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Patent Searching and Data


Title:
MODULAR MOULD SYSTEM
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2021/110228
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Modular mould system for casting panels (180) made from a hardenable material, where the panel (180) comprises a front side (182) and a rear side (184) where ribs (188) are provided on the rear side (184), and where a top side, bottom side and edge sides are provided connecting the front (182) and rear (184) sides, and where a mould suitable for casting a specific panel (180) is assembled by parts of the mould system without cutting, drilling or welding.

Inventors:
BRO KARSTEN (DK)
Application Number:
PCT/DK2020/050347
Publication Date:
June 10, 2021
Filing Date:
December 04, 2020
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
CONNOVATE APS (DK)
International Classes:
B28B7/00; B28B7/16; B28B7/18; B28B7/34; B28B19/00; B28B23/02; E04G17/00
Foreign References:
FR1445307A1966-07-08
CN108372579A2018-08-07
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
PATRADE A/S (DK)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. Modular mould system for casting panels made from a hardenable material, where the panel comprises a front side and a rear side where ribs are provided on the rear side, and where a top side, bottom side and edge sides are provided connecting the front and rear sides, and where a mould suitable for casting a specific panel is as sembled by parts of the mould system without cutting, drilling or welding, where said mould system comprises: - A mould table, comprising an upper surface, limited by downwards projecting vertical sides, where the sides are provided with holes, said holes being spaced a first modular distance along the side, for example a hole every 50 mm, where the upper surface is magnetic;

A plurality of console brackets, where said console brackets have at least two flanges, a first flange provided with apertures interspaced the first modular distance for allowing the flange to be fastened to the vertical side of the mould table, and a second flange arranged at a right angle to the first flange, where said second flange is provided with at least one hole for con necting a side limitation to said console bracket; - A plurality of mould side limitations, made from bent metal plate, where a cross section perpendicular to a longitudinal direction of a mould side limitation has a general C-shape, defining a side suitable to be facing the castable material, said side having an upper flange and a lower flange connected to the side and, where a plurality of punch-out zones are provided in the side of the limitation adapted to face the castable material, where said punch-out zones are arranged in a modular pattern, and inter-spaced along the longitudinal direction of the mould side limitation with the second mod ular distance, and when a punch-out zone is removed a hole is provided, and where along the upper flange a further plurality of holes is provided, said holes being interspaced with the second modular distance, and where along the longitudinal side opposite the side suitable to face the castable material, are provided a number of catch frames, said catch frames connecting the opposite ends of the upper and lower flanges not being connected to the side suitable to face the castable material, and where a plurality of holes are pro vided through the bottom flange;

A plurality of carrying beams, having a length corresponding to the width of the casting table defining a longitudinal direction and terminating in two ends in opposite ends of the carrying beam, where the beam in the longitudinal direction is provided with a plurality of holes, mutually spaced with the first modular distance, and where in both ends a bracket is provid ed, said bracket is provided with a flange with at least on hole such that in use the flange is arranged on top of the side limitations such that the hole in the flange overlaps a hole in the side limitation;

One or more rib forming moulds, said rib forming moulds having a length defining a first dimension and a width defining a second dimension, where said rib forming mould has a tub-shaped side suitable to be at least partly inserted into the castable hardenable material, and where opposite the tub-shaped side a plurality of upstanding flanges are provided along one or both sides of the rib shaping mould at least in the first dimension, where each flange is provided with at least one hole, where the distance between two holes in adjacent flanges is a multiple of the first modular distance, such that in use the rib-forming mould may be fastened to at least one carry ing beam.

2. Modular mould system according to claim 1 wherein in use on a visible part of the mould table, the side limitations, the carrying beams, the rib forming moulds, and the one or more recess moulds markings are provided in the shape of numbers and/or letters are provided identifying the modular distance of a hole relative to one end of the mould table, the side limitations, the carrying beams, the rib forming moulds.

3. Modular mould system according to claim 1 wherein a first type of recess mould is dimensioned to correspond to the opening in a finished panel suitable to have a door installed in, where the mould sides are substantially perpendicular to the under side of the mould, and where the mould sides may be provided with one or more off set sections, and where a second type of recess is dimensioned to correspond to the opening in a finished panel suitable to have a window installed in, where the mould sides may be provided with one or more off-set sections, creating an opening with two cross sections.

4. Modular mould system according to claim 1 wherein distance brackets are provided, said distance brackets being bent in a general 90° bend, such that a first and second flange is created, where in the first flange two or more holes are provided, said holes being spaced the first distance, and where the second flange, when the holes in the first flange are superposed holes in a side limitation, is spaced from the same side limitation, and where the second flange has two sides connected with a free edge in one end and connected to the first flange in the opposite end, where one of said sides being the distance edge when the distance bracket is mounted on a side limitation is vertical, and where said distance edge is spaced a multiple of fractions of the first dis tance from a vertical axis through one of the holes in the first flange. 5. Modular mould system according to claim 4, wherein a plurality of distance brackets are provided where sets of two brackets are provided with the same multiple of fractions of the first distance from a vertical axis through one of the holes in the first flange, such that by arranging the distance brackets on two opposing side limita tions the same multiple of first distances from ends of the side limitations, the distance edges are the same distance removed from the end of the side limitations, whereby a side limitation may be arranged at right angles to the opposing side limitations when in contact with the two distance edges.

6. Modular mould system according to claim 1, wherein two types of side limi- tations are provided, in use suitable for moulding top and bottom edges and edge sides of panels, and in the side where the plurality of punch-out zones are provided adapted to face the castable material, a two-layer plate thickness is provided, where the punch- out zones penetrate both plate layers, and where the area of the punch-out zones in the layer adapted to face the castable material is larger than the area of the punch-out zone in the other plate layer.

7. Modular mould system according to claim 6, wherein bolts are provided for closing a punched-out zone having been punched out, where the bolt has a head and a threaded section extending from said head in a longitudinal direction of the bolt, and where the head has a thickness in the longitudinal direction equal to the plate layer adapted to face the castable material, and where the head in a direction orthogonal to the longitudinal direction has an extent substantially corresponding to the area of the punched out hole in the first plate layer.

8. Modular mould system according to claim 1 wherein the side limitations suitable for moulding edge sides of panels are provided with punch-out zones in the shape of longitudinal slots arranged perpendicularly to the longitudinal direction of the side limitation evenly distributed in the longitudinal direction, where the side adapted to face the castable material is provided with a two-layer plate thickness, where the punch-out zones penetrate both plate layers, and where the area of the punch-out zones in the layer adapted to face the castable material is larger than the area of the punch-out zone in the other plate layer such that the rim of the longitudinal slot in the inner plate layer is distance between 1 and 5 mm from the rim of the outer layer along the periphery of the longitudinal slot, and where a slot closing member is provided, said slot closing member having a dimension equal to or larger than the di mension of the longitudinal slot and means to fasten said slot closing member to the side limitation.

9. Modular mould system according to claim 8 wherein the slot closing member is provided with two holes allowing a reinforcement loop to be passed through the holes, and thereby through the mould limitation. 10. Modular mould system according to any preceding claim wherein the mould parts are available in three or more different heights corresponding to rib thicknesses of the finished panels.

11. Modular mould system according to any preceding claim wherein one or more recess moulds are provided, where said moulds have an underside suitable to come into contact with the top surface of the mould table, such that during casting of panels the casting and hardenable material cannot penetrate in between the underside of the mould and the surface of the mould table, where said recess moulds along two oppos ing sides have a plurality of upstanding flanges, where each flange is provided with at least one hole, where the distance between two holes in adjacent flanges is a multiple of the first modular distance, such that in use the recess mould may be fastened to at least one carrying beam. 12. Modular mould system according to claim 1 wherein the rib forming mould is an insulating member, suitable to be cast into the panel, and where the insulating member is suspended from the carrying beams by detachable flanges such that the insulating member can be left in situ when the carrying beams and the flanges are elevated. 13. Method of assembling a desired mould for casting a panel made from a castable hardenable material, where said desired mould is assembled using the mould system of claim 1 comprising the following steps:

- designing the panel to be manufactured in a computer-based design program, where said computer-based program can only select mould members from the modular mould system according to any of claims 1 to 12 , said design program creating a de sign file;

- transferring the design file to a mould design program, where said mould design program creates an output consisting of a list of parts from the mould system needed for assembly of the desired mould, and furthermore creates a 2D and/or 3D reproduc- tion of the desired mould identifying positions where:

- the parts of the mould shall be positioned on and relative to the mould table

- the fastening means to be used for assembling the specific part to the mould are identified and indicated in correct positions;

- the parts are fastened to the mould table and to each other respectively as indi- cated on the 3D reproduction of the desired mould.

Description:
Modular mould system

Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to a modular mould system for casting panels made from at hardenable material, typically concrete. Furthermore, the present invention also discloses a method of assembling a desired mould for casting a panel made from a castable, hardenable material.

Background of the Invention

In the industrial manufacturing of concrete panels it is well-known to use mould sys tems which mould systems come in a wide variety of shapes. Typically, a mould sys tem will comprise a moulding table, typically made from steel, onto which surface mould limitations are arranged. The mould limitations are typically a mixture of standard components which may or may not be reworked such that they are suitable for the particular dimensions in which the panel is to be cast and furthermore form materials for recesses or special features are purpose made.

Typically, a number of the items making up the mould material will be fastened to the casting plate, for example by drilling holes and fastening with bolts or screws whereas other items such as for example side limitations will be fastened to the moulding table by means of magnets.

These prior art systems all suffer from a number of drawbacks where the drawbacks which most of them have in common is the fact that it is quite labour intensive to pre pare a mould in that the custom made parts have to be made to exact specifications and fitted together with standard parts and furthermore they have to be fastened to the moulding table using manual labour.

At the same time, after having cast the panel and desiring to cast a panel with a differ ent design it is necessary to rework the moulding table in order to fill out any holes drilled in the moulding table necessary for casting the previous panel and drill new holes for fixing the mould work of the new panel to be cast. This requires a lot of handling of the mould equipment and at the same time requires skilled labour to understand the design of the panel such that the mould for the panel is assembled in the right manner with the combination of specialized parts and stand- ard parts. This process requires concentrated and correct measurements by the person nel and also precision working of the mould parts in order for the parts to be assem bled correctly.

Object of the Invention Consequently, it is the object of the present invention to address these drawbacks and provide further advantages as will be apparent from the description below.

Description of the Invention

The invention addresses this by providing a modular mould system for casting panels made from a hardenable material, where the panel comprises a front side and a rear side where ribs are provided on the rear side, and where a top side, bottom side and edge sides are provided connecting the front and rear sides, and where a mould suita ble for casting a specific panel is assembled by parts of the mould system without cut ting, drilling or welding, where said mould system comprises:

A mould table, comprising an upper surface, limited by downwards projecting vertical sides, where the sides are provided with holes, said holes being spaced a first modular distance along the side, for example a hole every 50 mm, where the upper surface is magnetic; - A plurality of console brackets, where said console brackets have at least two flanges, a first flange provided with apertures interspaced the first modular distance for allowing the flange to be fastened to the vertical side of the mould table, and a second flange arranged at a right angle to the first flange, where said second flange is provided with at least one hole for con- necting a side limitation to said console bracket;

A plurality of mould side limitations, made from bent metal plate, where a cross section perpendicular to a longitudinal direction of a mould side limitation has a general C-shape, defining a side suitable to be facing the castable material, said side having an upper flange and a lower flange connected to the side and, where a plurality of punch-out zones are provided in the side of the limitation adapted to face the castable material, where said punch-out zones are arranged in a modular pattern, and inter-spaced along the longitudinal direction of the mould side limitation with the second mod ular distance, and when a punch-out zone is removed a hole is provided, and where along the upper flange a further plurality of holes is provided, said holes being interspaced with the second modular distance, and where along the longitudinal side opposite the side suitable to face the castable material, are provided a number of catch frames, said catch frames connecting the opposite ends of the upper and lower flanges not being connected to the side suitable to face the castable material, and where a plurality of holes are pro vided through the bottom flange;

A plurality of carrying beams, having a length corresponding to the width of the casting table defining a longitudinal direction and terminating in two ends in opposite ends of the carrying beam, where the beam in the longitudinal direction is provided with a plurality of holes, mutually spaced with the second modular distance, and where in both ends a bracket is pro vided, said bracket is provided with a flange with at least on hole such that in use the flange is arranged on top of the side limitations such that the hole in the flange overlaps a hole in the side limitation;

One or more rib forming moulds, said rib forming moulds having a length defining a first dimension and a width defining a second dimension, where said rib forming mould has a tub-shaped side suitable to be at least partly inserted into the castable hardenable material, and where opposite the tub-shaped side a plurality of upstanding flanges are provided along one or both sides of the rib shaping mould at least in the first dimension, where each flange is provided with at least one hole, where the distance between two holes in adjacent flanges is a multiple of the first modular distance, such that in use the rib-forming mould may be fastened to at least one carry ing beam;

One or more recess moulds, where said moulds have an underside suitable to come into contact with the top surface of the mould table, such that during casting of panels the casting and hardenable material cannot penetrate in between the underside of the mould and the surface of the mould table, where said recess moulds along two opposing sides have a plu rality of upstanding flanges, where each flange is provided with at least one hole, where the distance between two holes in adjacent flanges is a multiple of the first modular distance, such that in use the recess mould may be fas tened to at least one carrying beam.

The rigorous use of modules (x and y distance, only a limited amount of different heights of for example side limitations, few sizes of bolts etc.) completely eliminates the need for measuring and fitting when assembling the mould. As will be explained below, the technical drawing from which the personnel shall build the mould may be completely free of measurements, as all assembly positions are indicated on a 2D or 3D drawing with reference to marks on the mould equipment.

Particularly the consistent use of bolt assemblies where the bolts are fitted through holes in the different mould parts provides a high flexibility and at the same time a high security that the moulds are assembled in a correct manner. For example the con sole brackets are provided with modular holes in the first flange which when super posed the vertical sides of the mould table will indicate a number of through-going holes such that it is possible to insert a bolt through the bracket and the vertical side of the mould table and thereby assemble the mould bracket in the desired position.

The other flange of the console bracket comprises at least one hole where this hole may be superposed a hole provided in the lower flange of the side limitation such that the side limitation may be secured to the moulding table. At the same time, when a plurality of console brackets are used along the length of a side limitation the modular system ensures that it is possible to mount the further console brackets to the vertical sides of the moulding table with precise spacing such that the apertures in the first flange of a console bracket will be superposed holes in the lower flange of the side limitations.

In this manner it is easy to assemble and disassemble a mould. Furthermore, as the first and second dimensions are different it is only possible to assemble appropriate parts meaning that for example that it is not possible to fasten a console bracket to a carrying beam and vice versa.

With the system it is possible for even relatively untrained personnel to assemble the mould system into a mould and by using the regularity of the modular mould system it is ensured that the standard mould parts are assembled in a safe and secure manner. For example the recess moulds for doors and windows shall be in close contact with the mould table such that a castable material does not penetrate between the lower side of the recess moulds and the mould table. For these purposes the recess moulds are provided with (in use) upstanding flanges having holes in the flanges such that when these holes are superposed holes in the carrying beam and assembled by bolts, and the carrying beams are fastened to the top flange of the side limitations, the underside of the recess mould will be at the correct level due to the modularity of the system. At the same time it is retained in that level during the casting process due to the stiffness of the system and the rigidity of particularly the carrying beams.

Likewise, the rib-forming moulds are particular in that they are to be kept at a certain distance above the top surface of the moulding table in order to allow hardenable ma terial to be arranged between the top of the mould table and the underside of the rib- forming moulds. During casting the castable material will be filled up along at least part of the vertical side limitations of the rib-forming moulds such that when the con crete has set and the rib-forming moulds have been removed a concrete rib will have been formed. In a particular embodiment the rib forming mould is an insulating member, suitable to be cast into the panel, and where the insulating member is sus- pended from the carrying beams by detachable flanges such that the insulating mem ber can be left in situ when the carrying beams and the flanges are elevated. With this embodiment it is facilitated that the mould system may be used for the manufacture of sandwich elements, as will be discussed further below. Furthermore, the rib-forming moulds will create areas of the concrete panel where the material thickness is thinner such that a concrete panel having reinforcement ribs is manufactured. In a still further advantageous embodiment of the invention the modular mould system in use on a visible part of the mould table the side limitations, the carrying beams, the rib forming moulds, and the one or more recess moulds markings are provided in the shape of numbers and/or letters are provided identifying the modular distance of a hole relative to one end of the mould table, the side limitations, the carrying beams, the rib forming moulds.

In this manner it is possible to positively identify the apertures/holes which should be used for assembling a particular part of the mould and in this manner by very simple directions ensure that the mould is correctly assembled.

This makes it particularly easy to assemble, particularly if a detailed drawing of the mould to be assembled is provided to the personnel assembling the mould, for exam ple in the shape of a 3D-rendering of the mould, it will be possible to identify all the assembly points and where bolts are to be placed. By using the markings as a guide the mould may be assembled very accurately and with a minimum of mistakes.

In a still further advantageous embodiment of the invention a first type of recess mould is dimensioned to correspond to the opening in a finished panel suitable to have a door installed in, where the mould sides are substantially perpendicular to the underside of the mould, and where the mould sides may be provided with one or more off-set sections, and where a second type of recess is dimensioned to correspond to the opening in a finished panel suitable to have a window installed in, where the mould sides may be provided with one or more off-set sections, creating an opening with two cross sections.

Typically a building structure will have standard door sizes and a limited number of window size variations. By manufacturing these moulds as recess moulds in a stand ard manner it is possible to incorporate them into the mould system according to the present invention with a high degree of certainty that the recesses are arranged in the correct position.

In a further advantageous embodiment of the invention distance brackets are provided, said distance brackets being bent in a general 90° bend, such that a first and second flange is created, where in the first flange two or more holes are provided, said holes being spaced the first distance, and where the second flange, when the holes in the first flange are superposed holes in a side limitation, is spaced from the same side lim itation, and where the second flange has two sides connected with a free edge in one end and connected to the first flange in the opposite end, where one of said sides being the distance edge when the distance bracket is mounted on a side limitation is vertical, and where said distance edge is spaced a multiple of fractions of the first distance from a vertical axis through one of the holes in the first flange. The distance brackets are particularly useful when a certain dimension of the panel is not the exact modular distance in which the mould system is made such that by using distance brackets included in the system where the distance brackets are mounted on the side limitations in the modular system, but has a distant edge which is offset from the modular distance, it is possible by selecting the appropriate distance bracket to a achieve virtually any desired distance. This should also be seen in combination with the fact that side limitations are not connected in the corners, but that for example when a side limitation is fastened to a side of the mould table as discussed above the other side limitation typically arranged at 90° to the first side limitation is held onto the mould table by a magnet and therefore may be placed virtually at any position along the length of the first side limitation.

In a still further advantageous embodiment a plurality of distance brackets are provid ed where sets of two brackets are provided with the same multiple of fractions of the first distance from a vertical axis through one of the holes in the first flange, such that by arranging the distance brackets on two opposing side limitations the same multiple of first distances from ends of the side limitations, the distance edges are the same distance removed from the end of the side limitations, whereby a side limitation may be arranged at right angles to the opposing side limitations when in contact with the two distance edges.

In providing a number of sets of fixed distance brackets having their distant edge at certain distances relating to the modular measurement it is possible when assembling a mould to very quickly collect and pick the correct distance brackets in order to achieve the desired distance. In a further advantageous embodiment of the invention there are two types of side limitations provided in use suitable for moulding top and bottom edges and edge sides of panels, and in the side where the plurality of punch-out zones are provided adapted to face the castable material, a two-layer plate thickness is provided, where the punch- out zones penetrate both plate layers, and where the area of the punch-out zones in the layer adapted to face the castable material is larger than the area of the punch-out zone in the other plate layer. One of the main advantages of the present moulding system is the fact that it may be reused virtually infinitely and for a large number of different shapes and sizes in that by providing the punched-out zones it is possible to create holes in the side limitations in any desired position. By providing the side limitations with a double plate structure where the size of the apertures facing the castable material is larger than the corre- sponding aperture in the second plate layer, it is possible to provide a closing knot having a head with a size corresponding to the aperture in the first plate layer, such that by inserting the bolt into the aperture the head of the bolt will cover the aperture facing the castable material thereby leaving a substantially flush mould side. In a further embodiment of this system longitudinal slots are arranged also in a double plate structure where the longitudinal slots may be closed off with a similar system with a closing plate having an area corresponding to the area of the aperture in the first plate, i.e. the plate suitable to face the castable material and a second plate smaller than the first plate such that it is possible to fasten these closing plates in the longitu- dinal apertures thereby blocking off the aperture and rendering the side of the side limitation substantially flush.

At the same time the longitudinal slots may also be used to hold reinforcement loops which are quite normal in use on vertical side edges of concrete panels such that by overlapping loops from two adjacent panels and inserting a vertical locking rebar it is possible to efficiently lock two adjacent concrete panels to each other.

Further advantageous embodiments are described with reference to the dependent claims. The invention is also directed to a method of assembling a desired mould for casting a panel made from a castable, hardenable material where the desired mould is assem bled using the mould system as described above and particularly in independent claim 1 comprising the following steps:

- designing the panel to be manufactured in a computer-based design program, said design program creating a design file;

- transferring the design file to a mould design program, where said mould design program creates an output consisting of a list of parts from the mould system needed for assembly of the desired mould, and furthermore creates a 3D reproduction of the desired mould identifying positions where:

- the parts of the mould shall be positioned on and relative to the mould table

- the fastening means to be used for assembling the specific part to the mould are identified and indicated in correct positions;

- the parts are fastened to the mould table and to each other respectively as in dicated on the 3D reproduction of the desired mould.

Particularly when having a 3D reproduction of the desired mould it is relatively easy for the personnel assembling the mould to identify places where the mould parts are to be placed and assembled, and furthermore due to the modularity of the system the risk of making mistakes is very low. The modularity of the system also makes assembly routines very simple in that it is the same type of assembly method which is used for virtually all the elements of the mould system and as such it is straightforward to as- semble the moulds and to pick the desired mould parts.

With respect to picking the desired mould parts the computer-based design program may also deliver a list of parts which are necessary in order to assemble the desired mould such that it is easy to pick the appropriate parts from the storage and deliver them to the vicinity of the mould table and thereby assemble the mould from the de livered parts. This should give rise to no confusion or mistakes. Description of the Drawing

The invention will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawings wherein Figure 1 illustrates an example of an embodiment where a modular mould is constructed on a mould table

Figure 2 illustrates a configuration of the mould where the castable area is not flush with the side of the mould table

Figure 3 illustrates distance brackets Figure 4 illustrates the catch frames in a cross-section on a side limi tation

Figure 5 illustrates a further special feature of the present invention

Figure 6, 7 and 8 illustrate concrete wall elements Figure 9 illustrates a side limitation meeting in a 90° corner with a further side limitation

Figure 10 illustrates a mould corner for a slab mould Figure 11 illustrates a cross-section through a simple panel Figure 12 illustrates a cross-section through a panel having basically the same shape of the concrete part as described with refer ence to figure 11

Figure 13 illustrates a further development of the panel according to figure 12 Figure 14 illustrates a further advantageous embodiment of the inven tion Figure 15 illustrates a cross-section through a mould

Detailed Description of the Invention

From the discussion above it should be apparent that the mould system according to the present invention comprises a large number of parts which may be assembled to provide formwork for casting panels, particularly panels having a rib structure and particularly panels cast from a cement based material such as for example concrete. The explanation below will concentrate on the main components of the modular mould system, but it is believed that a skilled person will recognize that any missing parts or accessories are implicitly included in the description. In figure 1 is illustrated an example of an embodiment where a modular mould is con structed on a mould table 10. The mould table is in this embodiment planar, but as will be explained below the mould table may also be provided with a curvature. In this embodiment the mould table 10 is provided with vertical sides 12. The vertical sides 12 are provided with holes 14 where the holes along the vertical sides are spaced a first modular distance X.

The first modular distance is consistent for all the mould parts being provided with holes spaced at the first modular distance. The surface of the mould table 10 may ad vantageously be magnetic such that magnets 50 may be used to hold down form sides as will be discussed below.

On the upper surface of the mould table 10 is arranged side limitations 20, 22. In the side limitations 20, 22 are provided punched out zones which will be explained in more detail below. The punched out zones are made by removing a substantial part of the periphery of a hole, but leaving enough material to retain most of the material of the side limitations in place. However, the leftover material is such that by for exam ple hitting it with a hammer or a special tool the punched out zone may be liberated from the plate material and thereby reveal a hole 24 through the side limitation. All the punched out zones are provided with a mutual distance corresponding to a sec ond modular distance Y. The modular side limitations have a general C-shape such that there is a lower flange 26 and another flange 28 connected with a side 30 suitable to be facing the castable material. The C-shape is at least for a part of the cross-section provided with a double plate structure 32, 34. This double plate structure provides a number of advantages, the main advantage being that in the punched out zones the area of the punch out in the plate 32 facing the castable material is larger than the punched out hole in the rear plate 34. As the material in a punched out zone is removed a hole will appear having two diam eters. The holes are typically used for fastening one side limitation to another or fas tening other mould equipment to the side limitation in that particular modular posi tion. However, when the side limitation is to be used for a different purpose it is very easy to close off the hole by providing a bolt where the head of the bolt has the same plate thickness as the front plate 32 and a shape corresponding to the shape of the hole, if it is circular a diameter corresponding to the diameter of the punched-out hole in the front plate and a threaded body extending from the head of the bolt such that the bolt may be fastened into the punched-out zone by the head of the bolt resting against the inner plate, and due to the thickness of the bolt it will be flush with the front sur face of the side limitation and providing a simple knot on the backside will fasten the bolt in position thereby rendering the side limitation “good as new”.

Turning back to figure 1 the side limitations are furthermore provided with catch frames 36. The catch frames are provided such that they connect the upper flange with the lower flange on the side of the side limitation facing away from the side suitable to be facing the castable material.

The catch frames naturally provides extra strength and stability to the side limitation, but also provides the possibility of fastening the side limitation to the surface of the mould table 10.

Turning to figure 4 again the catch frames 36 may be seen in a cross-section on a side limitation in the right hand part of the figure. The catch frame is provided with a lower profile 38 which profile is designed to be engaged by a corresponding design on a magnet 50 such that as a magnet is placed over the profile 38 and activated the magnet 50 will clamp down on the profile thereby fixating the side limitation in place relative to the surface of the mould table 10. Turning back to figure 1 another way of fastening a side limitation 20 to the mould table 10 is illustrated in that console brackets 40 are provided. The console brackets are provided with holes spaced at the first modular distance X such that they may be bolted onto the vertical sides 12 of the mould table 10. The console brackets have two flanges, one flange is provided for being bolted onto the side 12 of the mould table, whereas the other flange when the console brackets 40 are bolted onto the mould table will be substantially flush with the surface of the mould table and further be provided with one or more holes. These holes in the upper flange of the console bracket 40 are superposed holes provided in the lower flange 26 of the side limitation.

Consequently, it is possible by means of the bolt 42 to fasten the side limitation to the console bracket 40 thereby creating a fixed and stable fixation of the side limitation with respect to the mould table. Turning to figure 2 a configuration of the mould is illustrated where the castable area 90 is not flush with the side of the mould table 10 and as such a further side limitation 20’ is provided parallel to the side limitation 20 arranged along the edge of the mould table. The side limitation 20’ may be fastened to the mould table, for example by magnets as discussed above with reference to figure 4 or may be held by the carrying beams 51. The carrying beams have a length such that they can span from one side to the opposite side of the mould table 10. The carrying beams are provided with holes along the length where the holes 24 are spaced with the second modular distance Y.

Each end of a carrying beam 51 is provided with a bracket 52 where the bracket is provided with a flange whereby it is possible to fasten the bracket to the top flange 28 of the side limitation 20, for example by a simple bolt connection. In this manner it is ensured that the carrying beams are arranged at given distances relative to the ends of the side limitations 20 which again are arranged due to the modularity of the first hole distance X relative to the moulding table 10. In the illustrated embodiments in figures 1 and 2 the carrying beams 51 are as illustrated especially in figure 1 carrying a rib forming mould 100 and a recess mould 150. Both types have upstanding flanges 102, 152 where the flanges 102, 152 are spaced lengthwise so that it is possible to fasten the flanges and thereby the rib forming floating mould and the recess forming mould in the second modular distance holes in the carrying beams 51 thereby ensuring that the modular construction of the castable panel is maintained.

The rib-forming floating mould 100 is designed such that when suspended from the carrying beams by the flanges the mould itself will be elevated from the surface of the moulding table 10 thereby allowing castable material to float in between the floating mould 100 and the surface of the moulding table 10. As more castable material is in troduced into the castable area 90 the castable material will cause the rib-forming floating mould to be immersed in the castable material and therefore the name a float ing mould.

As the pressure on the mould due to the provision of castable material between the underside of the mould and the surface of the moulding table 10 a plurality of bulk heads 104 are provided for retaining the shape of the underside of the mould and providing rigidity to the rib-forming floating mould per se.

The recess is as described above fastened to the carrying beam 51 by the upstanding flanges 152. As the recess mould is supposed to be in contact with the surface of the moulding table 10 no castable material should penetrate between the underside of the recess 150 and the surface of the mould table 10. The carrying beams 51 urge the re- cess into contact with the surface of the moulding table 10. Again, the modularity of the carrying beams and the side limitations ensures that it is easy to position the mould parts in their correct relative positions with a large degree of security.

The rib-forming floating mould may be provided with adequate slip such that it is pos- sible to remove the mould from the hardenable material. With the recess, however, the mould cannot be removed before the material is completely hardened, and furthermore for designs of some recesses it is necessary to have surfaces absolutely perpendicular to the surface of the finished panel. For these reasons and due to the inherent crimp of for example cement-based materi als, it is necessary for the recess 150 to be able to shrink in order to loosen the recess 150 from the surrounding hard material.

This is carried out by the sides of the recess being able to slide relative to each other in slide zones 154 whereby the outer dimensions of the recess mould 150 may be made slightly smaller whereby it is possible to remove the recess mould 150.

Turning to figure 2 a number of “spare parts” are illustrated. The side limitations are provided in standard lengths, but in some instances the standard length of the side limitations might be insufficient or they might be too long. For this purpose the mould system is provided with fractional side limitations 120, 121, 122. It should be noted that also other lengths of the fractional side limitations may be provided, but for illus trative purposes only three are illustrated.

Common for the fractional side limitations is the fact that they are all provided with punched out zones which are spaced at the second modular distance Y such that the fractional side limitations may be completely integrated into a side limitation and still maintain the modular regularity built into the system. In order to assemble a side limi- tation and a fractional side limitation or two side limitations plate members 124 are provided which of course also are provided with holes where the holes are interspaced with the second modular distance Y.

A further aspect of the invention is the fact that corners provided between two side limitations are created without connecting the side limitations 20 to each other. The corner 160 is created and stabilized due to the fact that the side limitations are fas tened to the moulding table 10 with sufficient force such that a stable comer is provid ed. In this context it should also be noted that the side limitations, side limitation fractions and all other parts of the mould being placed on the moulding table is designed to be available in a fixed number of heights such that the concrete panels being designed in a mould as a rule will have a chosen modular height. This also makes it easy for the personnel assembling a mould to make sure that the correct parts are always used for assembling the mould in that it is quite easy to detect the difference between an 80 mm high side limitation and a 100 mm high side limitation.

Due to the construction of the corners without the side limitations forming the comer being fastened to each other the invention provides distance brackets as indicated in figure 3. The distance brackets 170 are provided with two flanges 172, 174. In this particular embodiment the distance brackets are furthermore provided with a handle 176, but such a handle is not necessary for the function of the distance bracket, but for ease of handling and positioning. The first flange 172 is provided with two holes 177, 178 which are provided with a mutual distance corresponding to the second modular distance Y. In this manner it is possible to fasten the distance brackets onto the side limitation’s 20 upper flange 28 in the punched-out zones already provided in the upper flange 28. In this manner the precise location of the distance bracket is known and fixed. The second flange 174 is provided with a distant edge 175 where the distant edge in use is substantially vertical with respect to the side limitation member 20.

As the position of the distance bracket is well-known and fixed due to the fixation, for example with bolts through the holes 177, 178 the exact location of the distance bracket is known. Furthermore, by having a certain offset between the distant edge 175 and the apertures 177, 178 provided in the second flange it is possible to use the distant edge as a well-known hold against which a second side limitation 20” may be pushed before being fixed for example with magnets to the surface of the moulding table 10. In this manner the exact dimension of the finished panel may be determined simply by altering the modularity provided by the side limitations and the punch-out zones due to the distance of the distant edge 175 provided in the distance brackets.

For example, in the other distance bracket 170’ just illustrated for illustrative purpos- es, but of course in a real mould the distance bracket will not be positioned in this par ticular position the distant edge 175’ is further offset from the aperture 178’ such that when pushing a side limitation 20” against the distant edge 175’ it will be positioned slightly different than if the distance bracket 175 was used. Consequently, by provid ing a plurality of distance brackets having various offsets between the distant edge and the aperture 178, 178’ it is possible to select the appropriate size of the panel having the desired dimensions even though such dimensions vary from the modules by which the punched-our zones are arranged in the for example side limitations and recesses etc. Consequently, the distance brackets provide further flexibility to the mould sys tem according to the present invention.

Turning to figure 5 a further special feature of the present invention will be described. However, the attention is first directed to figure 7 and 8 illustrating the rear side of a panel cast in a mould system according to the present invention. On the left hand side face 200 of the panel 180 is provided a number of reinforcement loops 202. When assembling concrete panels of this type it is common practice to provide the panels with loops 202 such that by arranging two panels next to each other and in the same line these loops will overlap and by vertically inserting reinforcement bars through overlapping loops 202 it is possible to lock adjacent concrete panels to each other.

However, as is evident from figures 7 and 8 these loops extend beyond the side limita tion of a mould and therefore extend out of the castable material. According to the present invention this is achieved as will be explained with reference to figures 4 and 5.

In side limitations suitable to cast what will be a vertical side 200 of a panel are pro vided longitudinal slots 204. These longitudinal slots provided in the double plate structure have the same design as the punched-out zones such that the longitudinal aperture’s area in the front plate 32 is larger than the same aperture’s area in the rear plate 34. In this manner it becomes possible to mount a longitudinal plate 206 having a thickness corresponding to the front plate 32 and an area corresponding to the area of the aperture in the front plate. Thereby the plate will rest against the smaller aper ture in the rear plate. The longitudinal plate 206 is provided with apertures such that the reinforcement loop may be inserted through the apertures in the plate and fixed in the side limitation as illustrated in figure 4. In this manner the loop 202 will extend outside the side limita tion whereas reinforcement 202’ will be inside the mould and thereby when castable material is introduced into the mould the reinforcement 202’ will be cast into the con- crete panel. In this manner the reinforcement loops 202 are provided as extending from the side edge 200 of the concrete panel.

Turning to figures 6, 7 and 8 various views of a concrete panel manufactured in a mould system according to the present invention and as described above are illustrat- ed. The concrete panel 180 has a front side 182 and a rear side 184. In the concrete panel 180 is provided two recesses 185, 186 suitable to mount windows in, and a fur ther recess 187 suitable for a door. These recesses are shaped as explained above, for example with reference to figures 1 and 2. In figures 7 and 8 are illustrated the rear side 184 of a panel from which it is evident that the panel has a rib structure where ribs 188 are arranged according to the examiner’s calculations in order to provide the panel with the necessary strength.

This is typically done when casting panels using high strength concrete in that high strength concrete has a number of good qualities relating to strength, tightness, dura bility etc. but on the other hand the high strength concrete is slightly more expensive due to the high cement content.

Therefore it is advantageous for a cost reason to be able to save the amount of con- crete, but at the same time provide the same or better strength to a concrete panel. This is carried out by providing ribs 188 in the panel 180 such that the overall strength of the panel will be provided, but at a much lesser weight and material use.

Between the ribs 188 are sections of panel which have a smaller material thickness, and these areas are manufactured in the mould system by using the rib-forming float ing moulds in order to create the “tubs” 189 between the ribs 188. The “tubs” will typically have a significantly smaller thickness than the ribs 188.

As is evident from figures 6, 7 and 8 the recesses desirable in these types of panels may vary and therefore also the recesses used in the mould both with respect to re cesses used for windows and doors, but also the rib-forming floating mould size may vary. However, typically when manufacturing concrete panels for a larger construc tion a number of panels will have the same dimensions and therefore it is possible to some degree to reuse the various recesses and rib-forming floating moulds.

Alternatively, the recesses and rib-forming moulds may be provided with fraction parts as was explained above with reference to figure 2 relating to the side limitations such that it is possible to for example extend a rib-forming floating mould such that it will have a new modular distance by adding a fraction. These fractions are not illus- trated, but work according to the same principle as is described with reference to the fractions of the side limitations with respect to figure 2.

In figures 6, 7 and 8 are illustrated concrete wall elements, but the modular mould system according to the present invention is also suitable to manufacture floor slabs, i.e. panels used between floors, for example in a two storey or higher building, see fig. 9 and 10. These floor slabs are special in that usually they have a certain profile in the sides such that two adjacent floor slabs may be more or less inter-fitted creating a load distributing connection. For this purpose the present modular mould system is provid ed with floor slabs side limitations 220. As already explained above the comers of the mould are not fastened to each other and therefore it is possible as illustrated in figure 9 to have a side limitation 220 meeting in a 90° corner with a further side limitation 221 such that by providing adequate interface ends on the side limitation 221 it will follow the profile 222 of the side limitation 220. In this instance the side limitations 220 are fastened to an extension 10’ of the moulding table 10 by special brackets 40’.

The second side limitation 221 is fastened as already described above with the catch frames provided in the side limitations and magnets 50 in order to fixate the side limi tation 221 to the mould table 10. Turning back to figure 9 the opposite side limitation 220’ may independently from the modularity of the system be slid back and into con tact with the side limitation 221 whereby a desired dimension of the floor slab may de designed.

In figures 11-14 are schematically illustrated cross-sections through various types of panels which may be advantageously manufactured with the present invention.

In figure 11 is illustrated a cross-section through a simple panel 200 which for exam ple when provided with recesses may be similar to the panel illustrated in figure 7. The panel 200 comprises a thin front plate 203 and two ribs 234, 236 which are pro vided for structural strength and stability. Reinforcement is not illustrated, but the skilled person will naturally recognize that the panel should be reinforced with suita ble and adequate reinforcement.

Turning to figure 12 a cross-section through a panel having basically the same shape of the concrete part as described above with reference to figure 11, but an insulating element 210 has been introduced into the still wet concrete in order to hold the insulat ing panel firmly to the rear side of the concrete panel. Turning to figure 13 a further development of the panel according to figure 12 is illus trated where insulation strips 208 are provided in order to avoid a thermal bridge be ing construction such that the panel according to figure 13 may be built into a struc ture without creating any thermal bridges and thereby lower insulation properties.

In a still further advantageous embodiment illustrated in figure 14 a completely en closed insulating panel 210’ is illustrated. In order to manufacture this type of panel the concrete needed for casting the front plate 203 is introduced into the mould and the insulating panel is subsequently positioned in the mould. As will be apparent from the discussion with respect to figure 15 below it is also possible to preposition the insulating member 210, 210’ in the mould prior to introducing castable material as will be explained below.

After having cast the front plate 203 the rest of the mould is filled with castable mate- rial either of the same type or maybe of another type depending on the characteristics of the concrete panel and particularly the characteristics of the upper surface 212 which may either be an interior or an exterior surface in the finished building.

As indicated by dashed lines 214 any thermal bridge between the front plate 203 and the rear plate 212 may be broken, for example by positioning an insulating strip simi lar to the strip 208 in figure 13 where the dashed lines indicate this position. In order to create a stable and strong panel rebars 216 embedded in the front plate material and the rear plate material may be provided in order to create the mechanical and structur al stability of a concrete part surrounding the insulating member 210’.

Turning to figure 15 a cross-section through a mould in the process of preparing a concrete panel according to any of figure 12-14 is illustrated. On the mould table 10 is arranged side limitations 20 where one side limitation 20 is attached to the mould ta ble 10 by means of the bracket 40. On the other side the side limitation is attached by means of the catch frames where the profile 38 engages a magnet 50 clamping the side limitation 20 to the surface of the mould table 10.

Two carrying beams 51 are arranged superposed the castable area 90 in between the side limitations 20. From the carrying beams 51 projects in a downwards direction support legs 218 which support legs 218 have a relatively small cross-section. The support legs engage the upper side of an insulating panel 210, 210’ and hold the insu lating panel in the correct distance above the surface of the mould table 10 allowing the castable material to flow under the insulating panel thereby creating the front plate thickness 203.

Once the entire mould has been filled with castable material and allowed to set, for example achieving a cross-section as illustrated with reference to figure 14 the carry ing beams 51 may be lifted vertically whereby the support legs 218 are retrieved from the panel and due to their very limited cross-section will only leave very tiny holes in the plate which depending on the maturity of the castable material will either be closed by themselves or very easy to repair and have no influence on the overall struc ture of the panel.