By the similar procedure of synthesis of B4, compound B2 (2.25 g, 4.38 mmol) and 4-isopropoxybenzaldehyde (479 mg, 2.92 mmole) were used as starting materials to afford compound B13 (562 mg, 1.75 mmol, 60%) as white solids, mp: 46 °C. 1H-NMR (CDC1 3 , 400 MHz) δ 7.04 (d, J= 8.5 Hz, 2H), 6.78 (d, J= 8.6 Hz, 2H), 4.48 (m, 1H), 2.50 (t, J= 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.32 (t, J= 7.5 Hz, 2H), 1.50-1.61 (m, 4H), 1.25-1.35 (m, 18H). 13 C-NMR (CDC1 3 , 100 MHz) δ 179.73, 155.82, 134.93, 129.20, 115.77, 69.91, 35.04, 34.11, 31.69, 29.50, 29.47, 29.40, 29.26, 29.22, 29.12, 29.06, 24.71, 22.11, 21.88. HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 20 H 32 O 3 Na [M+Na] + : 343.2249, found: 343.2227.

[0115] Synthesis of (10 E or 10Z))-\ l-(3,4-difhiorophenyl)undec-10-enoic acid ((E)-B7, and (Z)-B7)

[0116] By the similar procedure to compound B3, B2 (12.93 g, 25.18 mmol) and THF (80 mL) and 3,4-difluorobenzaldehyde (2.35 g, 16.5 mmol) were starting materials to give compound B7 (3.77 g, 12.7 mmol, 77%). The Z-form and E-form products were separated by recrystallization with n-hexane. (E)- 7 was obtained as white solids, mp: 66 °C. 1H-NMR (CDC1 3 , 400 MHz) δ 6.98-7.14 (m, 3H), 6.25 (d, J= 15.8 Hz, 1H), 6.12 (m, 1H), 2.33 (t, J= 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.16 (q, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H), 1.61 (m, 2H), 1.43 (m, 2H), 1.30 (s, 8H). 13 C-NMR (CDC1 3 , 100 MHz) δ 180.57, 150.49 (dd, J= 246, 12 Hz), 149.31 (dd, J= 241, 13 Hz), 135.29, 132.35, 127.88, 121.99, 117.13, 114.18, 34.15, 32.91, 29.31, 29.22, 29.18, 29.08, 24.70. HRMS (ESI) calculated for Ci 7 H 22 F 2 0 2 Na [M+Na] + : 319.1486, found: 319.1485. (Z)-B7 was obtained as colorless oil with 25% inseparable (£)-B7.

0117] Synthesis of (3,4-difluorophenyl)undecanoic acid (B14)

[0118] Compound B7 (1.61 g, 5.43 mmol) was dissolved in ethanol/ethyl acetate (1/1, 30 m and Pd/C (10%>, 160 mg) was added to the solution. The mixture stirred at room temperature under hydrogen for 12 h. The mixture was filtered through Celite pad and washed with ethyl acetate. The filtrate was concentrated and dried in vacuum. Compound B14was obtained as white solids (1.61 g, 5.40 mmol, 99%). mp: 51 °C. 1H-NMR (CDC1 3 , 400 MHz) δ 6.90-7.03 (m, 2H), 6.84 (m, 1H), 2.53 (t, J= 7.7 Hz, 2H), 2.33 (t, J= 7.5 Hz, 2H), 1.52-1.64 (m, 4H), 1.26 (m, 12H). 13 C-NMR (CDC1 3 , 100 MHz) δ 180.24, 150.13 (dd, J= 13, 247 Hz), 148.49 (dd, J= 13, 246 Hz), 147.40, 139.77, 124.05, 116.85, 35.09, 34.01, 31.23, 29.43, 29.36, 29.35, 29.18, 29.05, 29.01, 24.64. HRMS (ESI) calculated for Ci 7 H 24 F 2 0 2 Na [M+Na] + : 321.1642, found: 321.1594.

[0119] Synthesis of 1 l-(2,4-difluorophenyl)undecanoic acid (B15)

[0120] By the similar procedure of synthesis of B4, compound B2 (2.76 g, 5.38 mmol) and 2,4-difluorobenzaldehyde (588 mg, 4.14 mmole) were used as starting materials to afford compound B15 (431 mg, 1.45 mmol, 35%) as off-white solids, mp: 56 °C. 1H-NMR (CDC1 3 , 400 MHz) δ 7.05-7.13 (m, 1H), 6.70-6.79 (m, 2H), 2.66 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 2.31 (t, J= 7.4 Hz, 2H), 1.50-1.62 (m, 4H), 1.26 (m, 12H). 13 C-NMR (CDC1 3 , 100 MHz) δ 180.00, 162.19, 159.80, 130.90, 125.31, 110.69, 103.44, 34.11, 30.15, 29.44, 29.36, 29.33, 29.19, 29.16, 29.03, 28.41, 24.69. HRMS (ESI) calculated for Ci 7 H 24 F 2 0 2 Na [M+Na] + : 321.1642, found: 321.1637.

[0121] Synthesis of 1 l-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)undecanoic acid (B16)

[0122] By the similar procedure of compound B7, B2 (2.25 g, 4.38 mmol) and

2,4-dichlorobenzaldehyde (500 mg, 2.86 mmol) were used as starting materials to afford (10 E or 70Z )-l l-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)undec-10-enoic acid (B9) (576 mg, 1.75 mmol, 61%>). Then this compound (210 mg, 0.638 mmol) was dissolved in ethyl acetate (10 mL) and Pd/BaS0 4 (21 mg) was then added. The mixture was stirred at room temperature under hydrogen for 12 h. The mixture was filtered through Celite pad and washed with ethyl acetate. The combined filtrate was concentrated and dried in vacuum to afford compound B16 (210 mg, 0.634 mmol, 99%>) as white solids, mp: 78 °C. 1H-NMR (CDC1 3 , 400 MHz) δ 7.32 (d, J= 1.9 Hz, 1H), 7.09-7.15 (m, 2H), 2.65 (t, J= 7.8 Hz, 2H), 2.33 (t, J= 7.5 Hz, 2H), 1.53-1.63 (m, 4H), 1.26 (m, 12H).

1 3 C-NMR (CDC1 3 , 100 MHz) ^ 180.00, 162.19, 159.80, 130.90, 125.31, 110.69, 103.44, 34.11, 30.15, 29.44, 29.36, 29.33, 29.19, 29.16, 29.03, 28.41, 24.69. HRMS (ESI) calculated for

Ci 7 H 24 Cl 2 0 2 Na [M+Na] + : 353.1051, found: 353.1046.

[0123] Synthesis of 1 l-(4-Chlorophenyl)undecanoic acid (B17) O

[0124] By the similar procedure of synthesis of BIO, compound B2 (2.20 g, 4.28 mmol) and 4-chlorobenzaldehyde (401 mg, 2.85 mmole) were used as starting materials to afford B17 (526 mg, 1.77 mmol, 62%). mp: 93 °C. 1H-NMR (CDC1 3 , 400 MHz) δ 7.21 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.08 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 2H), 2.54 (t, J= 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.33 (t, J= 7.5 Hz, 2H), 1.53-1.63 (m, 4H), 1.26 (m, 12H). 13 C-NMR (CDC1 3 , 100 MHz) δ 179.90, 141.28, 131.21 , 129.71 , 128.27, 35.26, 34.00, 31.35, 29.69, 29.44, 29.39, 29.36, 29.19, 29.13, 29.01 , 24.64. HRMS (ESI) calculated for Ci 7 H 25 C10 2 Na [M+Na] + : 319.1441 , found: 319.1435.

[0125] Synthesis of 1 l-(4-bromophenyl)undecanoic acid (B18)

[0126] By the similar procedure of synthesis of B10, compound B2 (330 mg, 0.643 mmol) and 4-bromobenzaldehyde (91.5 mg, 0.495 mmole) were used as starting materials to afford B18 (98.0 mg, 0.287 mmol, 58%) as off-white solids, mp: 91 °C. 1H-NMR (CDC1 3 , 400 MHz) δ 7.37 (d, J= 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.02 (d, J= 8.3 Hz, 2H), 2.53 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 2.34 (t, J= 7.5 Hz, 2H), 1.52-1.63 (m, 4H), 1.20-1.37 (m, 12H). 13 C-NMR (CDC1 3 , 100 MHz) δ 179.94, 141.79, 141.79, 131.22, 130.14, 1 19.22, 35.31 , 34.1 1 , 31.27, 29.44, 29.38, 29.36, 29.19, 29.12, 29.03, 24.68. HRMS (ESI) calculated Ci 7 H 26 Br0 2 [M+H] + : 341.1 1 16, found: 341.1 1 1 1.

[0127] 1 l-(4-bromophenyl)-l 0, 1 1-dihydroxyundecanoic acid (B20)

[0128] To the solution of Bll (389 mg, 1.15 mmol) in t-butanol/water (4/3, 35 mL) was added NMO (462 mg, 3.94 mmol) and osmium tetroxide (2.5 wt % in t-BuOH, 170 μΕ, 0.167 mmol). After stirred at room temperature for 15 h, the reaction was quenched with sat. Na 2 S 2 0 3 and concentrated. The residue was partitioned with dichloromethane (50 mL) and sat. Na 2 S 2 0 3 (50 mL). The organic phase was washed with brine (50 mL), concentrated and purified by column chromatography (ethyl acetate/n-hexane = 1/2 then 1/1) to afford B20 (256 mg, 0.686 mmol, 60%). 1H-NMR (CD 3 0D/CDC1 3 = 1/1 , 400 MHz) δ 7.49-7.56 (m, 2H), 7.28-7.37 (m, 2H), 4.59 (d, J= 5.1 Hz, 0.7H), 4.44 (d, J= 6.6 Hz, 0.3H), 3.71-3.77 (m, 0.7H), 3.62-3.66 (m, 0.3H), 2.45 (t, J= 7.2 Hz, 2H), 1.27-1.78 (m, 14H). 13 C-NMR (CD 3 0D/CDC1 3 = 1/1 , 100 MHz) δ 169.05, 140.40, 140.16, 130.60, 130.30, 128.18, 120.64, 120.27, 76.44, 75.80, 74.81, 74.27, 31.88, 30.94, 28.92, 28.78, 28.67, 28.63, 28.56, 28.48, 28.45, 28.38, 25.10, 24.88, 24.28. HRMS (ESI) calculated for Ci 7 H 25 Br0 4 Na [M+Na] + : 395.0834, found: 395.0813.

[0129] Synthesis of L-(-)-Menthyl (10E)-1 l-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-undec-10-enoate

(Menthyl B7)

[0130] To the solution of (£)-B7 (298 mg, 1.01 mmol) in dichloromethane (3 mL) was added L-(-)-menthol (314 mg, 2.01 mmol), EDC'HCl (347 mg, 1.81 mmol) and DMAP (1.2 mg, 0.010 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 12 h. The mixture was diluted with dichloromethane (20 mL), washed with water (20 mL) and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (ethyl acetate/n-hexane = 1/50) to afford

Menthyl (E)-B7 (112 mg, 0.258 mmol, 26%) as colorless oil. 1H-NMR (CDC1 3 , 400 MHz) δ 6.95-7.13 (m, 3H), 6.24 (d, J= 15.6 Hz, 1H), 6.15-6.24 (m, 1H), 4.11-4.20 (m, 1H), 2.27 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H), 2.15 (q, J= 6.8 Hz, 2H), 1.92-1.99 (m, 1H), 1.80-1.89 (m, 1H), 1.55-1.68 (m, 4H), 1.38-1.50 (m, 3H), 1.22-1.35 (m, 10H), 0.77-1.09 (m, 9H), 0.73 (d, J= 7.0 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CDC1 3 , 100 MHz) δ 173.34, 150.39 (dd, J= 245, 13 Hz), 149.23 (dd, J= 246, 13Hz), 135.15, 132.24, 127.77, 121.87, 117.00, 114.08, 73.82, 47.00, 40.93, 34.67, 34.25, 32.82, 31.33, 29.67, 29.26, 29.14, 29.08, 29.06, 26.22, 25.06, 23.39, 21.97, 20.70, 16.25. HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 27 H 4 oF 2 0 2 Na [M+Na] + : 457.2894, found: 457.2863.

[0131] Synthesis of (10,5,115)- 1 l-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-10,l 1-dihydroxyundecanoic acid and (10i?,l li?)-l l-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-10,l 1-dihydroxyundecanoic acid, syn -(B21) as a mixture of syn-diol isomers

[0132] To the solution of menthyl (E)-B7 (110 mg, 0.253 mmol) in t-butanol/water (2/1, 6 mL) was added NMO (103 mg, 0.879 mmol) and osmium tetroxide (2.5 wt % in t-BuOH, 38 μί, 0.0037 mmol). After stirring at room temperature for 20 h, the reaction mixture was quenched with sat. Na 2 S 2 0 3 (10 mL). The mixture was concentrated and the residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate (20 mL), washed with sat. Na 2 S 2 0 3 (20 mL), and brine (20 mL), dried over MgS0 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (ethyl acetate/n-hexane = 1/4 then 1/3). The resulting colorless oil was dissolved in methanol (5 mL) and 1.0 N NaOH (5 mL) was then added. After stirring at room temperature for 12 h, the reaction mixture was neutralized with 1.0 N HC1 (5 mL) and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (ethyl acetate/n-hexane = 1/2 then 1/1) to afford syn-B21 (35 mg, 0.11 mmol, 43%) as white solids, mp: 104°C. 1H-NMR (CD 3 OD, 400 MHz) δ

6.99-7.25 (m, 3H), 4.36 (d, J= 5.6 Hz, 1H), 3.45-3.52 (m, 1 H), 2.18 (t, J= 7.4 Hz, 2H), 1.11-1.54 (m, 14H). 13 C-NMR (CD 3 OD, 100 MHz) δ 177.70, 151.29 (dd, J= 244, 12 Hz), 150.76 (dd, J= 244, 13 Hz), 141.48, 124.36, 117.64, 116.87, 77.23, 76.39, 34.39, 33.72, 30.51, 30.41, 30.27, 30.15, 26.80, 26.03. HRMS (ESI) calculated for Ci 7 H 24 F 2 0 4 Na [M+Na] + :

353.1540, found: 353.1550.

[0133] Synthesis of (10i?,l IS)- and (10S,1 IK) -1 l-(3,4-difluorophenyl)- (10,11) -dihydroxyundecanoic acid, Anti-(B21) as a mixture of anti-diol isomers

[0134] To the solution of (Z)-B7 (361 mg, 1.22 mmol) in t-butanol/water (2/1, 6 mL) was added NMO (494 mg, 4.22 mmol) and osmium tetroxide (2.5 wt % in t-BuOH, 186 μί, 0.0183 mmol). After stirring at room temperature for 20 h, the reaction mixture was quenched with sat.

Na 2 S 2 0 3 (15 mL). The mixture was concentrated and the residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate

(50 mL), washed with sat. Na 2 S 2 0 3 (50 mL), and brine (50 mL), dried over MgS0 4 , filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (ethyl acetate/n-hexane =

1/2 then 1/1) to afford ant-B21 (246 mg, 0.745 mmol, 61%, a mixture of anti-diol isomers) as colorless oil. 1H-NMR (CD 3 OD, 400 MHz) δ 7.03-7.25 (m, 3H), 4.36 (d, J= 5.5 Hz, 1H),

3.47-3.57 (m, 1 H), 2.16-2.22 (m, 2H), 1.18-1.56 (m, 14H). 13 C-NMR (CD 3 OD, 100 MHz) δ

177.73, 151.19 (dd, J= 245, 13 Hz), 150.72 (dd, J= 245, 13 Hz), 141.46, 124.57, 117.49,

117.08, 77.34, 77.25, 76.42, 76.06, 34.95, 33.75, 33.50, 30.63, 30.51, 30.44, 30.34, 30.20, 26.83,

26.07. HRMS (ESI) calculated for Ci 7 H 24 F 2 0 4 Na [M+Na] + : 353.1540, found: 353.1566.

(4) Synthetic Scheme 4: Synthesis of Compound C5-C7

[0135] Synthesis of 3,4-di-0-benzyl-l-O-(6-azido-2,3,4-tri-0- benzyl-6-deoxy-a-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-hexacosanoylamino-D-n ¾o-octadecan-l,3,4-triol (CI)

[0136] Compound CI may be synthesized according to Zhou, X. T. et al. Org Lett 2002, 4, 1267-1270. Data for CI : 1H-NMR (CDC1 3 , 400Hz) δ 7.35-7.21 (m, 25H) , 5.94 (d, J= 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.95 (d, J= 11.4 Hz, 1H) , 4.82 (d, J= 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.79-4.91 (m, 4H), 4.63-4.55 (m, 3H),4.37-4.48 (m, 2H), 4.18-4.30 (m, 2H), 4.00(dd, J= 3.6, 10.1 Hz, 1H), 3.87-3.81(m, 7H), 3.52-3.50 (m, 1H), 1.78-1.79 (m, 74H), 0.86 (t, J= 7.0Hz, 6H).

[0137] Synthesis of l-0-(6-phenylacetamido-6-deoxy-a-D- galactopyranosyl)-2-hexacosanoylamino-D-rz ' ¾o-octadecan-l,3,4-triol (C5)

[0138] To the solution of CI (24 mg, 0.018 mmol) in THF/water (10/1, 5 mL) was added triphenylphosphine (10 mg, 0.038 mmol). After stirring at room temperature for 2 days, the mixture was concentrated and dried in vacuum. The residue was dissolved in chloroform (3 mL). Phenylacetic acid (3 mg, 0.02 mmol), NMM (5 μί, 0.05 mmol) and HBTU (10 mg, 0.026 mmol) were added to this solution. After stirring at room temperature for 12 h, the mixture was concentrated and purified by column chromatography (ethyl acetate/n-hexane = 1/8 to 1/6 to 1/4) to give compound C2. The resulting intermediate of C2 was dissolved in

dichloromethane/methanol (1/1, 5 mL) and Pd(OH) 2 (5.0 mg) was then added. After stirring at room temperature under hydrogen for 15 h, the mixture was filtered through Celite pad and washed with dichloromethane/methanol (1/1). The filtrate was concentrated and purified by column chromatography (dichloromethane/methanol = 1/1) to afford C5 (4.0 mg, 0.004 mmol, 22%) as white wax. 1H-NMR (pyridine-d 5 , 400Hz) δ 7.24-7.43 (m, 5H), 5.51 (d, J= 3.8 Hz, 1H), 4.50-4.67 (m, 2H), 4.09-4.51 (m, 8H), 3.89 (s, 2H), 3.82-4.01 (m, 1H), 2.21-2.57 (m, 4H), 1.08-1.96 (m, 74H), 0.88 (t, J= 6.1 Hz, 6H). 13 C-NMR (pyridine-d 5 , 150Hz) δ 173.75, 173.46, 142.53, 129.24, 129.20, 126.75, 101.71, 77.08, 72.95, 71.64, 71.34, 70.91, 70.50, 68.82, 51.89, 41.50, 38.77, 37.20, 34.81, 32.67, 32.51, 30.78, 30.55, 30.42, 30.39, 30.32, 30.20, 29.99, 26.90, 26.79, 23.32, 14.66. [α 5 +39.3 (c 1.0, CH 2 C1 2 /CH 3 0H: 1/1). LRMS (ESI) calculated for CssHiovNzOg [M+H] : 975.80, found: 975.67.

[0139] Synthesis of l-0-(6-(3-phenylpropylamido)-6-deoxy-a-D- galactopyranosyl)-2-hexacosanoylamino-D-rz ' ¾o-octadecan-l,3,4-triol (C6)

[0140] By the similar procedure of synthesis of C5, compound CI (24 mg, 0.018 mmol) and 3-phenylpropanoic acid (2.2 mg, 0.018 mmole) were used as starting materials to afford C6 (10 mg, 0.010 mmol, 55%). 1H-NMR (pyridine-d 5 , 400Hz) δ 7.29-7.30 (m, 5H), 5.50 (d, J= 3.7 Hz, 1H), 5.20-5.30 (m, 1H), 4.56-4.65 (m, 2H), 4.48 (t, J= 6.6 Hz, 1H), 4.25-4.38 (m, 5H),

4.15-4.23 (m, 1H), 3.86-3.95 (m, 1H), 3.17-3.26 (m, 2H), 2.74-2.89 (m, 2H), 2.41-2.55 (m, 2H), 1.08-2.04 (m, 74H), 0.89 (t, J= 6.7 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (pyridine-d 5 , 400Hz) δ 173.81, 173.52, 149.78, 142.60, 129.32, 129.27, 126.83, 101.78, 77.15, 73.00, 71.70, 71.41, 70.98, 70.56, 68.88, 51.94, 38.84, 37.26, 34.88, 32.74, 32.58, 30.86, 30.63, 20.50, 30.47, 30.39, 26.97, 26.87, 23.40, 14.74. [α]£ 5 +36.0 (c 1.0, CH 2 C1 2 /CH 3 0H: 1/1). LRMS (ESI) calculated for C 59 Hio 9 N 2 09 [M+H] + : 989.81, found: 989.60.

[0141] Synthesis of l-0-(6-(4-phenylbutylamido)-6-deoxy-a-D- galactopyranosyl)-2-hexacosanoylamino-D-r ¾o-octadecan-l,3,4-triol (C7)

[0142] By the similar procedure of synthesis of C5 compound CI (24 mg, 0.018 mmol) and 4-phenylbutanoic acid (2.0 mg, 0.018 mmole) were used as starting materials to afford C7(9.0 mg, 0.090 mmol, 50%). 1H-NMR (pyridine-d 5 , 400Hz) <S7.27-7.40 (m, 5H), 5.50 (d, J= 3.7 Hz, 1H), 5.21-5.27 (m, 1H), 4.55-4.66 (m, 2H), 4.48 (t, J= 6.6 Hz, 1H), 4.25-4.37 (m, 6H),

4.15-4.23 (m, 1H), 3.87-3.95 (m, 1H), 3.16-3.25 (m, 2H), 2.74-2.89 (m, 2H), 2.41-2.55 (m, 2H), 1.02-1.98 (m, 74H), 0.88 (t, J= 7.2 Hz, 6H). 13 C-NMR (pyridine-d 5 , 400Hz) δ 173.30, 173.02, 142.07, 128.82, 128.70, 126.33, 101.28, 76.66, 72.50, 71.19, 70.90, 70.48, 70.05, 68.39, 51.44, 41.06, 38.34, 36.77, 34.38, 32.25, 32.10, 30.37, 30.13, 30.01, 29.98, 29.91, 29.79, 29.76, 29.59, 29.58, 26.47, 26.37, 22.91, 14.25. [α 5 +36.9 (c 1.0, CH 2 C1 2 /CH 3 0H: 1/1). LRMS (ESI) calculated for C 6 oHiiiN 2 0 9 [M+H] + : 1003.83, found: 1003.47.

(5) Synthetic Scheme 5: Synthesis of compound C20-C31

[0143] Synthesis of l-0-(6-0-toluenesulfonyl-a-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-

(1 l-(3,4-difluorophenyl)undecanoyl)amino-D-r ¾o-l ,3,4-octadecantriol (C17)

[0144] To the solution of A15 (2.58 g, 3.40 mmol) in pyridine (30 mL) was added the solution of /?-toluenesulfonyl chloride (712 mg, 3.74 mmol) in pyridine (20 mL) in an ice bath. The reaction mixture was returned to rt. After stirring for 16 h, the solvent was evaporated and the residue was purified by column chromatography (dichloromethane/methanol = 100/1 to 50/1 to 20/1 to 15/1) to afford C17as yellow wax (782 mg, 0.855 mmol, 25%, 100% BRSM with 2.01 g starting material recovery). 1H-NMR (CD 3 0D/CDC1 3 = 1/1, 400 MHz) δ 7.96 (d, J= 8.3 Hz, 2H), 7.56 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, 2H), 7.10-7.27 (m, 2H), 7.02-7.09 (m, 1H), 5.01 (d, J= 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.29-4.42 (m, 3H), 4.21 (t, J= 5.9 Hz, 1H), 3.96-4.04 (m, 2H), 3.85-3.95 (m, 2H), 3.81 (dd, J = 4.0, 10.6 Hz, 1H), 3.70-3.76 (m, 2H), 2.74 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 2.62 (s, 3H), 2.35-2.43 (m, 2H), 1.67-1.88 (m, 4H), 1.36-1.60 (m, 38H), 1.05 (t, J= 6.7 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CD 3 0D/CDC1 3 = 1/1, 100 MHz) (5173.84, 149.47 (dd, J= 246, 13Hz), 148.00 (dd, J= 244, 13 Hz), 144.74, 139.43, 132.04, 129.32, 127.44, 123.60, 116.22, 114.55, 99.09, 73.87, 71.39, 69.27, 68.98, 68.51, 68.15, 68.07, 66.95, 35.85, 34.46, 31.71, 31.34, 30.72, 29.21, 29.17, 29.12, 29.06, 28.96, 28.91, 28.82, 28.77, 28.50, 25.30, 22.06, 20.67, 13.22. HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 4 8H 7 8F 2 NOiiS [M+H] + : 914.5264, found: 914.5228.

[0145] Synthesis of l-O-(6-azido-6-deoxy-a-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-(l 1— (3,4—

difluorophenyl)undecanoyl)amino-D-n ' ¾o- 1 ,3 ,4-octadecantriol (C 18)

[0146] To the solution of C17 (1.63 g, 1.78 mmol) in DMF (15 mL) was added sodium azide (322 mg, 4.95 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at 100 °C for 2 days. The mixture was concentrated and the residue was purified by column chromatography

(dichloromethane/methanol = 20/1 to 15/1) to afford crude C18 (1.15 g, 1.47 mmol, 82%) as yellow solids, mp: 101 °C. 1H-NMR (CD 3 0D/CDC1 3 = 1/1, 400 MHz) δ 7.25-7.51 (m, 3H), 5.36 (d, J= 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.57-4.67 (m, 1H), 4.12-4.42 (m, 6H), 3.94-4.06 (m, 3H), 3.74 (dd, J = 12.8, 4.8 Hz, 1H), 3.00 (t, J= 7.7 Hz, 2H), 2.60-2.67 (m, 2H), 1.62-2.15(m, 42H), 1.32 (t, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H). HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 4 iH 7 iF 2 N408 [M+H] + : 785.5240, found: 785.5267.

[0147] Synthesis of l-0-(6-amino-6-deoxy-a-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-(l 1— (3,4— difluorophenyl)undecanoyl)amino-D-n ' ¾o- 1 ,3 ,4-octadecantriol (C 19)

[0148] The solution of C18 (1.11 g, 1.41 mmol) in THF/water (10/1, 33 mL) was added triphenylphosphine (0.74 g, 2.8 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 days. The mixture was concentrated and the residue was purified by column chromatography (1% triethylamine, dichloromethane/methanol = 6/1 to 4/1 to 2/1) to afford C19 (566 mg, 0.746 mmol, 53%) as white solids, mp: 161 °C. 1H-NMR (CD 3 OD, 400 MHz) δ 6.95-7.09 (m, 2H), 6.86-6.88 (m, 1H), 4.82 (d, J= 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.13-4.19 (m, 1H), 3.83 (dd, J= 10.4, 4.4 Hz, 1H), 3.75 (d, J= 2.0, 1H), 3.63-3.73 (m, 3H), 3.59 (dd, J= 10.8, 5.6 Hz, 1H), 3.44-3.54 (m, 2H), 2.87 (dd, J= 13.2, 7.6 Hz, 1H), 2.72 (dd, J= 13.2, 4.4 Hz, 1H), 2.51 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 2.14 (t, J= 7.5 Hz, 2H), 1.50-1.63 (m, 4H), 1.16-1.32 (m, 38H), 0.82 (t, J= 6.8 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CD 3 OD, 100 MHz) <H 76.07, 151.5 (d, J= 246, 13 Hz), 150.8 (d, J= 243, 12 Hz), 141.74, 125.79, 118.16, 118.02, 101.43, 75.90, 73.12, 72.46, 72.02, 71.63, 70.33, 68.35, 52.18, 43.44, 37.46, 36.20, 33.37, 33.26, 32.68, 31.06, 31.02, 30.96, 30.89, 30.81, 30.73, 30.67, 30.62, 30.39, 27.30, 27.21, 23.29. HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 4 iH 73 F 2 N 2 0 8 [M+H] + : 759.5335, found:

759.5319.

[0149] Synthesis of l-0-(6-(4-Nitrophenylacetamido)-6- deoxy-a-D- galactopyranosyl) -2-(l l-(3,4-difluorophenyl)undecanoyl)amino-D-n¾o-l ,3,4-octadecantriol

(C20)

[0150] To the solution of C19 (34 mg, 0.045 mmol) in dichloromethane/methanol (1/1, 3 mL) was added 4-nitrophenylacetic acid (8.1 mg, 0.045 mmol), HBTU (34 mg, 0.090 mmol) and NMM (20 μί, 0.18 mmol). After stirring at room temperature for 16 h, the mixture was concentrated and purified by column chromatography (dichloromethane/ methanol = 30/1 to 20/1). The crude product was dissolved in dichloromethane/ methanol (1/1, 3mL) and

Si-carbonate silica gel (HOBT scavenger, 100 mg) was added to the solution. After stirring at room temperature for 1 h, the mixture was filtered and washed with dichloromethane/methanol (1/1). The filtrate was concentrated and dried in vacuum to afford C20 (13 mg, 0.014 mmol, 31%) as light yellow wax. 1H-NMR (CDCI 3 /CD 3 OD = 1/1, 200 MHz) δ 8.25 (d, J= 8.7 Hz, 2H), 7.68 (d, J= 8.7 Hz, 2H), 6.90-7.21 (m, 3H), 4.94 (d, J= 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.20-4.26 (m, 1H), 3.77-3.92 (m, 5H), 3.58-3.74 (m, 6H), 2.63 (t, J= 7.4 Hz, 2H), 2.28 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H),

1.30-1.81 (m, 42H), 0.98 (t, J= 6.8 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 /CD 3 OD = 1/1, 50MHz) δ 173.93, 170.81, 149.17 (dd, J= 246, 13 Hz), 148.05 (dd, J= 244, 13 Hz), 146.43, 142.53, 139.35, 129.58, 123.59, 122.95, 116.28, 116.11, 98.99, 73.65, 71.21, 69.35, 69.18, 68.41, 68.14, 66.16, 49.81, 41.69, 39.69, 36.34, 35.69, 34.36, 31.61, 31.25, 30.66, 29.04, 28.74, 28.41, 25.27, 21.97, 13.07. [α 5 +39.3 (c 1.0, CH 2 C1 2 /CH 3 0H: 1/1). HRMS (ESI) calculated for

C 49 H 78 F 2 N 3 Oii [M+H] + : 922.5604, found: 922.5629.

[0151] Synthesis of l-0-(6-(2,4-dinitrophenylacetamido)-6- deoxy-a-D- galactopyranosyl)-2-(l 1— (3,4— difluorophenyl) undecanoyl)amino -D-ribo- 1,3,4-octadecantriol (C21)

[0152] By the similar procedure of synthesis of C20, compound C19 (34 mg, 0.045 mmol) and 2,4-dinitrophenylacetic acid (10 mg, 0.045 mmole) were used as starting materials to afford C21 (4.0 mg with inseparable impurities, 0.0041 mmol, 9%). 1H-NMR (CDC1 3 /CD 3 0D = 1/1, 600 MHz) δ 7.39-7.48 (m, 3H), 6.97-7.17 (m, 3H), 4.98 (d, J= 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.24-4.31 (m, 1H), 3.59-3.93 (m, 10H), 2.65 (t, J= 7.4 Hz, 2H), 2.26-2.31 (m, 2H), 1.14-1.87 (m, 42H), 0.90-1.02 (m, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 /CD 3 OD = 1/1, 150MHz) δ 173.95, 169.65, 148.64, 147.80, 139.33, 134.76, 132.72, 129.90, 129.13, 123.53, 123.15, 116.92, 116.57, 116.13, 110.69, 99.01, 73.64, 73.42, 71.16, 69.32, 69.08, 68.12, 66.07, 49.80, 39.45, 39.60, 38.18, 38.13, 36.30, 35.66, 34.33, 34.30, 33.63, 32.01, 31.60, 31.43, 30.67, 30.58, 29.73, 29.23, 28.39, 28.35, 28.23, 26.30, 25.23, 25.17, 23.06, 22.25, 22.20, 21.78, 12.98. [α 5 +47.1 (c 1.0, CH 2 C1 2 /CH 3 0H: 1/1). HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 4 9H 76 F 2 N 3 Oi 3 H [M+H] + : 967.5455, found: 967.5485.

[0153] 1 -O-(6-(4-fert-Butylphenylacetamido)-6-deoxy-a-D-galactopyran osyl)-2-( 11 -(3 , 4- difluorophenyl)undecanoyl)amino-D-rz ' ¾o-l ,3,4-octadecantriol (C22)

[0154] By the similar procedure of synthesis of C20, compound C19 (34 mg, 0.045 mmol) and 4-tert-butylphenylacetic acid (8.6 mg, 0.044 mmole) were used as starting materials to afford C22 (12 mg, 0.013 mmol, 29%). mp: 170 °C. 1H-NMR (CDCI 3 /CD 3 OD = 1/1, 400 MHz) δ 7.47 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 2H), 7.32 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 2H), 6.98-7.22 (m, 3H), 4.97 (d, J= 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.29-4.34 (m, 1H), 3.80-3.95 (m, 5H), 3.76 (dd, J= 10.8, 4.4 Hz, 1H), 3.61-3.71 (m, 5H), 3.36 (dd, J= 7.8, 13.8 Hz, 1H), 2.68 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 2.33 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 1.63-1.82 (m, 4H), 1.31-1.53 (m, 47H), 1.00 (t, J= 6.5 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 /CD 3 OD = 1/1, 100 MHz) δ 173.91, 172.88, 149.40 (dd, J= 246, 12 Hz), 148.02 (dd, J= 243, 13 Hz), 139.36, 131.28, 124.96, 123.57, 116.21, 116.05, 99.06, 73.79, 71.30, 69.35, 68.97, 68.40, 68.20, 66.42, 49.84, 41.82, 39.39, 35.72, 34.37, 33.66, 31.66, 31.25, 30.65, 30.38, 29.14, 29.09, 29.05, 29.03, 28.97, 28.89, 28.83, 28.75, 28.71, 28.68, 28.42, 25.28, 25.24, 21.96, 13.06. [α 5 +36.4 (c 1.0, CH 2 C1 2 /CH 3 0H: 1/1). HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 53 H 88 F 2 N 2 09 [M+H] + : 933.6380, found: 933.6435.

[0155] Synthesis of l-0-(6-(4-bromophenylacetamido)-6-deoxy-a-D- galactopyranosyl)-2-( 11 -(3 ,4-difluorophenyl)undecanoyl)amino-D-n ' ¾o- 1 ,3 ,4-octadecantriol (C23)

[0156] By the similar procedure of synthesis of C20, compound C19 (34 mg, 0.045 mmol) and 4-bromophenylacetic acid (9.7 mg, 0.044 mmole) were used as starting materials to afford C23 (15 mg, 0.016 mmol, 35%) as off-white solids, mp = 177 °C. 1H-NMR (CDCI 3 /CD 3 OD = 1/1, 400 MHz) δ 7.54 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 2H), 7.29 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 2H), 6.97-7.20 (m, 3H), 4.97 (d, J = 3.6 Hz, 1H), 4.28-4.33 (m, 1H), 3.78-3.92 (m, 5H), 3.59-3.74 (m, 6H), 3.37 (dd, J= 7.6, 13.6 Hz, lH), 2.66 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 2.31 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 1.30-1.81 (m, 42H), 0.98 (t, J= 6.8 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 /CD 3 OD = 1/1, 100MHz) δ 173.90, 171.91, 149.53 (dd, J= 247, 13 Hz), 147.86 (dd, J= 245, 12 Hz), 139.35, 133.70, 130.98, 130.29, 123.58, 120.22, 120.22, 116.18, 116.02, 99.03, 73.77, 71.26, 69.34, 69.08, 68.38, 68.15, 66.32, 49.81, 41.48, 39.51, 35.68, 34.35, 31.63, 31.23, 30.62, 29.11, 29.08, 29.01, 28.95, 28.87, 28.81, 28.73, 28.68, 28.66, 28.40, 25.25, 25.22, 21.94, 13.03. [α 5 +42.3 (c 1.0, CH 2 C1 2 /CH 3 0H: 1/1). HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 4 9H78BrF 2 N 2 0 9 [M+H] + : 955.4859, found: 955.4920.

[0157] Synthesis of l-0-(6-(4-methoxyphenylacetamido)-6-deoxy-a-D- galactopyranosyl)-2-( 11 -(3 ,4-difluorophenyl)undecanoyl)amino-D-n ' ¾o- 1 ,3 ,4-octadecantriol (C24)

[0158] By the similar procedure of synthesis of C20, compound C19 (34 mg, 0.045 mmol) and 4-methoxyphenylacetic acid (7.5 mg, 0.045 mmole) were used as starting materials to afford C24 (15 mg, 0.017 mmol, 38%) as off-white solis. mp: 172 °C. 1H-NMR

(CDCI 3 /CD 3 OD = 1/1, 400 MHz) δ 7.36 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 2H), 7.12-7.26 (m, 2H), 7.01-7.09 (m, 3H), 5.02 (d, J = 3.6 Hz, 1H), 4.32-4.38 (m, 1H), 3.97 (s, 3H), 3.72-3.96 (m, 5H), 3.69-3.78 (m, 4H), 3.65 (s, 2H), 3.40 (dd, J= 7.8, 14.0 Hz, 1H), 2.74 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 2.38 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 1.38-1.89 (m, 42H), 1.05 (t, J= 6.8 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 /CD 3 OD = 1/1, 100 MHz) δ 173.91, 173.06, 149.59 (dd, J= 247, 13 Hz), 148.08 (dd, J= 244, 13 Hz), 158.27, 129.40, 129.66, 126.43, 123.61, 116.29, 116.12, 114.55, 113.62, 99.08, 73.92, 71.39, 61.41, 69.03, 68.41, 68.24, 66.43, 54.47, 49.78, 41.57, 39.46, 35.82, 34.46, 31.80, 31.33, 30.71, 29.22, 29.17, 29.12, 29.11, 29.05, 28.96, 28.90, 28.82, 28.78, 28.75, 28.49, 25.34, 25.31, 22.04, 13.19. [α 5 +44.3 (c 1.0, CH 2 CI 2 /CH3OH: 1/1). HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 5 oH 8 iF 2 N 2 Oio [M+H] + : 907.5859, found: 907.5890.

[0159] Synthesis of l-0-(6-(3,4-di(trifluoromethyl)phenyl -acetamido)-6- deoxy-a-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-( 11 -(3 ,4-ifluorophenyl)undecanoyl)amino-D-r ¾o- 1 ,3 ,4-oct adecantriol (C25)

[0160] By the similar procedure of synthesis of C20, compound C19 (34 mg, 0.045 mmol) and 3,4-di(trifluroromethanyl)phenylacetic acid (12 mg, 0.045 mmole) were used as starting materials to afford C25 (11 mg, 0.011 mmol, 24%) as off-white solids, mp: 180 °C 1H-NMR (CDCI 3 /CD 3 OD = 1/1, 400 MHz) δ 7.98 (s, 2H), 7.91 (s, 1H), 769-7.22 (m, 3H), 5.01 (d, J= 3.6 Hz, 1H), 4.28-4.33 (m, 1H), 3.84-3.99 (m, 5H), 3.83 (s, 2H), 3.78 (dd, J= 4.2, 10.8 Hz, 1H), 3.22-3.32 (m, 3H), 3.42-3.51 (m, 1H), 2.69 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 2.33 (t, J= 7.4 Hz, 2H),

1.39-1.82 (m, 42H), 1.00 (t, J= 6.8 Hz, 3H). ( 13 C-NMR CDCI 3 /CD 3 OD = 1/1, 100 MHz) δ 174.04, 170.56, 143.17, 139.37, 137.65, 131.13, 130.80, 129.10, 124.18, 123.56, 121.47, 120.09, 116.22, 116.06, 114.50, 99.07, 73.77, 71.32, 69.40, 69.27, 68.42, 68.20, 66.30, 49.99, 41.14, 39.78, 35.75, 34.39, 31.73, 31.27, 30.66, 29.14, 29.09, 29.04, 28.99, 28.88, 28.75, 28.71, 28.69, 28.42, 25.29, 25.24, 21.98, 13.08. [α 5 +40.1 (c 1.0, CH 2 C1 2 /CH 3 0H: 1/1). HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 5 iH 77 F 8 N 2 0 9 [M+H] + : 1013.5501, found: 1013.5567.

[0161] Synthesis of 1 -O-(6-(3 ,4-difluorophenylacetamido)-6- deoxy-a-D- galactopyranosyl)-2-( 11 -(3 ,4-difluorophenyl)undecanoyl)amino-D-n ' ¾o- 1 ,3 ,4-octadecantriol (C26)

[0162] By the similar procedure of synthesis of C20, compound C19 (34 mg, 0.045 mmol) and 3,4-difluorophenylacetic acid (7.7 mg, 0.045 mmole) were used as starting materials to afford C26 (17 mg, 0.019 mmol, 42%) as off-white solids, mp: 182 °C 1H-NMR

(CDCI 3 /CD 3 OD = 1/1, 400 MHz) δ 6.97-7.43 (m, 6H), 4.97 (d, J= 3.6 Hz, 1H), 4.28 (q, J= 4.4, 9.6 Hz, 1H), 3.83-4.01 (m, 4H), 3.80 (dd, J= 3.2, 10.0 Hz, 1H), 3.71 (dd, J= 4.4, 10.6 Hz, 1H), 3.60-3.68 (m, 3H), 3.59 (s, 2H), 3.38 (dd, J= 8.0, 13.6 Hz, 1H), 2.66 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 2.30 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 1.32-1.81 (m, 42H), 0.97 (t, J= 6.8 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR CDCI 3 /CD 3 OD = 1/1, 100 MHz) δ 173.92, 171.63, 150.67, 150.03, 149.13, 148.25, 147.65, 146.72, 139.34, 131.81, 124.72, 123.54, 117.52, 117.34, 116.97, 116.59, 116.42, 116.25, 116.08, 115.93, 99.02, 73.75, 71.23, 69.34, 69.15, 68.38, 68.14, 66.24, 49.82, 41.06, 39.57, 35.66, 34.33, 31.63, 31.23, 30.61, 29.10, 29.07, 29.00, 28.94, 28.85, 28.79, 28.71, 28.65, 28.38, 25.24, 25.20, 21.93, 13.01. [α 5 +53.8 (c 1.0, CH 2 CI 2 /CH 3 OH: 1/1). HRMS (ESI) calculated for C49H77F4N2O9 [M+H] + :

913.5565, found: 913.5606.

[0163] Synthesis of l-0-(6-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl-acetamido)-6-deoxy- a-D- galactopyranosyl)-2-( 11 -(3 ,4-difluorophenyl)undecanoyl)amino-D-n ' ¾o- 1 ,3 ,4-octadecantriol (C27)

[0164] By the similar procedure of synthesis of C20, compound C19 (34 mg, 0.045 mmol) and 3-trifluoromethylphenylacetic acid (9.2 mg, 0.045 mmole) were used as starting materials to afford C27 (12 mg, 0.013 mmol, 29%) as off-white solids, mp: 157 °C. 1H-NMR

(CDCI 3 /CD 3 OD = 1/1, 400 MHz) δ 6.96-7.82 (m, 7H), 4.96 (d, J= 3.6 Hz, 1H), 4.25-4.30 (m, 1H), 4.03-4.10 (m, 1H), 3.77-3.91 (m, 5H), 3.53-3.74 (m, 5H), 3.36-3.44 (m, 1H), 2.65 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H), 2.29 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 1.27-1.76 (m, 42H), 0.97 (t, J= 6.8 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 /CD 3 OD = 1/1, 100 MHz) δ 174.52, 172.19, 150.04 (dd, J= 247, 13Hz), 148.52 (dd, J= 244, 13Hz), 139.90, 136.43, 132.64, 129.02, 127.67, 125.80, 124.17, 116.76, 116.60, 111.27, 99.64, 74.33, 71.87, 69.93, 69.73, 68.98, 68.76, 66.90, 60.57, 50.44, 42.27, 40.16, 36.25, 34.92, 32.20, 31.82, 31.21, 29.68, 29.65, 29.59, 29.53, 29.44, 29.38, 29.30, 29.24, 28.97, 25.83, 25.80, 22.52, 13.60. [α 5 +47.4 (c 1.0, CH 2 C1 2 /CH 3 0H: 1/1). HRMS (ESI) calculated for

C 5 oH 78 F 5 N 2 0 9 [M+H] + : 945.5627, found: 945.5611.

[0165] Synthesis of l-0-(6-(4-methylphenylacetamido)-6-deoxy-a-D- galactopyranosyl)-2-( 11 -(3 ,4-difluorophenyl)undecanoyl)amino-D-n ' ¾o- 1 ,3 ,4-octadecantriol (C28)

[0166] By the similar procedure of synthesis of C20, compound C19 (34 mg, 0.045 mmol) and 4-methylphenylacetic acid (6.8 mg, 0.045 mmole) were used as starting materials to afford C28 (11 mg, 0.012 mmol, 27%) as off-white solids, mp: 171 °C. 1H-NMR (CDC1 3 /CD 3 0D = 1/1, 400 MHz) δ 7.28-44 (m, 4H), 7.12-7.26 (m, 2H), 7.03-7.08 (m, 1H), 5.01 (d, J= 3.6 Hz, 1H), 4.32-4.41 (m, 1H), 3.83-3.95 (m, 5H), 3.67-3.79 (m, 3H), 3.66 (s, 2H), 3.40 (dd, J= 7.6, 13.6 Hz, 1H), 2.73 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 2.37 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 1.32-1.87 (m, 42H), 1.05 (t, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CDC1 3 /CD 3 0D = 1/1, 100 MHz) δ 173.94, 172.96, 149.83 (dd, J= 247, 13 Hz), 148.02 (dd, J= 244, 13 Hz), 139.42, 136.24, 131.26, 128.86, 128.47, 123.42, 116.31, 116.15, 99.10, 73.89, 71.43, 69.40, 68.98, 68.41, 68.25, 66.49, 49.82, 42.07, 39.42, 35.83, 34.47, 31.78, 31.34, 30.73, 29.23, 29.19, 29.12, 29.06, 28.97, 28.92, 28.84, 28.80, 28.77, 28.51, 25.35, 25.32, 22.06, 20.10, 13.22. [α 5 +31.8 (c 1.0, CH 2 C1 2 /CH 3 0H: 1/1). HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 5 oH 8 iF 2 N 2 0 9 [M+H] + : 891.5910, found: 891.5988.

[0167] Synthesis of l-0-(6-(3-methylphenylacetamido)-6- deoxy-a-D- galactopyranosyl)-2-( 11 -(3 ,4-difluorophenyl)undecanoyl)amino-D-n ' ¾o- 1 ,3 ,4-octadecantriol (C29)

[0168] By the similar procedure of synthesis of C20, compound C19 (34 mg, 0.045 mmol) and 3-methylphenylacetic acid (6.8 mg, 0.045 mmole) were used as starting materials to afford C29 (14 mg, 0.016 mmol, 35%) as off-white solids, mp: 167 °C. 1H-NMR (CDCI3/CD3OD = 1/1, 400 MHz) δ 7.18-7.51 (m, 7H), 5.08 (d, J= 4.0 Hz, 1H), 4.36-4.43 (m, 1H), 3.91-4.02 (m, 5H), 3.23-3.35 (m, 4H), 3.73 (s, 2H), 3.47 (dd, J= 7.8, 13.8 Hz, 1H), 2.79 (t, J= 7.8 Hz, 2H), 2.57 (s, 3H), 2.43 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 1.46-1.94 (m, 42H), 1.11 (t, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H). 13 C-NMR (CDCI3/CD3OD = 1/1, 100 MHz) <H 73.96, 172.85, 149.52 (dd, J= 245, 13 Hz), 148.13 (dd, J = 243, 13 Hz), 139.43, 137.90, 134.27, 129.41, 128.13, 127.37, 125.61, 123.67, 116.35, 116.19, 99.15, 73.99, 71.49, 69.44, 69.00, 68.41, 68.30, 66.53, 49.88, 42.50, 39.46, 35.89, 34.52, 31.91, 31.39, 30.76, 29.28, 29.23, 29.11, 29.01, 28.96, 28.88, 28.84, 28.81, 28.55, 25.38, 25.36, 22.11, 13.29. [α 5 +36.8 (c 1.0, CH 2 C1 2 /CH 3 0H: 1/1). HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 5 oH 8 iF 2 N 2 0 9 [M+H] + : 891.5910, found: 891.5950.

[0169] Synthesis of l-0-(6-(2-methylphenylacetamido)-6- deoxy-a-D- galactopyranosyl)-2-( 11 -(3 ,4-difluorophenyl)undecanoyl)amino-D-n ' ¾o- 1 ,3 ,4-octadecantriol

(C30)

[0170] By the similar procedure of synthesis of C20, compound C19 (34 mg, 0.045 mmol) and 2-methylphenylacetic acid (6.8 mg, 0.045 mmole) were used as starting materials to afford C30 (16 mg, 0.018 mmol, 40%) as off-white solids, mp: 182 °C. 1H-NMR (CDCI 3 /CD 3 OD = 1/1, 400 MHz) δ 7.31-7.37 (m, 4H), 7.01-7.26 (m, 3H), 4.99 (d, J= 3.6 Hz, 1H), 4.30-4.35 (m, 1H), 3.83-3.94 (m, 5H), 3.68-3.75 (m, 6H), 3.40 (dd, J= 8.0, 13.8 Hz, 1H), 2.72 (t, J= 7.8 Hz, 2H), 2.45 (s, 3H), 2.36 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 1.32-1.87 (m, 42H), 1.04 (t, J= 6.8 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C-NMR (CDCI 3 /CD 3 OD = 1/1, 100 MHz) δ 173.86, 172.42, 149.48 (dd, J= 246, 13 Hz), 147.94 (dd, J= 243, 13Hz),139.41, 136.38, 132.67, 129.91, 129.65, 126.99, 125.79, 123.63, 116.28, 116.11, 99.15, 73.91, 71.38, 69.38, 69.11, 68.35, 68.20, 66.56, 49.74, 40.27, 39.49, 35.80, 34.45, 31.78, 31.32, 30.70, 29.21, 29.16, 29.10, 29.04, 28.95, 28.90, 28.81, 28.77, 28.74, 28.48, 25.33, 25.29, 22.03, 18.65, 13.17. [α 5 +38.3 (c 1.0, CH 2 C1 2 /CH 3 0H: 1/1). HRMS (ESI) calculated for C 5 oH 8 iF 2 N 2 0 9 [M+H] + : 891.5910, found: 891.5987.

[0171] Synthesis of l-0-(6-(2-naphthylacetamido)-6-deoxy-a-

D-galactopyranosyl) -2 -(1 l-(3,4-difluorophenyl)undecanoyl)amino-D-n ' ¾o-l,3,4-octadecant riol (C31)

[0172] By the similar procedure of synthesis of C20, compound C19 (34 mg, 0.045 mmol) and 2-naphthylacetic acid (8.4 mg, 0.045 mmole) were used as starting materials to afford C31 (12 mg, 0.013 mmol, 29%) as white solid, mp: 178 °C. 1H-NMR (CDC1 3 /CD 3 0D = 1/1, 400 MHz) δ 7.85-8.04 (m, 3H), 7.40-7.69 (m, 4H), 7.05-7.29 (m, 3H), 5.03 (d, J= 3.6 Hz, 1H), 4.31-4.40 (m, 1H), 3.87-4.01 (m, 6H), 3.72-3.81 (m, 4H), 3.46 (dd, J= 7.8, 14.0 Hz, 1H), 2.76 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 2H), 2.38 (t, J= 8.0 Hz, 2H), 1.32-1.90 (m, 42H), 1.08 (t, J= 6.6 Hz, 3H).

1 3 C-NMR (CDC1 3 /CD 3 0D = 1/1, 150 MHz) δ 173.92, 172.58, 149.54 (dd, J= 244, 12 Hz), 147.93 (dd, J= 240, 13 Hz), 142.73, 139.39, 133.06, 131.96, 127.78, 127.34, 127.01, 126.97, 126.48, 125.61, 125.20, 123.60, 123.30, 123.14, 117.04, 116.24, 116.09, 110.83, 99.07, 73.85, 71.38, 69.38, 69.05, 68.42, 68.21, 66.45, 49.81, 42.35, 39.52, 35.75, 34.41, 31.74, 31.29, 30.67, 29.72, 29.18, 29.13, 29.07, 29.01, 28.92, 28.68, 28.78, 28.72, 28.45, 25.30, 25.28, 22.00, 13.12.

5 +8.3 (c 1.0, CH 2 C1 2 /CH 3 0H: 1/1).

Synthesis of compounds of formula (1)

[0173] A number of glycosphingolipids were synthesized and tested for NKT cell activation. Compounds' structures are according to formula 1. O,

C 1 4 π 29

OH wherein compound No. (R) is selected from Table 1 to provide the corresponding compounds.

TABLE 1

Compound structure. Compound no., R=

, Z=H

C30: x= Me, Y= H, Z= H

Example 2

Antigen presenting cell (APC) activation

[0174] A20CDld cells and mNKl .2 cells were used as APC and effector cells, respectively. Guava ViaCount reagent was used to determine the viability and viable number of cells with Guava EasyCyte Plus. Mouse IL-2 DuoSet ELISA Development System was used to detect the production of IL-2. Cells and glycolipids were co-cultured at 37 °C and supernatant was collected at 24 h after culture. And, two days after culture, cells were harvested to determine the viability and the results show that these glycospingolipids are not toxic. As shown in Fig 6, in this connection, all of test compounds exhibit APC activation activities.

IFN-γ and 11-4 Cytokine secretions

[0175] Female C57BL/6 mouse (16w4d) was sacrificed and spleen was harvested for the assay. Cells and glycolipids were coculture at 37 °C for 3 days and supernatant was collected at 3rd day (~ 60 h) after culture. Then, alarma Blue (5%/200ul) was added and cells were cultured for 7 h to determine the cell proliferation. Mouse IL-4 and IFN-γ Duo Set ELISA Development System was used to detect the cytokine production. In this assay DMSO was negative control and KR -7000 was positive control. As shown in the Fig 7-9, compounds have shown

Thl -biased cytokine secretion profile, indicating their applicability for antitumor,

antiviral/antibacterial, and adjuvant activities.

[0176] All publications and patent applications cited in this specification are herein incorporated by reference as if each individual publication or patent application were specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference.

[0177] Although the foregoing invention has been described in some detail by way of illustration and example for purposes of clarity of understanding, it will be readily apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art in light of the teachings of this invention that certain changes and modifications may be made thereto without departing from the spirit or scope of the appended claim