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Title:
MULTI-LAYERED PET CHEW
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2021/030727
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present disclosure provides a multilayered pet chew. The multilayered pet chew has a core, a first interior layer circumferentially disposed onto the core, and an exterior layer circumferentially wrapped around the first interior layer. The pet chew may further comprise one or more additional interior layers circumferentially disposed between the first interior layer and the exterior layer. Each layer of the multilayered pet chew may be distinct from other layers in at least one characteristic such as composition, formulation, color, density, texture, smoothness, brightness, hardness, roughness, etc.

Inventors:
VAN EYK GREGORY (US)
POTTER TIFFANY (US)
STRAZAR KELLI (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2020/046457
Publication Date:
February 18, 2021
Filing Date:
August 14, 2020
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
SPECTRUM BRANDS INC (US)
International Classes:
A01K15/02; A23K10/20; A23K50/40
Foreign References:
US20170208838A12017-07-27
JP2005312336A2005-11-10
US20090235872A12009-09-24
US6277420B12001-08-21
US4921714A1990-05-01
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SMITH, Ryan, C. et al. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

We claim:

1. A multilayered pet chew comprising: a core around a central axis of the pet chew; a first interior layer circumferentially disposed onto the core; and an exterior layer circumferentially wrapped around the first interior layer, wherein, the first interior layer and the outer layer comprise different formulations.

2. The multilayered pet chew of claim 1, further comprising: at least one additional interior layer, wherein each of the at least one additional interior layer(s) is circumferentially disposed between the first interior layer and the exterior layer, and wherein each of the at least one additional interior layer(s) is different from the first interior layer and the exterior layer with respect to at least one characteristic.

3. The multilayered pet chew of claim 2, the number of the at least one additional interior layer is from 1 to 10, or from 2 to 8, or from 3 to 6, or from 4 to 5.

4. The multilayered pet chew of claim 1, further comprising: a second interior layer circumferentially disposed between the first interior layer and the exterior layer, wherein, the second interior layer comprises a different formulation from the first interior layer and the exterior layer.

5. The multilayered pet chew of claim 4, further comprising: a third interior layer circumferentially disposed between the second interior layer and the exterior layer, wherein, the interior layers and the exterior layer comprise different formulation.

6. The pet chew of any of claims 1 to 5, further comprising a coating layer disposed onto at least a portion of an outer surface of the exterior layer.

7. The pet chew of any of claims 1 to 6, wherein the pet chew is substantially straight through a length thereof.

8. The pet chew of any of claims 1 to 7, wherein the pet chew has a substantially cylindrical configuration.

9. The pet chew of any of claims 1 to 8, wherein the pet chew has a substantially uniform and layer-by-layer cross-section through a length thereof.

10. The pet chew of any of claims 1 to 9, wherein each of the core, the interior layer(s), and the exterior layer has a substantially circular cross-section or circumference thereof.

11. The pet chew of any of claims 1 to 10, wherein the core and the interior layer(s) each independently comprises a meat selected from the group consisting of pork, beef, chicken, duck, goat, horse, buffalo, venison, deer, elk, moose, liver, fish, veal, lamb, turkey, goose and combinations thereof.

12. The pet chew of any of claims 1 to 11, wherein the core and the interior layer(s) each independently comprises a plant selected from a group consisting of apple, apricot, banana, blackberry, blackcurrant, blueberry, coconut, cherry, cherimoya, date, durian, fig, feijoa, gooseberry, grape, grapefruit, jackfruit, jambul, kiwifruit, kumquat, lemon, lime, loquat, lychee, mango, mangosteen, melon, cantaloupe, honeydew, watermelon, nectarine, orange, passionfruit, peach, pear, plum, prune, pineapple, pomegranate, pommelo, raspberry', rambutan, redcurrant, satsuma, strawberry, tangerine, ugh fruit and combinations thereof.

13. The pet chew of any of claims 1 to 12, wherein the core and the interior layer(s) each independently comprises a plant selected from a group consisting of artichoke, asparagus, avocado, bamboo shoots, bean sprouts, beans, beet, endive, bell pepper, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, calabaza, carrot, cauliflower, celery, cucumber, radish, eggplant, garlic, fiddlehead, galangal, ginger, beet greens, collard greens, dandelion greens, kale, mustard, spinach, Swiss chard, turnip greens, Jerusalem artichoke, jicama, lettuce, mushrooms, okra, onion, parsley, parsnip, peas, peppers, plantain, pumpkin, radicchio, radish, rutabaga, spinach, squash, sweet potato, tomato, turnip, water chestnut, yams, and combinations thereof.

14. The pet chew of any of claims 1 to 13, wherein the core and the interior layer(s) each independently comprises a plant selected from a group consisting of artichoke, asparagus, avocado, bamboo shoots, bean sprouts, beans, beet, endive, bell pepper, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, calabaza, carrot, cauliflower, celery, cucumber, radish, eggplant, garlic, fiddlehead, galangal, ginger, beet greens, collard greens, dandelion greens, kale, mustard, spinach, Swiss chard, turnip greens, Jerusalem artichoke, jicama, lettuce, mushrooms, okra, onion, parsley, parsnip, peas, peppers, plantain, pumpkin, radicchio, radish, rutabaga, spinach, squash, sweet potato, tomato, turnip, water chestnut, yams, and combinations thereof.

15. The pet chew of any of claims 1 to 14, wherein at least one interior layer(s) comprises an animal rawhide.

16. The pet chew of any of claims 1 to 15, wherein the exterior layer comprises an animal rawhide.

17. The pet chew of any of claims 6 to 15, wherein the coating layer comprises a meat slurry.

18. The pet chew of any of claims 1-17, further comprising a food additive selected from the group of preservative, sorbitol, desired colorant, glycerin, yeast extract, flavor, salt, cochineal, potassium sorbate, or combinations thereof.

19. The pet chew of any of claims 1-18, further comprising a health ingredient selected from the group consisting of glucosamine, chondroitin, flax seed, calcium, parsley seed, peppermint, chlorophyll, vitamin E, L-carnitine, and lycopene, and combinations thereof.

20. The pet chew of any of claims 1-19, further comprising one or more coloring compounds selected from a group consisting of caramel coloring, malliouse, allura red AC, annatto, astaxanthin, betanin or beetroot red, blue 2, brilliant black BN, brilliant blue FCF, brown FK, canthaxanthin, carmine, carotene, Color Blue, curcumin, erythrosine, orange number 1, iron oxide, orange B, ponceau 6R, red 40, red 2G, saffron, sunset yellow FCF, tartrazine, titanium dioxide, turmeric, yellow 5, yellow 2, or any combination of two or more thereof.

21. The pet chew of any of claims 1 to 20, further comprising one or more auxiliary ingredients selected from the group consisting of a binding agent, a moisturizing compound, a salt, a sugar, an acid, a mold inhibitor, a flavoring compound, an aroma compound, a coloring compound and any combination of two or more thereof.

22. A multilayered pet chew comprising: a core around a central axis of the pet chew; a first interior layer circumferentially disposed onto the core; a second interior layer circumferentially disposed onto the first interior layer; a third interior layer circumferentially disposed onto the second interior layer; an exterior layer circumferentially disposed onto the third interior layer; and a coating layer disposed on at least a portion of an outer surface of the exterior layer, wherein, the interior layers and exterior layer comprise different formulations.

23. The multilayered pet chew of claim 22, wherein the core comprises a chicken liver.

24. The multilayered pet chew of any of claims 22 and 23, wherein the first interior layer and the second interior layer each comprises a meat selected from the group consisting of pork, beef, chicken, duck, goat, horse, buffalo, venison, deer, elk, moose, liver, fish, veal, lamb, turkey, goose and combinations thereof.

25. The multilayered pet chew of claims 24, wherein the first interior layer comprises duck meat, and the second interior layer comprises beef meat.

26. The multilayered pet chew of any of claims 22-25, wherein the third interior layer and the exterior layer each comprises an animal rawhide selected from the group consisting of bovine hide, pork hide, goat hide, sheep hide, deer hide, horse hide.

27. The multilayered pet chew of claim 26, wherein the third interior layer comprises pork hide and the exterior layer comprises bovine hide.

28. The pet chew of any of claims 1 to 27, wherein the pet chew has a length from about 10 cm to about 50 cm.

29. The pet chew of any of claims 1 to 28, wherein the pet chew has a weight from about 50 g to about 500 g.

30. A method for making a multilayered pet chew comprising: providing a core; wrapping the core with a first sheet, thereby forming a first interior layer circumferentially disposed onto the core, wherein the first sheet forms at least one full wrap around the core; and wrapping the first interior layer with a last sheet, thereby forming an exterior layer circumferentially around the first interior layer, wherein the last sheet forms at least one full wrap around the first interior layer; and wherein the first interior layer and the exterior layer comprise different formulations.

31. The method of claim 30, further comprising: sequentially wrapping the first interior layer with at least one additional sheet before wrapping with the last sheet, thereby forming at least one additional interior layer circumferentially disposed between the first interior layer and the exterior layer, wherein each of the at least one additional sheet forms at least one full wrap around an adjacent layer thereof, wherein the interior layers and the exterior layer comprise different formulations.

32. The method of claim 31, wherein the number of the additional sheets or the number of the one or more additional interior layers are correspondingly from 1 to 10.

33. The method of claim 30, further comprising: wrapping the first interior layer with a second sheet prior to wrapping with the last sheet, thereby forming a second interior layer disposed between the first interior layer and the exterior layer, wherein the second sheet forms at least one full wrap around the first interior layer, wherein, the interior layers and the exterior layer comprise different formulations.

34. The method of claim 33, further comprising: wrapping the second interior layer with a third sheet prior to wrapping with the last sheet, thereby forming a third interior layer disposed between the second interior layer and the exterior layer, wherein the third sheet forms at least one full wrap around the second interior layer, wherein, the interior layers and the exterior layer comprise different formulations.

35. The method of any of claims 30-34, further comprising: disposing a coating layer onto at least a portion of an outer surface of the exterior layer.

36. The method of any of claims 30-35, wherein the core comprises a meat.

37. The method of any of claims 30-36, wherein at least one of the interior layer(s) comprises a meat.

38. The method of any of claims 30-36, wherein at least one of the interior layer(s) comprises a rawhide.

39. The method of any of claims 30-38, wherein the exterior layer comprises a rawhide. 40. The method of any of claims 35-39, wherein the coating layer comprises a meat slurry.

Description:
MULTI-LAYERED PET CHEW

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

This application is being filed on 14 August 2020, as a PCT International patent application, and claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/886,923, filed August 14, 2019, the entirety of which is incorporated herein by reference.

INTRODUCTION

Traditional pet treat or pet chew products consist essentially of rawhide or dehydrated rawhide, which has high density and toughness. Although rawhide can sustain chewing in a dog’s mouth for relatively long time, it actually does not maintain a dog’ s interest due to the limited acceptability.

Manufacturers have attempted to solve this problem of reduced acceptability by incorporating numerous ingredients and processing techniques into the manufacture of rawhide-based chews for dogs, such as incorporating meat in the middle of a rawhide stick. However, pets often quickly loose interest in the pet treat once the meat portion outside the rawhide stick is consumed. Many bone-shaped pet treats actually do not effectively prolong the time of chewing.

In addition, most traditional pet chews lack a complex configuration or a fanciful appearance, and do not give the pet owner an acceptable reaction when purchasing the pet chew. Therefore, what is needed is a pet chew that provides a texturally or visually appealing product that stimulates a human to purchase the pet chew. What is also needed is a pet chew that produces a unique taste profile when initially chewed by a pet and attracts the pet to remain interested in the treat. In addition, it is also desirable for a complex or multi-component configuration that prolongs the pets’ interests in the treat. MULTI-LAYERED PET CHEW

Summary of disclosure

The present disclosure overcomes the problems inherent in the prior art and provides for a distinct advance in the art. In some aspects, the present disclosure relates to a multilayered pet chew comprising a core around a central axis of the pet chew; a first interior layer circumferentially disposed onto the core; and an exterior layer circumferentially wrapped around the first interior layer, wherein, the first interior layer and the exterior layer comprise different formulations. In some embodiments, the pet chew further comprises at least one additional interior layers, wherein each of the at least one additional interior layers is circumferentially disposed between the first interior layer and the exterior layer, and wherein the interior layers and the exterior layers are different from each other with respect to at least one characteristic. The characteristic herein may refer to composition, formulation, ingredient, color, softness, texture, toughness, or any other chemical, nutritional, or physical properties. The number of the at least one additional interior layers of the multilayered pet chew may be from 1 to 10.

In some embodiments, a multilayered pet chew may comprise a core around a central axis of the pet chew; a first interior layer circumferentially disposed onto the core; a second interior layer circumferentially disposed onto the first interior layer, and an exterior layer circumferentially wrapped around and disposed onto the second interior layer, wherein, the interior layers and the exterior layer comprise different formulations.

In some embodiments, a multilayered pet chew may comprise a core around a central axis of the pet chew; a first interior layer circumferentially disposed onto the core; a second interior layer circumferentially disposed onto the first interior layer; a third interior layer circumferentially disposed onto the second interior layer; and an exterior layer circumferentially wrapped around and disposed onto the third interior layer, wherein, the interior layers and the exterior layer comprise different formulations.

The multilayered pet chew described herein may further comprise a coating layer disposed onto at least a portion of an outer surface of the exterior layer. The coating layer may comprise a meat slurry such as chicken slurry. The coating layer may further comprise other useful and beneficial ingredients described herein.

In embodiments, the pet chew may be substantially straight through a length thereof. In embodiments, the pet chew may have a substantially cylindrical configuration or a roll-like shape.

In embodiments, each of the core, the interior layer(s), and the exterior layer has a substantially circular cross-section or circumference thereof.

In some embodiments, the present pet chew comprises a meat including but not limited to pork, beef, chicken, duck, goat, horse, buffalo, venison, deer, elk, moose, liver, fish, veal, lamb, turkey, goose and combinations thereof.

In some embodiments, the present pet chew comprises animal rawhide. The animal rawhide may be present in the core, the interior layer(s), or the exterior layer, or any combinations thereof.

The pet chew may further include a useful or beneficial component such as a starch, a flour, a plant of any part thereof, an auxiliary ingredient, a health ingredient, a supplemental ingredient, a food additive, a binding agent, an edible adhesive. The useful or beneficial component may be present in any part of the pet chew such as the core, each of the interior layer(s), the exterior layer, the coating layer, at the interface between the core and the first interior layer, or any interface between two adjacent layers, or an outer surface of the coating layer.

In some aspects, the present disclosure relates to a method of making a pet chew described herein. In some embodiments, a method for making a multilayered pet chew comprises: providing a core; wrapping the core with a first sheet, thereby forming a first interior layer circumferentially disposed onto the core, wherein the first sheet forms at least one full wrap around the core; and wrapping the first interior layer with a last sheet, thereby forming an exterior layer circumferentially around the first interior layer, wherein the last sheet forms at least one full wrap around the first interior layer; and wherein the first interior layer and the exterior layer comprise different formulations.

In some embodiments, the method further comprises sequentially wrapping the first interior layer with at least one additional sheet before wrapping with the last sheet, thereby forming at least one additional interior layer circumferentially disposed between the first interior layer and the exterior layer, wherein each of the at least one additional sheet forms at least one full wrap around an adjacent layer thereof, wherein the interior layers and the exterior layer comprise different formulations. The number of the at least one additional sheet or the number of the at least one additional interior layer may be correspondingly from 1 to 10.

In some embodiments, a method for making a multilayered pet chew comprises providing a core; wrapping the core with a first sheet, thereby forming a first interior layer circumferentially disposed onto the core; wrapping the first interior layer with a second sheet, thereby forming a second interior layer disposed onto the first interior layer, wherein the second sheet forms at least one full wrap around the first interior layer; and wrapping the second interior layer with a last sheet, thereby forming an exterior layer circumferentially disposed onto the second interior layer, wherein the last sheet forms at least one full wrap around the second interior layer, and wherein the interior layers and the exterior layer comprise different formulations.

In some embodiments, a method for making a multilayered pet chew comprises providing a core; wrapping the core with a first sheet, thereby forming a first interior layer circumferentially disposed onto the core; wrapping the first interior layer with a second sheet, thereby forming a second interior layer disposed onto the first interior layer, wherein the second sheet forms at least one full wrap around the first interior layer; wrapping the second interior layer with a third sheet, thereby forming a third interior layer disposed onto the second interior layer, wherein the third sheet forms at least one full wrap around the second interior layer; and wrapping the third interior layer with a last sheet, thereby forming an exterior layer circumferentially disposed onto the third interior layer, wherein the last sheet forms at least one full wrap around the second interior layer, and wherein the interior layers and the exterior layer comprise different formulations.

The methods described herein may further comprise applying a coating layer onto at least a portion of an outer surface of the exterior layer. The methods described herein may further comprise heating or drying after wrapping each layer. Selected definitions

As used herein, “weight percent,” “wt%, “percent by weight,” “% by weight,” and variations thereof refer to the concentration of a substance as the weight of that substance divided by the total weight of the composition and multiplied by 100. It is understood that, as used here, “percent,” “%,” and the like are intended to be synonymous with “weight percent,” “wt%, etc.

As used herein, “g” represents gram; “oz” represents ounce, and one ounce is equivalent to about 28.35 g; “L” represents liter; “mg” represents “milligram (10 3 gram);” “mL” represents milliliter (10 3 liter); “cm” represents centimeter (10 2 meter); “mm” represents millimeter (10 3 meter); one inch is equivalent to about 2.54 cm. The unit of temperature used herein is degree Celsius (°C).

“Aspect ratio” used herein refers to the ratio of the length or height of a three- dimensional object to the cross-section width thereof.

The term “about” is used in conjunction with numeric values to include normal variations in measurements as expected by persons skilled in the art, and is understood have the same meaning as “approximately” and to cover a typical margin of error, such as ± 10 % of the stated value. The term “about” also encompasses amounts that differ due to different equilibrium conditions for a composition resulting from a particular initial composition. Whether or not modified by the term “about,” the claims include equivalents to the quantities.

It should be noted that, as used in this specification and the appended claims, the singular forms “a,” “an,” and “the” include plural referents unless the content clearly dictates otherwise. Thus, for example, reference to a composition containing “a compound” includes having two or more compounds that are either the same or different from each other. It should also be noted that the term “or” is generally employed in its sense including “and/or” unless the content clearly dictates otherwise.

In the interest of brevity and conciseness, any ranges of values set forth in this specification contemplate all values within the range and are to be construed as support for claims reciting any sub-ranges having endpoints which are real number values within the specified range in question. By way of a hypothetical illustrative example, a disclosure in this specification of a range of from 1 to 5 shall be considered to support claims to any of the following ranges: 1-5; 1-4; 1-3; 1-2; 2-5; 2-4; 2-3; 3-5; 3-4; and 4- 5.

The term “substantially free” may refer to any component that the composition of the disclosure lacks or mostly lacks. When referring to “substantially free” it is intended that the component is not intentionally added to compositions of the disclosure. Use of the term “substantially free” of a component allows for trace amounts of that component to be included in compositions of the disclosure because they are present in another component. However, it is recognized that only trace or de minimus amounts of a component will be allowed when the composition is said to be “substantially free” of that component. Moreover, the term if a composition is said to be “substantially free” of a component, if the component is present in trace or de minimus amounts it is understood that it will not affect the effectiveness of the composition. It is understood that if an ingredient is not expressly included herein or its possible inclusion is not stated herein, the disclosure composition may be substantially free of that ingredient. This is similarly true for ingredients that are expressly excluded, allowing a composition to be substantially free of that expressly stated ingredient.

The methods and compositions of the present disclosure may comprise, consist essentially of, or consist of the components and ingredients of the present disclosure as well as other ingredients described herein. As used herein, “consisting essentially of’ means that the methods and compositions may include additional steps, components or ingredients, but only if the additional steps, components or ingredients do not materially alter the basic and novel characteristics of the claimed methods and compositions.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. l is a perspective view of an embodiment pet chew according to the present disclosure.

FIG. 2 is another perspective view of another embodiment pet chew according to the present disclosure.

FIG. 3 is an enlarged view of an embodiment pet chew according to the present disclosure. FIG. 4A is a partial view of a first exemplary embodiment pet chew showing the multilayered structure thereof.

FIG. 4B is a partial view of a second exemplary embodiment pet chew showing the multilayered structure thereof. FIG. 4C is a partial view of a third exemplary embodiment pet chew showing the multilayered structure thereof.

FIG. 4D is a partial view of a fourth exemplary embodiment pet chew showing the multilayered structure thereof.

FIG. 5 illustrates an embodiment method of making a multilayered pet chew according to the present disclosure.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The present disclosure provides compositions and methods for making pet food or pet chews or pet chews. In some aspects, the present disclosure relates to a multilayered pet chew comprising a core around a central axis of the pet chew; a first interior layer circumferentially disposed onto the core; and an exterior layer circumferentially wrapped around the first interior layer, wherein, the first interior layer and the exterior layer comprise different formulations. In some embodiments, the pet chew further comprises at least one additional interior layer, wherein each of the at least one additional interior layer is circumferentially disposed between the first interior layer and the exterior layer, and wherein each of the at least one additional interior layer is different from the first interior layer and the exterior layer with respect to at least one characteristic.

The present disclosure is based upon the discovery that pet chews having a multilayered configuration and a combination of multiple meat layer(s) and rawhide layer(s) of various animal sources provide unique and fanciful texture, visual appearance, and taste palatability, which can stimulate an animal and increase an animal’s interest in consuming the treat. In addition, the separate layers of the pet chew may have distinct characteristics such as formulation, color, flavor, density from each other. Notably, the exterior rawhide layer provides sufficient toughness and hardness, and also protects the interior meat layers from being quickly consumed by the animal, thereby extending the chewing time and prolonging the animal’s interests.

Pet chew

Now referring to FIGS. 1-3 and 4A-4D, particular embodiments of the multilayered pet chew will be described. FIG. 1 shows an embodiment of pet chew 10 having a longitudinal central axis 105. The pet chew 10 is substantially straight along the central axis 105, and has a substantially cylindrical configuration and a roll-like shape. However, other configurations and shapes having one or more curvatures along the central axis 105 are also possible. FIG. 2 shows a side of pet chew 10, which has a core 110, a first interior layer 120 circumferentially surrounding and disposed onto the core 110, and an exterior layer 150 circumferentially surrounding and disposed onto the first interior layer 120. As shown in FIG. 3, pet chew 10 may comprise additional interior layers 130 and 140 circumferentially disposed between the first interior layer 120 and the exterior layer 150. As illustrated in FIG.1, each of the core 110, the interior layer 120, and the exterior layer 150 is visible at one or both sides of the pet chew 10. The pet chew 10 has a substantially uniform cross-section. The cross-section of pet chew 10 may have various shapes, including but not limited to circular, ellipse, oval, triangle, square, rectangular, or other irregular shapes. As an exemplary example, the cross-section of the pet chew is substantially circular. Each of the interior layer and the exterior layer may independently have at least one full wrap (360 degree wrap around the central axis 105), or at least 2 full wraps, or at least 3 full wraps.

As shown in FIG. 4D, an exemplary' embodiment of pet chew 10’ has at least one additional interior layer (e.g., 120, 130, 140, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, and so on), and each of the at least one additional interior layer is circumferentially disposed between the first interior layer and the exterior layer sequentially around the central axis 105. The layers of the pet chew may be different from each other with respect to at least one characteristic, such as formulation, ingredient, color, softness, texture, toughness, or any other chemical, nutritional, physical properties. The number of the additional interior layer(s) may vary from 1 to 10, and the number of total layers (excluding the core) may correspondingly vary from 3 to 12, with 4-6 found to be about the optimum number desired by the end consumer.

FIG. 4B illustrates one exemplary embodiment pet chew 10’ comprising a core 110, a first interior layer 120, and an exterior layer 150. The first interior layer 120 is circumferentially disposed onto the core 110. The exterior layer 150 is circumferentially disposed onto the first interior layer 120.

FIG. 4C illustrates another exemplary embodiment pet chew 10’ comprising a core 110, a first interior layer 120, a second interior layer 130, and an exterior layer 150. The first interior layer 120 is circumferentially disposed onto the core 110. The second interior layer 130 is circumferentially disposed onto the first interior layer 120. The exterior layer 150 is circumferentially disposed onto the second interior layer 130.

FIG. 4A illustrates another exemplary embodiment pet chew 10’ comprising a core 110, a first interior layer 120, a second interior layer 130, a third interior layer 140, and an exterior layer 150. The first interior layer 120 is circumferentially disposed onto the core 110. The second interior layer 130 is circumferentially disposed onto the first interior layer 120. The third interior layer 140 is circumferentially disposed onto the second interior layer 130. The exterior layer 150 is circumferentially wrapped around and disposed onto the third interior layer 130.

The multilayered pet chew described herein may further comprise a coating layer 160 disposed onto at least a portion of an outer surface of the exterior layer.

The diameter of the core 110 can vary from about 0.5cm to about 8cm, or from about 1cm to about 6cm, or from about 1cm to about 4cm, or from about 2cm to about 3cm. The core and each layer may have substantially the same length through the central axis.

Each layer of the multilayered pet chew described herein may have various thickness in a range from about 0.5mm to about 10mm, or from 1mm to about 8mm, or from about 2mm to about 6mm, or from about 3mm to about 5mm.

The length and diameter of the multilayered pet chews described herein can be determined to a great extent by marketing preference. Typically, however, the overall length will range from about 4cm to about 40cm, or from about 6cm to about 30cm, or from about 8cm to about 25cm, or from about 10cm to about 22cm, with a length of about 19cm to about 21 cm found to be about the optimum desired length for the end consumer. The diameter of the multilayered pet chew can also vary within a wide range of about 1cm to about 10cm, or from about 2cm to about 8cm, or from about 3cm to about 6cm, or from about 4cm to about 5cm.

The pet chew 10 may have an aspect ratio from about 1 to about 20, or from about 2 to about 15, or from about 3 to about 10, or from about 4 to about 5.

In embodiments of the multilayered pet chews described herein, the core and each of the layers (interior layer and exterior) may comprise formulations different from each other.

Several factors must be taken into consideration in the formulation and processing of each component of the pet chews described herein. It is known that protein or meaty parts are most attractive to pets. In order to achieve the desired palatability, a portion of fresh meat, dehydrated meat, meat by-product, or meat flavoring could be formulated into each component of the pet chew. It is found that a competitive product can be produced with protein ranging from 2% to 50%. Preferably, a meat fraction of 5-30% found to be the most effective.

The core 110 and the interior layer(s) may each comprise a meat (or a meat mixture, or a meat base, or a meat-based composition, or a meat slurry used for the coating layer, or the like). The meat is made from animal meat and may comprise boneless chicken, duck, chicken liver, and combinations thereof. The animal meat may be fresh, dehydrated, powdered, and extract or frozen. The frozen animal meat is defrosted at about 0 °C to about 5 °C. Once the animal meat is defrosted, the animal meat is weighed. Once the predetermined amount of animal meat is weighed, the meat is placed in a grinder, the animal meat(s) is ground and mixed with the specific desired ratio of animal meat(s) and stored in a container as a meat base. It should be noted that the meat base may be frozen for later use or may be used immediately after the meat base is prepared. Further, one should appreciated that although boneless chicken, duck and chicken liver are noted, the meat base can also include beef, pork, lamb, goat, horse, buffalo, venison, elk, moose, chicken, turkey, fish, or any other seafood, or any combination of two or more thereof. Alternatively, the meat base need not include boneless chicken, duck and/or chicken liver and may comprise beef, pork, lamb, goat, horse, buffalo, venison, elk, moose, bone-in chicken, turkey, fish, or any other seafood, or any combination of two or more thereof. The term “meat” associated with “meat base” and “meat mixture” and “meat slurry” and “meat-based composition” are intended to encompass parts of animals, mammal and non-mammal, that can be used for a pet chew. This includes but is not limited to soft tissue, internal organs, cartilage and bone.

In one embodiment of the disclosure, duck meat is used as a meat base. Duck meat can include, for example, necks, breasts, or backs, or any combination of two or more thereof, with or without cartilage and/or bone ground to small sizes (i.e., emulsified). Duck meat can also include necks, breasts, or backs, or any combination of two or more thereof that are boneless and ground to desired sizes. Duck meat can include mechanically separated chicken (MSC). Duck meat can also include a mixture of boneless or bone-in duck, mixed together in various portions. The Duck meat is used in an amount of about 5-100% by weight of the meat-based composition. It should be appreciated that the other animal sources, including various sections of the animal can be used to provide a final taste or consistency for the meat. In embodiments where other meat sources are used, the total meat content is 5% to 100% by weight of the meat- based composition.

As described, the exterior layer may comprise a rawhide. Any one of the interior layers may also comprise a rawhide different from the exterior layer. The rawhide may be from an animal source such as pork, bovine, beef, cow, deer, goat, sheep, horse, veal, fish, or any combinations thereof. Alternatively, the exterior layer 150 may be plant-based, or derived from vegetal sources, or free or substantially free from rawhide and/or meat.

Alternatively, each the interior layer(s) and the exterior layer may independently comprise a plant-based material such as flour or starch, substantially free from rawhide. The plant-based layer(s) may resemble a rawhide sheet with respect to color, texture, taste, smell, firmness, toughness, or other characteristics. The plant-based layer(s) may balance the meaty fillings and also improve palatability such as crispiness when chewed by pets.

The pet chew 10 described herein may include other useful or beneficial components, such as auxiliary ingredient, food additive, health ingredient, supplemental ingredient, etc. These components or ingredients may be present in the core, each of the interior layer(s), the exterior layer, the coating layer, or at the interface between the core and the first interior layer, or any interface between two adjacent layers, or an outer surface of the coating layer, or in any part of the pet chew 10.

The useful or beneficial components are described herein. In some embodiments, the pet chew 10 may comprise a grain-based composition comprising a grain or a flour or a starch derived from a plant. The plant may include wheat, oat, rice, corn, maize, barley, sorghum, rye, millet, amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, or combinations thereof.

The flour includes but is not limited to oat flour, soy flour, wheat flour, rice flour, potato flour, corn flour, rye flour, buckwheat flour, chestnut flour, chickpea flour, atta flour, pea flour, bean flour, amaranth flour, arrow root flour, taro flour, cattail flour, acorn flour, sorghum flour, or tapioca flour, or a combination of two or more thereof. The flour may be incorporated in amount of no more than 25% by weight of the grain- based composition. The flour may be present between about 1-50% including but not limited to 1%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, based on the total weight of the pet chew. Alternatively, the starch may be at least 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, based on the total weight of the pet chew.

A useful component is a starch or any carbohydrate of natural or vegetable origin. The starch may include amylose and/or amylopectin and may be extracted from plants, including but not limited to potatoes, rice, tapioca, com and cereals such as rye, wheat, and oats. The starch may also be extracted from fruits, nuts and rhizomes, or arrowroot, guar gum, locust bean, arracacha, buckwheat, banana, barley, cassava, konjac, kudzu, oca, sago, sorghum, sweet potato, taro, yams, fava beans, lentils and peas. The starch may be present between about 1-50% including but not limited to 1%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, based on the total weight of the pet chew. Alternatively, the starch may be at least 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, based on the total weight of the pet chew.

The starch employed herein may be raw starch, which may be understood as starch that has not seen a prior thermal molding history, such as extrusion or other type of melt processing step. The raw starch itself may also be native, which may be understood as unmodified Starch recovered in the original form by extraction and not physically or chemically modified. The raw starch may also be in powder form of varying particle size, which may be understood as milled and/or pre-sifted. It should be understood that the raw starch may also have varying degrees moisture present. The starch composition may include cellulose. The cellulose may be, for example, a long- chain polymer of polysaccharide carbohydrate. The cellulose may also be derived or extracted from plants. The cellulose may be incorporated into the starch composition between about 1-10% by weight of the starch composition.

Another useful component is a plant material, such as a fruit, vegetable, vegetable protein, fruit extract, vegetable extract and combinations thereof that can be consumed by a domestic pet. The plant material may be fresh, dehydrated, powdered, an extract or frozen. In embodiments where the plant material is frozen the plant material is defrosted at about 0 °C to about 5 °C. Once the plant material is defrosted, the plant material is weighed. Once the predetermined amount of plant material is weighed, the plant material is placed in a grinder, the plant material(s) is ground and mixed with the specific desired ratio of plant material (s) and stored in a container as a plant base. It should be noted that the plant base may be frozen for later use, or may be used immediately after the plant base is prepared. The plant base may be mixed with the meat-based composition or mixed with the grain-based composition.

A plant base material, as used herein, means a fruit, vegetable, vegetable protein, fruit extract and vegetable extract that can be consumed by a domestic pet, such as a dog.

In one embodiment of the disclosure, the plant base may include fruits such as, apple, apricot, banana, black berry, blackcurrant, blueberry, coconut, cherry, cherimoya, date, durian, fig, feijoa, gooseberry, grape, grapefruit, jack fruit, jambul, kiwifruit, kumquat, lemon, lime, loquat, lychee, mango, mangosteen, melon, cantaloupe, honeydew, watermelon, nectarine, orange, passionfruit, peach, pear, plum, prune, pineapple, pomegranate, pommelo, raspberry, rambutan, redcurrant, satsuma, strawberry, tangerine, ugli fruit and combinations thereof.

The plant base may include vegetables such as, artichoke, asparagus, avocado, bamboo shoots, bean sprouts, beans, beet, endive, bell pepper, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, calabaza, carrot, cauliflower, celery, cucumber, radish, eggplant, garlic, fiddlehead, galangal, ginger, beet greens, collard greens, dandelion greens, kale, mustard, spinach, swiss chard, turnip greens, Jerusalem artichoke, jicama, lettuce, mushrooms, okra, onion, parsley, parsnip, peas, peppers, plantain, pumpkin, radicchio, radish, rutabaga, spinach, squash, Sweet potato, tomato, turnip, water chestnut, yams, and combinations thereof.

Additionally, the plant base may comprise herbs, herbal extracts, vitamins, minerals, yeast products, soy products, may be incorporated into the plant base. Further, the plant base may also include food sources that provide phytochemicals. A non exclusive list phytochemicals include: carotenoids, lycopenes, beta cryptozanthin, flavonoids, indoles, Sulforaphane, isoflavones, allicin, genistein, polyphenols, anthocyanins, limonoids, sterols, capsaicin, elegiac acid and lignans.

In one example embodiment carotenoids are included in the plant base. In at least this example embodiment the carotenoids are included from a plant selected from a group consisting of carrots, cantaloupe, papaya, pumpkin, squash, sweet potatoes, broccoli, dried apricots, asparagus, kale, green leafy vegetables and combinations thereof. In related embodiments lycopenes are included in the plant base. The lycopenes are added with the addition of plants selected from a group consisting of tomatoes, tomato paste, tomato juice, guava, pink grapefruit, watermelon and combinations thereof. In other related embodiments, beta cryptozanthin are included in the plant base. Beta cryptozanthin are found in plants such as tangerines, papaya, oranges, peaches, mangoes, nectarines and combinations thereof.

In other example embodiments flavonoids extracted from plants such as soy, green tea, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, brussels sprouts, mustard greens, kale, and cauliflower, citrus fruits, onions and combinations thereof can be used in the plant base. In other example embodiments, indoles and sulforaphane, which are commonly found in cruciferous vegetables are added to plant base. Examples of cruciferous vegetables include, but are not limited to cauliflower, cabbage, garden cress, bokchoy, broccoli and brussels sprouts in other related embodiments, isoflavones are included in plant base. Isoflavones are commonly found in legumes, Such as beans, peas and lentils and soy products. In other related embodiments, allicin is added to the plant base, which can be found in plants such as onions and garlic. In example embodiments genistein is added through the addition of soy products, such as tofu. In other example embodiments, polyphenols can be added through the addition of green tea.

In yet other related embodiments, anthocyanins found in plants such as wild blueberries, bilberries and black berries can be included in plant base. Limonoids, found in citrus fruits such as clementine, grapefruit, kumquat, lemon, lime, mandarin, orange, tangerine and the like can also be added to plant base. In other embodiments, sterols from cruciferous vegetables, cucumbers, squash, sweet potatoes, soy foods, eggplant, whole grains, tomatoes and the like are included in plant base.

In embodiments where the addition of capsaicin is desired, the phytochemical can be added by including chili peppers. Similarly, in embodiments where elegiac acid is desired strawberries can be included in plant base. The addition of lignans, can be achieved by the addition of nuts and seeds. It should be appreciated that the addition of certain plants will include more than one phytochemical listed herein. Further, extract(s) of the aforementioned plants can be added to specifically add a desired phytochemical or combination of phytochemicals to the plant base.

Other sources of important nutrients for animals may also include seaweed, kelp, bluegreen algae, spirulina, Irish moss, dulse, nori, kombu, wakeme, alfalfa, fenugreel seed, wheatgrass, barleygrass and marine phytoplankton.

The plant material may be used in an amount of about 5% to 100% of the pet chew 10. It should be appreciated that the other plant sources, including various extracts, can be used to provide a final taste or consistency for the pet chew 10. In embodiments where other plant sources are used, the total plant content is 1% to 70% by weight of the entire pet chew.

Auxiliary ingredients present in the pet chew may include a binding agent, a salt, a sugar, an acid, a mold inhibitor, a flavoring compound, an aroma compound, a coloring compound, a moisturizing compound or any combination of two or more thereof.

The binding agent can be used in an amount between about 10% and about 75% by weight of the meat-based composition. In one example embodiment the binding agent is about 20% by weight of the meat-based composition. The type and amount of binding agent can be selected so that the resulting product is not sticky and no residue is left on the pet owners finger-tips or households surfaces, such as carpets. For example, the binding agent can be added to “buffer or to absorb fat content in the meat-based composition. The binding agent can also facilitate the blending of the various ingredients and allow the meat-based composition to hold a shape prior to being dried.

The binding agent can include, but is not limited to, oat flour, soy flour, wheat flour, rice flour, potato flour, corn flour, rye flour, buckwheat flour, chestnut flour, chickpea flour, atta flour, pea flour, bean flour, amaranth flour, arrow root flour, taro flour, cattail flour, acorn flour, sorghum flour, or tapioca flour, or a combination of two or more thereof. The flour, in this case wheat flour, may be incorporated in amount of no more than 25% by weight of the meat-based composition.

The aroma compound or flavoring compound, provide palatability enhancement respectively and include, but are not limited to, garlic (e.g., garlic concentrate, garlic oil, garlic powder, garlic aroma), onion (e.g., onion concentrate, onion oil, onion powder, onion aroma), natural smoke flavor, hickory, mesquite, anchovy, chicken, lobster, tikka, tandoori, parsley, spinach, saffron, digestive (liquid stomach contents of an animal, e.g., chicken), phosphate, yeast, or enzymatic liver (pork, turkey or chicken), or any derivative thereof, or any combination of two or more thereof. Additionally salt may be added to enhance flavor and can also provide particle binding in forming the meat- based composition. Coloring compounds provide cosmetic enhancement respectively and include, but are not limited to, caramel coloring, malliouse, allurared AC, annatto, astaxanthin, betanin or beetroot red, blue 2, brilliant black BN, brilliant blue FCF, brown FK, canthaxanthin, carmine, carotene, Color Blue, curcumin, erythrosine, orange number 1, iron oxide, orange B, ponceau 6R, red 40, red 2G, Saffron, Sunset yellow FCF, tartrazine, titanium dioxide, turmeric, yellow 5. yellow 2, or any combination of two or more thereof.

The humectant can be used to reduce water activity. Water activity is a measure of the availability of water in a food for microbial growth such as molds. Water activity is a primary method of controlling antimicrobial or mold growth. One example range of water activity is an aW value of less than 0.7. The humectant including sugar, or sugar alcohols can be used in an amount between about 0% and about 20% by weight of the meat-based composition, for example about 15% to 18% by weight of the meat-based composition. The humectant, can include, but is not limited to fructose, dextrose, maltodextrin, honey, high-fructose corn syrup, maltose, brown sugar, coconut sugar, date sugar, sucanat, molasses, turbinado sugar, dextrin, glucose, sucrose sucralose, glycerin or any derivative thereof, or any combination of two or more thereof.

Another useful component is a mold inhibitor. A non-exclusive list of mold inhibitors include, but is not limited to, potassium sorbate, cultured whey, calcium propionate, cultured dextrose, cultured yeast, benzoic acid, acetic acid, or plum powder, or any derivative thereof or any combination of two or more thereof.

A moisturizing compound can be used in a range of between 2% and 20%. For example, a moisturizing compound, such as water, will aid in formation of the grain- based composition or meat-based composition. For example, the moisture content of the entire pet chew may be above 20% prior to drying the pet chew, but will achieve a moisture content below 20%, for example 18%, in the final pet chew product.

It should be appreciated that each of the components or ingredients described above is optional. Such as the ingredients with a percentage range starting at 0%. The grain-based composition and the meat-based composition may be prepared, stored, and delivered by mixing the desired ingredients using standard facility and process known in the art.

Some non-limiting examples of the present pet chew are provided herein. As one exemplary example, a pet chew 10 comprises a core 110, an first interior layer 120, an exterior layer 150, and a coating layer 160. The core 110 comprises a chicken liver. The first interior layer 120 comprises duck meat, or beef meat, chicken meat, pork meat, or any combinations thereof. The exterior layer 150 comprises a bovine rawhide or a pork hide, or both. The coating layer 160 comprises a chicken slurry.

As another exemplary example, a pet chew 10 comprises a core 110, an first interior layer 120, a second interior layer 130, an exterior layer 150, and a coating layer 160. The core 110 comprises a chicken liver. The first interior layer 120 and the second interior layer 130 each comprises a different meat or meat mixture, wherein the meat may be duck meat, beef meat, chicken meat, pork meat, or any combinations thereof. The exterior layer 150 comprises a bovine rawhide or a pork hide, or both. The coating layer 160 comprises a chicken slurry.

As another exemplary example, a pet chew 10 comprises a core 110, an first interior layer 120, a second interior layer 130, an exterior layer 150, and a coating layer 160. The core 110 comprises a chicken liver. The first interior layer 120 comprises a meat or meat mixture, wherein the meat may be duck meat, beef meat, chicken meat, pork meat, or any combinations thereof. The second interior layer 130 comprises a pork hide. The exterior layer 150 comprises a bovine rawhide. The coating layer 160 comprises a chicken slurry.

As another exemplary example, a pet chew 10 comprises a core 110, an first interior layer 120, a second interior layer 130, a third interior layer 140, an exterior layer 150, and a coating layer 160. The core 110 comprises a chicken liver. The first interior layer 120 and the second interior layer 130 each comprises a different meat or meat mixture, wherein the meat may be duck meat, beef meat, chicken meat, pork meat, or any combinations thereof. The third interior layer 140 comprises a pork hide. The exterior layer 150 comprises a bovine rawhide. The coating layer 160 comprises a chicken slurry. The two rawhide layers enclosing the core interior layers may improve hardness or toughness, preventing the pet chew from deforming or breaking apart too fast and extending the chewing time.

It is noted that the formulation or composition of the core and each layer of the multilayered pet chew is not limited by the exemplary examples provided above. The present pet chew may have various formulations according to consumer needs. In embodiments, the total meat is from about 5 wt% to about 40 wt%, or from about 10 wt% to about 30 wt%, or from about 15 wt% to about 20 wt%. In embodiments, the total hide is from about 10 wt% to about 60 wt%, or from about 20 wt% to about 50 wt%, or from about 30 wt% to about 40 wt%. In embodiments, the total plant material is from about 10 wt% to about 70 wt%, or from about 20 wt% to about 60 wt%, or from about 30 wt% to about 50 wt%.

Tables 1 show formulation of a non-limiting example of the present pet chew. It is again noted that the pet chew may comprise combination of meat from various animals as described herein. Table 1. Formulation of an embodiment pet chew

Method of making

The methods and processes for making the present multilayered pet chews are described herein. An embodiment method comprises providing a core; wrapping the core with a first sheet, thereby forming a first interior layer circumferentially disposed onto the core, wherein the first sheet forms at least one full wrap around the core; and wrapping the first interior layer with a last sheet, thereby forming an exterior layer circumferentially around the first interior layer, wherein the last sheet forms at least one full wrap around the first interior layer; and wherein the first interior layer and the exterior layer comprise different formulations.

In some embodiments, the method further comprises sequentially or consecutively wrapping with at least one additional sheet before wrapping with the last sheet, thereby forming at least one additional interior layer circumferentially disposed between the first interior layer and the exterior layer, wherein each of the at least one additional sheet forms at least one full wrap around an adjacent layer thereof, wherein the interior layers and the exterior layer comprise different formulations. The number of the at least one additional sheet or the number of the at least one additional interior layer may be correspondingly from 1 to 10.

The core and each layer may be separately prepared by common processing methods such as extrusion and/or injection molding using standard facilities and equipment known in the food industry. The pet chew can be made by sequentially and separately wrapping with a plurality of sheets onto the core forming each of the interior layer(s) and the exterior layer. The sheets may be starch-based sheets or meat-based sheets or plant-based sheets or rawhide-based sheets comprising any useful components as described herein. The sheets can be formed by extrusion, casing, pressing, injection molding, or other food industry processes, which are generally available to one skilled in the art. The sheets may be cut into a desired shape or size with an appropriate thickness before wrapping. The sheets may be in a size substantially square, or rectangular, or elliptical. The sheets are preferably sized and shaped in a way to form a layer that fully covers the core or an adjacent layer thereof through an entire length of the pet chew.

The methods described herein may further comprise disposing a coating layer such as a meat slurry onto at least a portion of an outer surface of the exterior layer. The coating layer may be disposed by brushing, dipping, spraying, rolling, or any other common methods available to a skilled artisan.

The wrapping and coating steps described herein may be performed either manually or automatically by a machine.

The methods described herein may further comprise adding an useful or beneficial component before or after wrapping each of the sheets and/or coating, such that the component is disposed between the core and the first interior layer, or at the interface between each two adjacent layers, or at an outer surface of the coating layer or the pet chew.

The methods described herein may further comprise heating or drying after forming each interior layer or exterior layer. Heating generally improves the firmness of the multilayered structure and adhesion between layers.

As an exemplary example of the method, a multilayered pet chew can be made by providing a core; wrapping the core with a first sheet thereby forming a first interior layer having at least one full wrap circumferentially around the core along a central axis thereof; wrapping first interior layer with a last sheet thereby forming an exterior layer having at least one full wrap circumferentially around the first interior layer; and disposing a coating layer onto at least a portion of an outer surface of the exterior layer, wherein the core comprises a chicken liver, and the first interior layer comprises duck meat, beef meat, chicken meat, pork meat, or any combination thereof, and the exterior layer comprises a bovine rawhide or a pork hide, or both, and the coating layer comprises a chicken slurry.

As another exemplary example of the method, a multilayered pet chew can be made by providing a core; wrapping the core with a first sheet thereby forming a first interior layer having at least one full wrap circumferentially around the core along a central axis thereof; wrapping the first interior layer with a second sheet thereby forming a second interior layer having at least one full wrap circumferentially around the first interior layer; wrapping the second interior layer with a last sheet thereby forming an exterior layer having at least one full wrap circumferentially around the second interior layer; and disposing a coating layer onto at least a portion of an outer surface of the exterior layer. The core may comprise a chicken liver. The first interior layer and the second interior layer may comprise a different meat or meat mixture different from each other, wherein the meat is duck meat, beef meat, chicken meat, pork meat, or any combinations thereof. The exterior layer comprises a bovine rawhide or a pork hide, or both. The coating layer may comprise a chicken slurry. Alternatively, the first interior layer comprises a meat, and the second interior layer comprises a rawhide that is different from the rawhide of the exterior layer.

As another exemplary example of the method, a multilayered pet chew can be made by providing a core; wrapping the core with a first sheet thereby forming a first interior layer having at least one full wrap circumferentially around the core along a central axis thereof; wrapping the first interior layer with a second sheet thereby forming a second interior layer having at least one full wrap circumferentially around the first interior layer; wrapping the second interior layer with a third sheet thereby forming a third interior layer having at least one full wrap circumferentially around the second interior layer; wrapping the third interior layer with a last sheet thereby forming an exterior layer having at least one full wrap circumferentially around the third interior layer; and disposing a coating layer onto at least a portion of an outer surface of the exterior layer. The core may comprise a chicken liver. The first interior layer and the second interior layer may comprise a meat or meat mixture different from each other, wherein the meat is duck meat, beef meat, chicken meat, pork meat, or any combinations thereof. The third interior layer comprises a pork hide. The exterior layer comprises a bovine rawhide the coating layer comprises a chicken slurry.

A particular embodiment of the method for making or manufacturing a multilayered pet chew is shown in FIG. 5. A method 50 comprises a step 510 of defrosting chicken liver, a step 512 of adding auxiliary ingredients as necessary to the chicken liver and extruding the chicken liver at about 60°C to about 150°C, or at about 70°C to about 130°C, at about 90°C to about 120°C, for a time period of about lmin to about lOmin, or about 2min to about 8min, or about 3min to about 5min. Method 50 further comprises a step 514 of cutting the extruded chicken liver core into about 8inch and drying the extruded core at about 50°C to about 75°C, or at about 55°C to about 70°C, or at about 60°C to about 65°C, for a time period of about 3hours to about lOhours, or about 4hours to about 9hours, or about 6hours to about 8hours. Method 50 further comprises a step 516 of wrapping the chicken liver core with a layer of duck flavor forming the first interior layer and thereafter a step 518 of wrapping a layer of pork flavor forming the second interior layer disposed onto the first interior layer. Method 50 further comprises a step 520 of heating the product of step 518 at about 50°C to about 75°C, or at about 55°C to about 70°C, or at about 60°C to about 65°C, for a time period of about 3hours to about lOhours, or about 4hours to about 9hours, or about 6hours to about 8hours. Method 50 further comprises a step 522 of sequentially wrapping with a sheet of pork hide onto the second interior layer forming the third interior layer and thereafter wrapping with a sheet of beef hide forming the exterior layer circumferentially disposed onto the pork hide layer. Method 50 further comprises a step 524 of heating the product of step 522 at about 50°C to about 75°C, or at about 55°C to about 70°C, or at about 60°C to about 65°C, for a time period of about 3hours to about lOhours, or about 4hours to about 9hours, or about 6hours to about 8hours, forming the multilayered pet chew. Method 50 further comprises a step 526 of spraying a chicken slurry onto the formed pet chew, and thereafter a step 528 of heating the slurry-coated product at about 85°C for about 2 hours and then heating at about 50°C to about 75°C for 3-10 hours, forming the finished multilayer pet chew product. Method 50 further comprises a step 530 of inspecting, selecting, and packing the finished pet chew product.

It is noted that the multilayered pet chew according to the present disclosure may also be made by methods comprising coextrusion to form the core and/or some or all of the interior or exterior layers simultaneously in one process. The coextrusion process is commonly available in the food industry. A person skilled in the art would understand and select the parts and facilities for coextrusion and appreciate the operational parameters necessary to achieve the multilayered structure.

Alternatively, a method of making a multilayered pet chew may comprise forming a semi-product having a core and one or more interior layers simultaneously during a co-extrusion process; and forming additional interior layers and/or an exterior layer by sequentially wrapping sheets circumferentially around the semi-product to form the final pet chew product.

The methods described herein may optionally comprise a heating or drying step to further secure the multilayered structure of the formed pet chew or enhance the adhesion between two adjacent layers or components.

While various embodiments of the present disclosure have been described above, it should be understood that they have been presented by way of example, and not limitation. It will be apparent to persons skilled in the relevant art(s) that various changes in form and detail can be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the present disclosure. In fact, after reading the above description, it will be apparent to one skilled in the relevant art(s) how to implement the disclosure in alternative embodiments. Thus, the present disclosure should not be limited by any of the above-described exemplary embodiments. Accordingly, all suitable modifications and equivalents should be considered as falling within the spirit and scope of the disclosure. The disclosure resides in the claims hereinafter appended.