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Title:
METHODS OF TREATING OR INHIBITING ONSET OF HUNTINGTON'S DISEASE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/246262
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
The disclosure herein relates generally to a method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington's disease. This method involves selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington's disease and administering to the subject one or modulators of one or more genes as described herein, or proteins encoded therefrom, under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington's disease in the subject.

Inventors:
GOLDMAN STEVEN (US)
OSIPOVITCH MIKHAIL (DK)
Application Number:
PCT/US2019/037987
Publication Date:
December 26, 2019
Filing Date:
June 19, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
UNIV ROCHESTER (US)
UNIV COPENHAGEN (DK)
International Classes:
A61K38/18; A61K31/395; A61K35/30; A61P25/14
Domestic Patent References:
WO2004015107A22004-02-19
WO2003070918A22003-08-28
WO1998039352A11998-09-11
WO2011034798A12011-03-24
WO2009111658A22009-09-11
WO2010105209A12010-09-16
WO2007069666A12007-06-21
WO2009006930A12009-01-15
WO2009006997A12009-01-15
WO2009007852A22009-01-15
WO2008118820A22008-10-02
WO2014124087A12014-08-14
Foreign References:
US201862688174P2018-06-21
US20020068708A12002-06-06
US20020147332A12002-10-10
US20080119427A12008-05-22
US5328470A1994-07-12
US20100215724A12010-08-26
US5653996A1997-08-05
US5643599A1997-07-01
US5885613A1999-03-23
US5631237A1997-05-20
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US20080233610A12008-09-25
US20110200568A12011-08-18
US20100156778A12010-06-24
US20120276070A12012-11-01
US20120276636A12012-11-01
US20040029269A12004-02-12
US20030223972A12003-12-04
US6245564B12001-06-12
US7524491B22009-04-28
US5082670A1992-01-21
US6497872B12002-12-24
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Attorney, Agent or Firm:
GOLDMAN, Michael L. et al. (US)
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Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED:

1. A method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’ s disease, said method comprising:

selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease; and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of a glial cell differentiation regulation gene selected from the group consisting of BMP2, LINGO 1, MAG, NKX2-2, NR2E1, NTRK3, OLIG2, SERPINE2, SIRT2, and TCF7L2, or a protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more modulators is selected from the group consisting of Hh-Ag 1.1, Hh-Ag 1.2, Hh-Ag 1.3, Hh-Ag 1.4, Hh- Ag 1.5, 2- amino-4-(3,4- (m ethyl enedioxy)benzylamino)-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine (2-AMBMP), curcumin, Simvastatin, Opicinumab, GSK-249320, sodium lauryl sufate, repaglinide, altiratinib, chembl200742l, PLX-3397 radicicol, thyroxine, entrectinib, LOXO-lOl, CEP -2563, lestaurtinib, PLX-7486, AZD-6918, AZD-7451 midostaurin, and combinations thereof.

3. A method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease, said method comprising:

selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease; and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of a myelinati on- associated gene selected from the group consisting of FA2H, GAL3ST1, MAG, MBP, MYRF, NFASC, OLIG2, OMG, PLLP, POU3F2, SIRT2, SLC8A3, TCF7L2, TF, and UGT8, or a protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

4. The method of claim 3, wherein the one or more modulators is selected from the group consisting of 2-amino-4-(3,4- (methylenedioxy)benzylamino)-6-(3- methoxyphenyljpyrimidine (2-AMBMP), curcumin, Simvastatin, GSK-249320, sodium lauryl sulfate, Repaglinide, cyclosporine, interferon beta-lA, prednisone, quercetin, rutin, and combinations thereof.

5. A method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease, said method comprising:

selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease; and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of an oligodendrocyte differentiation gene selected from the group consisting of FA2H, GLI3, LINGOl, MYRF, NKX2-2, OLIG1, OLIG2, OMG, SIRT2, SLC8A3, SOX10, and TCF7L2, or a protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

6. The method of claim 5, wherein the one or more modulators is selected from the group consisting of Hh-Ag 1.1, Hh-Ag 1.2, Hh-Ag 1.3, Hh-Ag 1.4, Hh- Ag 1.5, 2- amino-4-(3,4- (m ethyl enedioxy)benzylamino)-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine (2-AMBMP), curcumin, Simvastatin, Opicinumab, sodium lauryl sulfate, Repaglinide, Vemurafenib, and combinations thereof.

7. A method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease, said method comprising:

selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease; and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of a gliogenesis regulation gene selected from the group consisting of BMP2, LINGOl, MAG, MYC, NKX2-2, NR2E1, NTRK3, OLIG2, SERPINE2, SIRT2, SOX10, TCF7L2, TF, and ZCCHC24, or a protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

8. The method of claim 7, wherein the one or more modulators is selected from the group consisting of Hh-Ag 1.1, Hh-Ag 1.2, Hh-Ag 1.3, Hh-Ag 1.4, Hh- Ag 1.5, 2- amino-4-(3,4- (m ethyl enedioxy)benzylamino)-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine (2-AMBMP), curcumin, Simvastatin, Opicinumab, GSK-249320, sodium lauryl sulfate, Vemurafenib, Repaglinide, Nadroparin calcium, 4’-hydroxytamoxifen, Azacitidine, Thioguanine, Acivin, Adozelesin, Amifostine, Aminopterin, antibiotic, Bizelesin, Bromocriptin, Bryostatin, Calcitriol, Diethyl stilbestrol, Elsamitrucin, Estrone, folic acid, glutamine, Hypoxanthine, Imatinib, Cilmostin, melatonin, methylprednisolone, N— methyl-n-nitrosurea, Novobiocin, Chembl35482, phorbol myristate acetate, prednisone, Quinapril, Vorinostat, Sulindac, thrombin, thyrotropin, sodium beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, troglitazone, verapamil, Chembll000l4, Chembll2l3492, chorionic gonadotropin, perillyl alcohol, AMG-900, Alisertib, Dinaciclib, Roniciclib, Temozolomide, Prexasertib, altiratinib, chembl200742l, PLX-3397, radicicola, thyroxine, entrectinib, LOXO-lOl, CEP -2563, lestaurtinib, PLX-7486, AZD-6918, AZD-7451, midostaurin, and combinations thereof.

9. A method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease, said method comprising:

selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease; and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of a neuron ensheathment gene selected from the group consisting of FA2H, GAL3ST1, MAG, MBP,

MYRF, NFASC, OLIG2, OMG, PLLP, POU3F2, SIRT2, SLC8A3, TCF7L2, TF, and UGT8, or a protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

10. The method of claim 9, wherein the one or more modulators is selected from the group consisting of 2-amino-4-(3,4- (methylenedioxy)benzylamino)-6-(3- methoxyphenyljpyrimidine (2-AMBMP), curcumin, Simvastatin, GSK-249320, cyclosporine, interferon beta-lA, prednisone, quercetin, rutin, sodium lauryl sulfate, Repaglinide, and combinations thereof.

11. A method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’ s disease, said method comprising:

selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease; and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of an axon guidance gene selected from the group consisting of ALCAM, BCL11B, DSCAM, FOXD1, GAS1, GLI3, HOXA1, HOXA2, MNX1, NFASC, PLXNC1, PRKCQ, PTPRO, ROB02, SEMA6B, UNC5A, VAX1, and WNT7B, or a protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

12. The method of claim 11, wherein the one or more modulators is selected from the group consisting of 2-amino-4-(3,4- (methylenedioxy)benzylamino)-6-(3- methoxyphenyljpyrimidine (2-AMBMP), curcumin, Simvastatin, fluorouracil, CEP-2563, staurosporine, Chembl369507, Dexfosfosferine, Ticlopidine, GSK-690693, sotrastaurin, (7S)- Hydroxyl-staurosporine, midostaurin, quercetin, bryostatin, sotrastaurin acetate, ingenol mebutate, carboplatin, paclitaxel, and combinations thereof.

13. A method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease, said method comprising:

selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease; and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of a neuron projection guidance gene selected from the group consisting of ALCAM, BCL11B, DSCAM, FOXD1, GAS1, GLI3, HOXA1, HOXA2, MNX1, NFASC, PLXNC1, PRKCQ, PTPRO, R0B02, SEMA6B, UNC5A, VAX1, and WNT7B, or a protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

14. The method of claim 13, wherein the one or more modulators is selected from the group consisting of 2-amino-4-(3,4- (methylenedioxy)benzylamino)-6-(3- methoxyphenyljpyrimidine (2-AMBMP), curcumin, Simvastatin, fluorouracil, CEP-2563, staurosporine, Chembl369507, dexfosfosferine, Ticlopidine, GSK-690693, sotrastaurin, (7S)- Hydroxyl-staurosporine, midostaurin, quercetin, bryostatin, sotrastaurin acetate, ingenol mebutate, carboplatin, paclitaxel, and combinations thereof.

15. A method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease, said method comprising:

selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease; and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of an axonogenesis gene selected from the group consisting of ADGRB1, ALCAM, BCL11B, CACNA1 A, DSCAM, FOXD1, GAS1, GLI3, HOXA1, HOXA2, LINGOl, LRRC4C, MAG, MBP, MNX1, NFASC, NR2E1, NTNG1, NTRK3, OMG, PLXNC1, POU3F2, PRKCQ, PTPRO, R0B02, SEMA6B, SLITRK2, SLITRK3, SNAP91, UNC5A, VAX1, and WNT7B, or a protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

16. The method of claim 15, wherein the one or more modulators is selected from the group consisting of 2-amino-4-(3,4- (methylenedioxy)benzylamino)-6-(3- methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine (2-AMBMP), curcumin, Simvastatin, Opicinumab, GSK-249320, cyclosporine, interferon beta-l A, prednisone, quercetin, rutin, fluorouracil, CEP -2563, staurosporine, Chembl369507, Dexfosfosferine, ticlopidine, GSK-690693, sotrastaurin, (7S)- Hydroxyl-staurosporine, midostaurin, bryostatin, sotrastaurin acetate, ingenol mebutate, carboplatin, paclitaxel, pregabalin, verapamil, bepridil, celecoxib, nisoldipine, gabapentin, gabapentin enacarbil, elpetrigine, atagabalin, bepridil hydrochloride, imagabalin, altiratinib, chembl200742l, PLX-3397, radicicola, thyroxine, entrectinib, Loxo-lOl, CEP-2563,

lestaurtinib, PLX-7486, AZD-6918, AZD-7451, and combinations thereof.

17. A method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease, said method comprising:

selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease; and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of an axon development gene selected from the group consisting of ADGRB1, ALCAM, BCL11B,

CACNA1A, DSCAM, FOXD1, GAS1, GLI3, HOXA1, HOXA2, LINGOl, LRRC4C, MAG, MBP, MNX1, NEFM, NFASC, NR2E1, NTNG1, NTRK3, OMG, PLXNC1, POU3F2, PRKCQ, PTPRO, ROB02, RTN4RL2, SEMA6B, SLITRK2, SLITRK3, SNAP91, UNC5A, VAX1, and WNT7B, or a protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

18. The method of claim 17, wherein the one or more modulators is selected from the group consisting of 2-amino-4-(3,4- (methylenedioxy)benzylamino)-6-(3- methoxyphenyljpyrimidine (2-AMBMP), curcumin, Simvastatin, Opicinumab, dexfosfoserine, fluorouracil, CEP-2563, staurosporine, Chembl369507, GSK-249320, Ticlopidine, GSK-690693, sotrastaurin, (7S)-Hydroxyl-staurosporine, midostaurin, quercetin, bryostatin, sotrastaurin acetate, ingenol mebutate, carboplatin; paclitaxel, pregabalin, verapamil, bepridil, celecoxib, nisoldipine, gabapentin, gabapentin enacarbil, elpetrigine, atagabalin, bepridil hydrochloride, imagabalin, altiratinib, chembl200742l, PLX-3397, radicicola, thyroxine, entrectinib, Loxo-lOl, CEP -2563, lestaurtinib, PLX-7486, AZD-6918, AZD-7451, cyclosporine, interferon beta-lA, prednisone, rutin, and combinations thereof.

19. A method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease, said method comprising:

selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease; and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of a cell projection morphogenesis gene selected from the group consisting of ADGRB1, ALCAM, BCL11B, CACNA1A, CAMK2A, DSCAM, EHD3, FOXD1, GAS1, GLI3, HOXA1, HOXA2, KANK1, LINGO 1, LRRC4C, MAG, MBP, MNX1, NEDD4L, NEURL1, NFASC, NR2E1, NTNG1, NTRK3, OMG, PCDH15, PLXNC1, POU3F2, PRKCQ, PTPRO, ROB02, SEMA6B, SGK1, SLITRK2, SLITRK3, SNAP91, SNX10, UGT8, UNC5A, VAX1, and WNT7B, or protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

20. The method of claim 19, wherein the one or more modulators is selected from the group consisting of 2-amino-4-(3,4- (methylenedioxy)benzylamino)-6-(3- methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine (2-AMBMP), curcumin, Simvastatin, Opicinumab, GSK-249320, cyclosporine, interferon beta-l A, prednisone, quercetin, rutin, dexfosfoserine, fluorouracil, CEP- 2563, staurosporine, Chembl369507, ticlopidine, GSK-690693, sotrastaurin, (7S)-Hydroxyl- staurosporine, midostaurin, bryostatin, sotrastaurin acetate, ingenol mebutate, carboplatin, paclitaxel, pregabalin, verapamil, bepridil, celecoxib, nisoldipine, gabapentin, gabapentin enacarbil, elpetrigine, atagabalin, bepridil hydrochloride, imagabalin, altiratinib,

Chembl200742l, PLX-3397, radicicola, thyroxine, entrectinib, Loxo-lOl, CEP -2563, lestaurtinib, PLX-7486, AZD-6918, AZD-7451, hydrochlorothiazide, chembl549906, chembl550795, sodium chloride, GSK-650394, and combinations thereof.

21. A method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’ s disease, said method comprising:

selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease; and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of a synapse structure or activity regulation gene selected from the group consisting of ADGRB1, ADGRL3, BCAN, CALB1, CAMK2A, FGF14, LRRTIM1, NCDN, NETOl, NEURL1, NR2E1, NTRK3, PPFIA3, R0B02, SERPINE2, SHISA7, SIX4, SLC8A3, SLITRK2, SLITRK3, and SYNDIG1, or protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

22. The method of claim 21, wherein the one or more modulators is selected from the group consisting of dexfosfoserine, altiratinib, chembl200742l, PLX-3397, radicicola, thyroxine, entrectinib, Loxo-lOl, CEP -2563, lestaurtinib, PLX-7486, AZD-6918, AZD-7451, midostaurin, and combinations thereof.

23. A method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease, said method comprising:

selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease; and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of a synaptic signaling pathway gene selected from the group consisting of BCAN, CACNA1A, CACNA1G, CALB1, CAMK2A, CHRNA4, FGF12, FGF14, GRIA2, GRIA4, GRID2, GRIK4, KCND2, LRRTM1, MBP, MPZ, NCDN, NETOl, NEURL1, NOVA1, NR2E1, P2RX7, PDE7B, PLCL1, PPFIA3, RAPGEF4, RGS8, RIT2, S1PR2, SERPINE2, SHISA7, SLC18A1, SLC1A1, SLC1A2, SLC8A3, SNAP91, SNPH, and SYT6, or protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

24. The method of claim 23, wherein the one or more modulators is selected from the group consisting of pregabalin, verapamil, bepridil, celecoxib, nisoldipine, gabapentin, gabapentin enacarbil, elpetrigine, atagabalin, bepridil hydrochloride, imagabalin, cyclosporine, interferon beta-lA, prednisone, quercetin, rutin, nicotine polacrilex, talbutal, butabarbital, butalbital, secobarbital, metharbital, thiopental; primidone, mephobarbital, phenobarbital, varenicline, amobarbital, aprobarbital, butethal, heptabarbital, hexobarbital, barbital, pozanicline, cytisine, rivanicline, epibatidine, chembl 1876219, chembl3103988, atracurium, chembl490l53, hexamethonium, chembl4072l7, TC-2216, ABT-560, isproni cline, sofini cline, TC-6499, AZD1446, CP-601927, dexmecamylamine, nicotine, varenicline tartrate, benztropine mesylate, pentolinium, azd0328, bradanicline, pentobarbital, chembll20l 135, dexefaroxan, mecamylamine (chembl267936), dianicline, altinicline, trimethaphan, oleic acid, tebanicline tosylate, mibampator, butethal, (r,s)-ampa, chembll23 l32, aniracetam, chembll36800, chembl 1255648, cyclothiazide, chembl77862, chembl334920, chembll097939, piracetam, chembl320642, chembl26530l, gyki-52466, nbqx, chembl2224l8, tezampanel, (s)-ampa, chembl594840, chembll2l9l5, quisqualate, chembl337577, chembl27l30, dnqx, chembl333964, (s)-willardiine, chembl28472, talampanel, perampanel, irampanel, CX1739, dasolampanel, becampanel, farampator, mk-8777, zonampanel, pentobarbital, pf-04958242, Selurampanel, dalfampridine, guanidine hydrochloride, tedisamil, nerispirdine, evt40l, adenosine triphosphate, chembl335550, chelerythrine, acebutolol, moclobemide, ivermectin, chemb3772l9, chembl255787,

methylclothiazide, chembl550637, sodium orthovanadate, chembl2338352, benzonatate, GSK1482160, AZD9056, CE224535, dyphylline, chembl484928, dipyridamole, flavoxate hydrochloride, pentoxifylline, quinacrine, chembl2313646, chembl570352, ozanimod, chembl225l55, chembl 1368758, fmgolimod hydrochloride, amiselimod hydrochloride, reserpine, norepinephrine, chembl 126506, methamphetamine, ketanserin, tetrabenazine, L- glutamate, dihydrokainate, 2s, 4r-4-m ethyl glutamate, o-benzyl-l-serine, chembl 1628669, tezampanel, domoic acid, dysiherbaine, kainic acid, mesalamine, topiramate, aspartic acid, clozapine, alcohol, haloperidol, wortmannin, olanzapine, phorbol myristate acetate, risperidone, lidocaine, mibefradil dihydrochloride, trimethadione, cinnarizine, ethosuximide, zonisamide, anandamide, mibefradil, chembl 1684954, flunarizine, methsuximide, phensuximide,

paramethadione, celecoxib, and combinations thereof.

25. A method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease, said method comprising:

selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease; and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of a synapse gene selected from the group consisting of ADGRB1, BCAN, BCAS1, CACNA1A, CALB1,

CAMK2A, CHRNA4, CTTNBP2, DSCAM, GRIA2, GRID1, GRID2, GRIK4, HCN2, KCND2, LGI3, LRRC4C, LRRTM1, NETOl, NEURL1, NTM, P2RX7, PCDH15, PDE4B, PPFIA3, PRIMA1, PRKCQ, PTPRO, RAPGEF4, SERPINE2, SHISA7, SLC17A8, SLC18A1, SLC1A1, SLC1A2, SLC8A3, SNAP91, SNPH, SYNDIG1, and SYT6, or protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

26. The method of claim 25, wherein the one or more modulators is selected from the group consisting of dexfosfoserine, pregabalin, verapamil, bepridil, celecoxib, nisoldipine, gabapentin, gabapentin enacarbil, elpetrigine, atagabalin, bepridil hydrochloride, imagabalin, mibampator, butethal, butabarbital, butalbital, talbutal, secobarbital, metharbital, thiopental, primidone, mephobarbital, phenobarbital, (r,s)-ampa, chembll23 l32, aniracetam, chembll36800, chembll255648, cyclothiazide, chembl77862, chembl334920, chembll097939, piracetam, chembl320642, chembl26530l, gyki-52466, nbqx, chembl2224l8, tezampanel, amobarbital, aprobarbital, heptabarbital, hexobarbital, barbital, (s)-ampa, chembl594840, chembll2l9l5, quisqualate, chembl337577, chembl27l30, dnqx, chembl333964, (s)-willardiine, chembl28472, talampanel, perampanel, irampanel, cxl739, dasolampanel, becampanel, farampator, mk-8777, zonampanel, topiramate, pentobarbital, pf-04958242, selurampanel, nicotine polacrilex, varenicline, butethal, pozanicline, cytisine, rivanicline, epibatidine, chembl 1876219, chembl3103988, atracurium, chembl490l53, hexamethonium, chembl4072l7, TC-2216, ABT-560, ispronicline, sofmicline, TC-6499, AZD1446, cp-60l927,

dexmecamylamine, nicotine, varenicline tartrate, benztropine mesylate, pentolinium, AZD0328, bradanicline, pentobarbital, chembll20l l35, dexefaroxan, mecamylamine (chembl267936), dianicline, altinicline, trimethaphan, oleic acid, tebanicline tosylate, nicotine polacrilex, carboplatin, paclitaxel, L-glutamate, dalfampridine, guanidine hydrochloride, tedisamil, nerispirdine, EVT401, adenosine triphosphate, chembl335550, chelerythrine, acebutolol, moclobemide, ivermectin, chemb3772l9, chembl255787, methylclothiazide, chembl550637, sodium orthovanadate, chembl2338352, benzonatate, GSK1482160, AZD9056, CE224535, reserpine, norepinephrine, chembl 126506, methamphetamine, ketanserin, tetrabenazine, dihydrokainate, 2S,4R-4-methylglutamate, O-benzyl -L-serine, chembl 1628669, tezampanel, domoic acid, dysiherbaine, kainic acid, mesalamine, topiramate, CEP-2563, staurosporine, Chembl369507, Dexfosfosferine, Ticlopidine, GSK-690693, sotrastaurin, (7S)-Hydroxyl- staurosporine, midostaurin, quercetin, bryostatin, sotrastaurin acetate, ingenol mebutate, adenosine phosphate, theophylline, dyphylline, pentoxifylline, enprofylline, iloprost, papaverine, theobromine, inamrinone, [r]-mesopram, roflumilast, piclamilast, rolipram, filaminast, chembl 1230617, chembl5l9827, cilomilast, (-)-rolipram, crisaborole, ibudilast, apremilast, chembl52l203, chembl74078, propoxyphene, cdp840, sodium phenylbutyrate, chembl 1232082, dipyridamole, theophylline sodium glycinate, flavoxate hydrochloride, aminophylline, resveratrol, caffeine, oxtriphylline, amlexanox, etazolate, cilobradine, zatebradine,

chembl20520l9, chembl395336, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, aspartic acid, clozapine, alcohol, haloperidol, wortmannin, olanzapine, phorbol myristate acetate, risperidone, lidocaine, and combinations thereof.

27. A method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease, said method comprising:

selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease; and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of a monovalent inorganic cation transport gene selected from the group consisting of ABCC9, ASIC4,

CACNA1A, CHRNA4, CNGB1, CNTN1, DPP10, DPP6, FGF12, FGF14, HCN2, KCND2, KCNJ9, KCNQ1, KCNS3, NALCN, NEDD4L, NKAIN4, P2RX7, PTGER3, SERPINE2, SGK1, SLC10A4, SLC17A8, SLC18A1, SLC22A3, SLC2A13, SLC5A9, SLC8A3, and SLC9A7, or protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

28. The method of claim 27, wherein the one or more modulators is selected from the group consisting of naminidil, adenosine triphosphate, glyburide, sarakalim, pinacidil hydrate, minoxidil, pregabalin, verapamil, bepridil, celecoxib, nisoldipine, gabapentin, gabapentin enacarbil, elpetrigine, atagabalin, bepridil hydrochloride, imagabalin, chembl549906, chembl550795, sodium chloride, GSK-650394, dalfampridine, guanidine hydrochloride, tedisamil, nerispirdine, evt40l; adenosine triphosphate, chembl335550, chelerythrine, acebutolol, moclobemide, ivermectin, chemb3772l9, chembl255787, methylclothiazide, chembl550637, sodium orthovanadate, chembl2338352, benzonatate, GSK1482160, AZD9056, CE224535, hydrochlorothiazide, chembl 1229875, nicotine polacrilex, talbutal, butabarbital, butalbital, secobarbital, metharbital, thiopental, primidone, mephobarbital, phenobarbital, varenicline, amobarbital, aprobarbital, butethal, heptabarbital, hexobarbital, barbital, pozanicline, cytisine, rivanicline, epibatidine, chembl 1876219, chembl3103988, atracurium, chembl490l53, hexamethonium, chembl4072l7, tc-22l6, abt-560, isproni cline, sofini cline, tc-6499, cilobradine, zatebradine, chembl20520l9, chembl395336, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, chembl9995l, flupirtine, indapamide, azimilide, chembl2070953, mefenamic acid, chembl 1907717, niflumic acid, chembl298475, chembl342375, chembl332826, dolasetron, celecoxib, nerispirdine, ezogabine, indomethacin, tacrolimus, guanidine hydrochloride, tedisamil, dalfampridine, pyrimethamine, cobalt (ii) ionl verapamil pyrimethaminel cobalt (ii) ion, dihydrokainate, bimatoprost, dinoprostone, misoprostol, beraprost, chembl 1628262, carbacyclin, cicaprost, cloprostenol (chembl2220404), enprostil, fluprostenol, iloprost, dinoprost, sulprostone, treprostinil, chembl357834, chembl 1317823, chembl56559l, chembl358653, sarcnu, and combinations thereof.

29. A method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease, said method comprising:

selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease; and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of a neuron projection gene selected from the group consisting of ADGRL3, ALCAM, BCAN, BCL11B, CACNA1A, CACNA1G, CALB1, CAMK2A, CHRNA4, CTTNBP2, DSCAM, GRIA2, GRIA4, GRID2, GRIK4, HCN2, KCND2, LGI3, LRRTM1, MAG, MBP, MYC, NCAM2, NCDN, NEFM, NEURL1, NFASC, NTM, PDE4B, PIK3R1, PTGER3, PTPRO, RAPGEF4, RGS8, ROB02, SGK1, SIRT2, SLC17A8, SLC1A2, SLC8A3, SNAP91, SNPH, SYNDIGl, and EINC5A, or protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

30. The method of claim 29, wherein the one or more modulators is selected from the group consisting of adenosine phosphate, theophylline, dyphylline, pentoxifylline, enprofylline, iloprost, papaverine, theobromine, inamrinone, [r]-mesopram, roflumilast, piclamilast, rolipram, filaminast, chembll2306l7, chembl5 l9827, cilomilast, (-)-rolipram, crisaborole, ibudilast, apremilast, chembl52l203, chembl74078, propoxyphene, cdp840, sodium phenylbutyrate, chembl 1232082, dipyridamole, theophylline sodium glycinate, flavoxate hydrochloride, aminophylline, resveratrol, caffeine, oxtriphylline, amlexanox, etazolate, pregabalin, verapamil, bepridil, celecoxib, nisoldipine, gabapentin, gabapentin enacarbil, elpetrigine, atagabalin, bepridil hydrochloride, imagabalin, carboplatin, paclitaxel,

chembl549906, chembl550795, sodium chloride, GSK-650394, dalfampridine, guanidine hydrochloride, tedisamil, nerispirdine, L-glutamate, dihydrokainate, 2S,4R-4-methylglutamate, O-benzyl -L-serine, chembl 1628669, mesalamine, fluorouracil, mibefradil dihydrochloride, trimethadione, cinnarizine, ethosuximide, zonisamide, anandamide, mibefradil, chembl 1684954, flunarizine, methsuximide, phensuximide, paramethadione, nicotine polacrilex, talbutal, butabarbital, butalbital, secobarbital, metharbital, thiopental, primidone, mephobarbital, phenobarbital, varenicline, amobarbital, aprobarbital, butethal, heptabarbital, hexobarbital, barbital, pozanicline, cytisine, rivanicline, epibatidine, chembl 1876219, chembl3103988, atracurium, chembl490l53, hexamethonium, chembl4072l7, tc-22l6, abt-560, ispronicline, sofmicline, tc-6499, mibampator, (r,s)-ampa, chembll23 l32, aniracetam, chembll36800, chembl 1255648, cyclothiazide, chembl77862, chembl334920, chembll097939, piracetam, chembl320642, chembl26530l, gyki-52466, nbqx, chembl2224l8, tezampanel, (s)-ampa, chembl594840, chembll2l9l5, quisqualate, chembl337577, chembl27l30, dnqx,

chembl333964, (s)-willardiine, chembl28472, talampanel, perampanel, irampanel, cxl739, dasolampanel, becampanel, farampator, mk-8777, zonampanel, topiramate, pentobarbital, pf- 04958242, selurampanel, cyclothiazide, chembl334920, chembl 1097939, joro spider toxin, domoic acid, dysherbaine, kainic acid, 2S,4R-4-methylglutamate, chembl2313646, cyclosporine, interferon beta- 1 A, prednisone, quercetin, rutin, GSK-249320, cilobradine, zatebradine, chembl20520l9, chembl395336, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, sodium lauryl sulfate, bimatoprost, dinoprostone; misoprostol, beraprost, chembl 1628262, carbacyclin, cicaprost, cloprostenol (chembl2220404), enprostil, fluprostenol, iloprost, dinoprost, sulprostone, treprostinil, chembl357834, chembl 1317823, chembl56559l, chembl358653, Nadroparin calcium, 4’-hydroxytamoxifen, Azacitidine, Thioguanine, Acivin, Adozelesin, Amifostine, Aminopterin, antibiotic, Bizelesin, Bromocriptin, Bryostatin, Calcitriol, Diethyl stilbestrol, Elsamitrucin, Estrone, folic acid, glutamine, Hypoxanthine, Imatinib, Cilmostin, melatonin, methylprednisolone, N— methyl-n-nitrosurea, Novobiocin, Chembl35482, phorbol myristate acetate, Quinapril, Vorinostat, Sulindac, thrombin, thyrotropin, sodium beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, troglitazone, Chembll000l4, Chembll2l3492, chorionic gonadotropin, perillyl alcohol, AMG-900, Alisertib, Dinaciclib, Roniciclib, Temozolomide, Prexasertib, PF-04691502, Puquitinib, PA-799, isoprenaline, sf- 1126, wortmannin, gsk-263677l, ds-7423, omipalisib, recilisib, pwt-33587, rg-7666, vs-5584, copanlisib, gedatolisib, sonolisib, apitolisib, taselisib, pilaralisib (chembl3360203), voxtalisib, zstk-474, alpelisib, pi-l03, pilaralisib (chembl32l8575), wx-037, dactolisib, bgt-226 (chembl3545096), pictilisib, buparlisib, panulisib, gsk-l0596l5, azd-6482, buparlisib hydrochloride, LY-3023414, and combinations thereof.

31. A method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’ s disease, said method comprising:

selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease; and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of a TCF7L2 target gene selected from the group consisting of BMP4, CCND1, CCND2, DOCK10, DOCK9, DUSP15, ENPP4, EPAS1, EPHB1, ERBB3, EVI2A, EVI2B, FA2H, GJB1, HAPLN2, HSPA2, ID3, LGI3, MBP, MOG, MYC, MYRF, NFASC, NKAIN1, NKX6-2, OLIG2, PLEKHB1, PLP1, PPP1R16B, RAB33A, RASGEF1B, RTKN, SIRT2, SLC1A2, SOX10, ST18, TMEM125, TMEM2, TPPP, TSPAN15, EiGT8, and AATK, or protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

32. The method of claim 31, wherein the one or more modulators is selected from the group consisting of 2-amino-4-(3,4- (methylenedioxy)benzylamino)-6-(3- methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine (2-AMBMP), curcumin, Simvastatin, arsenic trioxide,

acetaminophen, vitamin e, cytarabine, gossypol, roniciclib, ribociclib, palbociclib, methotrexate, mycophenolic acid, nifedipine, tamoxifen, troglitazone, uracil, abemaciclib, briciclib,

abemaciclib, decitabine, palbociclib., pyroxamide, cyclosporine, interferon beta-la, prednisone, quercetin, rutin, vemurafenib, nadroparin calcium, 4'-hydroxytamoxifen, azacitidine,

thioguanine, acivicin, adozelesin, amifostine, aminopterin, antibiotic, bizelesin, bromocriptine, bryostatin, calcitriol, diethylstilbestrol, elsamitrucin, estrone, folic acid, glutamine,

hypoxanthine, imatinib, indomethacin, lithium, cilmostim, melatonin, methylprednisolone, n- methyl-n-nitrosurea, novobiocin, chembl35482, phorbol myristate acetate, quinapril, vorinostat, sulindac, thrombin, thyrotropin, sodium beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, troglitazone, verapamil, chembll000l4, chembl 1213492, gonadotropin, chorionic, perillyl alcohol, amg-900, alisertib, dinaciclib, temozolomide, prexasertib, sodium lauryl sulfate, 1- glutamate, dihydrokainate, 2s, 4r-4-m ethyl glutamate, o-benzyl-l-serine, chembl 1628669, mesalamine, pyroxamide, and combinations thereof.

33. A method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease, said method comprising:

selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease; and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of a gene involved in the NKX2.2 OLIG2 SOX10 MYRF regulatory cascade or protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

34. The method of claim 33, wherein the gene is an NKX2.2 gene or protein encoded therefrom.

35. The method of claim 33, wherein the gene is an OLIG2 gene or protein encoded therefrom.

36. The method of claim 33, wherein the gene is a SOX10 gene or protein encoded therefrom.

37. The method of claim 33, wherein the gene is a MYRF gene or protein encoded therefrom.

38. The method of claim 33, wherein the one or more modulators is selected from the group consisting of vemurafenib.

39. The method of claims 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, 31, or 33, wherein said administering is carried out using intracerebral delivery, intrathecal delivery, intranasal delivery, or via direct infusion into brain ventricles.

40. The method of claims 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, 31, or 33, further comprising:

administering to the selected subject a preparation of human glial progenitor cells.

41. The method of claim 40, wherein the preparation of glial progenitor cells are astrocyte-biased glial progenitor cells.

42. The method of claim 40, wherein glial progenitor cells of the preparation are A2B5+, CDl40a+, and/or CD44+.

43. The method of claim 40, wherein said preparation of glial progenitor cells is administered to the striatum, forebrain, brain stem, and/or cerebellum of the subject.

44. The method of claims 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29,

31, or 33, wherein the subject is human.

45. The method of claim 40, wherein the glial progenitor cells are derived from fetal tissue.

46. The method of claim 40, wherein the glial progenitor cells are derived from embryonic stem cells.

47. The method of claim 40, wherein the glial progenitor cells are derived from induced pluripotent stem cells.

48. The method of claims 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, 31, or 33, wherein Huntington’s disease is treated.

49. The method of claims 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, 31, or 33, wherein the onset of Huntington’s disease is inhibited.

50. The method of claims 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29,

31, or 33, wherein the one or more modulators is an agonist.

51. The method of claims 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29,

31, or 33, wherein the one or more modulators is an antagonist.

Description:
METHODS OF TREATING OR INHIBITING ONSET OF HUNTINGTON’S DISEASE

[0001] This application claims benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Serial No.

62/688,174, filed June 21, 2018, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

FIELD

[0002] The present application relates to methods of treating or inhibiting onset of

Huntington’s disease.

BACKGROUND

[0003] Huntington’s disease (HD) is a fatal, autosomal -dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive behavioral, cognitive, and motor dysfunction. HD is caused by a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the first exon of the huntingtin (HTT) gene, encoding a polyglutamine expansion. Its age of onset and severity are proportional to the length of this repeat expansion, with CAG lengths over 35 invariably leading to clinical disease. This is associated with the intracellular accumulation and aggregation of mutant HTT (mHTT), which leads to neuronal loss. While HD pathology is most reflected by the progressive loss of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs), and consequent striatal atrophy, MRI studies have revealed that HD is also characterized by the early appearance of demyelination and white matter loss, which can appear before symptoms arise (Tabrizi et al.,“Potential Endpoints for Clinical Trials in Premanifest and Early Huntington's Disease in the TRACK -HD Study: Analysis of 24 Month Observational Data,” The Lancet Neurology 11 :42-53 (2012)). Similarly, studies in mouse models of HD have revealed early dysmyelination (Teo et al.,“Structural and Molecular Myelination Deficits Occur Prior to Neuronal loss in the YAC128 and BACHD Models of Huntington Disease,” Human Molecular Genetics 25:2621-2632 (2016)), attended by a deficit in the critical myelinogenic gene MYRF (Huang et al.,“Mutant Huntingtin Downregulates Myelin Regulatory Factor-Mediated Myelin Gene Expression and Affects Mature Oligodendrocytes,” Neuron 85: 1212-1226 (2015); Jin et al.,“Early White Matter Abnormalities, Progressive Brain Pathology and Motor Deficits in a Novel Knock-In Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease,” Human Molecular Genetics 24:2508-2527 (2015)). Together, these observations suggest that HD pathology is associated with white matter loss, which may in turn reflect the dysfunction of myelin-producing oligodendrocytes. [0004] Yet despite these data implicating white matter abnormalities and dysmyelination in HD, and parallel studies indicating that glial replacement may ameliorate symptoms in HD transgenic mice (Benraiss et al,“Human Glia can Both Induce and Rescue Aspects of

Phenotype in Huntington Disease,” Nature Communications 7: 11758 (2016)), neither the cellular nor molecular underpinnings of glial pathology in human HD have been well-explored.

[0005] The present disclosure is directed to overcoming these and other deficiencies in the art.

SUMMARY

[0006] A first aspect of the present disclosure relates to a method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease. This method involves selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of a glial cell differentiation regulation gene selected from the group consisting of BMP2, LINGO 1, MAG, NKX2-2, NR2E1, NTRK3, OLIG2, SERPINE2, SIRT2, and TCF7L2, or a protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0007] Another aspect of the present disclosure relates to a method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease. This method involves selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of a myelinati on-associated gene selected from the group consisting of FA2H, GAL3ST1, MAG, MBP, MYRF, NFASC, OLIG2, OMG, PLLP, POU3F2, SIRT2, SLC8A3, TCF7L2, TF, and LTGT8, or a protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0008] Another aspect of the present disclosure relates to a method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease. This method involves selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of an oligodendrocyte differentiation gene selected from the group consisting of FA2H, GLI3, LINGOl, MYRF, NKX2-2, OLIG1, OLIG2, OMG, SIRT2, SLC8A3, SOX10, and TCF7L2, or a protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0009] Another aspect of the present disclosure relates to a method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease. This method involves selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of a gliogenesis regulation gene selected from the group consisting of BMP2, LINGOl, MAG, MYC, NKX2-2, NR2E1, NTRK3, OLIG2, SERPINE2, SIRT2, SOX10, TCF7L2, TF, and ZCCHC24, or a protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0010] Another aspect of the present disclosure relates to a method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease. This method involves selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of a neuron ensheathment gene selected from the group consisting of FA2H, GAL3ST1, MAG, MBP, MYRF, NFASC, OLIG2, OMG, PLLP, POU3F2, SIRT2, SLC8A3, TCF7L2, TF, and ETGT8, or a protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0011] Another aspect of the present disclosure relates to a method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease. This method involves selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of an axon guidance gene selected from the group consisting of ALCAM, BCL11B, DSCAM, FOXD1, GAS1, GLI3, HOXA1, HOXA2, MNX1, NFASC, PLXNC1, PRKCQ, PTPRO, ROB02, SEMA6B, UNC5A, VAX1, and WNT7B, or a protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0012] Another aspect of the present disclosure relates to a method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease. This method involves selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of a neuron projection guidance gene selected from the group consisting of ALCAM, BCL11B, DSCAM, FOXD1, GAS1, GLI3, HOXA1, HOXA2, MNX1, NFASC, PLXNC1, PRKCQ, PTPRO, ROB02, SEMA6B, UNC5A, VAX1, and WNT7B, or a protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0013] Another aspect of the present disclosure relates to a method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease. This method involves selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of an axonogenesis gene selected from the group consisting of ADGRB1, ALCAM, BCL11B, CACNA1A, DSCAM, FOXD1, GAS1, GLI3, HOXA1, HOXA2, LINGOl, LRRC4C, MAG, MBP, MNX1, NFASC, NR2E1, NTNG1, NTRK3, OMG, PLXNC1, POU3F2, PRKCQ, PTPRO, ROB02, SEMA6B, SLITRK2, SLITRK3, SNAP91, UNC5A, VAX1, and WNT7B, or a protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject. [0014] Another aspect of the present disclosure relates to a method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease. This method involves selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of an axon development gene selected from the group consisting of ADGRB1, ALCAM, BCL11B, CACNA1A, DSCAM, FOXD1, GAS1, GLI3, HOXA1, HOXA2, LINGOl, LRRC4C, MAG, MBP, MNX1, NEFM, NFASC, NR2E1, NTNG1, NTRK3, OMG, PLXNC1, POU3F2, PRKCQ, PTPRO, ROB02, RTN4RL2, SEMA6B, SLITRK2, SLITRK3, SNAP91, EINC5A, VAX1, and WNT7B, or a protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0015] Another aspect of the present disclosure relates to a method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease. This method involves selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of a cell projection morphogenesis gene selected from the group consisting of ADGRB1, ALCAM, BCL11B, CACNA1A, CAMK2A, DSCAM, EHD3, FOXD1, GAS1,

GLI3, HOXA1, HOXA2, KANK1, LINGOl, LRRC4C, MAG, MBP, MNX1, NEDD4L, NEURL1, NFASC, NR2E1, NTNG1, NTRK3, OMG, PCDH15, PLXNC1, POU3F2, PRKCQ, PTPRO, ROB02, SEMA6B, SGK1, SLITRK2, SLITRK3, SNAP91, SNX10, UGT8, UNC5A, VAX1, and WNT7B, or protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0016] Another aspect of the present disclosure relates to a method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease. This method involves selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of a synapse structure or activity regulation gene selected from the group consisting of ADGRB1, ADGRL3, BCAN, CALB1, CAMK2A, FGF14, LRRTIM1, NCDN, NETOl, NEURL1, NR2E1, NTRK3, PPFIA3, ROB02, SERPINE2, SHISA7, SIX4, SLC8A3, SLITRK2, SLITRK3, and SYNDIG1, or protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0017] Another aspect of the present disclosure relates to a method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease. This method involves selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of a synaptic signaling pathway gene selected from the group consisting of BCAN, CACNA1A, CACNA1G, CALB1, CAMK2A, CHRNA4, FGF12, FGF14, GRIA2, GRIA4, GRID2, GRIK4, KCND2, LRRTM1, MBP, MPZ, NCDN, NETOl, NEURL1, NOVA1, NR2E1, P2RX7, PDE7B, PLCL1, PPFIA3, RAPGEF4, RGS8, RIT2, S1PR2, SERPINE2, SHISA7, SLC18A1, SLC1A1, SLC1A2, SLC8A3, SNAP91, SNPH, and SYT6, or protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0018] Another aspect of the present disclosure relates to a method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease. This method involves selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of a synapse gene selected from the group consisting of ADGRB1, BCAN, BCAS1, CACNA1A, CALB1, CAMK2A, CHRNA4, CTTNBP2, DSCAM, GRIA2, GRID1, GRID2, GRIK4, HCN2, KCND2, LGI3, LRRC4C, LRRTM1, NETOl, NEURL1, NTM, P2RX7, PCDH15, PDE4B, PPFIA3, PRIMA1, PRKCQ, PTPRO, RAPGEF4, SERPINE2, SHISA7, SLC17A8, SLC18A1, SLC1A1, SLC1A2, SLC8A3, SNAP91, SNPH, SYNDIG1, and SYT6, or protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0019] Another aspect of the present disclosure relates to a method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease. This method involves selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of a monovalent inorganic cation transport gene selected from the group consisting of ABCC9, ASIC4, CACNA1A, CHRNA4, CNGB1, CNTN1, DPP10, DPP6, FGF12, FGF14, HCN2, KCND2, KCNJ9, KCNQ1, KCNS3, NALCN, NEDD4L, NKAIN4, P2RX7, PTGER3, SERPINE2, SGK1, SLC10A4, SLC17A8, SLC18A1, SLC22A3, SLC2A13, SLC5A9, SLC8A3, and SLC9A7, or protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0020] Another aspect of the present disclosure relates to a method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease. This method involves selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of a neuron projection gene selected from the group consisting of ADGRL3, ALCAM, BCAN, BCL11B, CACNA1A, CACNA1G, CALB1, CAMK2A, CHRNA4,

CTTNBP2, DSCAM, GRIA2, GRIA4, GRID2, GRIK4, HCN2, KCND2, LGI3, LRRTM1, MAG, MBP, MYC, NCAM2, NCDN, NEFM, NEURL1, NFASC, NTM, PDE4B, PIK3R1, PTGER3, PTPRO, RAPGEF4, RGS8, ROB02, SGK1, SIRT2, SLC17A8, SLC1A2, SLC8A3, SNAP91, SNPH, SYNDIG1, and UNC5A, or protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0021] Another aspect of the present disclosure relates to a method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease. This method involves selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of a TCF7L2 target gene selected from the group consisting of BMP4, CCND1, CCND2, DOCK 10, DOCK9, DUSP15, ENPP4, EPAS1, EPHB1, ERBB3, EVI2A, EVI2B, FA2H, GJB1, HAPLN2, HSPA2, ID3, LGI3, MBP, MOG, MYC, MYRF, NFASC, NKAIN1, NKX6-2, OLIG2, PLEKHB1, PLP1, PPP1R16B, RAB33A, RASGEF1B, RTKN, SIRT2, SLC1A2, SOX10, ST18, TMEM125, TMEM2, TPPP, TSPAN15, UGT8, and AATK, or protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0022] Another aspect of the present disclosure relates to a method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease. This method involves selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease and administering to the selected subject one or more modulators of a gene involved in the NKX2.2 OLIG2 SOX10 MYRF regulatory cascade or protein encoded therefrom under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0023] The present disclosure examines whether the gene expression patterns of mHTT- expressing human glial progenitor cells (hGPCs) might reflect cell-autonomous molecular pathology and, if so, whether that might predict the white matter disease of HD. Bipotential oligodendrocyte-astrocyte hGPCs were first generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) derived from either huntingtin mutant embryos or their sibling controls. Fluorescence- activated cell sorting (FACS) was then used to isolate these cells based on their expression of the GPC-selective CD 140a (Sim et ak,“CD 140a Identifies a Population of Highly Myelinogenic, Migration-Competent and Efficiently Engrafting Human Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells,”

Nat. Biotechnol. 29:934-941 (2011); Wang et ak,“Human iPSC-Derived Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells Can Myelinate and Rescue a Mouse Model of Congenital Hypomyelination,” Cell Stem Cell 12:252-264 (2013), which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety), followed by whole-transcriptome RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis to assess mHTT- dependent changes in their gene expression. It was found that in hGPCs produced from hESCs derived from three different HD embryos, a coherent set of key transcription factors associated with both astroglial and oligodendroglial differentiation, as well as with downstream myelin biosynthesis, was significantly downregulated relative to controls as a function of mHTT expression. Accordingly, when HD hESC-derived hGPCs were transplanted into neonatal myelin-deficient and immunodeficient shiverer mice (MBP v/ " , the resultant glial chimeras myelinated more slowly and less completely than did littermate controls transplanted with hGPCs derived from normal control hESCs. In addition, chimeras established with HD hGPCs manifested a marked delay and disruption in astrocytic morphogenesis relative to mice chimerized with normal sibling hGPCs. Together, these data suggest that rather than being secondary to neuronal loss, white matter failure and hypomyelination in human HD might instead be the result of a cell -autonomous defect in the terminal glial differentiation of mHTT- expressing hGPCs, the occurrence of which may be central to the pathogenesis and neurological manifestations of HD.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0024] FIGs. 1 A-1G show HD hESC-derived hGPCs display profound mHTT-dependent changes in gene expression. FIG. 1 A shows principal-component analysis (PCA) based on expression of rv26,000 transcripts. The expression data are shown as transcripts per million (TPM), with post-normalization to account for variance (Risso et al.,“Normalization of RNA- seq Data Using Factor Analysis of Control Genes or Samples,” Nat. Biotechnol. 32:896-902 (2014), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). The PCA plot shows the distinct transcriptome-wide expression signature of HD-derived human glial progenitor cells (hGPCs). FIG. 1B is a Venn diagram showing intersections of lists of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (green, downregulated; red, upregulated; fold change [FC] > 2.0, FDR 1%), obtained by comparing hGPCs derived from 3 different HD patients to pooled control hGPCs from 2 donors. The list of DEGs shared by the 3 HD patients was then filtered by intersecting with those DEGs (FC > 2.0, FDR 1%) found in patient HD20 (GENEA20 derived) versus a normal sibling CTR19 (GENEA19); this filtration step further increased the specificity of mHTT-associated DEGs. The gray-highlighted intersections together comprise the entire set of genes differentially expressed by all HD lines relative to their pooled controls. FIG. 1C shows an expression heatmap based on TPM values for 429 DEGs highlighted in FIG. 1B showing clustering of hGPCs by disease status. Dendrogram shows hierarchical clustering based on Euclidean distance calculated from log2-TPM values from the three HD-ESCs lines (HD-17, HD-18, and HD-20) and the two matched control lines (CTR19 and CTR02). FIG. 1D shows a network representation of functional annotations (Gene Ontology: Biological Process and Cellular Component, Bonferroni-corrected p < 0.01) for the 429 intersection DEGs highlighted in FIG. 1B. Genes are round nodes with border colors representing their direction of

dysregulation (green, downregulated; red, upregulated). Rounded rectangle nodes represent annotation terms. Nodes are sized by degree and colored by closely interconnected modules (M1-M3) identified by community detection. For each module, 3 of the top annotations by significance and fold enrichment are listed. Selected gene nodes are labeled and include genes encoding key hGPC lineage transcription factors and stage-regulated proteins. FIG. 1E is an expression heatmap of 63 conserved DEGs identified in Ml (purple in (FIG. 1D), with annotations related to glial cell differentiation and myelination. FIG. 1F is an expression heat- map of 56 conserved DEGs identified in M2 (lilac in (FIG. 1D), annotations related to axon guidance and axonogenesis. FIG. 1G is an expression heatmap of 68 conserved DEGs identified in M3 (yellow in FIG. 1D), with annotations related to regulation of synapse structure and synaptic signaling. All differentially expressed (DE) results are 1% FDR and FC >2; Gene Ontology (GO) annotation results are Bonferroni corrected to p < 0.01.

[0025] FIGs. 2A-2D show genes differentially-expressed between hGPCs derived from different HD hESCs vs. pooled controls. FIGs. 2A-2B show gene set intersection plots for differentially expressed genes obtained from comparisons of each CDl40a-sorted HD-derived GPC line (HD 17, HD 18, and HD20), compared to pooled control -derived GPCs (FIG. 2A, up- regulated genes; FIG. 2B, down-regulated genes). Differentially expressed genes in HD GPCs are significant at 1% FDR and FC > 2.00. FIGs. 2C-2D show CD44-sorted HD-derived APC line (HD 17, HD 18, and HD20) against control-derived APCs (FIG. 2C, up-regulated; FIG. 2D, down-regulated). Differentially expressed genes in HD APCs are significant at 5% FDR. In both, 20 vs 19 denotes the comparison of HD line HD20 (Genea20) against its sibling control line CTR19 (Geneal9). Horizontal bars represent total sizes of gene sets, and vertical bars represent sizes of gene set intersections. Vertical bars are ordered first by the number of gene sets in the intersection, and then by the size of the intersection. The dots correspond to those gene sets comprising each intersection.

[0026] FIGs. 3 A-3B show functional annotation reveals HD-associated impairment in transcription of glial differentiation, myelination, and synaptic transmission-related genes. Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation was performed for the 429 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the 3 lines of mHTT hGPCs relative to pooled control hGPCs (see FIGs. 1B-1C). 50 significantly associated GO annotation terms (Biological Process and Cellular Component, Bonferroni -corrected p<0.0l) were identified by the ToppCluster annotation tool (Kaimal et al., “ToppCluster: a Multiple Gene List Feature Analyzer for Comparative Enrichment Clustering and Network-based Dissection of Biological Systems,” Nucleic Acids Res. 38:W96-Wl02 (2010), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). By network analysis, these GO terms together with their associated DEGs were grouped into three functionally related modules (Ml through M3, see FIG. 1D). For each GO term, the expected value assumes a constant ratio, given the number of annotated DEGs and the total number of human protein coding genes found in the term. The fold enrichment is the ratio of the number of observed DEGs found in the term, to the expected number. Within each functional module, the GO terms were ranked first by p value, then by fold-enrichment. Three GO terms, GO: 0007268 (chemical synaptic transmission), G0:00989l6 (anterograde trans-synaptic signaling), and G0:0099537 (trans-synaptic signaling), were respectively ranked 3 through 5 within module M3. They contained an identical set of 37 associated DEGs, which were contained within the 38 DEGs associated to G0:0099536 (synaptic signaling) ranked at number 2 in M3. To reduce redundancy, these three GO terms were thus omitted from the figure. FIG. 3 A is a bar graph showing the top 5 GO terms for each functional module. FIG. 3B is a table listing the calculated values and the associated DEGs for each of the top-ranked terms. Associated DEGs are color- coded according to their direction of dysregulation in HD- vs. control-derived hGPCs (green, down-regulated; red , up-regulated).

[0027] FIGs. 4A-4C show increasing CAG lengths correlate with diminished

oligodendroglial gene expression. FIG. 4A shows an expression heatmap based on TPM values calculated from raw counts of 429 DEGs (1% FDR, FC >2.0) found in the intersection of DEGs by comparisons of hGPCs derived from each of the three different HD patients against pooled control hGPCs from two different donors. Row side colors show the Pearson’s correlation coefficient (R) between the FC of that gene in each HD-derived hGPC line versus pooled controls, and the corresponding CAG repeat number in that HD line (HD 17 = 40x CAG, HD 18 = 46x CAG, and HD20 = 48x CAG). Selected genes encoding transcription factors and stage- regulated proteins involved in glial differentiation and myelination are listed. FIG. 4B shows a combined scatterplot with linear fit lines, obtained by regression of fold-changes of each of the 429 DEGs shown in the heatmap in FIG. 4A against the CAG repeat number in the

corresponding hGPC line. FIG. 4C is a histogram showing the distribution of Pearson’s coefficients (R) for correlation between FCs of DEGs in 3 HD lines to corresponding CAG length. For 255 of the 429 genes ((Pearson’s R| > 0.75), the correlation analysis indicated that the absolute magnitude of the FC increased with CAG repeat number; 228 of these genes displayed an inverse correlation of gene expression level to the CAG repeat number, with longer repeats associated with diminished glial gene expression.

[0028] FIGs. 5 A-5D show human and mouse glia exhibited overlap in genes

dysregulated as a function of CAG repeat length. There was a high degree of overlap between those hGPC genes and ontologies found to be increasingly dysregulated with longer CAG repeat length in hGPCs, with those noted to be dysregulated with CAG repeat length in mouse brain tissue (Langfelder et ak,“Integrated Genomics and Proteomics Define Huntingtin CAG Length- Dependent Networks in Mice,” Nat. Neurosci. 19:623-633 (2016), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). FIG. 5A shows the representative lists of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) obtained from the HD-derived CDl40-sorted GPCs, and the HD-derived CD44- sorted APCs were compared against the differential expression results of the mouse mHtt allelic series (FIGs. 5A and 5B) and the 6-month Q175 profiled tissues (FIGs. 5C and 5D) from

(Langfelder et al.,“Integrated Genomics and Proteomics Define Huntingtin CAG Length- Dependent Networks in Mice,” Nat. Neurosci. 19:623-633 (2016), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). The network plots in FIGs. 5A and 5C show the significant pairwise set intersections between the CD140 and CD44 HD Genea-derived DEGs sets {yellow nodes), and the DEGs sets from the Langfelder et al.,“Integrated Genomics and Proteomics Define Huntingtin CAG Length-Dependent Networks in Mice,” Nat. Neurosci. 19:623-633 (2016), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety, analysis ( grey nodes) (Fisher’s exact test, p<0.05). The nodes are sized according to the total number of DEGs, indicated in parenthesis for each node. The numbers of DEGs in the HD Genea sets are post-ID conversion to mouse orthologue genes. The edge thickness indicates the significance of the gene set intersection, calculated as -loglO (Fisher’s exact test p value). Edge color and label show the number of genes in the pairwise set intersection. Only the Langfelder et al.,“Integrated

Genomics and Proteomics Define Huntingtin CAG Length-Dependent Networks in Mice,” Nat. Neurosci. 19:623-633 (2016), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety, DEG sets that had a significant overlap to either of the two HD Genea sets are shown. The dot plots in FIGs. 5B and 5D show the comparisons of Gene Ontology (GO): Biological Process annotation results for the DEGs sets in FIGs. 5A and 5C, respectively. The dots are sized according to the gene ratio with respect to the DEGs set. The dot color represents the significance of the association to the GO term. All DEGs sets that had significant annotation (BH-corrected p< 0.01) are shown. The most significant intersections were observed between the CD140 DEGs set and the DEGs in the 6-month striatum Q175 samples (p=l. l0E-06; 150 genes) in the comparison to the allelic series DEGs and between the CD140 DEGs set and the 6-month Q175 cerebellum DEGs for the Q175 tissues (p=9.86E-l3; 85 genes). These intersections included the glial modulators Nkx2-2, Oligl, and Olig2 as well as the genes encoding proteins involved in myelination, ion channel activity, and synaptic transmission. Overall, a number of similar significant annotations were observed for the HD Genea CD140 DEGs and the brain-derived DEGs from Langfelder et al.,“Integrated Genomics and Proteomics Define Huntingtin CAG Length-Dependent Networks in Mice,” Nat. Neurosci. 19:623-633 (2016), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety, implicating functions that included gliogenesis, myelination, axon development, and ion channel activity. [0029] FIGs. 6A-6B show glial differentiation-associated genes are dysregulated in mHTT-expressing GPCs. Expression of selected genes dysregulated in HD-derived GPCs, as identified by RNA-seq analysis, was assessed by TaqMan Low Density Array (TLDA) RT- qPCR and compared to that of control GPCs. Expression data were normalized to 18S and GAPDH endogenous controls. Mean ddCt values and standard error ranges calculated from 3 pooled HD GPC lines (n = 3 for lines GENEA17 and GENEA20, n = 5 for GENEA18, total n =

11) vs. 2 pooled control GPC lines (n = 6 for GENEA02 and n = 3 for GENEA19, total n = 9) are shown. The difference of expression in HD and control GPCs was assessed by paired t-tests, followed by Benjamini-Hochberg (BH) multiple testing correction (***p< 0.01, **p<0.05,

*p<0.1). Genes assayed on both arrays are highlighted in bold. Analysis of TLDA data was performed in ExpressionSuite software v.1.1 (Applied Biosciences). The majority of genes identified by RNA-seq as dysregulated in HD-derived GPCs were confirmed as such by TLDA. FIG. 6A shows genes encoding key GPC lineage transcription factors and stage-regulated, myelin-related proteins. 44 genes are shown, excluding MOBP and MOG, which were noted to have a high proportion of unreliable reactions. FIG. 6B shows transcriptional targets of

TCF7L2, as predicted by upstream regulator analysis in IPA. A total of 42 genes are shown, excluding four genes that had a high proportion of unreliable reactions.

[0030] FIG. 7 shows HD-derived hGPCs showed marked dysregulation of potassium channel genes. Differential gene expression comparisons (FDR 5%, no fold change threshold) of each HD-derived hGPC line against pooled control hGPCs revealed 25 potassium channel genes that were dysregulated in at least 2 out of 3 HD-derived lines. NS = not significant.

[0031] FIGs. 8A-8N show myelination was impaired in mice chimerized with mHTT- expressing human GPCs. Human glial chimeric mice were established by neonatal injection of hGPCs into shiverer x rag2 hosts, which were sacrificed at 8, 13, and 18 weeks. FIGs. 8A and 8D show that, whereas myelin basic protein (MBP) expression by control hGPCs (GENEA19) was evident by 8 weeks after neonatal graft (FIG. 8 A), mice engrafted with HD-derived, mHTT- expressing hGPCs (GENEA20) manifested little or no MBP immunolabeling by that point (FIG. 8D). FIGs. 8B and 8E shows that by 13 weeks, by which time mice engrafted with control hGPCs exhibited robust myelin production (FIG. 8B), only scattered islands of MBP expression were noted in matched recipients of HD-derived GPCs (FIG. 8E). FIGs. 8C and 8F show control GPC-derived myelination was increasingly robust by 18 weeks (FIG. 8C) relative to mHTT GPC chimeric mice (FIG. 8F). FIGs. 8G-8I show the density of engrafted human GPCs did not differ between control and mHTT hGPCs at any time point assessed (FIG. 8G), but the fraction of those hGPCs that differentiated as transferrin (TF)+ oligodendrocytes was significantly lower among mHTT-expressing hGPCs (FIG. 8H), resulting in fewer TF-defmed oligodendrocytes in chimeras engrafted with mHTT hGPCs (FIG. 81). FIGs. 8J-8L show that among donor-derived oligodendrocytes, the proportion that became myelinogenic, as defined by MBP co-expression of human TF and MBP, was significantly lower in mHTT- than control hGPC-engrafted chimeric brains (FIG. 8J). Similarly, the fraction of all donor cells that developed MBP expression was significantly higher in mice engrafted with control compared to HD-derived hGPCs (FIG. 8K). Accordingly, myelin luminance, as assessed on MBP-immunostained sections, was significantly higher in control -engrafted corpus callosa than in corresponding mHTT GPC-engrafted white matter (FIG. 8L). FIGs. 8M and 8N show that neither the density (FIG. 8G) nor the distribution of engrafted human GPCs (FIGs. 8M and 8N, dot maps) differed significantly between control and HD-derived hGPCs, indicating that the myelination defect in mHTT hGPC-engrafted brains was due to impaired oligodendroglial differentiation and myelinogenesis, rather than to differential engraftment. Scale bar, 50 mm. Values are presented as mean ± SEM. **p < 0.01 and ***p < 0.001 by two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests.

[0032] FIGs. 9A-9H show mHTT GPC-engrafted brains exhibited diminished and delayed axonal myelination. FIGs. 9A-9F are confocal images of hGPC-engrafted shiverer corpus callosum showing the greater MBP expression and higher proportion of ensheathed axons in mice engrafted with GENEA19 control hGPCs (FIGs. 9A-9C) compared to mice engrafted with GENEA20-derived mHTT-expressing hGPCs (FIGs. 9D-9F). FIGs. 9D’ and 9E’ show confocal z stacks with orthogonal views of donor-derived MBP+ oligodendrocytes. FIG. 9F’ shows a higher magnification of FIG. 9F, showing MBP immunoreactivity surrounding ensheathed axons. FIGs. 9G and 9H show the proportion of MBP-ensheathed NF+ host axons overall (FIG. 9G) and per MBP+ donor-derived oligodendrocyte (FIG. 9H). Scale bars represent 20 mm (FIGs. 9A-9F) and 5 mm (FIGs. 9A’-9C’). Values represent mean ± SEM. **p < 0.01 and ***p < 0.001 by 2-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests.

[0033] FIG. 10 shows SOX10-MYRF transduction restores myelin gene expression in mHTT GPCs. This figure shows a graphical representation of the qPCR data outlined in Table 1 below. Table 1. SOX10-MYRF Transduction Restores Myelin Gene Expression in mHTT GPCs

Expression values normalized to 18S and control plasmid-transfected cells of selected oligoneogenic and myelinogenic genes in both normal (Geneal9, black bars) and mHTT- expressing (Genea 20, red) hGPCs, after transfection with a bicistronic plasmid expressing SOX10 and MYRF. Welch’s /-test comparisons of: 1) SOX10-MYRF- vs EGFP-transfected for each line independently, significance indicated by asterisks ; or 2) SOX10-MYRF -transfected Genea 20, vs. EGFP control -transfected Geneal9 (significance indicated by hash marks). */# p<0.05. **/## p<0.0E; ***/### p<0.00E; ****/#### p<0.000l. †, Primers located on coding sequence;††, primers located in 3’EiTRs.

[0034] FIGs. 11 A-l 1M show SOX10 and MYRF rescued oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelinogenesis by mHTT GPCs. FIG. 11 A shows a doxycycline-regulated dual vector lentiviral (LV) transduction strategy that allows the doxycycline (DOX)-triggered,

interdependent overexpression of SOX10 and MYRF, with concurrent expression of CD4 to permit FACS-based immunoisolation of SOXlO-MYRF-transduced hGPCs. FIGs. 11B-11D show the effects of SOX 10 and MYRF overexpression in mHTT-expressing hGPCs were assessed by transducing matched sets of 180 DIV GENEA20-derived hGPCs with DOX- regulated lentiviral SOX10/MYRF and exposing some cultures to DOX while leaving matched control cultures untreated. After an additional week in vitro , the cells were immunostained using mAh 04, which recognizes oligodendrocytic sulfatide. Without DOX, the mHTT hGPCs were stably maintained and expressed no detectable 04 (FIG. 11B). In contrast, those mHTT hGPCs raised in DOX (FIG. 11C), with upregulated SOX10 and MYRF expression, exhibited a sharp and significant increase in oligodendrocyte differentiation (FIG. 11D). This schematic outlines the experimental design used to assess the in vivo myelinogenic competence of HD-derived hGPCs, with and without rescue of SOX10 and MYRF expression. All cells were exposed transiently to DOX in vitro so as to initiate CD4 expression and permit FACS isolation before transplant into neonatal immunodeficient shiverer mice. At 9 weeks of age, the engrafted mice were either given DOX for another 4 weeks to initiate SOX10 and MYRF expression (+DOX) or not so treated (-DOX, controls). Shiverer mice engrafted neonatally with hGPCs derived from normal HTT-expressing hESCs (GENEA19) developed abundant MBP expression and oligodendrocytic morphologies by 13 weeks in vivo. In contrast, mice engrafted with mHTT- expressing hGPCs produced from HD hESCs (GENEA20 [G20]) developed little detectable MBP by that point. FIGs. 11H and 1 II show that at 9 weeks of age, some GENEA20 mHTT hGPC-engrafted mice were given oral DOX to trigger SOX10 and MYRF expression (FIG.

11H), while matched controls were not given dox (FIG. 111). The DOX(+) mice exhibited significant numbers of MBP+ myelinating oligodendrocytes in the engrafted white matter (FIG.

11H). FIGs. 11 J and 11K show that by that same time point, no donor cells in the DOX(-) control mice had developed MBP expression (FIG. 11 J), despite analogous donor cell engraftment (FIG. 11K). FIGs. 11L and 11M show that in the DOX(+) mice engrafted with SOX10/MYRF -transduced GENEA20 hGPCs, the donor-derived oligodendrocytes induced the robust formation of nodes of Ranvier (FIG. 11L), evidenced by the clustering of BIV-spectrin flanked by Caspr protein that typifies nodal architecture (FIG. 11M), which is otherwise absent in untreated shiverer brain. Scale bars represent 50 mm (FIGs. 11B, 11C, and 11F-1 II,), 1 mm (FIG. 11L), and 0.5 mm (FIG. 11M). Values represent means ± SEM. ***p < 0.001 (t test).

[0035] FIGs. 12A-12P show astrocytic differentiation is delayed in mHTT GPCs. FIGs.

12A-12C show astrocytic differentiation was significantly delayed in mHTT glial chimeras.

Mice neonatally transplanted with normal HTT GENEAl9-derived hGPCs began to develop significant donor-derived GFAP+ astrocytes by 8 weeks (FIG. 12 A), robustly so by 13 weeks (FIG. 12B), with dense astrocytic colonization of the callosal white matter by 18 weeks (FIG. 12C). FIGs. 12D-12F show, in contrast, mHTT-expressing hGPCs derived from GENEA20 sibling hESCs developed astrocytic phenotype more slowly, with little evident GFAP expression at 8 weeks (FIG. 12D) and 13 weeks (FIG. 12E) and only modest GFAP+ astrocytic maturation at 18 weeks (FIG. 12F). FIGs. 12G and 12H show the mature astrocytic morphologies of control (FIG. 12G) and mHTT-expressing (FIG. 12H) astrocytes differed in that mHTT astrocytes typically failed to manifest the degree of radial symmetry of their control-derived counterparts. FIG. 121 show that the proportion of GFAP-expressing cells among all donor cells was consistently lower in mHTT hGPC-engrafted mice than control-engrafted mice. FIGs. 12J-12M show Sholl analysis of cells traced in NeuroLucida in 3D, and shown flattened in FIG. 120 and FIG. 12P, revealed that normal donor astrocytes exhibited greater fiber complexity (FIG. 12J) and more primary processes (FIG. 12K) yet shorter average and maximal fiber lengths (FIGs.

12L and 12M) than mHTT-expressing astroglia. FIGs. 12N-12P show Fan-in radial analysis of volume occupancy (Dang et ak,“Formoterol, a Long-Acting b2 Adrenergic Agonist, Improves Cogntive Function and Promotes Dendritic Complexity in a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome,” Biol. Psychiatry 75: 179-188 (2014), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety) revealed that mHTT astrocytes had significantly more regions unoccupied by glial processes than did control astrocytes (FIG. 12N). Illustrations in FIG. 120 and FIG. 12P indicate their discontiguous domain structure. Values represent mean ± SEM. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001 by 2-way ANOVA with Bonferroni’s post hoc tests (FIG. 121), comparison of nonlinear regressions (p < 0.0001) (FIG. 12J), and unpaired t tests comparing per- mouse average values across all cells scored (FIGs. 12K-12N) (n = 4 control, 7 mHTT mice). Scale bars represent 25 mm (FIGs. 12A-12F) and 10 mm (FIGs. 12G, 12H, 120, and 12P).

[0036] FIGs. 13A-13E show mHTT-expressing astrocytes exhibit diminished complexity and incomplete domain structures. FIG. 13 A shows Sholl analysis of GFAP-immunostained human cells in human glial chimeras, 18 weeks after neonatal implantation. Non-linear regression curves of radial intersections for each cell line (Lorentizan curve-fit), as a function of branch order are shown. Comparison of control (N=7) vs mHTT mice (N=l0); p<0.000l. FIG. 13B shows both the normal HTT control line GENEA19, and the unrelated normal HTT hiPS cell line C27 have more primary processes than the mHTT-expressing GENEA lines, GENEA18 and GENEA20. The controls GENEA19 and C27 are no different from one another, but both GENEA18 and GENEA20 are significantly different from the controls (l-way ANOVA with Dunnett’s post-ttest; p<0.000l). FIG. 13C shows the fiber distributions of astrocytes derived from the two control lines, C27 and GENEA19, are more radially symmetric than those of either mHTT line. One-way ANOVA with Dunnett’s post-test, and C27 as the control, p<0.000l.

Both GENEA18 and GENEA20 are significantly different from C27, p<0.000l. FIGs. 13A-13C, Controls: C27, gray, and GENEA 19, black. HD-derived: GENEA 18, orange, GENEA 20, red. FIG. 13D shows flattened 3 -dimensional coronal tracings of astrocytes from the corpus callosum of mice transplanted with C27-derived control hGPCs, compared to those of mice transplanted with GENEA l8-derived hGPCs (FIG 13E). Scale: FIG 13D, 25 pm.

[0037] FIGs. 14A-14H show HD hESC-derived CD44+ astroglia exhibit mHTT- dependent changes in gene expression. FIG. 14A shows PC A performed as in FIG. 1 A but using CD44-sorted astroglia and their precursors validates the segregated expression signatures of HD- derived and normal cells. FIG. 14B shows a Venn diagram that highlights the intersection of lists of DEGs (green, downregulated; red, upregulated; FDR 5%) obtained by comparing astroglia derived from 3 HD patients against pooled control cells and using the same cell lines and analytic pipeline as in FIG. 1. The list of DEGs shared by the 3 HD patients was filtered by those genes differentially expressed by patient HD20 (GENEA20) relative to its sibling donor CTR19 (GENEA19). FIG. 14C shows a heatmap based on log2 -transformed TPM values calculated from raw counts of the 114 DEGs highlighted in (FIG. 14B) showing clustering by disease status. FIG. 14D shows a network representation of functional annotations (Gene Ontology: Cellular Component, FDR-corrected p < 0.1) for the 114 intersection DEGs highlighted in (FIG. 14B). Genes are designated as round nodes (green, downregulated; red, upregulated); rounded rectangular nodes represent annotation terms. Nodes are sized by degree and grouped as interconnected modules (M1-M4) identified by community detection. For each colored module, three of the top significant annotations are listed and labeled in the network.

FIG. 14E shows an expression heatmap of 14 conserved DEGs identified in Ml (yellow in (FIG. 14D), with annotations related to post-synaptic and receptor complex components. FIG. 14F shows a heatmap of 9 conserved DEGs identified in M2 (gray in (FIG. 14D), annotated to perinuclear and early endosome components. FIG. 14G shows a heatmap of 11 conserved DEGs identified in M3 (blue in (FIG. 14D), with annotations related to plasma membrane, cell-cell junction, and desmosomal components. FIG. 14H shows a heatmap of 8 DEGs identified in M4 (orange in (FIG. 14D), with annotations related to extracellular matrix components.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0038] The disclosure herein relates generally to a method of treating or inhibiting onset of Huntington’s disease. This method involves selecting a subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease and administering to the subject one or modulators of one or more genes as described in Table 2 or Table 3, or proteins encoded therefrom, under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0039] Huntington’s disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by a relentlessly progressive movement disorder with devastating psychiatric and cognitive deterioration. Huntington’s disease is associated with a consistent and severe atrophy of the neostriatum which is related to a marked loss of the GABAergic medium-sized spiny projection neurons, the major output neurons of the striatum. Huntington’s disease is characterized by abnormally long CAG repeat expansions in the first exon of the Huntingtin gene (“HIT”). The encoded polyglutamine expansions of mutant huntingtin protein disrupt its normal functions and protein-protein interactions, ultimately yielding widespread

neuropathology, most rapidly evident in the neostriatum.

[0040] As used herein, the term“glial cells” refers to a population of non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, either form myelin or promote myelination, and participate in signal transmission in the nervous system.“Glial cells” as used herein encompasses fully differentiated cells of the glial lineage, such as oligodendrocytes or astrocytes, and well as glial progenitor cells. Glial progenitor cells are cells having the potential to differentiate into cells of the glial lineage such as oligodendrocytes and astrocytes.

[0041] As used herein,“treating” or“treatment” refers to any indication of success in amelioration of an injury, pathology, or condition, including any objective or subjective parameter such as abatement; remission; diminishing of symptoms or making the injury, pathology, or condition more tolerable to the patient; slowing the rate of degeneration or decline; making the final point of degeneration less debilitating; or improving a subject’s physical or mental well-being. The treatment or amelioration of symptoms can be based on objective or subjective parameters; including the results of a physical examination, neurological examination, and/or psychiatric evaluation.“Treating” includes the administration of glial progenitor cells to prevent or delay, to alleviate, or to arrest or inhibit development of the symptoms or conditions associated with the disease, condition or disorder. “Therapeutic effect” refers to the reduction, elimination, or prevention of the disease, symptoms of the disease, or side effects of a disease, condition or disorder in the subject. Treatment may be prophylactic (to prevent or delay the onset or worsening of the disease, condition or disorder, or to prevent the manifestation of clinical or subclinical symptoms thereof) or therapeutic suppression or alleviation of symptoms after the manifestation of the disease, condition or disorder.

[0042] Suitable subjects for treatment in accordance with the methods described herein include any mammalian subject having or at risk of having Huntington’s disease. Exemplary mammalian subjects include humans, mice, rats, guinea pigs, and other small rodents, dogs, cats, sheep, goats, and monkeys. In one embodiment, the subject is human.

[0043] The one or more modulators for use in the methods described herein can be, without limitation, a peptide, nucleic acid molecule, or small molecule compound. The modulator may be, for example, a naturally occurring, semi-synthetic, or synthetic agent. For example, the modulator may be a drug that targets a specific function of one or more genes. In certain embodiments, the one or more modulators may be an antagonist or an agonist.

[0044] The modulators of the present invention can be administered orally, parenterally, for example, subcutaneously, intravenously, intramuscularly, intraperitoneally, by intranasal instillation, or by application to mucous membranes, such as, that of the nose, throat, and bronchial tubes. They may be administered alone or with suitable pharmaceutical carriers, and can be in solid or liquid form such as, tablets, capsules, powders, solutions, suspensions, or emulsions.

[0045] The modulators of the present invention may be orally administered, for example, with an inert diluent, or with an assimilable edible carrier, or they may be enclosed in hard or soft shell capsules, or they may be compressed into tablets, or they may be incorporated directly with the food of the diet. For oral therapeutic administration, these modulators may be incorporated with excipients and used in the form of tablets, capsules, elixirs, suspensions, syrups, and the like. Such compositions and preparations should contain at least 0.1% of active compound. The percentage of the compound in these compositions may, of course, be varied and may conveniently be between about 2% to about 60% of the weight of the unit. The amount of active compound in such therapeutically useful compositions is such that a suitable dosage will be obtained. Preferred compositions according to the present invention are prepared so that an oral dosage unit contains between about 1 and 250 mg of active compound. [0046] The tablets, capsules, and the like may also contain a binder such as gum tragacanth, acacia, com starch, or gelatin; excipients such as dicalcium phosphate; a

disintegrating agent such as com starch, potato starch, alginic acid; a lubricant such as magnesium stearate; and a sweetening agent such as sucrose, lactose, or saccharin. When the dosage unit form is a capsule, it may contain, in addition to materials of the above type, a liquid carrier, such as a fatty oil.

[0047] Various other materials may be present as coatings or to modify the physical form of the dosage unit. For instance, tablets may be coated with shellac, sugar, or both. A syrup may contain, in addition to active ingredient, sucrose as a sweetening agent, methyl and

propylparabens as preservatives, a dye, and flavoring such as cherry or orange flavor.

[0048] These modulators may also be administered parenterally. Solutions or suspensions of these modulators can be prepared in water suitably mixed with a surfactant, such as hydroxypropylcellulose. Dispersions can also be prepared in glycerol, liquid polyethylene glycols, and mixtures thereof in oils. Illustrative oils are those of petroleum, animal, vegetable, or synthetic origin, for example, peanut oil, soybean oil, or mineral oil. In general, water, saline, aqueous dextrose and related sugar solution, and glycols such as, propylene glycol or polyethylene glycol, are preferred liquid carriers, particularly for injectable solutions. Under ordinary conditions of storage and use, these preparations contain a preservative to prevent the growth of microorganisms.

[0049] The pharmaceutical forms suitable for injectable use include sterile aqueous solutions or dispersions and sterile powders for the extemporaneous preparation of sterile injectable solutions or dispersions. In all cases, the form must be sterile and must be fluid to the extent that easy syringability exists. It must be stable under the conditions of manufacture and storage and must be preserved against the contaminating action of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi. The carrier can be a solvent or dispersion medium containing, for example, water, ethanol, polyol (e.g., glycerol, propylene glycol, and liquid polyethylene glycol), suitable mixtures thereof, and vegetable oils.

[0050] The modulators of the present invention may also be administered directly to the airways in the form of an aerosol. For use as aerosols, the compounds of the present invention in solution or suspension may be packaged in a pressurized aerosol container together with suitable propellants, for example, hydrocarbon propellants like propane, butane, or isobutane with conventional adjuvants. The materials of the present invention also may be administered in a non-pressurized form such as in a nebulizer or atomizer. [0051] If modulation is to be achieved at the DNA level, this may be done using gene therapy to knock-out or disrupt the target gene. As used herein, a "knock-out" can be a gene knockdown or the gene can be knocked out by a mutation such as, a point mutation, an insertion, a deletion, a frameshift, or a missense mutation by techniques known in the art, including, but not limited to, retroviral gene transfer.

[0052] In one embodiment, the one or more modulators may repress the expression of one or more of the genes described herein via a zinc finger nuclease. Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) are artificial restriction enzymes generated by fusing a zinc finger DNA-binding domain to a DNA-cleavage domain. Zinc finger domains can be engineered to target desired DNA sequences, which enable zinc-finger nucleases to target unique sequence within a complex genome (Umov et al,“Genome Editing with Engineered Zinc Finger Nucleases,” Nat. Rev. Genet. 11 : 636-646 (2010), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). By taking advantage of endogenous DNA repair machinery, these reagents can be used to precisely alter the genomes of higher organisms.

[0053] The one or more modulators may also be a meganuclease and TAL effector nuclease (TALENs, Cellectis Bioresearch) (Joung & Sander,“TALENs: A Widely Applicable Technology for Targeted Genome Editing,” Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 14: 49-55 (2013), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). A TALEN ® is composed of a TALE DNA binding domain for sequence-specific recognition fused to the catalytic domain of an

endonuclease that introduces double strand breaks (DSB). The DNA binding domain of a TALEN ® is capable of targeting with high precision a large recognition site (for instance l7bp). Meganucleases are sequence-specific endonucleases, naturally occurring "DNA scissors", originating from a variety of single-celled organisms such as bacteria, yeast, algae and some plant organelles. Meganucleases have long recognition sites of between 12 and 30 base pairs. The recognition site of natural meganucleases can be modified in order to target native genomic DNA sequences (such as endogenous genes).

[0054] In another embodiment, the one or more modulators is a CRISPR-Cas9 guided nuclease (Wiedenheft et ak,“RNA-Guided Genetic Silencing Systems in Bacteria and Archaea,” Nature 482:331-338 (2012); Zhang et ak,“Multiplex Genome Engineering Using CRISPR/Cas Systems,” Science 339(6121): 819-23 (2013); and Gaj et ak,“ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas- based Methods for Genome Engineering,” Cell 3 l(7):397-405 (2013), which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety). Like the TALENs and ZFNs, CRISPR-Cas9 interference is a genetic technique which allows for sequence-specific control of gene expression in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells by guided nuclease double-stranded DNA cleavage. It is based on the bacterial immune system-derived CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats) pathway.

[0055] Modulation of the one or more genes described herein can also be carried out using antisense oligonucleotides (ASO). Suitable therapeutic ASOs for inhibition of one or more of the genes described herein include, without limitation, antisense RNAs, DNAs, RNA/DNA hybrids ( e.g ., gapmer), and chemical analogues thereof, e.g, morpholinos, peptide nucleic acid oligomer, ASOs comprised of locked nucleic acids. With the exception of RNA oligomers, PNAs, and morpholinos, all other antisense oligomers act in eukaryotic cells through the mechanism of RNase H-mediated target cleavage. PNAs and morpholinos bind complementary DNA and RNA targets with high affinity and specificity, and thus act through a simple steric blockade of the RNA translational machinery, and appear to be completely resistant to nuclease attack.

[0056] An "antisense oligomer" refers to an antisense molecule or anti-gene agent that comprises an oligomer of at least about 10 nucleotides in length. In embodiments an antisense oligomer comprises at least 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, or 50 nucleotides. Antisense approaches involve the design of oligonucleotides (either DNA, RNA, DNA/RNA, or chemically modified derivatives thereof) that are complementary to an RNA encoded by polynucleotide sequences of the genes identified herein. Antisense RNA may be introduced into a cell to inhibit translation or activity of a complementary mRNA by base pairing to it and physically obstructing its translation or its activity. This effect is therefore stoichiometric. Absolute complementarity, although preferred, is not required. A sequence "complementary" to a portion of an RNA, as referred to herein, means a sequence having sufficient complementarity to be able to hybridize with the RNA, forming a stable duplex. In the case of double stranded antisense polynucleotide sequences, a single strand of the duplex DNA may thus be tested, or triplex formation may be assayed. The ability to hybridize will depend on both the degree of complementarity and the length of the antisense polynucleotide sequence. Generally, the longer the hybridizing polynucleotide sequence, the more base mismatches with an RNA it may contain and still form a stable duplex (or triplex, as the case may be). One skilled in the art can ascertain a tolerable degree of mismatch by use of standard procedures to determine the melting point of the hybridized complex.

[0057] In one embodiment, the one or more modulators is an antisense oligonucleotide that specifically binds to and inhibits the functional expression of one or more genes described herein. For example, common modifications to an ASO to increase duplex stability include the incorporation of 5-methyl-dC, 2-amino-dA, locked nucleic acid, and/or peptide nucleic acid bases. Common modifications to enhance nuclease resistance include conversion of the normal phosphodiester linkages to phosphorothioate or phosphorodithioate linkages, or use of propyne analog bases, 2’-//-Methyl or T -O-Methyl oxyethyl RNA bases.

[0058] RNA interference (RNAi) using small interfering RNA (siRNA) is another form of post-transcriptional gene silencing that can be utilized for modulating one or more genes in a subject as described herein.

[0059] Accordingly, in one embodiment, the one or more modulators is an siRNA.

siRNAs are double stranded synthetic RNA molecules approximately 20-25 nucleotides in length with short 2-3 nucleotide 3' overhangs on both ends. The double stranded siRNA molecule represents the sense and anti-sense strand of a portion of the target mRNA molecule. siRNA molecules are typically designed to target a region of the mRNA target approximately 50-100 nucleotides downstream from the start codon. The siRNAs of the invention can comprise partially purified RNA, substantially pure RNA, synthetic RNA, or recombinantly produced RNA, as well as altered RNA that differs from naturally occurring RNA by the addition, deletion, substitution and/or alteration of one or more nucleotides. Such alterations can include addition of non-nucleotide material, such as to the end(s) of the siRNA or to one or more internal nucleotides of the siRNA, including modifications that make the siRNA resistant to nuclease digestion. Upon introduction into a cell, the siRNA complex triggers the endogenous RNAi pathway, resulting in the cleavage and degradation of the target mRNA molecule. Various improvements of siRNA compositions, such as the incorporation of modified nucleosides or motifs into one or both strands of the siRNA molecule to enhance stability, specificity, and efficacy, have been described and are suitable for use in accordance with this aspect of the invention ( see e.g-.,WO2004/0l5l07 to Giese et al; W02003/070918 to McSwiggen et al;

W01998/39352 to Imanishi et al; U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2002/0068708 to Jesper et al; U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2002/0147332 to Kaneko et al; U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2008/0119427 to Bhat et al., which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety).

[0060] In another embodiment, the one or more modulators comprises endoribonuclease- prepared siRNAs (esiRNA), which comprise a mixture of siRNA oligonucleotides formed from the cleavage of long double stranded RNA with an endoribonuclease ( e.g ., RNase III or dicer). Digestion of synthetic long double stranded RNA produces short overlapping fragments of siRNAs with a length of between 18-25 bases that all target the same mRNA sequence. The complex mixture of many different siRNAs all targeting the same mRNA sequence leads to increased silencing efficacy. The use of esiRNA technology to target long non-coding RNA has been described in the art (Theis et al.,“Targeting Human Long Noncoding Transcripts by Endoribonuclease-Prepared siRNAs,” ./. Biomol. Screen 20(8): 1018-1026 (2015), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0061] The one or more modulators may also be a short or small hairpin RNA. Short or small hairpin RNA molecules are similar to siRNA molecules in function, but comprise longer RNA sequences that make a tight hairpin turn. shRNA is cleaved by cellular machinery into siRNA and gene expression is silenced via the cellular RNA interference pathway.

[0062] Nucleic acid aptamers that specifically bind to one or more of the genes described herein are also useful in the methods of the present invention. Nucleic acid aptamers are single- stranded, partially single-stranded, partially double-stranded, or double-stranded nucleotide sequences, advantageously a replicatable nucleotide sequence, capable of specifically

recognizing a selected non-oligonucleotide molecule or group of molecules by a mechanism other than Watson-Crick base pairing or triplex formation. Aptamers include, without limitation, defined sequence segments and sequences comprising nucleotides, ribonucleotides,

deoxyribonucleotides, nucleotide analogs, modified nucleotides, and nucleotides comprising backbone modifications, branchpoints, and non-nucleotide residues, groups, or bridges. Nucleic acid aptamers include partially and fully single-stranded and double-stranded nucleotide molecules and sequences; synthetic RNA, DNA, and chimeric nucleotides; hybrids; duplexes; heteroduplexes; and any ribonucleotide, deoxyribonucleotide, or chimeric counterpart thereof and/or corresponding complementary sequence, promoter, or primer-annealing sequence needed to amplify, transcribe, or replicate all or part of the aptamer molecule or sequence.

[0063] In the embodiments described supra, the one or more modulators may be packaged in a suitable delivery vehicle or carrier for delivery to the subject. Suitable delivery vehicles include, but are not limited to viruses, virus-like particles, bacteria, bacteriophages, biodegradable microspheres, microparticles, nanoparticles, exosomes, liposomes, collagen minipellets, and cochleates. These and other biological gene delivery vehicles are well known to those of skill in the art ( see e.g ., Seow and Wood,“Biological Gene Delivery Vehicles: Beyond Viral Vectors,” Mol. Therapy l7(5):767-777(2009), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0064] In one embodiment, the modulator is packaged into a therapeutic expression vector to facilitate delivery. Suitable expression vectors are well known in the art and include, without limitation, viral vectors such as adenovirus vectors, adeno-associated virus vectors, retrovirus vectors, lentivirus vectors, or herpes virus vectors. The viral vectors or other suitable expression vectors comprise sequences encoding the inhibitory nucleic acid molecule (e.g, siRNA, ASO, etc.) of the invention and any suitable promoter for expressing the inhibitory sequences. Suitable promoters include, for example, and without limitation, the U6 or HI RNA pol PI promoter sequences and the cytomegalovirus promoter. Selection of other suitable promoters is within the skill in the art. The expression vectors may also comprise inducible or regulatable promoters for expression of the inhibitory nucleic acid molecules in a tissue or cell- specific manner.

[0065] Gene therapy vectors carrying the therapeutic inhibitory nucleic acid molecule are administered to a subject by, for example, intravenous injection, local administration (U.S.

Patent No. 5,328,470 to Nabel et al., which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety) or by stereotactic injection (see e.g. , Chen et al.“Gene Therapy for Brain Tumors: Regression of Experimental Gliomas by Adenovirus Mediated Gene Transfer In Vivo,” Proc. Nat’l. Acad. Sci. USA 91 :3054-3057 (1994), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). The pharmaceutical preparation of the therapeutic vector can include the therapeutic vector in an acceptable diluent, or can comprise a slow release matrix in which the therapeutic delivery vehicle is imbedded. Alternatively, where the complete therapeutic delivery vector can be produced intact from recombinant cells, e.g., retroviral vectors, the pharmaceutical preparation can include one or more cells which produce the therapeutic delivery system. Gene therapy vectors typically utilize constitutive regulatory elements which are responsive to endogenous transcriptions factors.

[0066] Another suitable approach for the delivery of the modulators of the present disclosure, involves the use of liposome delivery vehicles or nanoparticle delivery vehicles.

[0067] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition or formulation containing an inhibitory nucleic acid molecule (e.g, siRNA molecule) is encapsulated in a lipid formulation to form a nucleic acid-lipid particle as described in Semple et al.,“Rational Design of Cationic Lipids for siRNA Delivery,” Nature Biotech. 28: 172-176 (2010) and WO2011/034798 to Bumcrot et al., W02009/111658 to Bumcrot et al., and WO2010/105209 to Bumcrot et al., which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. Other cationic lipid carriers suitable for the delivery of ASO include, without limitation, N-[l-(2,3-dioleoyloxy)propyl]- N,N,N- trimethylammonium chloride (DOTMA) and N-[l-(2,3- dioleoyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N- trimethylammonium methyl sulphate (DOTAP) (see Chan et al.,“Antisense Oligonucleotides: From Design to Therapeutic Application,” Clin. Exp. Pharm. Physiol. 33: 533-540 (2006), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0068] In another embodiment of the present invention, the delivery vehicle is a nanoparticle. A variety of nanoparticle delivery vehicles are known in the art and are suitable for delivery of the modulators of the invention ( see e.g, van Vlerken et al.,“Multi-functional Polymeric Nanoparticles for Tumour-Targeted Drug Delivery,” Expert Opin. Drug Deliv.

3(2):205-2l6 (2006), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). Suitable nanoparticles include, without limitation, poly(beta-amino esters) (Sawicki et al.,“Nanoparticle Delivery of Suicide DNA for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Cell Therapy,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 622:209-219 (2008), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety),

polyethyl enimine-alt-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers (Park et al.,“Degradable

Polyethylenimine-alt-Poly(ethylene glycol) Copolymers As Novel Gene Carriers,” J. Control Release l05(3):367-80 (2005) and Park et al.,“Intratumoral Administration of Anti-KITENIN shRNA-Loaded PEI-alt-PEG Nanoparticles Suppressed Colon Carcinoma Established

Subcutaneously in Mice,” J Nanosci. Nanotechnology l0(5):3280-3 (2010), which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety), poly(d,l-lactide-coglycolide) (Chan et al.,“Antisense Oligonucleotides: From Design to Therapeutic Application,” Clin. Exp. Pharm. Physiol. 33 : 533- 540 (2006), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety), and liposome-entrapped siRNA nanoparticles (Kenny et al.,“Novel Multifunctional Nanoparticle Mediates siRNA Tumor Delivery, Visualization and Therapeutic Tumor Reduction In Vivo,” J. Control Release 149(2): 111-116 (2011), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). Other nanoparticle delivery vehicles suitable for use in the present invention include microcapsule nanotube devices disclosed in ET.S. Patent Publication No. 2010/0215724 to Prakash et al., which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0069] In another embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition is contained in a liposome delivery vehicle. The term "liposome" means a vesicle composed of amphiphilic lipids arranged in a spherical bilayer or bilayers. Liposomes are unilamellar or multilamellar vesicles which have a membrane formed from a lipophilic material and an aqueous interior. The aqueous portion contains the composition to be delivered. Cationic liposomes possess the advantage of being able to fuse to the cell wall. Non-cationic liposomes, although not able to fuse as efficiently with the cell wall, are taken up by macrophages in vivo.

[0070] Several advantages of liposomes include: their biocompatibility and

biodegradability, incorporation of a wide range of water and lipid soluble drugs; and they afford protection to encapsulated drugs from metabolism and degradation. Important considerations in the preparation of liposome formulations are the lipid surface charge, vesicle size and the aqueous volume of the liposomes.

[0071] Liposomes are useful for the transfer and delivery of active ingredients to the site of action. Because the liposomal membrane is structurally similar to biological membranes, when liposomes are applied to a tissue, the liposomes start to merge with the cellular membranes and as the merging of the liposome and cell progresses, the liposomal contents are emptied into the cell where the active agent may act.

[0072] Methods for preparing liposomes for use in the present invention include those disclosed in Bangham et al.,“Diffusion of Univalent Ions Across the Lamellae of Swollen Phospholipids,” J. Mol. Biol. 13:238-52 (1965); U.S. Patent No. 5,653,996 to Hsu; U.S. Patent No. 5,643,599 to Lee et al.; U.S. Patent No. 5,885,613 to Holland et al.; U.S. Patent No.

5,631,237 to Dzau et al.; and U.S. Patent No. 5,059,421 to Loughrey et al., which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

[0073] In one aspect, one or more modulators of a glial cell differentiation regulation gene selected from the group consisting of BMP2, LINGOl, MAG, NKX2-2, NR2E1, NTRK3, OLIG2, SERPINE2, SIRT2, and TCF7L2, or a protein encoded therefrom, are administered to the selected subject under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0074] Exemplary modulators for these genes include, without limitation: the synthetic non-peptidyl small molecule, Hh-Ag 1.1, and related molecules Hh-Ag 1.2, Hh-Ag 1.3, Hh-Ag 1.4, and Hh Ag 1.5, which effect the Hedegehog signaling pathway (Frank-Kamenetsky et al., “Small-molecule Modulators of Hedgehog Signaling: Identification and Characterization of Smoothened Agonists and Antagonists,” J. Biol. 1(2): 10 (2002), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety and agonists of the Wnt Signaling pathway including, without limitation, 2-amino-4-(3,4- (m ethyl enedioxy)benzylamino)-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine (2-AMBMP), curcumin, and Simvastatin, as described in Blagodatski et al.,“Targeting the Wnt Pathways for Therapies,” Mol. Cell Ther. 2:28 (2014), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety; Opicinumab; GSK-249320; sodium lauryl sufate; repaglinide; altiratinib;

chembl200742l; PLX-3397; radicicol; thyroxine; entrectinib; LOXO-101; CEP -2563;

lestaurtinib; PLX-7486; AZD-6918; AZD-7451; midostaurin; and combinations thereof.

[0075] In another aspect, one or more modulators of a myelination-associated gene selected from the group consisting of FA2H, GAL3ST1, MAG, MBP, MYRF, NFASC, OLIG2, OMG, PLLP, POU3F2, SIRT2, SLC8A3, TCF7L2, TF, and UGT8, or a protein encoded therefrom, are administered to the selected subject under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0076] Exemplary modulators for these genes include, without limitation: agonists of the

Wnt Signaling pathway including, without limitation, 2-amino-4-(3,4-

(m ethyl enedioxy)benzylamino)-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine (2-AMBMP), curcumin, and Simvastatin, as described in Blagodatski et al.,“Targeting the Wnt Pathways for Therapies,”

Mol. Cell Ther. 2:28 (2014), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety; GSK- 249320; sodium lauryl sulfate; Repaglinide; cyclosporine; interferon beta-lA; prednisone;

quercetin; and rutin; and combinations thereof.

[0077] In yet another aspect, one or more modulators of an oligodendrocyte

differentiation gene selected from the group consisting of FA2H, GLI3, LINGOl, MYRF, NKX2-2, OLIG1, OLIG2, OMG, SIRT2, SLC8A3, SOX10, and TCF7L2, or a protein encoded therefrom, are administered to the selected subject under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0078] Exemplary modulators for these genes include, without limitation: the synthetic non-peptidyl small molecule, Hh-Ag 1.1, and related molecules Hh-Ag 1.2, Hh-Ag 1.3, Hh-Ag 1.4, and Hh Ag 1.5, which effect the Hedegehog signaling pathway (Frank-Kamenetsky et al., “Small-molecule Modulators of Hedgehog Signaling: Identification and Characterization of Smoothened Agonists and Antagonists,” J Biol. 1(2): 10 (2002), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety and agonists of the Wnt Signaling pathway including, without limitation, 2-amino-4-(3,4- (m ethyl enedioxy)benzylamino)-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine (2-AMBMP), curcumin, and Simvastatin, as described in Blagodatski et al.,“Targeting the Wnt Pathways for Therapies,” Mol. Cell Ther. 2:28 (2014), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety; Opicinumab; sodium lauryl sulfate; Repaglinide; Vemurafenib; and combinations thereof.

[0079] In a further aspect, one or more modulators of a gliogenesis regulation gene selected from the group consisting of BMP2, LINGOl, MAG, MYC, NKX2-2, NR2E1, NTRK3, OLIG2, SERPINE2, SIRT2, SOX10, TCF7L2, TF, and ZCCHC24, or a protein encoded therefrom, are administered to the selected subject under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0080] Exemplary modulators for these genes include, without limitation: the synthetic non-peptidyl small molecule, Hh-Ag 1.1, and related molecules Hh-Ag 1.2, Hh-Ag 1.3, Hh-Ag 1.4, and Hh Ag 1.5, which effect the Hedegehog signaling pathway (Frank-Kamenetsky et al., “Small-molecule Modulators of Hedgehog Signaling: Identification and Characterization of Smoothened Agonists and Antagonists,” J. Biol. 1(2): 10 (2002), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety and agonists of the Wnt Signaling pathway including, without limitation, 2-amino-4-(3,4- (m ethyl enedioxy)benzylamino)-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine (2-AMBMP), curcumin, and Simvastatin, as described in Blagodatski et al.,“Targeting the Wnt Pathways for Therapies,” Mol. Cell Ther. 2:28 (2014), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety; Opicinumab; GSK-249320; sodium lauryl sulfate; Vemurafenib; Repaglinide;

Nadroparin calcium; 4’-hydroxytamoxifen; Azacitidine; Thioguanine; Acivin; Adozelesin; Amifostine; Aminopterin; antibiotic; Bizelesin; Bromocriptin; Bryostatin; Calcitriol; Diethyl stilbestrol; Elsamitrucin; Estrone; folic acid; glutamine; Hypoxanthine; Imatinib; Cilmostin; melatonin; methylprednisolone; N— methyl-n-nitrosurea; Novobiocin; Chembl35482; phorbol myri state acetate; prednisone; Quinapril; Vorinostat; Sulindac; thrombin; thyrotropin; sodium beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; troglitazone; verapamil; Chembll000l4; Chembll2l3492; chorionic gonadotropin; perillyl alcohol; AMG-900; Alisertib; Dinaciclib; Roniciclib; Temozolomide; Prexasertib; altiratinib; chembl200742l; PLX-3397; radicicol;

thyroxine; entrectinib; LOXO-lOl; CEP -2563; lestaurtinib; PLX-7486; AZD-6918; AZD-7451; midostaurin; and combinations thereof.

[0081] In another aspect of the present disclosure one or more modulators of a neuron ensheathment gene selected from the group consisting of FA2H, GAL3ST1, MAG, MBP, MYRF, NFASC, OLIG2, OMG, PLLP, POU3F2, SIRT2, SLC8A3, TCF7L2, TF, and UGT8, or a protein encoded therefrom, are administered to the selected subject under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0082] Exemplary modulators for these genes include, without limitation: agonists of the

Wnt Signaling pathway including, without limitation, 2-amino-4-(3,4- (methylenedioxy)benzylamino)-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine (2-AMBMP), curcumin, and Simvastatin, as described in Blagodatski et al.,“Targeting the Wnt Pathways for Therapies,” Mol. Cell Ther. 2:28 (2014), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety; GSK- 249320; cyclosporine; interferon beta-l A; prednisone; quercetin; rutin; sodium lauryl sulfate; Repaglinide; and combinations thereof..

[0083] In another aspect one or more modulators of an axon guidance gene selected from the group consisting of ALCAM, BCL11B, DSCAM, FOXD1, GAS1, GLI3, HOXA1, HOXA2, MNX1, NFASC, PLXNC1, PRKCQ, PTPRO, ROB02, SEMA6B, UNC5A, VAX1, and WNT7B, or a protein encoded therefrom, are administered to the selected subject under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0084] Exemplary modulators for these genes include, without limitation, agonists of the

Wnt Signaling pathway including, without limitation, 2-amino-4-(3,4- (m ethyl enedioxy)benzylamino)-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine (2-AMBMP), curcumin, and Simvastatin, as described in Blagodatski et al.,“Targeting the Wnt Pathways for Therapies,” Mol. Cell Ther. 2:28 (2014), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety);

fluorouracil; CEP -2563; staurosporine; Chembl369507; Dexfosfosferine; Ticlopidine; GSK- 690693; sotrastaurin; (7S)-Hydroxyl-staurosporine; midostaurin; quercetin; bryostatin;

sotrastaurin acetate; ingenol mebutate; carboplatin; paclitaxel; and combinations thereof.

[0085] In a further aspect one or more modulators of a neuron projection guidance gene selected from the group consisting of ALCAM, BCL11B, DSCAM, FOXD1, GAS1, GLI3, HOXA1, HOXA2, MNX1, NFASC, PLXNC1, PRKCQ, PTPRO, ROB02, SEMA6B, UNC5A, VAX1, and WNT7B, or a protein encoded therefrom, are administered to the selected subject under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0086] Exemplary modulators for these genes include, without limitation: agonists of the

Wnt Signaling pathway including, without limitation, 2-amino-4-(3,4- (m ethyl enedioxy)benzylamino)-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine (2-AMBMP), curcumin, and Simvastatin, as described in Blagodatski et al,“Targeting the Wnt Pathways for Therapies,”

Mol. Cell Ther. 2:28 (2014), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety;

fluorouracil; CEP -2563; staurosporine; Chembl369507; dexfosfosferine; Ticlopidine; GSK- 690693; sotrastaurin; (7S)-Hydroxyl-staurosporine; midostaurin; quercetin; bryostatin;

sotrastaurin acetate; ingenol mebutate; carboplatin; paclitaxel; and combinations thereof.

[0087] In another aspect one or more modulators of an axonogenesis gene selected from the group consisting of ADGRB1, ALCAM, BCL11B, CACNA1A, DSCAM, FOXD1, GAS1, GLI3, HOXA1, HOXA2, LINGOl, LRRC4C, MAG, MBP, MNX1, NFASC, NR2E1, NTNG1, NTRK3, OMG, PLXNC1, POU3F2, PRKCQ, PTPRO, ROB02, SEMA6B, SLITRK2,

SLITRK3, SNAP91, UNC5A, VAX1, and WNT7B, or a protein encoded therefrom, are administered to the selected subject under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of

Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0088] Exemplary modulators for these genes include, without limitation: agonists of the

Wnt Signaling pathway including, without limitation, 2-amino-4-(3,4- (m ethyl enedioxy)benzylamino)-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine (2-AMBMP), curcumin, and Simvastatin, as described in Blagodatski et al,“Targeting the Wnt Pathways for Therapies,”

Mol. Cell Ther. 2:28 (2014), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety;

Opicinumab; GSK-249320; cyclosporine; interferon beta- 1 A; prednisone; quercetin; rutin;

fluorouracil; CEP -2563; staurosporine; Chembl369507; Dexfosfosferine; ticlopidine; GSK- 690693; sotrastaurin; (7S)-Hydroxyl-staurosporine; midostaurin; bryostatin; sotrastaurin acetate; ingenol mebutate; carboplatin; paclitaxel; pregabalin; verapamil; bepridil; celecoxib; nisoldipine; gabapentin; gabapentin enacarbil; elpetrigine; atagabalin; bepridil hydrochloride; imagabalin; altiratinib; chembl200742l; PLX-3397; radicicola; thyroxine; entrectinib; Loxo-lOl; CEP -2563; lestaurtinib; PLX-7486; AZD-6918; AZD-7451; and combinations thereof. [0089] In another aspect one or more modulators of an axon development gene selected from the group consisting of ADGRB1, ALCAM, BCL11B, CACNA1A, DSCAM, FOXD1, GAS1, GLI3, HOXA1, HOXA2, LINGOl, LRRC4C, MAG, MBP, MNX1, NEFM, NFASC, NR2E1, NTNG1, NTRK3, OMG, PLXNC1, POU3F2, PRKCQ, PTPRO, ROB02, RTN4RL2, SEMA6B, SLITRK2, SLITRK3, SNAP91, UNC5A, VAX1, and WNT7B, or a protein encoded therefrom, are administered to the selected subject under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0090] Exemplary modulators for these genes include, without limitation: agonists of the

Wnt Signaling pathway including, without limitation, 2-amino-4-(3,4- (m ethyl enedioxy)benzylamino)-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine (2-AMBMP), curcumin, and Simvastatin, as described in Blagodatski et al.,“Targeting the Wnt Pathways for Therapies,” Mol. Cell Ther. 2:28 (2014), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety;

Opicinumab; dexfosfoserine; fluorouracil; CEP-2563; staurosporine; Chembl369507; GSK- 249320 ; Ticlopidine; GSK-690693; sotrastaurin; (7S)-Hydroxyl-staurosporine; midostaurin; quercetin; bryostatin; sotrastaurin acetate; and ingenol mebutate; carboplatin; paclitaxel;

pregabalin; verapamil; bepridil; celecoxib; nisoldipine; gabapentin; gabapentin enacarbil;

elpetrigine; atagabalin; bepridil hydrochloride; imagabalin; altiratinib; chembl200742l; PLX- 3397; radicicola; thyroxine; entrectinib; Loxo-lOl; CEP -2563; lestaurtinib; PLX-7486; AZD- 6918; AZD-7451; cyclosporine; interferon beta-lA; prednisone; rutin; and combinations thereof.

[0091] In a further aspect of the present disclosure one or more modulators of a cell projection morphogenesis gene selected from the group consisting of ADGRB1, ALCAM, BCL11B, CACNA1A, CAMK2A, DSCAM, EHD3, FOXD1, GAS1, GLI3, HOXA1, HOXA2, KANK1, LINGOl, LRRC4C, MAG, MBP, MNX1, NEDD4L, NEURL1, NFASC, NR2E1, NTNG1, NTRK3, OMG, PCDH15, PLXNC1, POU3F2, PRKCQ, PTPRO, ROB02, SEMA6B, SGK1, SLITRK2, SLITRK3, SNAP91, SNX10, UGT8, UNC5A, VAX1, and WNT7B, or protein encoded therefrom, are administered to the selected subject under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0092] Exemplary modulators for these genes include, without limitation: agonists of the

Wnt Signaling pathway including, without limitation, 2-amino-4-(3,4- (m ethyl enedioxy)benzylamino)-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine (2-AMBMP), curcumin, and Simvastatin, as described in Blagodatski et al.,“Targeting the Wnt Pathways for Therapies,” Mol. Cell Ther. 2:28 (2014), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety;

Opicinumab; GSK-249320; cyclosporine; interferon beta-lA; prednisone; quercetin; rutin;

dexfosfoserine; fluorouracil; CEP-2563; staurosporine; Chembl369507; ticlopidine; GSK- 690693; sotrastaurin; (7S)-Hydroxyl-staurosporine; midostaurin; bryostatin; sotrastaurin acetate; and ingenol mebutate; carboplatin; paclitaxel; pregabalin; verapamil; bepridil; celecoxib;

nisoldipine; gabapentin; gabapentin enacarbil; elpetrigine; atagabalin; bepridil hydrochloride; imagabalin; altiratinib; Chembl200742l; PLX-3397; radicicola; thyroxine; entrectinib; Loxo- 101; CEP-2563; lestaurtinib; PLX-7486; AZD-6918; AZD-7451; hydrochlorothiazide;

chembl549906; chembl550795; sodium chloride; GSK-650394; and combinations thereof.

[0093] In another aspect of the present disclosure one or more modulators of a synapse structure or activity regulation gene selected from the group consisting of ADGRB1, ADGRL3, BCAN, CALB1, CAMK2A, FGF14, LRRTIM1, NCDN, NETOl, NEURL1, NR2E1, NTRK3, PPFIA3, ROB02, SERPINE2, SHISA7, SIX4, SLC8A3, SLITRK2, SLITRK3, and SYNDIG1, or protein encoded therefrom, are administered to the selected subject under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0094] Exemplary modulators for these genes include, without limitation: dexfosfoserine; altiratinib; chembl200742l; PLX-3397; radicicola; thyroxine; entrectinib; Loxo-lOl; CEP -2563; lestaurtinib; PLX-7486; AZD-6918; AZD-7451; midostaurin; and combinations thereof.

[0095] In a further aspect one or more modulators of a synaptic signaling pathway gene selected from the group consisting of BCAN, CACNA1A, CACNA1G, CALB1, CAMK2A, CHRNA4, FGF12, FGF14, GRIA2, GRIA4, GRID2, GRIK4, KCND2, LRRTM1, MBP, MPZ, NCDN, NETOl, NEURL1, NOVA1, NR2E1, P2RX7, PDE7B, PLCL1, PPFIA3, RAPGEF4, RGS8, RIT2, S1PR2, SERPINE2, SHISA7, SLC18A1, SLC1A1, SLC1A2, SLC8A3, SNAP91, SNPH, and SYT6, or protein encoded therefrom, are administered to the selected subject under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0096] Exemplary modulators for these genes include, without limitation: pregabalin; verapamil; bepridil; celecoxib; nisoldipine; gabapentin; gabapentin enacarbil; elpetrigine;

atagabalin; bepridil hydrochloride; imagabalin; cyclosporine; interferon beta-l A; prednisone; quercetin; rutin; nicotine polacrilex; talbutal; butabarbital; butalbital; secobarbital; metharbital; thiopental; primidone; mephobarbital; phenobarbital; varenicline; amobarbital; aprobarbital; butethal; heptabarbital; hexobarbital; barbital; pozanicline; cytisine; rivanicline; epibatidine; chembl 1876219; chembl3103988; atracurium; chembl490l53; hexamethonium; chembl4072l7; TC-2216; ABT-560; ispronicline; sofmicline; TC-6499; AZD1446; CP-601927;

dexmecamylamine; nicotine; varenicline tartrate; benztropine mesylate; pentolinium; azd0328; bradanicline; pentobarbital; chembll20H35; dexefaroxan; mecamylamine (chembl267936); dianicline; altinicline; trimethaphan; oleic acid; tebanicline tosylate; mibampator; butethal; (r,s)- ampa; chembll23 l32; aniracetam; chembll36800; chembl 1255648; cyclothiazide; chembl77862; chembl334920; chembll097939; piracetam; chembl320642; chembl26530l; gyki- 52466; nbqx; chembl2224l8; tezampanel; (s)-ampa; chembl594840; chembll2l9l5; quisqualate; chembl337577; chembl27l30; dnqx; chembl333964; (s)-willardiine; chembl28472; talampanel; perampanel; irampanel; CX1739; dasolampanel; becampanel; farampator; mk-8777;

zonampanel; pentobarbital; pf-04958242; Selurampanel; dalfampridine; guanidine

hydrochloride; tedisamil; nerispirdine; evt40l; adenosine triphosphate; chembl335550;

chelerythrine; acebutolol; moclobemide; ivermectin; chemb3772l9; chembl255787;

methylclothiazide; chembl550637; sodium orthovanadate; chembl2338352; benzonatate;

GSK1482160; AZD9056, CE224535; dyphylline; chembl484928; dipyridamole; flavoxate hydrochloride; pentoxifylline; quinacrine; chembl2313646; chembl570352; ozanimod;

chembl225l55; chembll368758; fmgolimod hydrochloride; amiselimod hydrochloride;

reserpine; norepinephrine; chembl 126506; methamphetamine; ketanserin; tetrabenazine; L- glutamate; dihydrokainate; 2s, 4r-4-m ethyl glutamate; o-benzyl4-serine; chembl 1628669; and mesalamine; tezampanel; domoic acid; dysiherbaine; kainic acid; mesalamine; topiramate;

aspartic acid; clozapine; alcohol; haloperidol; wortmannin; olanzapine; phorbol myristate acetate; risperidone; lidocaine; pregabalin; gabapentin enacarbil; mibefradil dihydrochloride; trimethadione; cinnarizine; ethosuximide; zonisamide; anandamide; mibefradil; chembl 1684954; flunarizine; methsuximide; bepridil hydrochloride; gabapentin; phensuximide; paramethadione; atagabalin; celecoxib; imagabalin; and combinations thereof.

[0097] In another aspect one or more modulators of a synapse gene selected from the group consisting of ADGRB1, BCAN, BCAS1, CACNA1A, CALB1, CAMK2A, CHRNA4, CTTNBP2, DSCAM, GRIA2, GRID1, GRID2, GRIK4, HCN2, KCND2, LGI3, LRRC4C, LRRTM1, NETOl, NEURL1, NTM, P2RX7, PCDH15, PDE4B, PPFIA3, PRIMA1, PRKCQ, PTPRO, RAPGEF4, SERPINE2, SHISA7, SLC17A8, SLC18A1, SLC1A1, SLC1A2, SLC8A3, SNAP91, SNPH, SYNDIG1, and SYT6, or protein encoded therefrom, are administered to the selected subject under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0098] Exemplary modulators for these genes include, without limitation: dexfosfoserine; pregabalin; verapamil; bepridil; celecoxib; nisoldipine; gabapentin; gabapentin enacarbil;

elpetrigine; atagabalin; bepridil hydrochloride; imagabalin; mibampator; butethal; butabarbital; butalbital; talbutal; secobarbital; metharbital; thiopental; primidone; mephobarbital;

phenobarbital; (r,s)-ampa; chembll23 l32; aniracetam; chembll36800; chembl 1255648;

cyclothiazide; chembl77862; chembl334920; chembll097939; piracetam; chembl320642;

chembl26530l; gyki-52466; nbqx; chembl2224l8; tezampanel; amobarbital; aprobarbital; heptabarbital; hexobarbital; barbital; (s)-ampa; chembl594840; chembll2l9l5; quisqualate; chembl337577; chembl27l30; dnqx; chembl333964; (s)-willardiine; chembl28472; talampanel; perampanel; irampanel; cxl739; dasolampanel; becampanel; farampator; mk-8777; zonampanel; topiramate; pentobarbital; pf-04958242; selurampanel; nicotine polacrilex; varenicline; barbital; pozanicline; cytisine; rivanicline; epibatidine; chembl 1876219; chembl3103988; atracurium; chembl490l53; hexamethonium; chembl4072l7; TC-2216; ABT-560; ispronicline; sofmicline; TC-6499; AZD1446; cp-60l927; dexmecamylamine; nicotine; varenicline tartrate; benztropine mesylate; pentolinium; AZD0328; bradanicline; pentobarbital; chembll20l 135; dexefaroxan; mecamylamine (chembl267936); dianicline; altinicline; trimethaphan; oleic acid; tebanicline tosylate; nicotine polacrilex; carboplatin; paclitaxel; L-glutamate; dalfampridine; guanidine hydrochloride; tedisamil; nerispirdine; EVT401; adenosine triphosphate; chembl335550;

chelerythrine; acebutolol; moclobemide; ivermectin; chemb3772l9; chembl255787;

methylclothiazide; chembl550637; sodium orthovanadate; chembl2338352; benzonatate;

GSK1482160; AZD9056, CE224535; reserpine; norepinephrine; chembll26506;

methamphetamine; ketanserin; tetrabenazine; L-glutamate; dihydrokainate; 2S,4R-4- methylglutamate; O-benzyl -L-serine; chembl 1628669; mesalamine; tezampanel; domoic acid; dysiherbaine; kainic acid; mesalamine; topiramate; CEP -2563; staurosporine; Chembl369507; Ticlopidine; GSK-690693; sotrastaurin; (7S)-Hydroxyl-staurosporine; midostaurin; quercetin; bryostatin; sotrastaurin acetate; ingenol mebutate; adenosine phosphate; theophylline;

dyphylline; pentoxifylline; enprofylline; iloprost; papaverine; theobromine; inamrinone; [r]- mesopram; roflumilast; piclamilast; rolipram; filaminast; chembl 1230617; chembl5l9827;

cilomilast; (-)-rolipram; crisaborole; ibudilast; apremilast; chembl52l203; chembl74078;

propoxyphene; cdp840; sodium phenylbutyrate; chembl 1232082; dipyridamole; theophylline sodium glycinate; flavoxate hydrochloride; aminophylline; resveratrol; caffeine; oxtriphylline; amlexanox; etazolate; cilobradine; zatebradine; chembl20520l9; chembl395336; cyclic adenosine monophosphate; aspartic acid; clozapine; alcohol; haloperidol; wortmannin;

olanzapine; phorbol myristate acetate; risperidone; lidocaine; and combinations thereof.

[0099] In yet another aspect one or more modulators of a monovalent inorganic cation transport gene selected from the group consisting of ABCC9, ASIC4, CACNA1 A, CHRNA4, CNGB1, CNTN1, DPP10, DPP6, FGF12, FGF14, HCN2, KCND2, KCNJ9, KCNQ1, KCNS3, NALCN, NEDD4L, NKAIN4, P2RX7, PTGER3, SERPINE2, SGK1, SLC10A4, SLC17A8, SLC18A1, SLC22A3, SLC2A13, SLC5A9, SLC8A3, and SLC9A7, or protein encoded therefrom, are administered to the selected subject under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject. [0100] Exemplary modulators for these genes include, without limitation: naminidil; adenosine triphosphate; glyburide; sarakalim; pinacidil hydrate; minoxidil; pregabalin;

verapamil; bepridil; celecoxib; nisoldipine; gabapentin; gabapentin enacarbil; elpetrigine;

atagabalin; bepridil hydrochloride; imagabalin; chembl549906; chembl550795; sodium chloride; GSK-650394; dalfampridine; guanidine hydrochloride; tedisamil; nerispirdine; evt40l;

adenosine triphosphate; chembl335550; chelerythrine; acebutolol; moclobemide; ivermectin; chemb3772l9; chembl255787; methylclothiazide; chembl550637; sodium orthovanadate;

chembl2338352; benzonatate; GSK1482160; AZD9056, CE224535; hydrochlorothiazide;

chembl 1229875; nicotine polacrilex; talbutal; butabarbital; butalbital; secobarbital; metharbital; thiopental; primidone; mephobarbital; phenobarbital; varenicline; amobarbital; aprobarbital; butethal; heptabarbital; hexobarbital; barbital; pozanicline; cytisine; rivanicline; epibatidine; chembl 1876219; chembl3103988; atracurium; chembl490l53; hexamethonium; chembl4072l7; tc-22l6; abt-560; isproni cline; sofini cline; tc-6499; cilobradine; zatebradine; chembl20520l9; chembl395336; cyclic adenosine monophosphate; chembl9995l; flupirtine; indapamide;

bepridil; azimilide; chembl2070953; mefenamic acid; chembl 1907717; niflumic acid;

chembl298475; chembl342375; chembl332826; dolasetron; celecoxib; nerispirdine; ezogabine; indomethacin; tacrolimus; guanidine hydrochloride; tedisamil; dalfampridine; pyrimethamine; cobalt (ii) ionl verapamil pyrimethaminel cobalt (ii) ion; dihydrokainate; bimatoprost;

dinoprostone; misoprostol; beraprost; chembl 1628262; carbacyclin; cicaprost; cloprostenol (chembl2220404); enprostil; fluprostenol; iloprost; dinoprost; sulprostone; treprostinil;

chembl357834; chembl 1317823; chembl56559l; chembl358653; sarcnu; and combinations thereof.

[0101] In a further aspect of the present disclosure one or more modulators of a neuron projection gene selected from the group consisting of ADGRL3, ALCAM, BCAN, BCL11B, CACNA1A, CACNA1G, CALB1, CAMK2A, CHRNA4, CTTNBP2, DSCAM, GRIA2, GRIA4, GRID2, GRIK4, HCN2, KCND2, LGI3, LRRTM1, MAG, MBP, MYC, NCAM2, NCDN, NEFM, NEURL1, NFASC, NTM, PDE4B, PIK3R1, PTGER3, PTPRO, RAPGEF4, RGS8, ROB02, SGK1, SIRT2, SLC17A8, SLC1A2, SLC8A3, SNAP91, SNPH, SYNDIG1, and EINC5A, or protein encoded therefrom, are administered to the selected subject under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0102] Exemplary modulators for these genes include, without limitation: adenosine phosphate; theophylline; dyphylline; pentoxifylline; enprofylline; iloprost; papaverine;

theobromine; inamrinone; [r]-mesopram; roflumilast; piclamilast; rolipram; filaminast;

chembl 1230617; chembl5l9827; cilomilast; (-)-rolipram; crisaborole; ibudilast; apremilast; chembl52l203; chembl74078; propoxyphene; cdp840; sodium phenylbutyrate; chembl 1232082; dipyridamole; theophylline sodium glycinate; flavoxate hydrochloride; aminophylline;

resveratrol; caffeine; oxtriphylline; amlexanox; etazolate; pregabalin; verapamil; bepridil;

celecoxib; nisoldipine; gabapentin; gabapentin enacarbil; elpetrigine; atagabalin; bepridil hydrochloride; imagabalin; carboplatin; paclitaxel; chembl549906; chembl550795; sodium chloride; GSK-650394; dalfampridine; guanidine hydrochloride; tedisamil; nerispirdine; L- glutamate; dihydrokainate; 2S,4R-4-methylglutamate; O-benzyl -L-serine; chembl 1628669; mesalamine; fluorouracil; pregabalin; gabapentin enacarbil; mibefradil dihydrochloride;

trimethadione; cinnarizine; ethosuximide; zonisamide; anandamide; mibefradil; chembl 1684954; flunarizine; methsuximide; bepridil hydrochloride; gabapentin; phensuximide; paramethadione; atagabalin; celecoxib; and imagabalin; nicotine polacrilex; talbutal; butabarbital; butalbital; secobarbital; metharbital; thiopental; primidone; mephobarbital; phenobarbital; varenicline; amobarbital; aprobarbital; butethal; heptabarbital; hexobarbital; barbital; pozanicline; cytisine; rivanicline; epibatidine; chembl 1876219; chembl3103988; atracurium; chembl490l53;

hexamethonium; chembl4072l7; tc-22l6; abt-560; ispronicline; sofmicline; tc-6499;

mibampator; (r,s)-ampa; chembll23 l32; aniracetam; chembll36800; chembl 1255648;

cyclothiazide; chembl77862; chembl334920; chembll097939; piracetam; chembl320642;

chembl26530l; gyki-52466; nbqx; chembl2224l8; tezampanel; (s)-ampa; chembl594840;

chembll2l9l5; quisqualate; chembl337577; chembl27l30; dnqx; chembl333964; (s)- willardiine; chembl28472; talampanel; perampanel; irampanel; cxl739; dasolampanel;

becampanel; farampator; mk-8777; zonampanel; topiramate; pentobarbital; pf-04958242;

selurampanel; cyclothiazide; chembl334920; chembll097939; joro spider toxin; domoic acid; dysherbaine; kainic acid; mesalamine; 2S,4R-4-methylglutamate; chembl2313646; cyclosporine; interferon beta-lA; prednisone; quercetin; rutin; GSK-249320; cilobradine; zatebradine;

chembl20520l9; chembl395336; cyclic adenosine monophosphate; sodium lauryl sulfate;

bimatoprost; dinoprostone; misoprostol; beraprost; chembl 1628262; carbacyclin; cicaprost; cloprostenol (chembl2220404); enprostil; fluprostenol; iloprost; dinoprost; sulprostone;

treprostinil; chembl357834; chembl 1317823; chembl56559l; chembl358653; Nadroparin calcium; 4’-hydroxytamoxifen; Azacitidine; Thioguanine; Acivin; Adozelesin; Amifostine; Aminopterin; antibiotic; Bizelesin; Bromocriptin; Bryostatin; Calcitriol; Diethyl stilbestrol; Elsamitrucin; Estrone; folic acid; glutamine; Hypoxanthine; Imatinib; Cilmostin; melatonin; methylprednisolone; N— methyl-n-nitrosurea; Novobiocin; Chembl35482; phorbol myristate acetate; prednisone; Quinapril; Vorinostat; Sulindac; thrombin; thyrotropin; sodium beta- nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; troglitazone; verapamil; Chembll000l4; Chembll2l3492; chorionic gonadotropin; perillyl alcohol; AMG-900; Alisertib; Dinaciclib; Roniciclib; Temozolomide; Prexasertib; PF-04691502; Puquitinib; PA-799; isoprenaline; sf- 1126; wortmannin; gsk-263677l; ds-7423; omipalisib; recilisib; pwt-33587; rg-7666; vs-5584; copanlisib; gedatolisib; sonolisib; apitolisib; taselisib; pilaralisib (chembl3360203); voxtalisib; zstk-474; alpelisib; pi-l03; pilaralisib (chembl32l8575); wx-037; dactolisib; bgt-226

(chembl3545096); pictilisib; buparlisib; panulisib; gsk-l0596l5; azd-6482; buparlisib

hydrochloride; LY-3023414; and combinations thereof.

[0103] In another aspect one or more modulators of a TCF7L2 target gene selected from the group consisting of BMP4, CCND1, CCND2, DOCK10, DOCK9, DUSP15, ENPP4, EPAS1, EPHB1, ERBB3, EVI2A, EVI2B, FA2H, GJB1, HAPLN2, HSPA2, ID3, LGI3, MBP, MOG, MYC, MYRF, NFASC, NKAIN1, NKX6-2, OLIG2, PLEKHB1, PLP1, PPP1R16B, RAB33A, RASGEF1B, RTKN, SIRT2, SLC1A2, SOX10, ST18, TMEM125, TMEM2, TPPP, TSPAN15, EiGT8, and AATK, or protein encoded therefrom, are administered to the selected subject under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0104] Exemplary modulators for these genes include, without limitation: agonists of the

Wnt Signaling pathway including, without limitation, 2-amino-4-(3,4- (m ethyl enedioxy)benzylamino)-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine (2-AMBMP), curcumin, and Simvastatin, as described in Blagodatski et ak,“Targeting the Wnt Pathways for Therapies,”

Mol. Cell Ther. 2:28 (2014), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety; arsenic trioxide; acetaminophen; vitamin e; cytarabine; gossypol; roniciclib; ribociclib; palbociclib; methotrexate; mycophenolic acid; nifedipine; tamoxifen; troglitazone; uracil; abemaciclib;

briciclib; abemaciclib; decitabine; palbociclib.; pyroxamide; cyclosporine; interferon beta- la; prednisone; quercetin; rutin; vemurafenib; nadroparin calcium; 4'-hydroxytamoxifen; azacitidine; thioguanine; acivicin; adozelesin; amifostine; aminopterin; antibiotic; bizelesin; bromocriptine; bryostatin; calcitriol; diethylstilbestrol; elsamitrucin; estrone; folic acid; glutamine;

hypoxanthine; imatinib; indomethacin; lithium; cilmostim; melatonin; methylprednisolone; n- methyl-n-nitrosurea; novobiocin; chembl35482; phorbol myristate acetate; prednisone; quinapril; vorinostat; sulindac; thrombin; thyrotropin; sodium beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; troglitazone; verapamil; chembll000l4; chembll2l3492; gonadotropin, chorionic; perillyl alcohol; amg-900; alisertib; dinaciclib; temozolomide; prexasertib; sodium lauryl sulfate; l-glutamate; dihydrokainate; 2s, 4r-4-m ethyl glutamate; o-benzyl-l-serine; chembl 1628669;

mesalamine; pyroxamide; and combinations thereof.

[0105] In a final aspect of the present disclosure one or more modulators of a gene involved in the NKX2.2 OLIG2 SOX10 MYRF regulatory cascade or protein encoded therefrom, are administered to the selected subject under conditions effective to treat or inhibit onset of Huntington’s disease in the subject.

[0106] Exemplary modulators of genes in this pathway include, without limitation, vemurafenib.

[0107] Exemplary modulators and their corresponding gene targets of the present invention are shown in Table 4 below.

Table 4.

All of the references listed in Table 4 are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

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[0108] In one embodiment, the methods described herein further include administering to the selected subject a preparation of human glial progenitor cells.

[0109] The human glial progenitor cells may be derived from any suitable source of glial cells, such as, for example and without limitation, human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), embryonic stem cells, fetal tissue, and/or astrocytes as described in more detail below.

[0110] iPSCs are pluripotent cells that are derived from non-pluripotent cells, such as somatic cells. For example, and without limitation, iPSCs can be derived from tissue, peripheral blood, umbilical cord blood, and bone marrow ( see e.g., Cai et al.,“Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Umbilical Cord Matrix and Amniotic Membrane

Mesenchymal Cells,” J. Biol Chem. 285(15): 112227-11234 (2110); Giorgetti et al.,“Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Human Cord Blood Cells with only Two Factors: Oct4 and Sox2,” Nat. Protocol. 5(4):8l 1-820 (2010); Streckfuss-Bomeke et al.,“Comparative Study of Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from Bone Marrow Cells, Hair

Keratinocytes, and Skin Fibroblasts,” Eur. Heart J. doi:l0. l093/eurheartj/ehs203 (July 12,

2012); Hu et al.,“Efficient Generation of Transgene-Free Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Normal and Neoplastic Bone Marrow and Cord Blood Mononuclear Cells,” Blood doi:l0. H82/blood-20l0-07-29833 l (Feb. 4, 2011); Sommer et al.,“Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Peripheral Blood using the STEMCCA Lentiviral Vector,” J Vis. Exp. 68:e4327 doi: 10.3791/4327 (2012), which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety). The somatic cells are reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell-like state using genetic manipulation. Exemplary somatic cells suitable for the formation of iPSCs include fibroblasts ( see e.g., Streckfuss-Bomeke et al,“Comparative Study of Human-Induced

Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from Bone Marrow Cells, Hair Keratinocytes, and Skin

Fibroblasts,” Eur. Heart J. doi: l0.l093/eurheartj/ehs203 (2012), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety), such as dermal fibroblasts obtained by a skin sample or biopsy, synoviocytes from synovial tissue, keratinocytes, mature B cells, mature T cells, pancreatic b cells, melanocytes, hepatocytes, foreskin cells, cheek cells, or lung fibroblasts.

[0111] Methods of producing induced pluripotent stem cells are known in the art and typically involve expressing a combination of reprogramming factors in a somatic cell. Suitable reprogramming factors that promote and induce iPSC generation include one or more of Oct4, Klf4, Sox2, c-Myc, Nanog, C/EBRa, Esrrb, Lin28, and Nr5a2. In certain embodiments, at least two reprogramming factors are expressed in a somatic cell to successfully reprogram the somatic cell. In other embodiments, at least three reprogramming factors are expressed in a somatic cell to successfully reprogram the somatic cell.

[0112] iPSCs may be derived by methods known in the art, including the use integrating viral vectors (e.g., lentiviral vectors, inducible lentiviral vectors, and retroviral vectors), excisable vectors (e.g., transposon and floxed lentiviral vectors), and non-integrating vectors (e.g., adenoviral and plasmid vectors) to deliver the genes that promote cell reprogramming (see e.g., Takahashi and Yamanaka, Cell 126:663-676 (2006); Okita. et ak, Nature 448:313-317 (2007); Nakagawa et ak, Nat. Biotechnol. 26: 101-106 (2007); Takahashi et ak, Cell 131 : 1-12 (2007); Meissner et ak Nat. Biotech. 25: 1177-1181 (2007); Yu et ak Science 318: 1917-1920 (2007); Park et ak Nature 451 : 141-146 (2008); and ET.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2008/0233610, which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety). Other methods for generating IPS cells include those disclosed in W02007/069666, W02009/006930,

W02009/006997, W02009/007852, W02008/118820, U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2011/0200568 to Ikeda et ak, ET.S. Patent Application Publication No 2010/0156778 to Egusa et ak, U.S. Patent Application Publication No 2012/0276070 to Musick, and U.S. Patent

Application Publication No 2012/0276636 to Nakagawa, Shi et ak, Cell Stem Cell 3(5):568-574 (2008), Kim et ak, Nature 454:646-650 (2008), Kim et ak, Cell 136(3):411-419 (2009), Huangfu et ak, Nat. Biotechnol. 26: 1269-1275 (2008), Zhao et ak, Cell Stem Cell 3:475-479 (2008), Feng et al., Nat. Cell Biol. 11 : 197-203 (2009), and Hanna et al., Cell l33(2):250-264 (2008) which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

[0113] The methods of iPSC generation described above can be modified to include small molecules that enhance reprogramming efficiency or even substitute for a reprogramming factor. These small molecules include, without limitation, epigenetic modulators such as, the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5’-azacytidine, the histone deacetylase inhibitor VP A, and the G9a histone methyltransferase inhibitor BIX-01294 together with BayK8644, an L-type calcium channel agonist. Other small molecule reprogramming factors include those that target signal transduction pathways, such as TGF-b inhibitors and kinase inhibitors (e.g., kenpaullone) (see review by Sommer and Mostoslavsky,“Experimental Approaches for the Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells,” Stem Cell Res. Ther. 1 :26 doi: lO.H86/scrt26 (August 10, 2010), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0114] Methods of obtaining highly enriched preparations of glial progenitor cells from the iPSCs that are suitable for the methods described herein are disclosed in WO2014/124087 to Goldman and Wang, and Wang et al.,“Human iPSC-Derived Oligodendrocyte Progenitors Can Myelinate and Rescue a Mouse Model of Congenital Hypomyelination,” Cell Stem Cell l2(2):252-264 (2013), which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

[0115] In another embodiment the human glial progenitor cells are derived from embryonic stem cells. Human embryonic stem cells provide a virtually unlimited source of clonal/genetically modified cells potentially useful for tissue replacement therapies. Methods of obtaining highly enriched preparations of glial progenitor cells from embryonic cells that are suitable for use in the methods of the present disclosure are described in Wang et al.,“Human iPSC-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells can myelinate and rescue a mouse model of congenital hypomyelination,” Cell Stem Cell 12:252-264 (2013), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0116] In another embodiment, the human glial progenitor cells are derived from human fetal tissue. Glial progenitor cells can be extracted from fetal brain tissue containing a mixed population of cells directly by using the promoter specific separation technique as described in U.S. Patent Application Publication Nos. 20040029269 and 20030223972 to Goldman, which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. This method involves selecting a promoter which functions specifically in glial progenitor cells, and introducing a nucleic acid encoding a marker protein under the control of said promoter into the mixed population cells. The mixed population of cells is allowed to express the marker protein and the cells expressing the marker protein are separated from the population of cells, with the separated cells being the glial progenitor cells. Human glial progenitor cells can be isolated from ventricular or subventricular zones of the brain or from the subcortical white matter.

[0117] Glial specific promoters that can be used for isolating glial progenitor cells from a mixed population of cells include the CNP promoter (Scherer et al., Neuron 12: 1363-75 (1994), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety), an NCAM promoter (Holst et al., ./. Biol. Chem. 269:22245-52 (1994), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety), a myelin basic protein promoter (Wrabetz et al., J. Neurosci. Res. 36:455-71 (1993), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety), a JC virus minimal core promoter (Krebs et al., J. Virol. 69:2434-42 (1995), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety), a myelin- associated glycoprotein promoter (Laszkiewicz et al.,“Structural Characterization of Myelin- associated Glycoprotein Gene Core Promoter,” J. Neurosci. Res. 50(6): 928-36 (1997), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety), or a proteolipid protein promoter (Cook et al., “Regulation of Rodent Myelin Proteolipid Protein Gene Expression,” Neurosci. Lett. 137(1): 56- 60 (1992); Wight et al.,“Regulation of Murine Myelin Proteolipid Protein Gene Expression,” J. Neurosci. Res. 50(6): 917-27 (1997); and Cambi et al., Neurochem. Res. 19: 1055-60 (1994), which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety). See also ET.S. Patent No. 6,245,564 to Goldman et. al., which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0118] The glial progenitor cell population derived from fetal tissue can be enriched for by first removing neurons or neural progenitor cells from the mixed cell population. Where neuronal progenitor cells are to be separated from the mixed population of cells, they can be removed based on their surface expression of NCAM, PSA-NCAM, or any other surface moiety specific to neurons or neural progenitor cells. Neurons or neural progenitor cells may also be separated from a mixed population of cells using the promoter based separation technique.

Neuron or neural progenitor specific promoters that can be used for separating neural cells from a mixed population of cells include the Tal tubulin promoter (Gloster et al., J. Neurosci.

14:7319-30 (1994), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety), a Hu promoter (Park et al.,“Analysis of ETpstream Elements in the HuC Promoter Leads to the Establishment of Transgenic Zebrafish with Fluorescent Neurons,” Dev. Biol. 227(2): 279-93 (2000), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety), an ELAV promoter (Yao et al.,“Neural Specificity of ELAV Expression: Defining a Drosophila Promoter for Directing Expression to the Nervous System,” J. Neurochem. 63(1): 41-51 (1994), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety), a MAP-lB promoter (Liu et al., Gene 171 :307-08 (1996), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety), or a GAP -43 promoter. Techniques for introducing the nucleic acid molecules of the construct into the plurality of cells and then sorting the cells are described in U.S. Patent No. 6,245,564 to Goldman et al., and U.S. Patent

Application Publication No. 20040029269 to Goldman et al., which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

[0119] As an alternative to using promoter-based cell sorting to recover glial progenitor cells from a mixed population of cells, an immunoseparation procedure can be utilized. In a positive immunoseparation technique, the desired cells (i.e. glial progenitor cells) are isolated based on proteinaceous surface markers naturally present on the progenitor cells. For example, the surface marker A2B5 is an initially expressed early marker of glial progenitor cells (Nunes et al.,“Identification and Isolation of Multipotential Neural Progenitor Cells from the Adult Human White Matter,” Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. (2001), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). Using an antibody specific to A2B5, glial progenitor cells can be separated from a mixed population of cell types. Similarly, the surface marker CD44 identifies astrocyte-biased glial progenitor cells (Liu et al.,“CD44 Expression Identifies Astrocyte-Restricted Precursor Cells,” Dev. Biol. 276:31-46 (2004), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). Using CD44-conjugated microbead technology, astroctye-biased glial progenitor cells can be separated from a mixed population of cell types. Oligodendrocyte-biased glial progenitor cells can be separated from a mixed population of cell types based on expression of PDGFaR, the PDGFaR ectodomain CDl40a, or CD9. Cells expressing markers of non-glial cell types (e.g., neurons, inflammatory cells, etc.) can be removed from the preparation of glial cells to further enrich the preparation for the desired glial cell type using immunoseparation techniques. For example, the glial progenitor cell population is preferably negative for a PSA-NCAM marker and/or other markers for cells of neuronal lineage, negative for one or more inflammatory cell markers, e.g., negative for a CD11 marker, negative for a CD32 marker, and/or negative for a CD36 marker, which are markers for microglia. Exemplary microbead technologies incldue MACS ® Microbeads, MACS ® Columns, and MACS ® Separators. Additional examples of immunoseparation are described in Wang et al.,“Prospective Identification, Direct Isolation, and Expression Profiling of a Telomerase Expressing Subpopulation of Human Neural Stem Cells, Using Sox2 Enhancer-Directed FACS,” ./. Neurosci. 30: 14635-14648 (2010); Keyoung et al., “High-Yield Selection and Extraction of Two Promoter-Defined Phenotypes of Neural Stem Cells from the Fetal Human Brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19:843-850 (2001); and Windrem et al., “Neonatal Chimerization with Human Glial Progenitor Cells can both Remyelinate and Rescue the Otherwise Lethally Hypomyelinated Shiverer Mouse,” Cell Stem Cell 2:553-565 (2008), which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

[0120] In accordance with the methods described herein, the selected preparation of administered human glial progenitor cells comprise at least about 80% glial progenitor cells, including, for example, about 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, 100% glial progenitor cells. The selected preparation of glial progenitor cells can be relatively devoid (e.g., containing less than 20, 15, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, or 1%) of other cells types such as neurons or cells of neuronal lineage, fibrous astrocytes and cells of fibrous astrocyte lineage, and

pluripotential stem cells (like ES cells). Optionally, example cell populations are substantially pure populations of glial progenitor cells.

[0121] The glial progenitor cells of the administered preparation can optionally be genetically modified to express other proteins of interest. For example, the glial progenitor cells may be modified to express a therapeutic biological molecule, an exogenous targeting moiety, an exogenous marker (for example, for imaging purposes), or the like. The glial progenitor cells of the preparations can be optionally modified to overexpress an endogenous biological molecule, targeting moiety, and/or marker.

[0122] The glial progenitor cells of the administered preparation may be astrocyte-biased glial progenitor cells, oligodendrocyte-biased glial progenitor cells, unbiased glial progenitor cells, or a combination thereof. The glial progenitor cells of the administered preparation express one or more markers of the glial cell lineage. For example, in one embodiment, the glial progenitor cells of the administered preparation may express A2B5 + . In another embodiment, glial progenitor cells of the administered preparation are positive for a PDGFaR marker. The PDGFaR marker is optionally a PDGFaR ectodomain, such as CDl40a. PDGFaR and CDl40a are markers of an oligodendrocyte-biased glial progenitor cells. In another embodiment, glial progenitor cells of the administered preparation are CD44 + . CD44 is a marker of an astrocyte- biased glial progenitor cell. In another embodiment, glial progenitor cells of the administered preparation are positive for a CD9 marker. The CD9 marker is optionally a CD9 ectodomain. In one embodiment, the glial progenitor cells of the preparation are A2B5 + , CDl40a + , and/or CD44 + . The aforementioned glial progenitor cell surface markers can be used to identify, separate, and/or enrich the preparation for glial progenitor cells prior to administration.

[0123] The administered glial progenitor cell preparation is optionally negative for a

PSA-NCAM marker and/or other neuronal lineage markers, and/or negative for one or more inflammatory cell markers, e.g., negative for a CD11 marker, negative for a CD32 marker, and/or negative for a CD36 marker (which are markers for microglia). Optionally, the preparation of glial progenitor cells are negative for any combination or subset of these additional markers. Thus, for example, the preparation of glial progenitor cells is negative for any one, two, three, or four of these additional markers. [0124] Suitable methods of introducing cells into the striatum, forebrain, brain stem, and/or cerebellum of a subject are well known to those of skill in the art and include, but are not limited to, injection, deposition, and grafting as described herein.

[0125] In one embodiment, the glial progenitor cells are transplanted bilaterally into multiple sites of the subject as described U.S. Patent No. 7,524,491 to Goldman, Windrem et al, “Neonatal Chimerization With Human Glial Progenitor Cells Can Both Remyelinate and Rescue the Otherwise Lethally Hypomyelinated Shiverer Mouse,” Cell Stem Cell 2:553-565 (2008), Han et al,“Forebrain Engraftment by Human Glial Progenitor Cells Enhances Synaptic Plasticity and Learning Adult Mice,” Cell Stem Cell 12:342-353 (2013), and Wang et al,“Human iPSCs- Derived Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells Can Myelinate and Rescue a Mouse Model of Congenital Hypomyelination,” Cell Stem Cell 12:252-264 (2013), which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety). Methods for transplanting nerve tissues and cells into host brains are described by Bjorklund and Stenevi (eds), Neural Grafting in the Mammalian CNS, Ch. 3-8, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1985); ET.S. Patent No. 5,082,670 to Gage et al; and ET.S. Patent No. 6,497,872 to Weiss et al, which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. Typical procedures include intraparenchymal, intracallosal, intraventricular, intrathecal, and intravenous transplantation.

[0126] Intraparenchymal transplantation is achieved by injection or deposition of tissue within the host brain so as to be apposed to the brain parenchyma at the time of transplantation. The two main procedures for intraparenchymal transplantation are: 1) injecting the donor cells within the host brain parenchyma or 2) preparing a cavity by surgical means to expose the host brain parenchyma and then depositing the graft into the cavity (Bjorklund and Stenevi (eds), Neural Grafting in the Mammalian CNS, Ch. 3, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1985), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). Both methods provide parenchymal apposition between the donor cells and host brain tissue at the time of grafting, and both facilitate anatomical integration between the graft and host brain tissue. This is of importance if it is required that the donor cells become an integral part of the host brain and survive for the life of the host.

[0127] Glial progenitor cells can also be delivered intracallosally as described in ET.S.

Patent Application Publication No. 20030223972 to Goldman, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. The glial progenitor cells can also be delivered directly to the forebrain subcortex, specifically into the anterior and posterior anlagen of the corpus callosum. Glial progenitor cells can also be delivered to the cerebellar peduncle white matter to gain access to the major cerebellar and brainstem tracts. Glial progenitor cells can also be delivered to the spinal cord.

[0128] Alternatively, the cells may be placed in a ventricle, e.g., a cerebral ventricle.

Grafting cells in the ventricle may be accomplished by injection of the donor cells or by growing the cells in a substrate such as 30% collagen to form a plug of solid tissue which may then be implanted into the ventricle to prevent dislocation of the graft cells. For subdural grafting, the cells may be injected around the surface of the brain after making a slit in the dura.

[0129] Suitable techniques for glial cell delivery are described supra. In one

embodiment, said preparation of glial progenitor cells is administered to the striatum, forebrain, brain stem, and/or cerebellum of the subject.

[0130] Delivery of the cells to the subject can include either a single step or a multiple step injection directly into the nervous system. Although adult and fetal oligodendrocyte precursor cells disperse widely within a transplant recipient’s brain, for widespread disorders, multiple injections sites can be performed to optimize treatment. Injection is optionally directed into areas of the central nervous system such as white matter tracts like the corpus callosum (e.g., into the anterior and posterior anlagen), dorsal columns, cerebellar peduncles, cerebral peduncles. Such injections can be made unilaterally or bilaterally using precise localization methods such as stereotaxic surgery, optionally with accompanying imaging methods (e.g., high resolution MRI imaging). One of skill in the art recognizes that brain regions vary across species; however, one of skill in the art also recognizes comparable brain regions across mammalian species.

[0131] The cellular transplants are optionally injected as dissociated cells but can also be provided by local placement of non-dissociated cells. In either case, the cellular transplants optionally comprise an acceptable solution. Such acceptable solutions include solutions that avoid undesirable biological activities and contamination. Suitable solutions include an appropriate amount of a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt to render the formulation isotonic. Examples of the pharmaceutically-acceptable solutions include, but are not limited to, saline, Ringer’s solution, dextrose solution, and culture media. The pH of the solution is preferably from about 5 to about 8, and more preferably from about 7 to about 7.5.

[0132] The injection of the dissociated cellular transplant can be a streaming injection made across the entry path, the exit path, or both the entry and exit paths of the injection device (e.g., a cannula, a needle, or a tube). Automation can be used to provide a uniform entry and exit speed and an injection speed and volume.

[0133] The number of glial progenitor cells administered to the subject can range from about 10 2 -10 8 at each administration (e.g., injection site), depending on the size and species of the recipient, and the volume of tissue requiring cell replacement. Single administration (e.g., injection) doses can span ranges of 10 3 -10 5 , 10 4 -10 7 , and 10 5 -10 8 cells, or any amount in total for a transplant recipient patient.

[0134] Since the CNS is an immunologically privileged site, administered cells, including xenogeneic, can survive and, optionally, no immunosuppressant drugs or a typical regimen of immunosuppressant agents are used in the treatment methods. However, optionally, an immunosuppressant agent may also be administered to the subject. Immunosuppressant agents and their dosing regimens are known to one of skill in the art and include such agents as Azathioprine, Azathioprine Sodium, Cyclosporine, Daltroban, Gusperimus Trihydrochloride, Sirolimus, and Tacrolimus. Dosages ranges and duration of the regimen can be varied with the disorder being treated; the extent of rejection; the activity of the specific immunosuppressant employed; the age, body weight, general health, sex and diet of the subject; the time of administration; the route of administration; the rate of excretion of the specific

immunosuppressant employed; the duration and frequency of the treatment; and drugs used in combination. One of skill in the art can determine acceptable dosages for and duration of immunosuppression. The dosage regimen can be adjusted by the individual physician in the event of any contraindications or change in the subject’s status.

EXAMPLES

[0135] The examples below are intended to exemplify the practice of embodiments of the disclosure but are by no means intended to limit the scope thereof.

Materials and Methods for Examples

[0136] Production of GPCs from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). GPCs were generated from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) using a previously described protocol (Wang et al.,“Human iPSC-derived Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells can Myelinate and Rescue a Mouse Model of Congenital Hypomyelination,” Cell Stem Cell 12:252-264 (2013); Windrem et al.,“Human iPSC Glial Mouse Chimeras Reveal Glial Contributions to Schizophrenia,” Cell Stem Cell 21 : 195-208 (2017), which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety), which is outlined in great methodological detail in the supplemental experimental procedures of Wang et al.,“Human iPSC-derived Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells can Myelinate and Rescue a Mouse Model of Congenital Hypomyelination,” Cell Stem Cell 12:252-264 (2013), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Cells were harvested between 160-240, by which time the majority typically expressed the bipotential GPC marker CD 140a, while the remainder were composed predominantly of A2B5 + /CDl40a immature astrocytes. No SSEA4 expressing cells were detectable. Human ES cells were obtained from GENEA, Inc. (Sydney, Australia), as lines GENEA02 and 19 (normal HTT: 15/18 CAG) and GENEA 17, 18 and 20 (mHTT: 40/12, 46/17 and 48/17 CAG, respectively) (Bradley et al.,“Derivation of Huntington's Disease- Affected Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines,” Stem Cells Dev 20:495-502 (2011), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). GENEA02 and 17 are male, and GENEA18, 19, and 20 are female. Of note, GENEA 19 and 20 were donated and derived as a pair of female siblings, one normal and one with HD. The C27 control line is male.

[0137] Hosts. Homozygous shiverer mice (The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME) were crossed with homozygous rag2 null immunodeficient mice (Shinkai et al.,“RAG-2- deficient Mice Lack Mature Lymphocytes Owing to Inability to Inititate V(D)J Rearrangement,” Cell 68:855-867 (1992), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety) on the C3h background (Taconic, Germantown, NY, ETSA) to generate shi/shi x rag2 /_ myelin-deficient, immunodeficient mice (Windrem et al.,“Neonatal Chimerization with Human Glial Progenitor Cells Can Both Remyelinate and Rescue the Otherwise Lethally Hypomyelinated Shiverer Mouse,” Cell Stem Cell 2:553-565 (2008), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). Mice were maintained in a temperature and humidity-controlled housing (64-79°F; 30%-70% humidity), in a pathogen-free colony room on a 12: 12 hr light cycle. They were fed ad lib Mod LabDiet 5P00 with 0.025% trimethoprim/0. l24%sulfamethoxyzole and autoclaved acid water (pH 2.5 -3.0).

[0138] Suspensions of single-cells or small clusters of hE SC -derived GPCs were spun down to 100,000 cells/ml. Neonates were anesthetized by cooling, and transplanted bilaterally in the corpus callosum with a total of 200,000 cells, as described (Windrem et al.,“Fetal and Adult Human Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cell Isolates Myelinate the Congenitally Dysmyelinated Brain,” Nat. Med. 10:93-97 (2004), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). At 8, 12-13 or 18 weeks of age, the transplanted mice were anesthetized with pentobarbital, then perfusion fixed with cold HBSS followed by 4% paraformaldehyde. Brains were removed and post-fixed for 2 hr in cold paraformaldehyde.

[0139] All procedures were approved by the ETniversity of Rochester’ s Committee on

Animal Resources (UCAR), under protocol 2004-129.

[0140] Cell preparation for transplantation. Prior to injection, flow cytometry was performed to confirm CD 140a predominance in each culture. The suspended cell clusters were then collected from the well, spun down, and resuspended in a small volume of Ca 2+ /Mg 2+ -free HBSS. The resuspended clusters were transferred to a 100 mm cell culture dish, then cut with a no. 11 surgical scalpel to obtain pieces 100-200 mm in diameter. These fragments were then collected, spun down, washed with Ca 2+ /Mg 2+ -free HBSS, and resuspended to an approximate concentration of 10 5 cells/ml in Ca 2+ /Mg 2+ -free HBSS.

[0141] Transplantation. Shiverer x Rag2 null neonatal mice were transplanted on postnatal day 1 or 2. Half of the litter was removed from the dam and placed in a humidified warming chamber. For this, a sterilized plastic box, lined with sterile gauze dampened with Hanks balanced salt solution, and warmed on a heating block, was used. The pups to be injected were then wiped with Povidone-Iodine and wrapped in sterile gauze to prevent direct contact with ice, then cryo-anesthetized for 2 to 6 minutes, depending on size. The pups were then removed from ice and cleaned with an alcohol prep pad, then laid in a customized neonatal mouse holder made of baked molded clay. The pups were injected directly through the skin and skull osteoid into both the rostral (AP + 1.0 mm; ML ± 1.0 mm, ventral 1.0 mm) and caudal (AP -1.0, ML ± 1.0 mm, ventral 0.9 mm) corpus callosum. Following injections, pups were cleaned with alcohol prep pads and returned to the warming chamber for recovery. Upon recovery, the first half of the litter was returned to the dam, and the second half put in the humidified chamber. Pups were weaned between 21 and 28 days, then group housed.

[0142] Immunolabeling of tissue sections. Brains were cryopreserved, embedded in

OCT (Tissue-Tek OCT, Sakura Finetek, Torrance, CA) and sectioned at 20 mm, either sagittally or coronally, on a cryostat. Human cells were identified with mouse anti-human nuclei, clone 235-1 at 1 :800 (MAB1281; EMD Millipore, Billerica, MA). Oligodendrocytes were labeled with MBP with rat anti-MBP at 1 :25 (Ab7349; Abeam, Cambridge, MA), astrocytes with anti- human-specific GFAP (SMI 21 at 1 : 1000, Covance, Princeton, NJ), and axons with mouse anti- neurofilament at 1 :5000 (SMI-311) or 1 : 1000 (SMI-312; Covance, Princeton, NJ). Alexa Fluor secondary antibodies, goat anti -mouse and anti -rat 488, 568, 594, and 647 were used at 1 :400 (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA).

[0143] Antibodies and dilutions used.

Table 5 - Key Resources

[0144] RNA-seq. hGPCs assessed for gene expression were first sorted by fluorescence- activated cell sorting on the basis of the cell surface marker CDl40a (BD PharMingen), as described (Sim et al.,“CDl40a Identifies a Population of Highly Myelinogenic, Migration- competent and Efficiently Engrafting Human Oligodendrocyte progenitor Cells,” Nat.

Biotechnol. 29:934-941 (2011), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety), using a FACS Aria IIIu (Becton Dickinson) (FIG. 3). The mRNA was isolated by polyA-selection protocol from FACS-sorted PDGFRa-positive GPC lines produced from human embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from 3 HD patients (designated to HD lines 17 [N = 5 independent cell set preparations], 18 [N = 5], and 20 [N = 6]) and 2 healthy controls (designated to CTR lines 02 [N = 6], and 19 [N = 6], sibling of HD20). Sequencing libraries were prepared with the Illumina TruSeq RNA v2 kit and sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencer, yielding

approximately 45 million lOO-bp single-end reads per sample for all cell lines except for control line CTR02, which was sequenced to similar depth but in l25-bp paired-end read mode. The sequencing reads were then pre-processed by trimming off adaptor and low-quality sequences using Trimmomatic (Bolger et al.,“Trimmomatic: a Flexible Trimmer for Illumina Sequence Data,” Bioinformatics 30:2114-2120 (2014), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). The quality of reads before and after pre-processing was assessed with FastQC. The pre-processed reads were then aligned to the RefSeq NCBI reference human genome version GRCh38 (Pruitt et al.,“NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq): a Curated Non-Redundant Sequence Database of Genomes, Transcripts and Proteins,” Nucleic Acids Res. 35:D6l-D65 (2007), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety), with Subread read aligner (Liao et al.,“The Subread Aligner: Fast, Accurate and Scalable Read Mapping by Seed-and- Vote,” Nucleic Acids Res. 4l :el08 (2013), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). Raw gene counts were obtained from BAM alignment files with featureCounts (Liao et al.,“featureCounts: an Efficient General Purpose Program for Assigning Sequence Reads to Genomic Features,” Bioinformatics 30:923-930 (2014), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0145] SOX10/MYRF rescue of myelination. For this set of experiments, SOX10 and

MYRF transcripts were cloned in two separate lentiviral vectors: pTANK-TRE-MYRF-CAG- HTA3G-WPRE and pTANK-TRE-SoxlO-P2A-DC4-WPRE. In this Tet-On system, the cell surface expression of the selectable marker CD4 requires the expression from both viruses, thus ensuring co-expression of the MYRF and SOX10 transgenes. Virus particles pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein were produced, concentrated by ultracentrifugation, and titrated on 293HEK cells. G20 hGPC cultures were infected at 1.0 MOI in glial media. Cells were washed with HBSS and maintained in glial media supplemented with 1 mg/ml DOX (Millipore- Sigma St. Louis, MO) for 4 days. hGPCs were then selected for membrane expression of CD4 using MACS (Miltenyi, Germany) as described (Windrem et al.,“Neonatal Chimerization with Human Glial Progenitor Cells Can Both Remyelinate and Rescue the Otherwise Lethally Hypomyelinated Shiverer Mouse,” Cell Stem Cell 2:553-565 (2008), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0146] Rescue of oligodendrocytic differentiation in vitro. MACS isolated CD4+ cells were allowed to attach overnight in glial media (Wang et al.,“Human iPSC-derived

Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells can Myelinate and Rescue a Mouse Model of Congenital Hypomyelination,” Cell Stem Cell 12:252-264 (2013), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). DOX was maintained in overexpression conditions throughout the differentiation induction. The next day, cells were washed once in HBSS and transitioned to differentiation media (Neurobasal medium (GIBCO), lx N2 (Thermo Fisher), lx B27 (Thermo Fisher), lx GlutaMAX (Thermo Fisher), 20 ng/ml BDNF (R&D Systems), 0.2 mM L-Ascorbic Acid (Sigma), 60 ng/ml T3 (Sigma), 0.2 mM dibutyrl cyclicAMP (Sigma), 100 ng/ml biotin (Sigma), lx insulin-transferrin-selenium (ThermoFisher), 10 ng/ml NT3 (R&D), and 100 ng/ml IGF1 (R&D). Media were changed every other day for 2 weeks before fixation. Oligodendrocyte differentiation was quantified via 04 immunostaining. [0147] Rescue of oligodendrocytic differentiation in vitro. Cells were prepared for transplantation and then injected into the corpus callosa of neonatal shiverer mice, at 2 sites unilaterally. Starting at 9 weeks of age, half of the transplanted mice were administered either DOX (2 mg/ml with 5% sucrose in water (Chow et al.,“A Doxycycline-Inducible, Tissue- Specific Aromatase-Expressing Transgenic Mouse,” Transgenic Res. 21 :415-428 (2012), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety) or normal drinking water in their water bottles, for 5 weeks. Both control and experimental mice were then sacrificed at 13 weeks of age and prepared for immunolabeling for MBP and human nuclear antigens, then imaged by confocal to assess axonal ensheathment by MBP-expressing oligodendrocytes as described.

[0148] Imaging and quantitative histology. To map the distribution of human nuclei, sections were imaged on a Nikon Instruments Ni-E equipped with Nikon Digital Sight Camera DS-Fil, and counts scored in Nikon NIS Elements v4.5. For photographing the distribution of myelin at low power, whole brain sections were imaged on a Leica LMD 6500. Higher power confocal images of myelin ensheathment were obtained using a Nikon C2+ confocal, and images were acquired with a lOOx objective using 0.2 mm steps. Imaging for cell type-specific markers was performed on an Olympus BX51 using a Hammamatsu camera driven by Stereo Investigator software (MBF, Williston, VT). Higher magnification confocal stacks of astrocytes subjected to Sholl analysis were obtained using a Leica SP8 confocal.

[0149] Cell counting. Quantification of donor cell density in the corpus callosum was based on counts of 1 mm lateral from midline. Randomly initiated, uniformly sampled coronal sections of the brains were labeled for human nuclei, DAPI and other phenotype-specific markers (Olig2, hGFAP, TF and MBP). For Olig2 and hGFAP quantification, the regions of interest of each section were imaged using an Olympus BX51 equipped with a Hamamatsu camera, at 40x. Z stacks were obtained with a step size of 1 mm. For TF and MBP

quantification, the regions of interest were imaged using a Nikon Ni-E Eclipse microscope equipped with a DS-Fil camera, at 20X. Z stacks were obtained with a step size of 0.7-1 mm. Immunolabeled cells were counted using high intensity projection of the z stacked images on three evenly-spaced coronal sections from each mouse, in Nikon NIS Elements v.4.5.

[0150] Astrocyte morphometries. Shiverer x rag2 null mice were sacrificed at 18 weeks of age and their white matter astrocyte morphologies assessed. 150 mm thick coronal slices were taken by Vibratome at Bregma -1.0 mm from control (GENEA19) or HD

(GENEA20) hGPC-engrafted mice, incubated in mouse anti-hGFAP for 1 week at 4°C, then 4 hr in Alexa 568 goat anti -mouse antisera. The slices were mounted on slides and imaged at lOOx by confocal (Leica SP8). The images were traced using Neurolucida 360 (MicroBrightfield, Inc.); all tracings were done by experimenters blinded as to the treatment condition.

[0151] Individual astrocytes were selected from the middle of the corpus callosum at mid-depth so as to capture cells and their processes in their entirety. Cells were analyzed by Neurolucida with Sholl analysis, as 3 cells/slice and 3 slices/brain, taken at 500, 1000, and 1500 mm lateral of the midline. A total of 14 neonatally-engrafted brains (GENEA18, n = 21 cells/3 brains; GENEA19, 32 cells/4 brains; GENEA20, 42 cells/7 brains) were assessed, yielding 63 traced mHTT astrocytes (GENEA18- and 20-derived), and 32 control (GENEA19) astrocytes. For Sholl analysis, concentric shells placed at successively increasing diameters of 5 mm were centered on the cell body, and the number of intersections between cell processes and shells counted (Sholl,“Dendritic Organization in the Neurons of the Visual and Motor Cortices of the Cat,” J. Anat. 87:387-406 (1953), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). For the assessment and quantitative description of astrocytic fiber 3D architecture, Fan-in analysis (MBF Biosciences) was used as previously described for studies of dendritic topology (Dang et al.,“Formoterol, a Long-Acting b2 Adrenergic Agonist, Improves Cogntive Function and Promotes Dendritic Complexity in a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome,” Biol. Psychiatry 75: 179-188 (2014), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0152] Myelin luminance analysis. To measure forebrain myelination, luminance analysis based on measurement of MBP immunofluorescence was used. Evenly-spaced and uniformly sampled coronal sections were stained for MBP as described, and images taken at lOx using a Nikon Ni-E and Nikon DS-Fil camera. The corpus callosum was selected as region of interest, and mean intensity values were obtained using NIS Elements v.4.5.

[0153] Statistical analysis of histological data. All analyses were done with Prism® v.7 (GraphPad Software) using two-way ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni t tests. Statistical significance was considered as P-values less than 0.05. Significances were represented as *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 and ***p < 0.001. Graphs and figures were made and assembled with Prism 7, and all data are shown as mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM).

[0154] Bioinformatics. After examining principal component and hierarchical clustering plots generated with native R functions (R Core Team,“R: a Language and

Environment for Statistical Computing,” R Foundation for Statistical Computing (2014), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety), one mis-clustered outlier sample was removed from analysis in line HD 17 (GENEA17), as were 2 outliers in lines HD20 (GENEA20) and CTR19 (GENEA19). After eliminating lowly expressed transcripts leaving those with a count of at least 5 reads in more than 3 samples, the count data were normalized using RUVSeq (Risso et al.,“Normalization of RNA-seq Data Using Factor Analysis of Control Genes or Samples,” Nat. Biotechnol. 32:896-902 (2014), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). The R Bioconductor package (Gentleman et al.,“Bioconductor: Open Software Development for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics,” Genome Biol. 5:R80 (2004), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety)) was used to account for variance. As described in the RUVSeq documentation, normalization was accomplished in the following three-step procedure: 1) negative in silico control genes were determined by first-pass differential expression analysis by edgeR (Robinson et al.,“edgeR: a Bioconductor Package for Differential Expression Analysis of Digital Gene Expression Data,” Bioinformatics 26: 139-140 (2010), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety) and DESeq2 (Love et al., “Moderated Estimation of Fold Change and Dispersion for RNA-seq Data with DESeq2,” Genome Biol. 15:550 (2014), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety) R Bioconductor packages, including those genes with FDR-adjusted p values > 0.75, as calculated by both methods; 2) the negative in silico control genes were then used in the RETVg function of RETVSeq to calculate variance factors; and 3) the second-pass differential expression analysis (1% FDR and log2 fold-change > 1) was performed to determine disease-dysregulated genes, using the original raw counts, and adjusting for RETVg-calculated variance factors by multi factor GLM models implemented in both the edgeR and DESeq2 packages.

[0155] This three-step analysis, with filtering out low- and non-expressed transcripts, was used to compare each HD-derived hGPC cell line to the pooled CTR-derived hGPCs, as well as for the sibling pair comparison of HD20 versus HD 19. In all comparisons, one RETVg- calculated variance factor was used. The intersection of the resulting four lists of differentially expressed genes was taken as the conserved representative list of HD-dysregulated genes. To obtain average FCs and p values for dysregulated genes in all three HD-derived GPC lines, a differential expression comparison of pooled HD to pooled CTR lines was performed by the same workflow with the same number of variance factors.

[0156] For all comparisons of differential expression, only the significant results that agreed between edgeR and DESeq2 were used in downstream analysis. Fold-changes and FDR- adjusted p values reported in the Results were calculated by edgeR. Functional annotation of the conserved set of HD-dysregulated genes was performed using ToppCluster (Kaimal et al., “ToppCluster: a Multiple Gene List Feature Analyzer for Comparative Enrichment Clustering and Network-based Dissection of Biological Systems,” Nucleic Acids Res. 38:W96-Wl02 (2010), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IP A) (QIAGEN) (Kramer et al.,“Causal Analysis Approaches in Ingenuity Pathway Analysis,” Bioinformatics 30:523-530 (2014), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0157] TaqMan RT-qPCR arrays for gene expression validation. Extracted total

RNA was amplified using ribo-SPIA based whole transcriptome based amplification (NuGen). The expression of cell type markers and pathway-specific genes was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using a 48-gene Taqman low-density array (TLDA)

(Applied Biosystems). The relative abundance of transcript expression was calculated by DDCt analysis, and the expression data normalized to the mean of 18S and GAPDH as endogenous controls. The difference of expression in HD and control GPCs was assessed by paired t test followed by multiple testing correction by Benjamini-Hochberg (BH) procedure (Benjamini and Hochberg,“Controlling the False Discovery Rate: a Practical and Powerful Approach to

Multiple Testing,” J R Stat. Soc. Series B Stat. Methodol. 57:289-300 (1995), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). Analysis of TLDA data was performed in

ExpressionSuite Software version 1.1 supplied by Applied Biosciences.

[0158] SOX10/MYRF rescue of myelinogenic gene expression. Both mHTT and normal sibling hESC-derived hGPCs were transfected with plasmids expressing either SOX10 and MYRF in tandem, under the regulatory control of the constitutive promoter EFla (pTANK- EFla-SoxlO-P2A-Myrf-T2A-EGFP-WPRE), or a control plasmid expressing only EGFP (pTANK-EF 1 a-EGFP-WPRE). Transfection was performed using Nucleofector (Lonza, Germany), using the CA205 transfection program in P3 buffer following the manufacturer’s protocol. Cells were collected 72 hours after transfection for RT-qPCR of potential SOX10 and MYRF target genes. RNA was extracted using the Qiagen RNeasy Micro Kit (Qiagen, Germany). The first-strand cDNA was synthetized using TaqMan Reverse Transcription Reagents (Applied Biosystems). 5 ng of RNA input was used for each reaction; these were performed using FastStart ETniversal SybrGreen Mastermix (Roche Diagnostics, Germany), on a real-time PCR instrument (CFX Connect Real-Time System thermocycler; Bio-Rad, ETSA).

Samples from G19- and G20-derived hGPCs were each assayed in triplicate for each target gene assayed (primers available in Table 6 below).

Table 6 - Primers used for real time PCR

Melting-curve analysis was performed after each PCR to confirm the specificity of the reaction, and to identify the peaks of interest in all samples. Results were normalized to the expression level of 18S from the same sample.

[0159] Data and software availability. All raw RNA-seq data have been deposited to

GEO, accession number GEO: GSE105041. The complete reproducible workflow, including R scripts and count matrix, was deposited also. All differential expression data have been uploaded to a publicly accessible, interactive lab-based website, within which further evaluation and interrogation of differentially expressed gene sets may be performed by interested users. All data have also been uploaded to Mendel ey Data.

[0160] Network Visualization and Analysis. The ToppCluster annotation tool was used for its ability to represent term to gene associations as a network (Kaimal et al,

“ToppCluster: a Multiple Gene List Feature Analyzer for Comparative Enrichment Clustering and Network-Based Dissection of Biological Systems” Nucleic Acids Res. 38:W96-Wl02 (2010), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). The annotation results were exported with ToppCluster’ s Network Generator as a list of term to gene associations representing network edges. For all subsequent network visualizations and analyses, the term to gene association networks were imported into Gephi graph visualization software (Jacomy et ak, “ForceAtlas2, a Continuous Graph Layout Algorithm for Handy Network Visualization

Designed for the Gephi Software,” PLoS ONE 9:e98679 (2014), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). Basic node centrality measures and node degrees were calculated and the networks were arranged with Force Atlas layout using default parameters. Closely interconnected node modules were determined with the built-in community detection algorithm (Blondel et al.,“Fast Unfolding of Communities in Large Networks,” arXiv arXiv:0803.0476 (2008), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety), using a randomization and resolution parameter of 1.3 for CDl40a-derived, and 2.0 for CD44-derived annotation networks, so as to optimize both the grouping and number of communities.

Example 1 - mHTT OPCs Down-Regulate Transcriptional Determinants of Glial Lineage

Progression

[0161] To address the role of glial transcriptional abnormalities in the pathogenesis of

HD, the differential gene expression by bipotential hGPCs derived from huntingtin mutant hESCs was first assessed. To that end, GPCs from three distinct lines of hESCs derived from mHTT -expressing blastocysts (GENEA17, GENEA18, and GENEA20; GENEA Biocells) and from two control lines (GENEA02 and GENEA19) (Bradley et al.,“Derivation of Huntington's Disease- Affected Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines,” Stem Cells Dev 20:495-502 (2011), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety) were generated and purified. GPCs were produced from hESCs using previously described methods (Wang et al.,“CDl33/CDl40a- Based Isolation of Distinct Human Multipotent Neural Progenitor Cells and Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells,” Stem Cells and Development 22:2121-2131 (2013), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety), followed by CDl40a-based FACS to isolate the resulting GPC fraction (>99% CDl40a + ) (Sim et al.,“CDl40a Identifies a Population of Highly Myelinogenic, Migration-Competent and Efficiently Engrafting Human Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells,” Nature Biotechnology 29:934-941 (2011), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). Importantly, one of the controls (GENEA19; 18 CAG) was a sibling to one of the mHTT-expressing lines (GENEA20; 48 CAG); these lines, donated by the same parents, were fraternal female twins.

[0162] mHTT and control hGPCs were harvested as stably expanding hGPCs after average propagation times of 190 ± 16 and 174 ± 14 days, respectively. Flow cytometry revealed that 54% ± 3.4% of normal cells (GENEA02 and GENEA19; n = 12 culture runs) and 44% ± 3.3% of Huntingtin mutant cells (GENEA17, 18 and 20; n = 16) expressed CDl40a at these time points (means ± SEM). The CDl40a fraction of each culture was then isolated to near purity by FACS, and RNA-seq was performed using an Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencer, which showed profound transcriptional dysregulation in the hGPCs derived from the three HD lines relative to the pooled control hESC GPCs. Principal -component analysis (PCA) showed clear segregation of the mHTT-expressing and control hGPCs (FIG. 1 A). As a group, using a 2-fold change (FC) cutoff and 1% false discovery rate (FDR), 239 genes were upregulated and 530 genes were downregulated in the mHTT hGPCs relative to their controls (FIG. 1B). To further refine the resultant list of differentially expressed genes, the differential expression of GENEA20 (mHTT)-derived hGPCs was then compared to their sibling GENEA19- derived controls and added that sibling comparison to the overall comparison; this acted as an additional filter and yielded a tighter differentially expressed gene list composed of 64 upregulated and 365 downregulated genes in hGPCs derived from all HD-derived hGPC cell lines relative to their pooled control hGPCs (FIGs. 1B and 1C).

[0163] ETsing this gene set, functional analysis was performed with annotation from the

Gene Ontology (GO), by which we identified 50 significantly associated GO annotation terms (Bonferroni-corrected p < 0.01, among terms in the Biological Process and Cellular Component GO domains), that represented 187 of the 429 differentially regulated genes (FIG. 2 and FIGs.

3 A-3B). By network analysis, these annotation terms, together with their associated genes, were further grouped into three functionally related modules, each of which was characterized by its most significant annotation terms (FIG. 1D). The three modules represented genes and functions related to (1) glial cell differentiation and myelination, (2) axon guidance and axonogenesis, and regulation of synapse structure and synaptic signaling (FIG. 1D). The first and second modules were closely interconnected and contained an array of critical oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factors, including SOX10, SIRT2, MYRF, NKX2.2, TCF7L2, OLIG1, and OLIG2, as well as stage-regulated and myelin-associated proteins, which included TF, MBP, MAG, OMG, ETGT8, and FA2H; all of these were significantly downregulated in HD hGPCs. The third module contained genes concerned with the regulation of components of synaptic transmission, most notably SYNDIG1, BCAN, NETOl, and SNPH, as well as genes encoding the glutamate receptor signaling proteins GRIA2, GRIA4, GRID1, GRID2, and GRIK4 and the potassium channels encoded by KCND2, KCNJ9, KCNQ1, and KCNS3; all of these were significantly downregulated (FIGs. 1E-1G). Together, these HD-dysregulated genes and their associated functions suggest an HD-dependent suppression in the differentiation of hGPCs into mature oligodendroglia.

Example 2 - mHTT hGPCs Down-Regulate Transcriptional Determinants of

Myelinogenesis

[0164] As revealed by the differential expression analysis, a key set of transcription factors associated with both oligodendroglial differentiation and myelin biosynthesis were significantly and substantially downregulated as a function of mHTT expression. These included the early oligodendroglial regulators NKX2.2, OLIG2, and SOX10, each of which was sharply downregulated in mHTT-expressing hGPCs (FIG. 1E). Moreover, downstream of the mHTT- suppressed oligodendroglial lineage transcription factors, the mHTT hGPCs expressed sharply reduced levels of MYRF, the myelin-regulatory factor. MYRF coordinately activates a number of genes necessary for myelin formation (Bujalka et al.,“MYRF is a Membrane- Associated Transcription Factor that Autoproteolytically Cleaves to Directly Activate Myelin Genes,” PLoS Biology 11 :el00l625 (2013), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety), and its production has been noted to be deficient in mouse mHTT-transgenic oligodendrocytes (Huang et al.,“Mutant Huntingtin Downregulates Myelin Regulatory Factor-Mediated Myelin Gene Expression and Affects Mature Oligodendrocytes,” Neuron 85: 1212-1226 (2015), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). Among the human-ESC-derived hGPCs, the MYRF-regulated myelinogenic transcripts MBP, MAG, OMG, PLP1, and MOG were all significantly downregulated (FIG. 1E). Moreover, when directly compared the expression pattern of hGPCs derived from the sibling pair (GENEA20 for mHTT and GENEA19 for normal HTT), which have minimal background genetic variation between them, the differential downregulation in mHTT hGPCs of those genes associated with myelinogenesis was again noted. These included MYRF (-4.04-fold lower in mHTT hGPCs; log2 scale), MAG (-6.78), MBP (5.14), MOG (-10.35), OMG (-5.15), and PLP1 (-2.22), indicating a broad downregulation of myelinogenesis-associated transcripts in HD hGPCs. Importantly, when the RNA expression patterns of hGPCs derived from three different mHTT hESC lines, GENEA17, GENEA18, and GENEA20, whose HTT genes have 40, 46, and 48 CAG repeats, respectively, were compared, it was noted that longer CAG repeat lengths correlated strongly with the progressive

downregulation of these same differentiation- and myelinogenesis-associated genes (FIGs. 4A- 4C). Importantly, there was a high degree of overlap between those genes and ontologies found to be increasingly dysregulated with longer CAG repeat length in hGPCs, with those genes and ontologies increasingly dysregulated with CAG repeat length in HD transgenic mice (Langfelder et al.,“Integrated Genomics and Proteomics Define Huntingtin CAG Length-Dependent Networks in Mice,” Nat. Neurosci. 19:623-633 (2016), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety) (FIGs. 5A-5D).

[0165] To validate these RNA-seq-based expression data, qRT-PCR with TaqMan low- density arrays (TLDAs) was then used to compare the expression levels of these differentiation- associated genes between mHTT and control hGPCs. The majority of those genes identified in RNA-seq analysis as differentially dysregulated in the mHTT hGPCs were confirmed as such (FIGs. 6A-6B). These genes included the key oligodendroglial lineage transcription factors MYRF, SOX10, and OLIG2, as well as their downstream myelinogenesis-associated targets, including PLP1, MOG, and MBP. Based on the downregulation of this broad set of myelinati on- associated genes, a significant disruption in both myelin biogenesis and maintenance by mHTT hGPCs was predicted.

Example 3 - mHTT-Associated Differentiation Arrest Suppressed Potassium Channel

Expression

[0166] Among the functionally related genes most differentially dysregulated by mHtt expression were those encoding ion channels and transporters, in particular the potassium channels. This large group of genes includes 117 known members in the human genome (Pruitt et al.,“NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq): A Curated Non-Redundant Sequence Database of Genomes, Transcripts and Proteins,” Nucleic Acids Research 35:D6l-D65 (2006), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety), of which 93 were detectably expressed by hGPCs (raw counts >5 in at least 3 samples across the dataset). Among these, 25 of the 93 identified K + channel and transporter genes were dysregulated in the HD hGPCs relative to their pooled hESC GPC controls using a FC >2.0 cutoff and 5% FDR threshold; 23 of these remained significantly dysregulated even at a 1% FDR (FIG. 7). These genes included a number of inwardly rectifying K + channels, the coordinate suppression of which suggested a basis for the disrupted potassium buffering of the HD brain (Tong et al.,“Astrocyte Kir4.1 Ion Channel Deficits Contribute to Neuronal Dysfunction in Huntington's Disease Model Mice,” Nat

Neurosci 17:694-703 (2014), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). To further refine and prioritize within this large set of coordinately dysregulated K + channel genes, the GENEA20 versus GENEA19 sibling pair comparison was included as an additional filtration. By this most stringent analysis, 4 genes (KCND2, KCNJ9, KCNQ1, and KCNS3) remained strongly and significantly downregulated both in all HD hGPC lines relative to pooled controls and within the sibling set of mHTT and normal hESC-derived hGPCs. Together, the dysregulated expression of these K + channel genes are of special significance given their role in maintaining stable interstitial K + levels and determining action potential thresholds. As such, the mHTT-associated suppression of the hGPC K + channels, which among other roles mediate the glial reuptake of synaptic K + , may causally contribute to the neuronal hyper-excitability observed among striatal neurons in HD (Benraiss et al.,“Human Glia can Both Induce and Rescue Aspects of Phenotype in Huntington Disease. Nature Communications 7: 11758 (2016); Shin et al.,“Expression of Mutant Huntingtin in Glial Cells Contributes to Neuronal

Excitotoxicity,” J Cell Biol 171 : 1001-1012 (2005); Tong et al.,“Astrocyte Kir4.l Ion Channel Deficits Contribute to Neuronal Dysfunction in Huntington's Disease Model Mice,” Nat Neurosci 17:694-703 (2014), which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety).

[0167] In light of the concurrent dysregulation of glial differentiation as well as K + channel expression and the dependence of the latter upon the former, it was asked whether a common upstream regulator might exist that is dysregulated itself as a function of mHTT expression. Using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IP A), it was found that TCF7L2 was predicted as a positive regulator of a broad variety of glial differentiation-associated genes, including several that have been reported to regulate K + channel gene expression, such as the SOX10- modulated KCNB1 (Liu et al.,“Chromatin Landscape Defined by Repressive Histone

Methylation During Oligodendrocyte Differentiation,” JNeurosci 35:352-365 (2015), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety), which was downregulated in hGPCs derived from all three of the tested HD lines. Among these glial-differentiation-associated genes were a number whose expression was markedly deficient in mHTT glia relative to their controls (FIG. 6A). On that basis, RNA-seq datasets were queried for both TCF7L2 and TCF7L2 -regulated transcripts and found that TCF7L2 was indeed differentially downregulated in HD relative to normal hGPCs, while TCF7L2-regulated genes were concomitantly downregulated (FIG. 6B). Since TCF7L2 has been strongly implicated in glial differentiation (and oligodendroglial differentiation in particular), these results further emphasized the cell-intrinsic nature of the glial differentiation block in HD.

Example 4 - HD hGPCs Exhibited Impaired Myelinogenesis In Vivo

[0168] Since mHTT hGPCs appeared deficient in their acquisition of gene expression patterns typifying oligodendrocyte maturation and myelinogenesis, it was asked if

hypomyelinated mice engrafted with HD GPCs were deficient in myelination competence relative to those engrafted with GPCs from a normal sibling. To this end, mHTT-expressing and control hGPCs, respectively derived from the sibling female GENEA20 and GENEA19 lines in matched cultures, were transplanted neonatally into immunodeficient shiverer mice using the described multisite injection protocol with bilateral hemispheric injections. This protocol yields a stereotypic pattern and time course of donor-derived myelination in host brains when using normal pluripotent stem cell-derived or tissue-derived hGPCs (Wang et al.,“Human iPSC- Derived Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells can Myelinate and Rescue a Mouse Model of Congenital Hypomyelination,” Cell Stem Cell 12:252-264 (2013b); Windrem et al.,“Neonatal Chimerization with Human Glial Progenitor Cells can Both Remyelinate and Rescue the Otherwise Lethally Hypomyelinated Shiverer Mouse,” Cell Stem Cell 2:553-565 (2008), which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety). In this case, while nonisogenic (no truly isogenic lines for normal and mutant Huntingtin have yet been reported), the use of sibling lines for this experiment minimized genetic variation to the extent possible. Using these paired lines and this in vivo model, the oligodendrocytic differentiation and myelination patterns of engrafted mice were assessed at 8, 13, and 18 weeks of age (n = 3-5 mice per time point, totaling 12 HD hGPC-engrafted and 10 control hGPC-engrafted mice). The brains of these mice were cryo- sectioned, immunolabeled for both oligodendroglial and myelin antigens, and confocal imaged to compare the differentiation and myelination efficiency of HD and control -derived hESC hGPCs in vivo.

[0169] It was found that the appearance of both oligodendroglial phenotypic markers and indices of myelin protein production occurred significantly earlier in control hGPC-engrafted mice relative to HD hGPC-engrafted animals. Whereas the expression of axonally engaged myelin basic protein was apparent using control hGPCs by 8 weeks after neonatal graft, mice engrafted with HD hGPCs manifested no evident MBP immunolabeling by that time point (FIGs. 8 A and 8D). By 12-13 weeks of age (a point by which mice engrafted with control hGPCs exhibited robust myelin production), only scattered islands of MBP expressed by immature oligodendroglia were noted in matched recipients of HD GPCs (FIGs. 8B and 8E).

The relatively delayed myelination of HD GPC-engrafted white matter persisted for at least 4 months; by 18 weeks, whereas control GPC-engrafted mice exhibited dense callosal and capsular myelination, confluent regions of MBP-defmed myelination were only just arising in the mHTT- engrafted brains (FIGs. 8C and 8F). Accordingly, the fractions of human donor cells that differentiated as transferrin + oligodendrocytes (FIGs. 8H and 81) and their derivatives, MBP + myelinating oligodendrocytes (FIGs. 8J and 8K), were significantly higher in mice engrafted with GENEA19 control GPCs than in mice engrafted with GENEA20 mHTT GPCs. Similarly, myelin luminance, as assessed on MBP-immunostained sections, was significantly higher at both time points in control GPC-engrafted corpus callosa than in their mHTT GPC-engrafted counterparts (FIG. 8L). Nonetheless, neither the density nor distribution of engraftment by human GPCs differed significantly between control and HD-derived cells (FIGs. 8G, 8M, 8N), indicating that the myelination defect in HD hGPC-engrafted brains was due to an mHTT- associated impediment in donor cell oligodendrocytic differentiation and myelin production rather than in differential engraftment.

[0170] The mHTT-associated delay in myelination had significant consequences in the rate and efficiency of axonal myelination. When callosal myelination was analyzed by high- resolution confocal imaging of individual callosal axons, it was evident that axonal ensheathment was impaired in mHTT hGPC- engrafted brains (FIGs. 9A-9F). At both the 13- and l8-week time points, the mHTT hGPC chimeric brains exhibited fewer myelinated axons (FIG. 9G); a greater proportion of those axons that myelinated did so incompletely along the length of visualized axons, while fewer axons were ensheathed per MBP + human oligodendrocyte identified (FIG. 9H). Together, these data indicate that shiverer mice rendered chimeric for mHTT -expressing hGPCs failed to myelinate as quickly or as well as those engrafted with normal hESC hGPCs, yielding relatively hypomyelinated animals with deficient axonal ensheathment. Thus, the mHTT -associated differentiation block suggested by the expression profiles of mHTT hGPCs appears to be reflected by their relative deficiency in oligodendrocytic differentiation competence, leading to hypomyelination in vivo.

Example 5 - Myelin Gene Expression and Myelinogensis In Vivo Could Be Rescued by

SOXIO and MYRF

[0171] In light of the primacy of SOX10 and MYRF in regulating myelin synthesis

(Bujalka et ak,“MYRF is a Membrane-Associated Transcription Factor that Autoproteolytically Cleaves to Directly Activate Myelin Genes,” PLoS Biology 11 :el00l625 (2013); Emery et ak, “Myelin Gene Regulatory Factor is a Critical Transcriptional Regulator Required for CNS Myelination,” Cell 138: 172-185 (2009); Lopez-Anido et ak,“Differential SoxlO Genomic Occupancy in Myelinating Glia,” Glia 63: 1897-1914 (2015), which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety) and their role as terminal effectors of myelin gene expression, the data suggested that the transcriptional activation of SOX10 and MYRF might be sufficient to rescue the myelination defect of HD. On that basis, it was next asked whether the forced expression of SOX10 and MYRF in mHTT-expressing hGPCs rescued the expression of MAG, MBP, and other critical genes involved in myelin biosynthesis. To this end, expression of SOX10 and MYRF was induced in both mHTT and normal control hESC-derived hGPCs (GENEA20 and GENEA19, respectively) via plasmid transfection using a bicistronic plasmid in which both genes were placed under the control of the constitutive EFla promoter. Their expression was then compared with that of downstream myelinogenic genes, including MAG, MBP, MOG, PDGFRA, PLP1, TF, and LINGO 1, in SOX10-MYRF and control plasmid-transfected cells using qPCR. It was found that overexpression of SOX10-MYRF indeed rescued the expression of most myelin-associated genes in the transfected mHTT hGPCs (Table 1; FIG. 10).

[0172] On the basis of these data, it was next asked whether SOX10 and MYRF overexpression was sufficient to rescue downstream oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelinogenesis. To this end, a doxycycline-regulated dual vector lentiviral transduction strategy was developed, which allowed the doxycycline (DOX)-triggered, interdependent overexpression of SOX10 and MYRF with concurrent expression of CD4 to permit FACS-based immunoisolation of SOX10-MYRF -transduced hGPCs (FIG. 11 A). The effects of SOX10 and MYRF overexpression in mHTT-expressing hGPCs was first assessed by transducing matched sets of 180 days in vitro (DIV) GENEA20-derived hGPCs with DOX-regulated lentiviral SOX10/MYRF and then exposing some cultures to DOX while leaving matched control cultures untreated. It was confirmed that in cells raised in the absence of DOX, SOX10 and MYRF expression was no different than that of untransduced GENEA20-derived hGPCs. After an additional week in vitro , cells were then immunostained for the oligodendrocytic sulfatide recognized by 04, which is expressed by lineage-restricted, largely post-mitotic human oligodendrocytes. Without DOX, the mFFTT hGPCs were maintained as such and expressed no detectable 04. In contrast, those mFFTT hGPCs raised in DOX, with upregulated SOX10 and MYRF expression, exhibited a sharp and significant increment in oligodendrocyte differ entiation, with >15% expressing 04 immunoreactivity (FIGs. 11B-11D).

[0173] Since the induction of SOX10 and MYRF expression appeared sufficient to rescue oligodendrocyte differentiation from mFFTT hGPCs in vitro , it was next asked if SOX10 and MYRF expression was similarly sufficient to rescue myelinogenesis in vivo. To this end, GENEA20-derived HD hGPCs were transduced with DOX-regulated lentiviral SOX10/MYRF as above using the vector system by which concurrent SOX10 and MYRF expression was reported by CD4 expression, sorted the cells on CD4, and transplanted the SOX10/MYRF- transduced mHTT hGPCs into neonatal shiverer mice. At 9 weeks of age, some of the transplanted mice were given DOX (orally, introduced into their water ad lib) so as to trigger SOX10 and MYRF expression, while others were not given DOX, thereby serving as matched controls (FIG. 11E). At 13 weeks of age (a time point by which normal hGPCs typically initiate myelination, while untreated mHTT hGPCs have not yet done so; FIGs. 11F and 11G), the mice were sacrificed and their brains sectioned and immunostained for MBP. It was found that DOX(+) mice in which donor-derived hGPCs SOX10 and MYRF were induced exhibited significant numbers of MBP + myelinating oligodendrocytes in the host’s engrafted white matter. Quantitatively, DOX(+) mice engrafted with SOXlO/MYRF-transduced, DOX-regulated GENEA20 GPCs exhibited robust myelinogenesis: 28.6% ± 0.8% (n = 3 mice; mean ± SEM) of donor cells expressed MBP by 13 weeks, while no donor cells in identically engrafted DOX(-) mice (n = 6 mice) developed detectable MBP expression (p < 0.0001). By way of comparison, 18.1% ± 2.1% (n = 5) of normal GENEAl9-derived GPCs developed MBP expression by that same time point, indicating that the SOXlO/MYRF-transduced HD hGPCs were at least as efficient as normal hGPCs in MBP-defmed myelinogenesis in vivo. [0174] In DOX(+) mice engrafted with SOX10/MYRF -transduced GENEA20 hGPCs, the resultant oligodendrocytes proved sufficient to induce the formation of nodes of Ranvier by resident shiverer axons, which exhibited the typical clustering of BIV- spectrin flanked by CASPR1 that characterizes nodal architecture (FIGs. 11L and 11M). In contrast, by that same time point, no donor cells in DOX(-) control mice had developed MBP expression (FIGs. 11H-

I I J), nor were clearly defined nodes observed, despite analogous donor cell engraftment (FIG.

I IK). These data indicated that the forced expression of SOX10 and MYRF was sufficient to rescue both oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination by mHTT-expressing hGPCs.

Example 7 - mHTT Impairs Human Astroglial Differentiation In Vivo

[0175] Since hGPCs give rise to astrocytes as well as oligodendrocytes, the mHTT- associated defect in oligodendroglial lineage progression, along with the RNA expression data indicating a transcriptional impediment to glial differentiation upstream of the astrocyte- oligodendrocyte fate choice, suggested an analogous impediment to astrocytic differentiation.

On that basis, it was next asked if mice neonatally injected with mHTT-expressing hGPCs (GENEA20 derived) exhibited any differences in astrocytic differentiation in vivo relative to mice injected with normal HTT sibling control hGPCs (GENEA19). To that end, the same mice examined earlier for the effect of HD genotype on myelinogenesis were used to assess its effect on the maturation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-defmed white matter astrocytes. The control and HD hGPC-engrafted shiverer brains were immunostained at 8, 13, and 18 weeks after neonatal graft using a species-specific anti-human GFAP antibody.

[0176] It was found that astrocytic maturation from engrafted hGPCs was markedly deficient in the HD (GENEA20) hGPC-engrafted brains assessed (n = 12 total, across the 3 time points) relative to their control (GENEA19) hGPC-engrafted counterparts (n = 10). Focusing on the most rapidly and heavily engrafted white matter compartments of the corpus callosum and internal capsules, it was found that GFAP-defmed astrocytic differentiation by HD hGPCs was significantly diminished relative to that of control GPCs and remained so through the 18-week observation point (FIGs. 12A-12F). To validate this observation quantitatively, those brains sacrificed at both 13 weeks and 18 weeks were scored. At 13 weeks, the control hGPC- engrafted mice showed appreciable GFAP + astrocytic maturation, such that 5.9% ± 0.5% of human donor cells in the corpus callosum expressed GFAP (n = 4 mice; included 170 GFAP + out of 2,669 total scored donor cells); in contrast, only 3.3% ± 0.3% of human cells were GFAP + in mHTT GPC-engrafted callosa (n = 5 mice; 60 GFAP + out of 2,153 scored donor cells) (p = 0.026) (FIG. 121). By 18 weeks, the mHTT-dependent suppression of astrocytic maturation remained pronounced; by that point, 8.5% ± 1.0% of control-derived cells had developed a GFAP + astrocytic phenotype (n = 3 mice; 209 GFAP + out of 2,452 scored donor cells), while only 4.9% ± 0.8% of mHTT-expressing human donor cells did so (n = 4 mice; 147 GFAP + out of 3,522 scored donor cells) (p < 0.005) (FIG. 121). Together, these data indicate that astrocytic differentiation by mHTT-expressing hESC GPCs is significantly delayed relative to normal hESC GPCs (F = 16.31 [1,16 degrees of freedom (df)], 2-way ANOVA; p = 0.0009 overall). As a result, one might expect that the developmental circuit integration as well as the adult function of astrocytes might be impaired in HD.

Example 8 - mHTT GPC White Matter Astrocytes Developed Abnormal Fiber

Distributions and Domains

[0177] In light of the diminished and delayed astrocytic differentiation noted in the mHTT hGPC-engrafted mice, it was next asked whether the morphologies developed by those HD astrocytes that did mature were normal or whether their mature architectures ultimately differed from those of their more rapidly developing control hGPC-derived counterparts. Gross assessment revealed that the mature astrocytic morphologies of mHTT-expressing and control astrocytes differed in that the mHTT-expressing, HD-derived astrocytes typically failed to manifest the degree of radial symmetry of their control -derived counterparts (FIGs. 12G and 12H). To investigate this observation, Sholl analysis was used to assess the complexity of individual astroglial morphologies; Sholl analysis is based on the number of intersections of cellular processes with concentric circles placed at sequentially more distant radii (Sholl, D. A., “Dendritic Organization in the Neurons of the Visual and Motor Cortices of the Cat,” J Anat 87:387-406 (1953), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). By imaging anti human GFAP-immunostained cells in z stacks of l50-mm sections and reconstructing these in Neurolucida (MBF Biosciences), the fiber architectures of donor-derived astrocytes in the white matter of mice engrafted with two different lines of mHTT hESC hGPCs (GENEA18 and GENEA 20) was compared to those engrafted with hGPCs derived from two control hESC lines (C27 iPSCs and GENEA19 hESCs, the latter sibling to GENEA20). Sholl analysis revealed that the fiber complexity of the mHTT-expressing astrocytes was substantially diminished relative to astrocytes derived from their sibling control hGPCs (FIGs. 13A-13D). This effect was particularly evident in the comparison of mHTT astrocytes derived from GENEA20 hESCs to normal astrocytes derived from their matched GENEA19 siblings (FIGs. 12J-12P). The human astrocytes in the mHTT hGPC-engrafted chimeras differed significantly from those in the normal GPC-engrafted mice, with less fiber network complexity (FIG. 12J) and characterized by fewer yet longer processes (FIGs. 12K-12M). When the 3-dimensional Neurolucida tracings (FIGs. 120 and 12P) were additionally assessed by Fan-in radial analysis to assess the extent to which the fiber domain of each cell occupied its immediate volumetric environment (Dang et al., “Formoterol, A Long-Acting Beta2 Adrenergic Agonist, Improves Cognitive Function and Promotes Dendritic Complexity in a Mouse Model of Down syndrome,” Biol Psychiatry 75: 179- 188 (2014), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety), it was found that mHTT astrocytes exhibited significantly more regions that were unoccupied by glial processes than did control-derived astrocytes (FIGs. 12N-12P), indicative of a discontiguous and incomplete domain structure.

[0178] To better understand the transcriptional concomitants to these HD-associated morphological abnormalities in astrocyte morphology, the gene expression patterns of HD versus control-derived astrocytes were next assessed. To do so, CDl40a-defmed hGPCs were generated as per the standard protocol and then directed toward astrocytic differentiation by transitioning the cells to serum-containing media supplemented with 20 ng/mL BMP4. The cells were then sorted on the basis of CD44, which among brain cells is differentially expressed by astrocytes and their committed precursor cells (Cai et al.,“CD44-Positive Cells are Candidates for Astrocyte Precursor Cells in Developing Mouse Cerebellum,” Cerebellum 11 : 181-193 (2012); Liu et al.,“Chromatin Landscape Defined by Repressive Histone Methylation During Oligodendrocyte Differentiation,” JNeurosci 35:352-365 (2015), which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety). RNA-seq was then performed on the extracted RNA of HD and control-derived CD44-defmed astrocytes, which were confirmed as such by their virtually uniform expression of GFAP. This analysis revealed significant differences in gene expression by mHTT-expressing astroglia relative to control -derived CD44 + astroglia (FIGs. 14A-14C). Network analysis revealed the differential expression of four discrete modules, which included functional ontologies referable to (1) synaptic, post-synaptic, and receptor-associated genes; (2) endosomal transcripts; (3) desmosomal and cell-cell junction genes; and extracellular matrix components (FIGs. 14D-14H). Of these, the largest set of differentially expressed genes were those referable to synaptic and receptor modulation; these included a number of genes that regulate fiber outgrowth and motility, including MYL7 and MYLK2, the myosin light chain-7, and myosin light chain kinase-2, which were both sharply downregulated in mHTT-expressing astrocytes relative to controls (FIG. 14E). Importantly, the glial myosins and their kinases are involved not only in glial fiber elaboration but also in astroglial calcium signaling (Cotrina et al., “Cytoskeletal Assembly and ATP Release Regulate Astrocytic Calcium Signaling,” ./. Neurosco. 18:8794-8804 (1998), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). Their deficient expression in HD astroglia might then contribute to the abnormal morphological development of HD astrocytes (Khakh et al.,“Unravelling and Exploiting Astrocyte Dysfunction in Huntington’s Disease,” Trends Neurosci. 40:422-437 (2017); Octeau et al.,“An Optical Neuron-Astrocyte Proximity Assay at Synaptic Distance Scales,” Neuron 98:49-66 (2018), which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety) while predicting aberrant signaling within the glial syncytium of the HD brain (Jiang et al.,“Dysfunctional Calcium and Glutamate Signaling in Striatal Astrocytes from Huntington’s Disease Model Mice,” J Neurosci. 36:3453-3470 (2016), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). Together, these data serve to emphasize that HD is associated with deficient astrocytic differentiation and functional development, as well as with impaired oligodendrocytic maturation and myelination.

Discussion of Examples

[0179] These experiments suggest that white matter failure in HD is a product of an mHTT-dependent block in differentiation by affected hGPCs, such that mRNAs encoding a group of critical glial lineage transcription factors are differentially downregulated in mHTT- expressing hGPCs. The mHTT-associated inhibition of oligodendroglial differentiation in particular, as manifested by the downregulated expression of NKX2.2, OLIG2, and SOX10, is accompanied by the diminished expression of the SOXlO-regulated myelin regulatory factor MYRF. This results in the suppression of myelination, which requires the MYRF -dependent transcription of critical mRNAs associated with myelin biogenesis, such as MAG and MBP (Bujalka et al.,“MYRE is a Membrane-Associated Transcription Factor that Autoproteolytically Cleaves to Directly Activate Myelin Genes,” PLoS Biology 11 :el00l625 (2013); Emery et al., “Myelin Gene Regulatory Factor is a Critical Transcriptional Regulator Required for CNS Myelination,” Cell 138: 172-185 (2009), which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety). Interestingly, the downregulation of MYRF has been similarly noted in the mature oligodendrocytes of HD transgenic mice expressing especially long CAG repeats (150Q and 250Q) (Jin et al.,“Early White Matter Abnormalities, Progressive Brain Pathology and Motor Deficits in a Novel Knock-in Mouse Model of Huntington’s Disease,” Hum. Mol. Genet.

24:2508-2527 (2015), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). These data reveal that in humans, the mHTT-associated block in glial differentiation occurs at an earlier stage than previously appreciated and is apparent in bipotential hGPCs that generate astrocytes as well as oligodendrocytes. As such, it was found that mHTT significantly impedes the development of both glial lineages in HD and, importantly, that this developmental arrest occurs in human GPCs expressing CAG repeat expansion lengths of 40-48Q, which typify human HD. [0180] These expression data implicating the mHTT-dependent suppression of NKX2.2,

OLIG2, and SOX10 in the white matter deficiency of HD suggested that efforts to overexpress or otherwise activate the transcription of SOX10 and MYRF might be sufficient to relieve the myelination defect of this disease. This was found to be the case, in that forced expression of SOX10 and MYRF in mHTT-expressing hGPCs rescued the expression of critical genes involved in myelin biogenesis and restored myelination by HD-derived glia in vivo. As such, the targeted activation or upregulation of SOX10 and MYRF might serve as a means of restoring the myelination competence of mHTT- expressing oligodendrocytes in HD.

[0181] Besides the defects in oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination associated with mHTT, it was noted that astrocytic differentiation was also impaired, as might have been expected given the dysregulation of glial transcription as early as the NKX2.2 and OLIG2 stages, proximal to the astrocyte-oligodendrocyte fate choice. Such defective astrocytic maturation of HD hGPCs suggests that the HD phenotype might have a significant developmental component, in that any delay in astrocytic differentiation by mHTT-expressing hGPCs might impair developmental synaptogenesis and circuit formation, each of which depend upon astrocytic guidance (Clarke et al.,“Glia Keep Synapse Distribution Under Wraps,” Cell 154:267-268 (2013); Ullian et al.,“Control of Synapse Number by Glia,” Science (New York, NY) 291 :657- 661 (2001), which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety). In addition, any such disease-dependent delay in astrocytic maturation might be expected to contribute to the delayed (and ultimately deficient myelination of HD, given the metabolic dependence of

oligodendrocytes upon local astrocytes (Amaral et al.,“Metabolic aspects of neuron- oligodendrocyte-astrocyte interactions,” Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 4:54 (2013), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). It remains to be seen whether the rescue of astrocytic maturation by HD-derived hGPCs might relieve these effects on synaptic development and organization; if so, one may predict that astrocytic replacement might be sufficient to rescue the synaptic pathology of HD in a manner in which the rescue of oligodendrocytic differentiation appears sufficient to relieve the myelination defect of HD.

[0182] Besides their contributions to neural network formation and synaptic architecture, both hGPCs and astrocytes are intimately involved both in maintaining adult interstitial ion homeostasis and in the regulation of neuronal excitability. It was thus intriguing to note that the arrested terminal differentiation of mHTT-expressing hGPCs was associated with the widespread suppression of several families of glial potassium channels. These included the inwardly rectifying K + channels of the KCNJ family, including KCNJ8 and KCNJ9, among others. This mHTT-associated suppression of inwardly rectifying K + channels, which are responsible for potassium import into cells, might contribute to the hyper-excitability of HD neurons by inhibiting the glial reuptake of synaptically released K + (Shin et al.,“Expression of Mutant Huntingtin in Glial Cells Contributes to Neuronal Excitotoxicity,” J Cell Biol 171 : 1001-1012 (2005), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). In that regard, Khakh and colleagues have reported a deficit in astrocytic expression of the inwardly rectifying channel Kir4.l (KCNJ10) in mouse models of HD (Tong et al.,“Astrocyte Kir4. l Ion Channel Deficits Contribute to Neuronal Dysfunction in Huntington's Disease Model Mice,” Nat Neurosci 17:694-703 (2014), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety), which might similarly reflect the effect of disrupted glial maturation on potassium channel expression and glial K + uptake. In mHTT-expressing human GPCs, arrested at a stage before terminal astrocytic maturation, it appears that a large set of K + channel transcripts are coordinately suppressed, suggesting the inhibition of a shared upstream activator of K + channel gene expression. While the upstream regulators of these potassium channel genes have not yet been identified, it is reasonable to posit that the mHTT-dependent suppression of terminal glial differentiation might lead to a failure in the development of glial potassium homeostatic mechanisms that would otherwise regulate and protect neuronal activity.

[0183] Together, these observations suggest that any disruption in astrocytic maturation by HD hGPCs might be expected to significantly influence both the development and adult performance of neural networks in HD. Importantly, a corollary of these findings is that the replacement of mHTT-expressing hGPCs by their wild-type or genetically corrected counterparts might be sufficient to restore functional astrocytes and oligodendroglia to affected HD brain.

This possibility was first suggested by the ability of neonatally delivered wild-type hGPCs to outcompete diseased hGPCs in models of congenital hypo-myelination (Windrem et al., “Neonatal Chimerization with Human Glial Progenitor Cells can Both Remyelinate and Rescue the Otherwise Lethally Hypomyelinated Shiverer Mouse,” Cell Stem Cell 2:553-565 (2008), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety), and it has similarly been noted that neonatal glial replacement is sufficient to correct deficient potassium homeostasis in HD transgenic mice as well (Benraiss et al.,“Human Glia can Both Induce and Rescue Aspects of Phenotype in Huntington Disease. Nature Communications 7: 11758 (2016), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). Whether such competitive dominance of healthy over diseased cells may occur in adult HD remains to be established, but should this prove feasible, such a strategy of glial replacement might prove a realistic therapeutic avenue for disease amelioration in HD.

[0184] It will be appreciated that variants of the above-disclosed and other features and functions, or alternatives thereof, may be combined into many other different systems or applications. Various presently unforeseen or unanticipated alternatives, modifications, variations, or improvements therein may be subsequently made by those skilled in the art which are also intended to be encompassed by the following claims.