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Title:
NOVEL BIAROMATIC COMPOUNDS THAT ACTIVATE PPAR TYPE RECEPTORS, AND USE THEREOF IN COSMETIC OR PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITIONS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2006/018326
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The invention relates to novel biaromatic compounds that correspond to the general formula (I) and also to the method for preparing them, and to their use in pharmaceutical compositions for use in human or veterinary medicine (in dermatology, and also in the field of cardiovascular diseases, immune diseases and/or lipid metabolism-related diseases), or alternatively in cosmetic compositions.

Inventors:
CLARY LAURENCE (FR)
BOITEAU JEAN-GUY (FR)
Application Number:
PCT/EP2005/009990
Publication Date:
February 23, 2006
Filing Date:
August 12, 2005
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
GALDERMA RES & DEV (FR)
CLARY LAURENCE (FR)
BOITEAU JEAN-GUY (FR)
International Classes:
A61K31/5375; A61P17/00; C07C275/28; C07D213/75; C07D295/14; C07D295/28
Domestic Patent References:
WO2003055867A12003-07-10
WO2001016120A12001-03-08
WO2002012210A12002-02-14
Foreign References:
Other References:
DATABASE BEILSTEIN BEILSTEIN INSTITUTE FOR ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, FRANKFURT-MAIN, DE; XP002358643
DATABASE BEILSTEIN BEILSTEIN INSTITUTE FOR ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, FRANKFURT-MAIN, DE; XP002358644
DATABASE BEILSTEIN BEILSTEIN INSTITUTE FOR ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, FRANKFURT-MAIN, DE; XP002358645
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
L'oreal (Christophe - D.I.P.I 25-2, quai Aulagnier Asnières, FR)
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Claims:
CLAIMS
1. Compounds characterized in that they correspond to formula (I) below: in which: R1 represents a hydroxyl radical, a radical OR6 or a hydroxylamine radical; R6 being defined below, R2 and R3, which may be identical or different, represent a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom, an alkyl radical of 1 to 12 carbon atoms, a hydroxyl radical, an alkoxy radical, a polyether radical, an aralkyl radical, an aryl radical, an amino radical that may be substituted with one or two radicals, which may be identical or different, chosen from an alkyl radical of 1 to 12 carbon atoms and an aralkyl radical; R4 represents a hydrogen atom or a lower alkyl radical containing from 1 to 4 carbon atoms; R5 represents an alkyl radical containing from 1 to 12 carbon atoms, an aryl radical, an aralkyl radical, a heteroaryl radical or a heterocyclic radical; R6 represents an alkyl, aryl or aralkyl radical; R7 and R8, which may be identical or different, represent a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom, an alkyl radical of 1 to 12 carbon atoms, a hydroxyl radical, an alkoxy radical, a polyether radical, an aralkyl radical, an aryl radical, an amino radical that may be substituted with one or two radicals, which may be identical or different, chosen from an alkyl radical of 1 to 12 carbon atoms or an aralkyl radical; Y represents an oxygen or sulfur atom; VW represents a single or double carboncarbon bond, i.e. a sequence CH2CH2 or CH=CH and also the salts of the compounds of formula (I).
2. Compounds according to Claim 1 , characterized in that they are in the form of salts of an alkali metal or alkalineearth metal or salts of an organic amine.
3. Compounds according to Claim 1, characterized in that, when they contain an amine function, they are in the form of mineral acid salts or organic acid salts.
4. Compounds according to one of Claims 1 , 2 and 3, characterized in that the alkyl radicals containing from 1 to 12 carbon atoms are chosen from methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, tertbutyl, isoamyl, amyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, decyl, cyclohexyl, methylcyclohexyl, methylcyclobutyl, methylcyclopentyl and methylcyclohexyl radicals.
5. Compounds according to any one of Claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the lower alkyl radicals containing from 1 to 4 carbon atoms are chosen from methyl, ethyl, propyl, methylcyclopropyl, isopropyl, tertbutyl and nbutyl radicals.
6. Compounds according to any one of Claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the aryl radicals are chosen from phenyl, biphenyl, cinnamyl and naphthyl radicals that may be substituted with a halogen atom, a CF3 radical, an alkyl radical of 1 to 12 carbon atoms, an alkoxy radical, a nitro function, a polyether radical, an aryl radical, a benzoyl radical, an alkyl ester group, a carboxylic acid, a hydroxyl radical optionally protected with an acetyl or benzoyl group or an amino radical optionally protected with an acetyl or benzoyl group or optionally substituted with at least one alkyl containing from 1 to 12 carbon atoms, an aralkoxy radical, a phenoxy radical or an amide radical H2NCO.
7. Compounds according to any one of Claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the aralkyl radicals are alkyl radicals of 1 to 12 carbon atoms substituted with an aryl radical or with a heteroaryl radical.
8. Compounds according to any one of Claims 1 to 7, characterized in that the halogen atom is chosen from fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine atoms.
9. Compounds according to any one of Claims 1 to 8, characterized in that the alkoxy radicals are chosen from methoxy, ethoxy, isopropyloxy, npropyloxy, tert butoxy, nbutoxy, npentyloxy, nhexyloxy, cyclopropylmethoxy, cyclobutylmethoxy, cyclopentylmethoxy and cyclohexylmethoxy radicals.
10. Compounds according to any one of Claims 1 to 9, characterized in that the polyether radicals are chosen from radicals containing from 1 to 7 carbon atoms interrupted with at least one oxygen atom, and preferably radicals such as methoxyethoxy, ethoxyethoxy or methoxyethoxyethoxy radicals.
11. Compounds according to any one of Claims 1 to 10, characterized in that the heteroaryl radical is chosen from the group consisting of a pyridyl, furyl, thienyl, isoxazolyl, oxadiazolyl, oxazolyl, isothiazolyl, quinazolinyl, benzothiadiazolyl, benzimidazole, indolyl or benzofuran radical, optionally substituted with at least one halogen, an alkyl radical containing from 1 to 12 carbon atoms, an alkoxy radical, an aryl radical, a nitro function, a polyether radical, a heteroaryl radical, a benzoyl radical, an alkyl ester group, a carboxylic acid, a hydroxyl optionally protected with an acetyl or benzoyl group or an amino radical optionally protected with an acetyl or benzoyl group or optionally substituted with at least one alkyl containing from 1 to 12 carbon atoms.
12. Compounds according to any one of Claims 1 to 11 , characterized in that the heterocyclic radical is chosen from a morpholino, pyrrolidino, piperidino, piperazino, 2oxopiperid1yl or 2oxopyrrolidin1yl radical, optionally substituted with at least one alkyl radical containing from 1 to 12 carbon atoms, an alkoxy radical, an aryl radical, a nitro function, a polyether radical, a heteroaryl radical, a benzoyl radical, an alkyl ester group, a carboxylic acid, a hydroxyl optionally protected with an acetyl or benzoyl group or an amino radical optionally protected with an acetyl or benzoyl group or optionally substituted with at least one alkyl containing from 1 to 12 carbon atoms.
13. Compounds according to Claim 1 , characterized in that they are taken, alone or as mixtures, from the group consisting of: (EJSβ'CSheptylimethylureidoJbiphenyMylJacrylic acid 3[3'(3heptyl1methylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[3fluoro3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3(3'{3[2(4fluorophenyl)ethyl]1 methylureido}biphenyl4yl)propanoic acid 3[3'(1methyl3pentylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[3'(3heptyl1methylureido)biphenyl4yl]Nhydroxypropionamide 3[3'(1methyl3naphthalen2ylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[3'(3heptyl1methylthioureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid (E)3[2fluoro3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)biphenyl4yl]acrylic acid 3[2fluoro3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[3'(3hexyl1methylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[3'(3octyl1methylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3{3'[3(4benzyloxyphenyl)1 methylureido]biphenyl4yl}propanoic acid 3{3'[3(4butylphenyl)1methylureido]biphenyl4yl}propanoic acid 3[3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)2(2methoxyethoxy)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)2(3methylbutoxy)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[2(3chloropropoxy)3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)2methoxybiphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)2methylbiphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[3'[1methyl3(3phenylpropyl)ureido]biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid (E)3[5'(3heptyl1 methylureido)2'methylbiphenyl4yl]acrylic acid 3[5'(3heptyl1 methylureido)2'methylbiphenyl4yl]propanoic acid (E)3[3fluoro3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)biphenyl4yl]acrylic acid (E)3[2benzyloxy3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)biphenyl4yl]acrylic acid 3[3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)2propoxybiphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[2butoxy3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid (E)3[3'(1ethyl3heptylureido)biphenyl4yl]acrylic acid (E)3[3'(3heptyl1propylureido)biphenyl4yl]acrylic acid (E)3[3,5difluoro3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)biphenyl4yl]acrylic acid 3[3'(1ethyl3heptylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[3'(3heptyl1propylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[3,5difluoro3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3{3'[3(4butoxyphenyl)1 methylureido]biphenyl4yl}propanoic acid 3{3'[3(4butoxyphenyl)1 ethylureido]biphenyl4yl}propanoic acid 3[2cyclopropylmethoxy3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[2ethoxy3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[3'(3heptyl1methylureido)2(3,3,3trifluoropropoxy)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)2(4,4,4trifluorobutoxy)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)2(3hydroxypropoxy)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)2(4hydroxybutoxy)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid S^butoxyS'^imethylSpentylureidoJbiphenyl^yllpropanoic acid 3[2benzyloxy3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[2(3fluorobenzyloxy)3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[2(4fluorobenzyloxy)3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)2pentyloxybiphenyl4yl]propanoic acid SβXImethylSpentylureido^pentyloxybiphenyMyltøropanoic acid 3[2(2ethoxyethoxy)3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid S^butoxyS'CImethylSphenylureidoJbiphenyl^ylJpropanoic acid 3[2(2ethoxyethoxy)3'(1methyl3pentylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[2(2diethylaminoethoxy)3'(3heptyl1methylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid hydrochloride 3[3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)2(2morpholin4ylethoxy)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid SpaminoSXImethylSpentylureidoJbiphenyl^ylJpropanoic acid 3[2butylamino3'(1methyl3pentylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid hydrochloride 3[2benzylamino3'(1rnethyl3pentylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid hydrochloride 3[2diethylamino3'(1methyl3pentylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid hydrochloride 3[3'(1methyl3pentylureido)2propylaminobiphenyl4yl]propanoic acid hydrochloride 3[2(4fluorobenzylamino)3'(1methyl3pentylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid hydrochloride 3[2butylamino3'(3heptyl1methylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid hydrochloride 3[2benzylamino3'(3heptyl1methylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid hydrochloride 3[2diethylamino3'(3heptyl1methylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid hydrochloride 3[3'(3heptyl1methylureido)2propylaminobiphenyl4yl]propanoic acid hydrochloride 3[2(4fluorobenzylamino)3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid hydrochloride 3[3'(1methyl3pentylureido)biphenyl4yl]acrylic acid 3[3'(3pentyl1propylureido)biphenyl4yl]acrylic acid 3[4'fluoro3'(1methyl3pentylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid ethyl 3[3'(1Methyl3pentylureido)biphenyl4yl]acrylate 3[341rnethyl3naphthalen2ylureido)biphenyl4yl]acrylic acid 3{3'[3(4fluorophenyl)1 methylureido]biphenyl4yl}acrylic acid 3(3'{3[2(4fluorophenyl)ethyl]1 methylureido}biphenyl4yl)acrylic acid 3[3'(3benzyl1methylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[3'(3cyclopropylmethyl1 methylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid SfS'^ScyclohexylimethylureidoJbiphenyl^yllpropanoic acid 3[3'(3cyclohexyl1methylureido)biphenyl4yl]acrylic acid 3[3'(3cyclopropylmethyl1 methylureido)biphenyl4yl]acrylic acid ethyl 4{3[4'(2carboxyethyl)biphenyl3yl]3methylureido}piperidine1 carboxylate 3[3'(1methyl3pyrid3ylureido)biphenyl4yl]acrylic acid 3[3'(1methyl3pyrid3ylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3{3'[3(6methoxypyrid3yl)1 methylureido]biphenyl4yl}acrylic acid 3[3'(1methyl3propylureido)biphenyl4yl]acrylic acid 3[3'(3hexyl1 methylthioureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[3'(3hexyl1methylthioureido)biphenyl4yl]acrylic acid methyl 3[3'(3Heptyl1 methylthioureido)biphenyl4yl]acrylate 3[2methyl3'( 1 methyl3pentylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid SβhydroxySXImethylSpentylureidoJbiphenyMyltøropanoic acid 3[3methoxymethoxy3'(1 methyl3pentylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid SβXImethylSpentylureido^trifluoromethylbiphenyMylføropanoic acid 3[3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)3methoxybiphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3{3'[1methyl3(4propylphenyl)ureido]biphenyl4yl}propanoic acid 3{3'[1 methyl3(4propylphenyl)ureido]biphenyl4yl}acrylic acid phenyl 3{3'[1 methyl3(4propylphenyl)ureido]biphenyl4yl}acrylate benzyl 3{3'[1 methyl3(4propylphenyl)ureido]biphenyl4yl}acrylate 3[3'(3pentylureido)biphenyl4yl]acrylic acid Nhydroxy3{3'[1 methyl3(3phenylpropyl)ureido]biphenyl4yl}propionamide 3[3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)2hydroxybiphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[2cyclohexylmethoxy3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)biphenyl4yl]propionic acid 3[2cyclopentylmethoxy3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)biphenyl4yl]propionic acid 3[2cyclobutylmethoxy3'(3heptyl1methylureido)biphenyl4yl]Nhydroxypropion amide 3[3'(3heptyl1methylureido)2(3trifluoromethylbenzyloxy)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[3'(3heptyl1methylureido)2(4trifluoromethylbenzyloxy)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid Sp^carbamoylbenzyloxyJSXSheptylimethylureidoJbiphenyMyljpropanoic acid 3[3'(3heptyl1 methylureido)2(2piperazin1 ylethoxy)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[3'(3heptyl1methylureido)2(2pyrrolidin1ylethoxy)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3(2(3methoxybenzyloxy)3'{3[2(3methoxyphenyl)ethyl]1methylureido}biphenyl4 yl)propanoic acid 3(2(4tertbutylbenzyloxy)3'{1 methyl3[2(3phenoxyphenyl)ethyl]ureido}biphenyl 4yl)propanoic acid 3{2(3,5dimethoxybenzyloxy)3'[1methyl3(3phenoxyphenyl)ureido]biphenyl4 yl}propanoic acid 3[3'[1methyl3(4phenoxyphenyl)ureido]2(3trifluoromethylbenzyloxy)biphenyl4 yl]propanoic acid 3(2(3isopropoxybenzyloxy)3'{3[2(4methoxyphenyl)ethyl]1methylureido}biphenyl 4yl)propanoic acid 3(2'(3methoxybenzyloxy)5l{3[2(3methoxyphenyl)ethyl]1methylureido}biphenyl4 yl)propanoic acid S^'cyclohexylmethoxyδ'CImethylSpentylureidoJbiphenyl^ylJpropanoic acid 3[4'ethoxy3'( 1 methyl3pentylureido)2propoxybiphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[3,5dimethoxy3'(1methyl3pentylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid SCS.SdiethoxyS'tSp^SmethoxyphenyOethylJimethylureidoJbiphenyl^ylJpropanoic acid 3(3'{3[2(4methoxyphenyl)ethyl]1 methylureido}3propoxybiphenyl4yl)propanoic acid 3[3cyclopropylmethoxy3'(1methyl3pentylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[3ethoxy4'fluoro3'(1methyl3pentylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[3'(1methyl3pentylureido)3(4,4,4trifluorobutoxy)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[3benzyloxy3'(1methyl3pentylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[3'{3[2(4methoxyphenyl)ethyl]1methylureido}3(3trifluoromethylbenzyloxy)bi phenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3(3'{3[2(3methoxyphenyl)ethyl]1methylureido}3,5dipropylbiphenyl4yl)propanoic acid 3[3(2,2dimethylpropyl)3'(1methyl3pentylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[3,5dimethyl3'(1methyl3pentylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid 3[4"methoxy3(1methyl3pentylureido)[1 ,1';3',1"]terphenyl4'yl]propanoic acid 3[3"methoxy3(1methyl3pentylureido)[1 ,1l;2',1"]terphenyl4'yl]propanoic acid 3(3{3[2(3methoxyphenyl)ethyl]1methylureido}3"trifluoromethyl[1 ,1';2M"]ter phenyl4'yl)propanoic acid S^S'CSbutylimethylureido^p^SisopropoxyphenylJethylJbiphenyl^ylJpropanoic acid 3{3'(1methyl3pentylureido)2[(pyrid3ylmethyl)amino]biphenyl4yl}propanoic acid 3[3(2methoxyethylamino)3l(1methyl3pentylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoic acid methyl 3[3,5diethyl3'(1methyl3pentylureido)biphenyl4yl]propanoate methyl 3[3'[1 methyl3(3phenoxyphenyl)ureido]2(3trifluoromethylbenzyloxy) biphenyl4yl]propanoate methyl 3[3'[3(2biphenyl4ylethyl)1 methylureido]2(3methoxybenzyloxy)biphenyl 4yl]propanoate ethyl 3[3'{3[2(3methoxyphenyl)ethyl]1methylureido}2(4,4,4trifluorobutoxy) biphenyl4yl]propanoate.
14. Compounds according to Claim 1 , 2 or 3, characterized in that they have at least one of the following characteristics: R1 represents a hydroxyl or hydroxylamine radical; R2 and R7 represent an alkoxy or aryloxy radical, an alkylamino radical or a polyether radical; R3 and R8 represent a hydrogen atom; R4 represents a lower alkyl radical of 1 to 4 carbon atoms; R5 represents an alkyl radical of 3 to 8 carbon atoms; Y is an oxygen atom; the bond VW is a single or double CC bond.
15. Compounds according to Claim 14, characterized in that they have all of the following characteristics: R1 represents a hydroxyl or hydroxylamine radical; R2 and R7 represent an alkoxy or aryloxy radical, an alkylamino radical or a polyether radical; R3 and R8 represent a hydrogen atom; R4 represents a lower alkyl radical of 1 to 4 carbon atoms; R5 represents an alkyl radical of 3 to 8 carbon atoms; Y is an oxygen atom; the bond VW is a single or double CC bond.
16. Cosmetic composition, characterized in that it comprises, in a physiologically acceptable support, at least one of the compounds as defined in any one of Claims 1 to 15.
17. Composition according to Claim 16, characterized in that the concentration of compound(s) according to one of Claims 1 to 15 is between 0.001 % and 3% by weight relative to the total weight of the composition.
18. Cosmetic use of a composition as defined in either of Claims 16 and 17, for body or hair hygiene.
19. Compounds according to any one of Claims 1 to 15 as medicaments.
20. Use of a compound according to any one of Claims 1 to 15 in the manufacture of a composition for regulating and/or restoring skin lipid metabolism.
21. Use of a compound according to any one of Claims 1 to 15 in the manufacture of a composition for treating: dermatological complaints associated with a keratinization disorder relating to cell differentiation and proliferation, especially for treating common acne, comedones, polymorphs, acne rosacea, nodulocystic acne, acne conglobata, senile acne, and secondary acnes such as solar acne, medicationrelated acne or occupational acne; ichthyosis, ichthyosiform conditions, Darier's disease, palmoplanar keratoderma, leukoplakia and leukoplakiform conditions, and cutaneous or mucous (buccal) lichen; dermatological complaints with an inflammatory immunoallergic component, with or without cell proliferation disorder, especially cutaneous, mucous or ungual psoriasis, psoriatic rheumatism, cutaneous atopy, such as eczema, respiratory atopy, or gingival hypertrophy; dermal or epidermal proliferations, whether benign or malignant, and whether of viral origin or otherwise, especially common warts, flat warts and verruciform epidermodysplasia, oral or florid papillomatoses, T lymphoma; proliferations that may be induced by ultraviolet radiation, especially basal cell and spinal cell epithelioma; precancerous skin lesions, especially keratoacanthomas; immune dermatoses, especially lupus erythematosus; immune bullous diseases; collagen diseases, especially scleroderma; dermatological or general complaints with an immunological component; skin disorders caused by exposure to UV radiation, photoinduced or chronological ageing of the skin, actinic pigmentations and keratosis, or any pathology associated with chronological or actinic ageing, especially xerosis; sebaceous function disorders, especially the hyperseborrhoea of acne or simple seborrhoea; cicatrization disorders or stretchmarks; pigmentation disorders, such as hyperpigmentation, melasma, hypopigmentation or vitiligo; lipid metabolism complaints, such as obesity, hyperlipidaemia, or noninsulindependent diabetes; inflammatory complaints such as arthritis; cancerous or precancerous conditions; alopecia of various origins, especially alopecia caused by chemotherapy or radiation; disorders of the immune system, such as asthma, type I sugar diabetes, multiple sclerosis or other selective dysfunctions of the immune system; and complaints of the cardiovascular system, such as arteriosclerosis or hypertension.
22. Pharmaceutical composition, characterized in that it comprises, in a physiologically acceptable support, at least one of the compounds as defined in any one of Claims 1 to 15.
23. Composition according to Claim 22, characterized in that the concentration of compound(s) according to one of Claims 1 to 15 is between 0.001% and 10% by weight relative to the total weight of the composition.
24. Composition according to Claim 22, characterized in that the concentration of compound(s) according to one of Claims 1 to 15 is between 0.01 % and 1 % by weight relative to the total weight of the composition.
Description:
Novel biaromatic compounds that activate PPAR type receptors, and use thereof in

cosmetic or pharmaceutical compositions

The invention concerns, as novel and useful industrial products, a novel class of biaromatic compounds that activate the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor type receptors of subtype γ (PPARγ). The invention also concerns the process for preparing them and their use in pharmaceutical compositions for use in human or veterinary medicine, or alternatively in cosmetic compositions. The activity of receptors of PPAR type has been the subject of numerous studies. Mention may be made, as a guide, of the publication entitled "Differential Expression of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Subtypes During the Differentiation of Human Keratinocytes", Michel Rivier et al., J. Invest. Dermatol. 111 , 1998, pp. 1116-1121 , in which is listed a large number of bibliographic references relating to PPAR type receptors. Mention may also be made, as a guide, of the file entitled "The PPARs: From orphan receptors to Drug Discovery", Timothy M. Willson, Peter J. Brown, Daniel D. Sternbach, and Brad R. Henke, J. Med. Chem., 2000, Vol. 43, pp. 527-550. The PPAR receptors activate transcription by binding to DNA sequence elements known as the peroxisome proliferator response elements (PPRE), in the form of a heterodimer with the retinoid X receptors (known as RXRs). Three subtypes of human PPAR have been identified and described: PPARα, PPARγ and PPARδ (or NUC1 ). PPARα is mainly expressed in the liver, whereas PPARδ is ubiquitous. Of the three subtypes, PPARγ is the one that has been the most extensively studied. All the references suggest a critical role of PPARγ in the regulation of differentiation of adipocytes, where it is strongly expressed. It also plays a key role in systemic lipid homeostasis. It has especially been described in patent application WO 96/33724 that PPARγ-selective compounds, such as a prostaglandin-^ or -D2, are potential active agents for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. Moreover, the Applicant has already described in patent applications VVO 02/12210 and WO 03/055867 the use of biaromatic compounds that activate PPARγ type receptors in the preparation of a pharmaceutical composition, the composition being intended for treating skin disorders associated with an anomaly of epidermal cell differentiation. It nevertheless remains that it is necessary to search for novel compounds that have good activity and advantageous pharmaceutical properties. The Applicant has now identified a novel family of propanoic derivatives that have the advantage of being 10 to 100 times more active than the compounds identified in the preceding patent applications WO 02/12210 and WO 03/055867, towards the PPAR gamma receptors. Moreover, in addition to their better activity, some of the compounds according to the present invention are obtained in solid form. Their synthesis and their purification are easier. Finally, the use of compounds in solid form makes it possible to avoid the drawbacks of oils in the context of pharmaceutical development on account of the residual solvents they may contain. Thus, the present invention relates to compounds corresponding to the general formula (I) below:

in which: - R1 represents a hydroxyl radical, a radical -OR6 or a hydroxylamine radical; R6 being defined below, - R2 and R3, which may be identical or different, represent a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom, an alkyl radical of 1 to 12 carbon atoms, a hydroxyl radical, an alkoxy radical, a polyether radical, an aralkyl radical, an aryl radical, an amino radical that may be substituted with one or two radicals, which may be identical or different, chosen from an alkyl radical of 1 to 12 carbon atoms and an aralkyl radical; - R4 represents a hydrogen atom or a lower alkyl radical containing from 1 to 4 carbon atoms; - R5 represents an alkyl radical containing from 1 to 12 carbon atoms, an aryl radical, an aralkyl radical, a heteroaryl radical or a heterocyclic radical; - R6 represents an alkyl, aryl or aralkyl radical; - R7 and R8, which may be identical or different, represent a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom, an alkyl radical of 1 to 12 carbon atoms, a hydroxyl radical, an alkoxy radical, a polyether radical, an aralkyl radical, an aryl radical, an amino radical that may be substituted with one or two radicals, which may be identical or different, chosen from an alkyl radical of 1 to 12 carbon atoms or an aralkyl radical; - Y represents an oxygen or sulfur atom; - V-W represents a single or double carbon-carbon bond, i.e. a sequence CH2-CH2 or CH=CH and also the salts of the compounds of formula (I). In particular, when the compounds according to the invention are in the form of salts, they are salts of an alkali metal, in particular a sodium or potassium salt, or an alkaline-earth metal salt, or salts of organic amines, more particularly of amino acids such as arginine or lysine. When the compounds according to the invention contain an amine function and are in the form of salts of this amine, these are salts of a mineral acid, for instance hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid or hydrobromic acid, or salts of an organic acid, for instance acetic acid, triflic acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid, citric acid or nitric acid. According to the present invention, the term "alkyl radical of 1 to 12 carbon atoms" means a linear, branched or cyclic, saturated or unsaturated carbon-based chain that may be interrupted with a hetero atom and that may be substituted with one or more radicals chosen from a halogen atom, a hydroxyl radical, an alkoxy radical and a heterocyclic radical, and preferably the alkyl radicals are methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, tert-butyl, isoamyl, amyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, decyl, cyclohexyl, methylcyclohexyl, methylcyclobutyl, methylcyclopentyl or methylcyclohexyl radicals. The term "lower alkyl radical of 1 to 4 carbon atoms" will preferably be a methyl, ethyl, propyl, methylcyclopropyl, isopropyl, tert-butyl or n-butyl radical. The term "aryl radical" means a phenyl, biphenyl, cinnamyl or naphthyl radical that may be substituted with a halogen atom, a CF3 radical, an alkyl radical of 1 to 12 carbon atoms, an alkoxy radical, a nitro function, a polyether radical, an aryl radical, a benzoyl radical, an alkyl ester group, a carboxylic acid, a hydroxyl radical optionally protected with an acetyl or benzoyl group or an amino radical optionally protected with an acetyl or benzoyl group or optionally substituted with at least one alkyl containing from 1 to 12 carbon atoms, an aralkoxy radical, a phenoxy radical or an amide radical H2NCO. The term "aralkyl radical" means an alkyl radical of 1 to 12 carbon atoms substituted with an aryl radical or with a heteroaryl radical. The term "hydroxylamine radical" means the sequence -NHOH. The term "halogen atom" means a fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine atom. According to the present invention, the term "hydroxyl radical" means the -OH radical. The term "alkoxy radical" means an oxygen atom substituted with an alkyl radical of 1 to 12 carbon atoms, and the alkoxy radicals are preferably methoxy, ethoxy, isopropyloxy, n-propyloxy, tert-butoxy, n-butoxy, n-pentyloxy, n-hexyloxy, cyclopropylmethoxy, cyclobutylmethoxy, cyclopentylmethoxy or cyclohexylmethoxy radicals. The term "aralkoxy radical" means an oxygen atom substituted with an aralkyl radical. The term "polyether radical" means a radical containing from 1 to 7 carbon atoms interrupted with at least one oxygen atom, and preferably radicals such as methoxyethoxy, ethoxyethoxy or methoxyethoxyethoxy radicals. The term "heteroaryl radical" means an aryl radical interrupted with one or more hetero atoms, such as a pyridyl, furyl, thienyl, isoxazolyl, oxadiazolyl, oxazolyl, isothiazolyl, quinazolinyl, benzothiadiazolyl, benzimidazole, indolyl or benzofuran radical, optionally substituted with at least one halogen, an alkyl radical containing from 1 to 12 carbon atoms, an alkoxy radical, an aryl radical, a nitro function, a polyether radical, a heteroaryl radical, a benzoyl radical, an alkyl ester group, a carboxylic acid, a hydroxyl optionally protected with an acetyl or benzoyl group or an amino radical optionally protected with an acetyl or benzoyl group or optionally substituted with at least one alkyl containing from 1 to 12 carbon atoms. The term "heterocyclic radical" preferably means a morpholino, pyrrolidino, piperidino, piperazino, 2-oxopiperid-1-yl or 2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl radical, optionally substituted with at least one alkyl radical containing from 1 to 12 carbon atoms, an alkoxy radical, an aryl radical, a nitro function, a polyether radical, a heteroaryl radical, a benzoyl radical, an alkyl ester group, a carboxylic acid, a hydroxyl optionally protected with an acetyl or benzoyl group or an amino radical optionally protected with an acetyl or benzoyl group or optionally substituted with at least one alkyl containing from 1 to 12 carbon atoms. The term "alkyl ester radical" means a carboxylate function substituted with an alkyl radical containing from 1 to 6 carbon atoms. Among the compounds of formula (I) above that fall within the context of the present invention, mention may be made especially of the following (alone or as a mixture): 1. (E)-3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylic acid 2. 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 3. 3-[3-fluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 4. 3-(3'-{3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)ethyl]-1 -methylureido}biphenyl-4-yl)propanoic acid 5. 3-[3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 6. 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]-N-hydroxypropi onamide 7. 3-[3'-(1-methyl-3-naphthalen-2-ylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propan oic acid 8. 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylthioureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 9. (E)-3-[2-fluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylic acid 10. 3-[2-fluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propan oic acid 11. 3-[3'-(3-hexyl-1 -methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 12. 3-[3'-(3-octyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 13. 3-{3'-[3-(4-benzyloxyphenyl)-1 -methylureido]biphenyl-4-yl}propanoic acid 14. 3-{3'-[3-(4-butylphenyl)-1 -methylureido]biphenyl-4-yl}propanoic acid 15. 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(2-methoxyethoxy)biphenyl- 4-yl]propanoic acid 16. 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)-2-(3-methylbutoxy)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 17. 3-[2-(3-chloropropoxy)-3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 18. 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)-2-methoxybiphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 19. 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)-2-methylbiphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 20. 3-[3'-[1-methyl-3-(3-phenylpropyl)ureido]biphenyl-4-yl]propa noic acid 21. (E)-3-[5'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)-2'-methylbiphenyl-4-yl]acrylic acid 22. 3-[5'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)-2'-methylbiphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 23. (E)-3-[3-fluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylic acid 24. (E)-3-[2-benzyloxy-3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylic acid 25. 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-propoxybiphenyl-4-yl]propa noic acid 26. 3-[2-butoxy-3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 27. (E)-3-[3'-(1-ethyl-3-heptylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylic acid 28. (E)-3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-propylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylic acid 29. (E)-3-[3,5-difluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-y l]acrylic acid 30. 3-[3'-(1-ethyl-3-heptylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 31. 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-propylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 32. 3-[3,5-difluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 33. 3-{3'-[3-(4-butoxyphenyl)-1 -methylureido]biphenyl-4-yl}propanoic acid 34. 3-{3'-[3-(4-butoxyphenyl)-1 -ethylureido]biphenyl-4-yl}propanoic acid 35. S-^-cyclopropylmethoxy-SXS-heptyl-i-methylureidoJbiphenyl^-y lJpropanoic acid 36. 3-[2-ethoxy-3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 37. 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropoxy)biphenyl-4-yl]propa noic acid 38. 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)-2-(4,4,4-trifluorobutoxy)biphenyl-4-yl]propan oic acid 39. 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)-2-(3-hydroxypropoxy)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 40. 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)-2-(4-hydroxybutoxy)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 41. 3-[2-butoxy-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propan oic acid 42. 3-[2-benzyloxy-3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 43. 3-[2-(3-fluorobenzyloxy)-3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 44. 3-[2-(4-fluorobenzyloxy)-3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 45. 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)-2-pentyloxybiphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 46. 3-[3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)-2-pentyloxybiphenyl-4-yl]pro panoic acid 47. 3-[2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)-3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 48. 3-[2-butoxy-3'-( 1 -methyl-3-phenylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 49. 3-[2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4 -yl]propanoic acid 50. 3-[2-(2-diethylaminoethoxy)-3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid hydrochloride 51. 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(2-morpholin-4-ylethoxy)bi phenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 52. 3-[2-amino-3'-(1-rnethyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propan oic acid 53. 3-[2-butylamiπo-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]p ropanoic acid hydrochloride 54. 3-[2-benzylamino-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]p ropanoic acid hydrochloride 55. 3-[2-diethylamino-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl] propanoic acid hydrochloride 56. 3-[3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)-2-propylaminobiphenyl-4-yl]p ropanoic acid hydrochloride 57. 3-[2-(4-fluorobenzylamino)-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphe nyl-4-yl]propanoic acid hydrochloride 58. 3-[2-butylamino-3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid hydrochloride 59. 3-[2-benzylamino-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]p ropanoic acid hydrochloride 60. 3-[2-diethylamino-3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid hydrochloride 61. 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-propylaminobiphenyl-4-yl]p ropanoic acid hydrochloride 62. 3-[2-(4-fluorobenzylamino)-3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid hydrochloride 63. 3-[3χi-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylic acid 64. 3-[3'-(3-pentyl-1-propylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylic acid 65. 3-[4'-fluoro-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propa noic acid 66. ethyl 3-[3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylate 67. 3-[3'-(1 -methyl-3-naphthalen-2-ylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylic acid 68. 3-{3'-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1 -methylureido]biphenyl-4-yl}acrylic acid 69. 3-(3'-{3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)ethyl]-1 -methylureido}biphenyl-4-yl)acrylic acid 70. 3-[3'-(3-benzyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 71. 3-[3'-(3-cyclopropylmethyl-1 -methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 72. 3-[3'-(3-cyclohexyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 73. 3-[3'-(3-cyclohexyl-1 -methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylic acid 74. 3-[3'-(3-cyclopropylmethyl-1 -methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylic acid 75. ethyl 4-{3-[4'-(2-carboxyethyl)biphenyl-3-yl]-3-methylureido}piper idine-1-carboxylate 76. 3-[3'-(1 -methyl-3-pyrid-3-ylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylic acid 77. 3-[3'-( 1 -methyl-3-pyrid-3-ylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 78. 3-{3'-[3-(6-methoxypyrid-3-yl)-1 -methylureido]biphenyl-4-yl}acrylic acid 79. 3-[3'-(1-methyl-3-propylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylic acid 80. 3-[3'-(3-hexyl-1-methylthioureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 81. 3-[3'-(3-hexyl-1-methylthioureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylic acid 82. methyl 3-[3'-(3-Heptyl-1 -methylthioureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylate 83. 3-[2-methyl-341-rnethyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propano ic acid 84. 3-[3-hydroxy-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propa noic acid 85. 3-[3-methoxymethoxy-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-y l]propanoic acid 86. S-fSXI-methyl-S-pentylureido^-trifluoromethylbiphenyM-ylJpro panoic acid 87. 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)-3-methoxybiphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 88. 3-{3'-[1 -methyl-3-(4-propylphenyl)ureido]biphenyl-4-yl}propanoic acid 89. 3-{3'-[1 -methyl-3-(4-propylphenyl)ureido]biphenyl-4-yl}acrylic acid 90. phenyl 3-{3'-[1-methyl-3-(4-propylphenyl)ureido]biphenyl-4-yl}acryl ate 91. benzyl 3-{3'-[1-methyl-3-(4-propylphenyl)ureido]biphenyl-4-yl}acryl ate 92. 3-[3'-(3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylic acid 93. N-hydroxy-3-{3'-[1-methyl-3-(3-phenylpropyl)ureido]biphenyl- 4-yl}propionamide 94. 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)-2-hydroxybiphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 95. S-^-cyclohexylmethoxy-SXS-heptyl-i-methylureidoJbiphenyl^-yl Jpropionic acid 96. 3-[2-cyclopentylmethoxy-3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propionic acid 97. 3-[2-cyclobutylmethoxy-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl- 4-yl]-N-hydroxypropion- amide 98. 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(3-trifluoromethylbenzylox y)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 99. 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)-2-(4-trifluoromethylbenzyloxy)biphenyl-4-yl]p ropanoic acid 100. 3-[2-(3-carbamoylbenzyloxy)-3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 101. 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)-2-(2-piperazin-1 -ylethoxy)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 102. 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)-2-(2-pyrrolidin-1 -ylethoxy)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 103. 3-(2-(3-methoxybenzyloxy)-3'-{3-[2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]-1 -methylureidojbiphen- yl-4-yl)propanoic acid 104. 3-(2-(4-tert-butylbenzyloxy)-3'-{1 -methyl-3-[2-(3-phenoxyphenyl)ethyl]-ureido}bi- phenyl-4-yl)propanoic acid 105. 3-{2-(3,5-dimethoxybenzyloxy)-3'-[1 -methyl-3-(3-phenoxyphenyl)ureido]biphenyl-4- yl}propanoic acid 106. 3-[3'-[1 -methyl-3-(4-phenoxyphenyl)ureido]-2-(3-trifluoromethylbenzy loxy)biphenyl- 4-yl]propanoic acid 107. 3-(2-(3-isopropoxybenzyloxy)-3'-{3-[2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl ]-1 -methylureido}bi- phenyl-4-yl)propanoic acid 108. 3-(2'-(3-methoxybenzyloxy)-5'-{3-[2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]- 1 -methylureido}bi- phenyl-4-yl)propanoic acid 109. S-^'-cyclohexylmethoxy-SXI-methyl-S-pentylureidoJbiphenyl^-y lJpropanoic acid 110. S-^'-ethoxy-S'-CI-methyl-S-pentylureido^-propoxybiphenyl^-yl Jpropanoic acid 111. 3-[3,5-dimethoxy-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]p ropanoic acid 112. S-CS.δ-diethoxy-S'-IS-^S-methoxyphenyOethylJ-i-methylureido Jbiphenyl^-yOpro- panoic acid 113. 3-(3'-{3-[2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]-1-methylureido}-3-propox ybiphenyl-4-yl)propan- oic acid 114. S-^-cyclopropylmethoxy-SXI-methyl-S-pentylureidoJbiphenyl^-y lJpropanoic acid 115. 3-[3-ethoxy-4M1uoro-3X1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl] propanoic acid 116. 3-[3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)-3-(4,4,4-trifluorobutoxy)bip henyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 117. 3-[3-benzyloxy-3l-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]pro panoic acid 118. 3-[3'-{3-[2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]-1 -methylureido}-3-(3-trifluoromethylbenzyloxy)- biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 119. 3-(3'-{3-[2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]-1 -methylureido}-3,5-dipropylbiphenyl-4-yl)pro- panoic acid 120. 3-[3-(2,2-dimethylpropyl)-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphen yl-4-yl]propanoic acid 121. 3-[3,5-dimethyl-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]pr opanoic acid 122. 3-[4"-methoxy-3-( 1 -methyl-3-pentylureido)[1 , 1 ';3\ 1 "]terphenyl-4'-yl]propanoic acid 123. 3-[3"-methoxy-3-(1 -methyl-3-pentylureido)[1 ,1';2',1 "]terphenyl-4'-yl]propanoic acid 124. 3-(3-{3-[2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]-1-methylureido}-3"-triflu oromethyl[1 ,r;2M"]ter- phenyl-4'-yl)propanoic acid 125. 3-{3'-(3-butyl-1 -methylureido)-2-[2-(3-isopropoxyphenyl)ethyl]biphenyl-4-yl} propan- oic acid 126. S-IS'-CI-methyl-S-pentylureido^-Kpyrid-S-ylmethyOaminolbiphe nyl^-ylJpropanoic acid 127. 3-[3-(2-methoxyethylamino)-3l-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphe nyl-4-yl]propanoic acid 128. methyl 3-[3,5-diethyl-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]pro panoate 129. methyl 3-[3'-[1 -methyl-3-(3-phenoxyphenyl)ureido]-2-(3-trifluoromethylbenzy loxy)- biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate 130. methyl 3-[3'-[3-(2-biphenyl-4-ylethyl)-1-methylureido]-2-(3-methoxy benzyloxy)- biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate 131. ethyl 3-[3'-{3-[2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]-1 -methylureido}-2-(4,4,4-trifluorobutoxy)- biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate. According to the present invention, the compounds of formula (I) that are more particularly preferred are those that have at least one of the following characteristics: - R1 represents a hydroxyl or hydroxylamine radical; - R2 and R7 represent an alkoxy or aryloxy radical, an alkylamino radical or a polyether radical; - R3 and R8 represent a hydrogen atom; - R4 represents a lower alkyl radical of 1 to 4 carbon atoms; - R5 represents an alkyl radical of 3 to 8 carbon atoms; - Y is an oxygen atom; - the bond V-W is a single or double C-C bond. In particular, the compounds of general formula (I) that have all of the following characteristics will be preferred: - R1 represents a hydroxyl or hydroxylamine radical; - R2 and R7 represent an alkoxy or aryloxy radical, an alkylamino radical or a polyether radical; - R3 and R8 represent a hydrogen atom; - R4 represents a lower alkyl radical of 1 to 4 carbon atoms; - R5 represents an alkyl radical of 3 to 8 carbon atoms; - Y is an oxygen atom; - the bond V-W is a single or double C-C bond. A subject of the present invention is also the processes for preparing the compounds of formula (I), in particular according to the reaction schemes given in Figures 1, 2 and 3.

Figure 1 : The boronic acid 2 may be obtained from compound 1 using standard conditions, for example by reaction with tert-butyllithium, followed by an addition to trimethyl borate. A Suzuki type palladium coupling between the boronic acid 2 and compound 3 (chosen from an aryl bromide, iodide, chloride or triflate) makes it possible to obtain the compound having the aryl-aryl sequence 4. A Suzuki type palladium coupling between the boronic acid 2 and compound 8 (chosen from an aryl bromide, iodide, chloride or triflate) makes it possible to obtain the compound having the aryl-aryl sequence 10. Compound 4 may be coupled with isocyanates or isothiocyanates under standard conditions to give compound 5. Compound 10 may be coupled with isocyanates or isothiocyanates under standard conditions to give compound 9. When it is desired to obtain a compound with R1 being a hydroxyl radical (compound 12), the acid function may be obtained from compound 5 either: by saponification, if R6 is an alkyl chain, with a base such as sodium hydroxide; or - by hydrogenolysis if R6 is a benzyl; or by deprotection with palladium if R6 is an allyl chain. Compound 1 may also be coupled directly with an isocyanate or an isothiocyanate under standard conditions to give compound 6. The boronate 7 may be obtained by treating compound 6 with pinacol diborane, for example in the presence of a palladium-based catalyst, for instance diphenylphosphinoferrocenepalladium dichloride. A Suzuki type palladium coupling between the boronate 7 and compound 8 (chosen from an aryl bromide, iodide, chloride or triflate) makes it possible to obtain the compound having the aryl-aryl sequence 9. A Suzuki type palladium coupling between the boronate 7 and compound 3 (chosen from an aryl bromide, iodide, chloride or triflate) makes it possible to obtain the compound having the aryl-aryl sequence 5. Compound 5 may be obtained by hydrogenation of compound 9 under standard hydrogenation conditions, for instance: hydrogen catalysed with palladium-on- charcoal. When R2 is a benzyloxy, compound 20 may be obtained from 9 under standard hydrogenation conditions, for instance: hydrogen catalysed with palladium-on- charcoal. Compound 21 may be obtained from 20 by alkylation of the phenol, for example using a base such as potassium carbonate in the presence of an alkyl halide. The acid function of compound 12 may be obtained from 21 by saponification if R6 is an alkyl chain, with a base, for instance sodium hydroxide. When R2 is a nitro, compound 9 may be converted into the amine 19 by hydrogenation, for example in the presence of palladium-on-charcoal and hydrogen. Compound 19 may then react with aldehydes in the presence of sodium borohydride to form alkylamino or dialkylamino compounds, which may then be saponified into the corresponding acids thereof 12, for example using sodium hydroxide. Compound 4 may be obtained by hydrogenation of compound 10 under standard hydrogenation conditions, for instance: hydrogen catalysed with palladium-on- charcoal. The acid function of compound 11 may be obtained from 9: by saponification if R6 is an alkyl chain, with a base such as sodium hydroxide; or by deprotection with palladium if R6 is an allyl chain. Compound 12 may be obtained by hydrogenation of compound 11 under standard hydrogenation conditions, for instance: hydrogen catalysed with palladium-on-charcoal. Compound 17 may be obtained from the acid 12 by treatment with oxalyl chloride, for example, followed by treatment with hydroxylamine. Compound 18 may be obtained from the acid 11 by treatment with oxalyl chloride, for example, followed by treatment with hydroxylamine. Compound 17 may be obtained from compound 5 by treatment with hydroxylamine. Compound 18 may be obtained from compound 9 by treatment with hydroxylamine.

Figure 2 : A Suzuki type palladium coupling between the 4-formylphenylboronic acids and compound 1 (chosen from an aryl bromide, iodide, chloride or triflate) makes it possible to obtain the compound having the aryl-aryl sequence 13. A Suzuki type palladium coupling between the 4-formylphenylboronic acids and compound 6 (chosen from an aryl bromide, iodide, chloride or triflate) makes it possible to obtain the compound having the aryl-aryl sequence 14. Compound 9 may be obtained via a Wittig reaction from compound 14 via the action of methyltriphenylphosphoranylidene acetate, for example. Compound 10 may be obtained via a Wittig reaction from compound 13 via the action of methyltriphenylphosphoranylidene acetate, for example. The remainder of the synthetic routes is as described for Figure 1.

Figure 3 : The boronate 15 may be obtained by treating compound 8 with pinacol diborane, for example in the presence of a palladium-based catalyst, for instance diphenylphosphinoferrocenepalladium dichloride. The boronate 16 may be obtained by treating compound 3 with pinacol diborane, for example in the presence of a palladium-based catalyst, for instance diphenylphosphinoferrocenepalladium dichloride. A Suzuki type palladium coupling between compound 15 and compound 6 (chosen from an aryl bromide, iodide, chloride or triflate) makes it possible to obtain the compound having the aryl-aryl sequence 9. A Suzuki type palladium coupling between compound 15 and compound 1 (chosen from an aryl bromide, iodide, chloride or triflate) makes it possible to obtain the compound having the aryl-aryl sequence 10. A Suzuki type palladium coupling between compound 16 and compound 1 (chosen from an aryl bromide, iodide, chloride or triflate) makes it possible to obtain the compound having the aryl-aryl sequence 4. A Suzuki type palladium coupling between compound 16 and compound 6 (chosen from an aryl bromide, iodide, chloride or triflate) makes it possible to obtain the compound having the aryl-aryl sequence 5. The remainder of the synthetic routes is as described for Figure 1. The compounds according to the invention have modulatory properties on PPAR type receptors. This activity on the PPARa, d and γ receptors is measured in a transactivation test and quantified by means of the dissociation constant Kdapp (apparent), as described in Example 63. The preferred compounds of the present invention have a dissociation constant of less than or equal to 5000 nM and advantageously less than or equal to 1000 nM. Preferably, the compounds are specific PPARγ type receptor modulators, i.e. they have a ratio between the Kdapp for the PPARa or PPARd receptors and the Kdapp for the PPARγ receptors, of greater than or equal to 10. Preferably, this PPARa/PPARγ or PPARd/PPARγ ratio is greater than or equal to 50 and more advantageously greater than or equal to 100. A subject of the present invention is also, as medicaments, the compounds of formula (I) as described above. Thus, the compounds as described above according to the invention may be used in the manufacture of a composition for regulating and/or restoring skin lipid metabolism. The compounds according to the invention are particularly suitable in the following fields of treatment: 1 ) for treating dermatological complaints associated with a keratinization disorder relating to cell differentiation and proliferation, especially for treating common acne, comedones, polymorphs, acne rosacea, nodulocystic acne, acne conglobata, senile acne, and secondary acnes such as solar acne, medication-related acne or occupational acne; 2) for treating other types of keratinization disorders, especially ichthyosis, ichthyosiform conditions, Darier's disease, palmoplanar keratoderma, leukoplakia and leukoplakiform conditions, and cutaneous or mucous (buccal) lichen; 3) for treating other dermatological complaints with an inflammatory immunoallergic component, with or without cell proliferation disorder, and especially all forms of psoriasis, whether cutaneous, mucous or ungual, and even psoriatic rheumatism, or cutaneous atopy, such as eczema, or respiratory atopy, or alternatively gingival hypertrophy; 4) for treating all dermal or epidermal proliferations, whether benign or malignant, and whether of viral origin or otherwise, such as common warts, flat warts and verruciform epidermodysplasia, oral or florid papillomatoses, T lymphoma, and proliferations that may be induced by ultraviolet radiation, especially in the case of basal cell and spinal cell epithelioma, and also any precancerous skin lesion such as keratoacanthomas; 5) for treating other dermatological disorders such as immune dermatoses, such as lupus erythematosus, immune bullous diseases and collagen diseases, such as scleroderma; 6) in the treatment of dermatological or general complaints with an immunological component; 7) in the treatment of skin disorders caused by exposure to UV radiation, and also for repairing or combating ageing of the skin, whether photoinduced or chronological ageing, or for reducing actinic pigmentations and keratosis, or any pathology associated with chronological or actinic ageing, such as xerosis; 8) for combating sebaceous function disorders, such as the hyperseborrhoea of acne or simple seborrhoea; 9) for preventing or treating cicatrization disorders, or for preventing or repairing stretchmarks; 10) in the treatment of pigmentation disorders, such as hyperpigmentation, melasma, hypopigmentation or vitiligo; 11 ) in the treatment of lipid metabolism complaints, such as obesity, hyperlipidaemia, or non-insulin-dependent diabetes; 12) in the treatment of inflammatory complaints such as arthritis; 13) in the treatment or prevention of cancerous or precancerous conditions; 14) in the prevention or treatment of alopecia of various origins, especially alopecia caused by chemotherapy or radiation; 15) in the treatment of disorders of the immune system, such as asthma, type I sugar diabetes, multiple sclerosis or other selective dysfunctions of the immune system; and 16) in the treatment of complaints of the cardiovascular system, such as arteriosclerosis or hypertension. A subject of the present invention is also a pharmaceutical or cosmetic composition comprising, in a physiologically acceptable medium, at least one compound of formula (I) as defined above. A subject of the present invention is also the use of the compounds of formula (I) for manufacturing a composition for treating the abovementioned complaints, in particular for regulating and/or restoring skin lipid metabolism. The composition according to the invention may be administered orally, enterally, parenterally, topically or ocularly. The pharmaceutical composition is preferably packaged in a form that is suitable for topical application. Via the oral route, the composition, more particularly the pharmaceutical composition, may be in the form of tablets, gel capsules, dragees, syrups, suspensions, solutions, powders, granules, emulsions, lipid or polymeric microspheres, nanospheres or vesicles allowing a controlled release. Via the parenteral route, the composition may 5 be in the form of solutions or suspensions for infusion or for injection. The compounds according to the invention are generally administered at a daily dose of about 0.001 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg of body weight, in 1 to 3 dosage intakes. The compounds are used systemically, at a concentration generally of between 0.001% and 10% by weight and preferably between 0.01% and 1% by weight, ^ relative to the weight of the composition. Via the topical route, the pharmaceutical composition according to the invention is more particularly intended for treating the skin and mucous membranes and may be in the form of ointments, creams, milks, pomades, powders, impregnated pads, solutions, gels, sprays, lotions or suspensions. It may also be in the form of lipid or 5 polymeric microspheres, nanospheres or vesicles or polymer patches and hydrogels allowing a controlled release. This topical composition may be in anhydrous form, in aqueous form or in the form of an emulsion. The compounds are used topically at a concentration generally of between 0.001% and 10% by weight and preferably between 0.01 % and 1% by weight, relative to ° the total weight of the composition. The compounds of formula (I) according to the invention also find an application in cosmetics, in particular in body and hair hygiene and more particularly for regulating and/or restoring skin lipid metabolism. A subject of the invention is thus also the cosmetic use of a composition 5 comprising, in a physiologically acceptable support, at least one of the compounds of formula (I) for body or hair hygiene. The cosmetic composition according to the invention containing, in a cosmetically acceptable support, at least one compound of formula (I) or an optical or geometrical isomer thereof or a salt thereof, may especially be in the form of a cream, a 0 milk, a lotion, a gel, lipid or polymeric microspheres, nanospheres or vesicles, a soap or a shampoo. The concentration of compound of formula (I) in the cosmetic composition is between 0.001% and 3% by weight relative to the total weight of the composition. The compositions as described above may also obviously contain inert or 5 even pharmacodynamically active additives or combinations of these additives, and especially: wetting agents, depigmenting agents such as hydroquinone, azelaic acid, caffeic acid or kojic acid; emollients; moisturizers, for instance glycerol, PEG-400, thiamorpholinone and derivatives thereof, or alternatively urea; anti-seborrhoeic or antiacne agents, such as S-carboxymethylcysteine or S-benzylcysteamine, and salts or derivatives thereof, or benzoyl peroxide; antifungal agents such as ketoconazole or 4,5- polymethylene-3-isothiazolidones; antibacterial agents, carotenoids and especially β- carotene; anti-psoriatic agents such as anthralin and derivatives thereof; eicosa- 5,8,11 ,14-tetraynoic and eicosa-5,8,11-triynoic acids, esters and amides thereof, and, finally, retinoids. The compounds of formula (I) may also be combined with D vitamins or derivatives thereof, with corticosteroids, with free-radical scavengers, a-hydroxy or a-keto acids or derivatives thereof, or alternatively with ion-channel blockers. These compositions may also contain flavour enhancers, preserving agents such as para-hydroxybenzoic acid esters, stabilizers, moisture regulators, pH regulators, osmotic pressure modifiers, emulsifiers, UV-A and UV-B screening agents, and antioxidants such as a-tocopheryl, butylhydroxyanisole or butylhydroxytoluene. Needless to say, a person skilled in the art will take care to select the optional compound(s) to be added to these compositions such that the advantageous properties intrinsically associated with the present invention are not, or are not substantially, adversely affected by the envisaged addition. Several examples of production of active compounds of formula (I) according to the invention, and also results of biological activity of such compounds and various concrete formulations based on these compounds, will now be given by way of illustration and with no limiting nature.

Example 1 : (E)-3-r3'-(3-Heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-vnacrylic acid

a. tert-Butyl (3-bromophenyl) carbamate To a mixture of 94 g (549 mmol) of 3-bromoaniline in 11 of dichloromethane are added portionwise 12O g (549 mmol) of di-tert-butyl dicarbonate, at room temperature. After stirring for 18 hours, the reaction medium is poured into ice-cold water and then extracted with dichloromethane. The organic phase is separated out after settling of the phases, dried over magnesium sulfate and evaporated. 138 g of (3-tert- butyl bromophenyl)carbamate are obtained in a yield of 98%.

b. tert-Butyl (3-bromoDhenyl)-N-methylcarbamate To a solution of 114 g (447 mmol) of tert-butyl (3-bromophenyl)carbamate in 800 ml of DMF are added portionwise 19 g (475 mmol) of sodium hydride (60% in oil) and the reaction medium is stirred until the evolution of gas has ceased. 29.3 ml (470 mmol) of methyl iodide are added dropwise and stirring is continued for 18 hours. The reaction medium is poured into ice-cold water and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phase is separated out after settling of the phases, dried over magnesium sulfate and evaporated. 115 g of tert-butyl (3-bromophenyl)-N-methylcarbamate are obtained in a yield of 95%.

c. (3-BromoDhenyl)methylamine 5 ml_ of trifluoromethanesulfonic acid are added to a solution of 3.6 g (12.7 mmol) of (3- tert-butyl bromophenyl)-Λ/-methylcarbamate in 15 mL of dichloromethane. The reaction medium is stirred for 1 hour at room temperature (r.t.). The reaction is stopped by addition of 50 mL of saturated sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and then extracted with ethyl acetate. The solvents are evaporated off and the residue is then chromatographed on silica gel. Eluent (1/1 heptane/ethyl acetate). 2.14 g of oil are obtained. Yield 90%.

d. 1-(3-BromoDhenyl)-3-heptyl-1-methylurea 3.2 mL (20 mmol, 1.5 eq) of heptyl isocyanate are added to a solution of 2.5 g (13 mmol, 1 eq) of (3-bromophenyl)methylamine in 10 ml of tetrahydrofuran in the presence of 2 ml of triethylamine. The reaction mixture is stirred for 12 hours at r.t. The reaction is stopped by addition of 2 mL of water and then extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvents are evaporated off and the residue is then chromatographed on silica gel (70/30 heptane/ethyl acetate). 3.4 g of 1-(3-brornophenyl)-3-heptyl-1-methylurea in solid form are obtained. Yield = 77 %.

e. 3-Heotyl- 1 -methyl- 1 -f3-(4.4.5.5-tetrameth ylf1.3.21dioxaborolan-2-yl)Dhen yllurea 4.0 g (15.5 mmol, 1.5 eq) of pinacol diborane are added to a mixture of 3.4 g (lO mmol, 1 eq) of 1-(3-bromophenyl)-3-heptyl-1-methylurea and 3.O g (31 mmol, 3 eq) of potassium acetate, in the presence of 380 mg (0.5 mmol, 5 mol%) of diphenyl- phosphinoferrocenepalladium dichloride (PdCI2dppf) in 15 ml of dimethylformamide. The mixture is stirred for 3 hours at 9O0C. The reaction is stopped by addition of 50 ml. of water and then extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvents are evaporated off and the residue is then chromatographed on silica gel (70/30 heptane/ethyl acetate). 2.5 g of 3-heptyl-1-methyl- 1-[3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl[1 ,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)phenyl]urea in oil form are obtained. Yield = 64 %.

f. Ethyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl- 1-methylureido)biDhenyl-4-yl]acrylate 308 mg (0.26 mmol, 5 mol%) of tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium are added to a solution of 2 g (5.34 mmol, 1.0 eq) of 3-heptyl-1-methyl-1-[3-(4,4,5,5- tetramethyl[1 ,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)phenyl]urea and 1.6 g (6.4 mmol, 1.2 eq) of ethyl 4- bromocinnamate in 20 mL of an 8/2 mixture of dimethylformamide and of 2M potassium phosphate solution. The reaction mixture is stirred for 3 hours at 9O0C. The reaction is stopped by addition of 50 mL of water and then extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvents are evaporated off and the residue is then chromatographed on silica gel (70/30 heptane/ethyl acetate). 1.69 g of ethyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylate in oil form are obtained. Yield = 75 %.

q. 3-f3'-(3-HeDtyl-1-methylureido)biDhenyl-4-yl]acrylic acid 1.6 g (40 mmol, 10 eq) of sodium hydroxide are added to a solution of 1.69 g (4.0 mmol, 1 eq) of ethyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylate in 30 ml of 9/1 tetrahydrofuran/methanol. The reaction mixture is stirred for one hour at room temperature. The reaction is stopped by addition of 20 mL of water and 5 mL of acetic acid and then extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvents are evaporated off and the residue is then chromatographed on silica gel (70/30 heptane/ethyl acetate). The oil obtained is crystallized from Heptane/ethyl acetate. 1.29 g of 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl- 4-yl]acrylic acid in the form of white crystals are obtained, (m.p. = 125-126°C) Yield = 82%. 1H NMR (CDCI., 400 MHz) : 0.86 (t, J = 7.2 Hz1 3H) ; 1.24 (m, 8H) ; 1.44 (m, 2H) ; 3.20 (dt, J = 6.0, 6.8 Hz, 2H) ; 3.35 (s, 3H) ; 4.42 (t, J = 5.6 Hz, 1 H) ; 6.54 (d, J = 15.9 Hz, 1 H) ; 7.29 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 1 H) ; 7.55 (m, 3H) ; 7.65 (m, 4H) ; 7.84 (d, J = 16 Hz1 1 H).

Example 2 : 3-r3'-(3-Heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yllpropanoic acid

a. 3-[3'-(3-HeDtyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yllDroDanoic acid A solution of 900 mg (2.28 mmol) of 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl- 4-yl]acrylic acid (prepared as in 1g) in 20 ml of methanol is stirred for 4 hours at room temperature in the presence of 100 mg of 10% Pd/C under a hydrogen atmosphere. The palladium is filtered off and the solvents are evaporated off. The residue is crystallized from a dichloromethane/heptane mixture. 620 mg of 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid in the form of a white solid are obtained (m.p. = 1010C). Yield = 68 %.

1H NMR (CDCk. 400 MHz) : 0.86 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H) ; 1.24 (m, 8H) ; 1.42 (m, 2H) ; 2.76 (m 2H) ; 3.04 (m 2H) ; 3.19 (m 2H) ; 3.33 (s. 3H) ; 4.42 (m, 1 H) ; 7.22-7.35 (m, 3H) ; 7.48-7.54 (m, 5H). Example 3 : 3-f3-Fluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yllpropan oic acid

a. Methyl 3-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)acrylate 2.17 g (6.5 mmol, 1.2 eq) of methyltriphenylphosphoranylidene acetate are added to a solution of 1.1 g (5.4 mmol, 1.0 eq) of 4-bromo-2-fluorobenzaldehyde in 10 ml of toluene. The reaction mixture is stirred for 1 hour at 800C. The reaction is stopped by addition of 20 mL of water and then extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvents are evaporated off and the residue is then chromatographed on silica gel (80/20 heptane/ethyl acetate). 1.1 g of methyl 3-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)acrylate in the form of a white solid are obtained. Yield = 78 %.

b Methyl 3-[3-fluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acryla te 44 mg (5 mol%) of tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium are added to a solution of 200 mg (0.77 mmol, 1.0 eq) of methyl 3-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)acrylate and 430 mg (1.15 mmol, 1.5 eq) of 3-heptyl-1-methyl-1-[3-(4,4,5,5- tetramethyl[1 ,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)phenyl]urea (prepared as in 1e) in a mixture of dimethylformamide and 2M potassium phosphate solution (8/2). The reaction mixture is stirred for 2 hours at 900C. The reaction is stopped by addition of 10 mL of water and then extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvents are evaporated off and the residue is then chromatographed on silica gel (70/30 heptane/ethyl acetate). 138 mg of methyl 3-[3- fluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylate are obtained. Yield = 42 %.

c Methyl 3-{3-fluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biDhenyl-4-yl]DroDan oate A solution of 138 mg (0.32 mmol) of methyl 3-[3-fluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylate in 3 ml of methanol is stirred for 4 hours at room temperature in the presence of 10 mg of 10% Pd/C under a hydrogen atmosphere. The palladium is filtered off and the solvents are evaporated off. The residue is chromatographed on silica gel (70/30 heptane/ethyl acetate). 130 mg of methyl 3-[3- fluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate are obtained. Yield = 94 %.

d. 3-[3-Fluoro-3'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propan oic acid 100 mg (2.5 mmol, 8 eq) of sodium hydroxide are added to a solution of 130 mg (0.3 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[3-fluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4- yl]propanoate in 3 ml of 9/1 tetrahydrofuran/methanol. The reaction mixture is stirred for 3 hours at room temperature. The reaction is stopped by addition of 10 mL of water and 1 mL of acetic acid and then extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvents are evaporated off and the residue is then chromatographed on silica gel (70/30 heptane/ethyl acetate). The oil obtained is crystallized from heptane/dichloromethane. 55 mg of 3-[3-fluoro-3'-(3-heptyl- 1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid in the form of a white solid are obtained (m.p. = 92-930C). Yield = 43 %.

1H NMR (CDCh. 400 MHz) : 0.86 (t, J = 7.0 Hz1 3H) ; 1.24 (m, 8H) ; 1.43 (m, 2H) ; 2.75 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H) ; 3.06 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H) ; 3.20 (dt, J = 5.6, 7.2 Hz, 2H) ; 3.32 (s, 3H) ; 4.40 (t, J = 5.6 Hz, 1 H) ; 7.24-7.34 (m, 4H) ; 7.46-7.51 (m, 3H). Example 4 : 3-(3'-l3-r2-(4-Fluorophenvhethyll-1-methylureido}biphenyl-4- vDpropanoic acid

a. N-Methyl-3-aminoDhenylboronic acid 37.6 g (202 mnnol, 1 eq) of (3-bromophenyl)methylamine (obtained as in 1c) are dissolved in 300 ml of tetrahydrofuran. The reaction mixture is cooled to -700C, and 166 ml_ (242 mmol, 1.2 eq) of 1.5 M methyllithium are then added slowly while maintaining the temperature at -700C. The reaction mixture is stirred for 1 hour at -7O0C. 306 ml. (444 mmol, 2.2 eq) of 1.46 M tert-butyllithium are added while maintaining the temperature at -700C. The reaction mixture is stirred for 45 minutes at -7O0C. 103.5 mL (808 mmol, 4 eq) of trimethyl borate are added at -65°C, and the reaction mixture is then warmed to room temperature. The reaction is stopped by addition of 1 L of 1 N hydrochloric acid. The pH is adjusted to 5 and the reaction medium is then extracted with n-butanol. The organic phases are combined and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvents are evaporated off and the residue is then chromatographed on silica gel (70/30 heptane/ethyl acetate). 11.3 g of N-methyl-3-aminophenylboronic acid are obtained. Yield = 40 %.

b Methyl 3-(4-hvdroxyDhenyl)DroDanoate 15 g (0.09 mol, 1 eq) of 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid are dissolved in 50 ml of methanol and 4 drops of sulfuric acid are added. The reaction mixture is stirred for 16 hours at room temperature. The reaction is stopped by addition of 50 mL of saturated sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and then extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvents are evaporated off and the residue is then chromatographed on silica gel (70/30 heptane/ethyl acetate). 14.9 g of methyl 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoate are obtained. Yield = 92 %.

c. Methyl 3-(3'-methylaminobiDhenyl-4-yl)DroDanoate 1.0 g (5.5 mmol, 1.0 eq) of methyl 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoate is dissolved in 8 mL of dichloromethane in the presence of 1 ml of triethylamine. 1.12 mL (6.6 mmol, 1.2 eq) of triflic anhydride are added at 00C. The reaction mixture is stirred for 1 hour at 00C. The reaction is stopped by addition of 50 mL of saturated sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and then extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvents are evaporated off and the residue is then filtered on silica gel (1/1 heptane/ethyl acetate). After evaporating off the solvents, the oil obtained is dissolved in 6 mL of an 8/2 mixture of dimethylformamide and of 2M potassium phosphate solution. 1.0 g (6.6 mmol, 1.2 eq) of N-methyl-3- aminophenylboronic acid are added, along with 317 mg of tetrakis(triphenyl- phosphine)palladium. The reaction mixture is stirred for 3 hours at 900C. The reaction is stopped by addition of 50 mL of water and then extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvents are evaporated off and the residue is then chromatographed on silica gel (70/30 heptane/ethyl acetate). 0.92 g of methyl 3-(3'-methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoate is obtained. Yield = 61 %.

d. Methyl 3-(3'-{3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)ethyll-1-methylureido)biDhenyl-4 -yl)Dropanoate 340 μ L (1.84 mmol, 2 eq) of 4-fluorophenethyl isocyanate are added to a solution of 250 mg (0.92 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-(3'-methylaminobiphenyl-4- yl)propanoate in 8 mL of a 4/1 tetrahydrofuran/triethylamine mixture. The reaction mixture is stirred for 24 hours at room temperature. The reaction is stopped by addition of 10 mL of saturated ammonium chloride solution and then extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvents are evaporated off and the residue is then chromatographed on silica gel (70/30 heptane/ethyl acetate). 221 mg of methyl 3-(3'-{3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)ethyl]-1- methylureido}biphenyl-4-yl)propanoate are obtained. Yield = 55 %.

e. 3-(3'-{3-f2-(4-Fluorophenyl)ethylJ-1-methylureido}biphenyl-4 -yl)propanoic acid 200 mg (5 mmol, 10 eq) of sodium hydroxide are added to a solution of 221 mg (0.51 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-(3'-{3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)ethyl]-1- methylureido}biphenyl-4-yl)propanoate in 6 ml of an 8/2 tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture. The reaction mixture is stirred for 3 hours at room temperature. The reaction is stopped by addition of 10 mL of water and 2 mL of acetic acid and then extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvents are evaporated off and the residue is then chromatographed on silica gel (70/30 heptane/ethyl acetate). 180 mg of 3-(3'-{3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)ethyl]-1- methylureido}biphenyl-4-yl)propanoic acid are obtained (m.p. = 146°C). Yield = 84 %.

1H NMR (CDCk. 400 MHz) : 2.73 (t, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H) ; 2.76 (t, J = 7.8 Hz1 2H) ; 3.05 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H) ; 3.31 (s, 3H) ; 3.43 (dt, J = 6.6, 6.1 Hz, 2H) ; 4.39 (t, J = 5.7 Hz, 1 H) ; 6.83 (m, 2H) ; 7.03 (m, 2H) ; 7.11 (m, 1 H) ; 7.35 (m, 3H) ; 7.45 (m, 4H).

Example 5: 3-f3'-M-Methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yllpropanoic acid

a methyl 3-[3'-(1-Methyl-3-pentylureido)biDhenyl-4-yllpropanoate 236 μL (1.84 mmol, 2 eq) of pentyl isocyanate are added to a solution of 250 mg (0.92 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-(3'-methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoate (obtained as in 4c) in 5 mL of a 9/1 tetrahydrofuran/triethylamine mixture. The reaction mixture is stirred for 12 h at room temperature. The reaction is stopped by addition of 10 mL of water and then extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvents are evaporated off and the residue is then chromatographed on silica gel (70/30 heptane/ethyl acetate). 245 mg of methyl 3-[3'-(1- methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate are obtained. Yield = 70%.

b. 3-[3'-(1-Methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yllDroDanoic acid 130 mg (3.2 mmol, 5 eq) of sodium hydroxide are added to a solution of 245 mg (0.64 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4- yl]propanoate in 6 ml of a 9/1 tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture. The reaction mixture is stirred for 2 hours at room temperature. The reaction is stopped by addition of 10 mL of water and 2 mL of acetic acid and then extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvents are evaporated off and the residue is then chromatographed on silica gel (70/30 heptane/ethyl acetate). The oil obtained is crystallized from pentane. 63 mg of solid are obtained (m.p. = 100-1020C). Yield = 27%. 1H NMR (CDCU. 400 MHz) : 0.86 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H) ; 1.25 (m, 4H) ; 1.42 (m, 2H) ; 2.75 (t, J = 7.7 Hz, 2H) ; 3.04 (t, J = 7.7 Hz, 2H) ; 3.18 (dt, J = 4.3, 5.9 Hz, 2H) ; 3.32 (s, 3H) ;4.42 (t, J = 5.5 Hz, 1H) ; 7.22 (m, 1 H) ;7.33 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 2H) ; 7.47-7.54 (m, 5H).

Example 6 : 3-r3'-(3-Heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yll-N-hvdroxypropi onamide

a. Methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biDhenyl-4-yl]propanoate 1.2 mL (7.43 mmol, 2 eq) of heptyl isocyanate are added to a solution of 1.0 g (3.7 mmol, 1eq) of methyl 3-(3'-methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoate (obtained as in 4c) in 15 mL of a 4/1 tetrahydrofuran/triethylamine mixture. The reaction mixture is stirred for 12 hours at 400C. The reaction is stopped by addition of 10 mL of water and then extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvents are evaporated off and the residue is then chromatographed on silica gel (70/30 heptane/ethyl acetate). 1.15 g of methyl 3-[3'-(1-methyl-3-heptyl- ureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate are obtained. Yield = 76%.

b. 3-[3'-(3-Heptyl-1-methylureido)biDhenyl-4-yll-N-hvdroxyDroDi onamide 320 mg (5.7 mmol, 11.4 eq) of potassium hydroxide dissolved in 1.7 ml of methanol are added to a solution of 251 mg (3.6 mmol, 7.2 eq) of hydroxylamine hydrochloride in 2.5 ml of methanol. The reaction mixture is stirred for one hour at room temperature (formation of a white precipitate). The supernatant solution is taken up and added dropwise to a solution of 206 mg of methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate in 2 ml of methanol. The reaction mixture is stirred for 24 hours at room temperature. The reaction medium is evaporated to dryness, taken up in water, neutralized to pH 6-7 with 1 N acetic acid solution and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with water and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvent is evaporated off and the residue (242 mg) is chromatographed on silica gel (10 g CombiFlash column) eluted with 95/5 dichloromethane/methanol. 155 mg of the pinkish powder obtained are crystallized from ethyl acetate with the product obtained during a preceding synthesis performed under the same conditions. 142 mg of 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]-N-hydroxypropi onamide in the form of white crystals are obtained (m.p. = 100-1010C). Yield = 69%

1H NMR (DMSO-d6. 400 MHz) : 0.85 (t, 3H); 1.24 (m, 8H); 1.39 (m, 2H); 2.29 (t, 2H); 2.85 (t, 2H); 3.02 (q, 2H) ; 3.20 (s, 3H); 6.06 (t, 1 H); 7.02 (d, 1 H); 7.29 (d, 2H); 7.46 (m, 3H); 7.57 (d, 2H); 8.72 (s, 1 H); 10.4 (s, 1 H). Example 7 : 3-r3'-M-Methyl-3-naphthalen-2-ylureido)biphenyl-4-vnpropanoi c acid

a. Methylf3-(4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethviπ .3, 21dioxaborolan-2-yl)Dhenyl]amine 35 g (4 mol%) of diphenylphosphinoferrocene-palladium dichloride are added to a solution of 200 g (1.075 mol, 1 eq) of (3-bromophenyl)methylamine and 286.7 g (1.129 mol, 1.05 eq) of pinacol diborane in 2 L of dimethylformamide in the presence of 316.4 g (3.225 mol, 3 eq) of potassium acetate. The reaction medium is heated at 1000C for 3 hours and then stirred at room temperature for 15 hours. The reaction medium is filtered through Celite and 2 L of ethyl acetate are then added to the filtrate. The organic medium is washed with water and then separated out by settling. The solvents are evaporated off and the black oil obtained is chromatographed on silica gel eluted with heptane/ethyl acetate (90/10). 183 g of methyl-[3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl[1 ,3>2]dioxaborolan- 2-yl)phenyl]amine in the form of an orange-yellow oil are obtained. Yield = 73%

b. Ethyl (E)-3-(3'-methylaminobiDhenyl-4-yl)acrylate In a manner similar to that of Example (1f), by reaction of 2.2 g (8.6 mmol, 1 eq) of ethyl 4-bromocinnamate, 2.0 g (8.6 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl[3-(4,4,5,5- tetramethyl[1 ,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)phenyl]amine and 500 mg of tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium in 20 ml. of a mixture of dimethylformamide and of 2M potassium phosphate solution (5/1 ), 1.7 g of ethyl (E)-3-(3'-methylaminobiphenyl-4- yl)acrylate are obtained in oil form. Yield = 71 %

c. Ethyl 3-(3'-methylaminobiDhenyl-4-yl)propanoate A solution of 1.7 g (6.0 mmol) of ethyl (E)-3-(3'-methylaminobiphenyl-4- yl)acrylate in 25 ml of methanol is stirred for 12 hours at room temperature in the presence of 300 mg (18% by mass) of 10% palladium-on-charcoal under a hydrogen atmosphere. The palladium is filtered off and the solvent is evaporated off. 1.52 g of ethyl 3-(3'-methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoate are obtained. Yield = 90% d. Ethyl 3-[3'-(1-methyl-3-naDhthalen-2-ylureido)biphenyl-4-yllDroDan oate 250 mg (1.43 mmol, 1.3 eq) of naphthyl isocyanate are added to a solution of 310 mg (1.1 mmol, 1 eq) of ethyl 3-(3'-methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoate in 3 ml_ of dichloromethane. The reaction mixture is heated at 45-5O0C for 20 hours. The reaction medium is evaporated to dryness and the residue is then crystallized from ethyl ether, filtered and dried. 452 mg of ethyl 3-[3'-(1-methyl-3-naphthalen-2-ylureido)biphenyl-4- yl]propanoate are obtained in the form of a white powder. Yield = 91%

e. 3-[3'-(1-Methyl-3-naphthalen-2-ylureido)biDhenyl-4-yllDroDan oic acid 392 mg (9.8 mmol, 10 eq) of sodium hydroxide are added to a solution of 444 mg (0.98 mmol, 1 eq) of ethyl 3-[3'-(1-methyl-3-naphthalen-2-ylureido)biphenyl-4- yl]propanoate in 10 mL of ethanol. The reaction mixture is heated at 55°C overnight. The reaction medium is evaporated to dryness, taken up in water, acidified with 1 N hydrochloric acid solution and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with water and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvent is evaporated off and the residue is recrystallized from ethyl acetate, filtered and dried. 308 mg of 3-[3'-(1-methyl-3-naphthalen-2-ylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propan oic acid in the form of an off-white powder are obtained (m.p. = 170-1710C). Yield = 87%

1H NMR (CDCk 400 MHz): 2.61 (t, 2H); 2.97 (t, 2H); 3.39 (s, 3H); 6.55 (s, 1 H); 7.29 (m, 5H); 7.31 (s, 1 H); 7.51 (m, 5H); 7.67 (t, 3H); 7.91 (s, 1H). Example 8 : 3-r3'-(3-Heptvl-1-methylthioureido)biphenvl-4-vllpropanoic acid

a. Ethyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylthioureido)biphenyl-4-yllproDanoate 525 μl (3.04 mmol, 3 eq) of heptyl isothiocyanate are added to 288 mg (1.02 mmol, 1 eq) of ethyl 3-(3'-methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoate (prepared in Example 7c). The reaction mixture is heated at 1000C by microwave for 3 hours 30 minutes. The residue is chromatographed on silica gel (15 g FlashSmart Pack column) eluted with 90/10 heptane/ethyl acetate. 361 mg of ethyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylthioureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate are obtained in the form of a yellowish oil. Yield = 80%

b. 3-f3'-(3-HeDtyl-1-methylthioureido)biDhenyl-4-yllDroDanoic acid 422 mg (10.5 mmol, 10 eq) of sodium hydroxide are added to a solution of 465 mg (1.05 mmol, 1 eq) of ethyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylthioureido)biphenyl-4- yl]propanoate in 10 mL of ethanol. The reaction mixture is heated at 500C for 2 hours. The reaction medium is evaporated to dryness, taken up in water, acidified with 2N hydrochloric acid solution and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with water and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvent is evaporated off and the paste obtained is crystallized from ethyl ether, filtered and dried. 398 mg of 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylthioureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid in the form of off-white crystals are obtained (m.p. = 95-96°C). Yield = 92%

1H NMR (CDCk. 400 MHz) : 0.85 (t, 3H); 1.24 (m, 8H); 1.48 (m, 2H); 2.75 (t, 2H); 3.04 (t, 2H); 3.57 (q, 2H) ; 3.72 (s, 3H); 5.42 (t, 1 H); 7.20 (d, 1 H); 7.34 (d, 2H); 7.46 (s, 1 H); 7.56 (m, 3H); 7.62 (d, 1 H). Example 9 : (E)-3-r2-Fluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yllac rylic acid

a. Methyl (E)-3-(3-fluoro-4-hvdroxyDhenyl)acrylate 13.1 g (0.039 mol, 2.2 eq) of methyl (triphenylphosphoranylidene)acetate are added to a solution of 2.5 g (0.0178 mol, 1 eq) of 3-fluoro-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde in 30 ml of toluene. The reaction mixture is heated at 800C for 2 hours. The reaction medium is hydrolysed in water and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with water and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvent is evaporated off and the oil obtained is chromatographed on silica gel (70/30 heptane/ethyl acetate). 2.7 g of methyl (E)-3-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)acrylate are obtained in solid form. Yield = 78%

b. Methyl (E)-3-(3-fluoro-4-trifluoromethanesulfonyloxyphenyl)acrylate 1.40 ml. (8.3 mmol, 1.1 eq) of triflic anhydride are added to a solution of 1.47 g (7.5 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl (E)-3-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)acrylate and 1.57 mL (9.0 mmol, 1.2 eq) of diisopropylethylamine in 10 mL of dichloromethane. The reaction mixture is stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction medium is hydrolysed in water, acidified with 1 N hydrochloric acid solution and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with water and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvent is evaporated off and 2.51 g of methyl (E)-3-(3-fluoro-4-trifluoromethane- sulfonyloxyphenyl)acrylate are obtained in the form of a brown oil. Yield = 100%

c. Meth yl (E) -3-(2-fluoro-3 '-(3-heotyl- 1-meth ylureidoWiphen yl-4- yllacrylate 85 mg (0.38 mmol, 0.05 eq) of palladium acetate are added to a mixture of 2.50 g (7.6 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl (E)-3-(3-fluoro-4- trifluoromethanesulfonyloxyphenyl)acrylate, 3.71 g (9.9 mmol, 1.3 eq) of 3-heptyl-1- methyl-1-[3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl[1 ,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)phenyl]urea (prepared as in Example 1e), 272 mg (0.78 mmol, 0.1 eq) of 2-(dicyclohexylphosphino)biphenyl and 5.5 mL of 2M potassium phosphate solution in 28 ml of dimethylformamide. The reaction mixture is heated at 90-950C overnight. The reaction medium is hydrolysed in saturated ammonium chloride solution and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with water and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvent is evaporated off and the brown paste obtained (4.16 g) is chromatographed on silica gel (120 g CombiFlash column) eluted with 80/20 heptane/ethyl acetate. 706 mg (22%) of a "cis/trans" mixture are obtained. This solid is washed in an ethyl ether/heptane mixture, filtered and dried. 238 mg of methyl (E)-3-[2-fluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl- 4-yl]acrylate in the form of a white solid are obtained. Yield = 7%

d. (E)-3-f2-Fluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biDhenyl-4-yllac rylic acid 220 mg (5.5 mmol, 10 eq) of sodium hydroxide are added to a solution of 234 mg (0.55 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[2-fluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4- yl]acrylate in 6 mL of ethanol + 2 ml of tetrahydrofuran. The reaction mixture is heated at 500C overnight. The reaction medium is evaporated to dryness, taken up in water, acidified with 1 N hydrochloric acid solution and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with water and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvent is evaporated off and the yellowish paste obtained (240 mg) is chromatographed on silica gel (15 g FlashSmart Pack column) eluted with 96/4 dichloromethane/methanol, and the solid obtained is then taken up in heptane and then in ethyl ether, filtered and dried. 105 mg of (E)-3-[2-fluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]ac rylic acid are obtained in the form of white crystals (m.p. = 130-1310C). Yield = 79%

1H NMR (CDCU. 400 MHz) : 0.85 (t, 3H); 1.21 (m, 8H); 1.42 (m, 2H); 3.19 (q, 2H) ; 3.32 (s, 3H); 4.45 (t, 1 H); 6.52 (d, J = 16 Hz, 1 H); 7.29 (d, 1 H); 7.38 (d, 1H); 7.50 (m, 4H); 7.76 (d, J = 16 Hz, 1 H).

Example 10 : 3-r2-Fluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yllpropan oic acid

a. Ethyl 3-f2-fluoro-3'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)biDhenyl-4-yllDroDan oate 37 mg (10% by mass) of 10% palladium-on-charcoal are added to a solution of 365 mg (0.85 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl (E)-3-[2-fluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylate (prepared in Example 9c) in 7 ml of methanol. The reaction mixture, under a pressure of 7 bar of hydrogen, is heated at 400C overnight. The reaction medium is filtered through Celite and then evaporated to dryness. The oil obtained (328 mg) is chromatographed on silica gel (15 g FlashSmart Pack column) eluted with 70/30 heptane/ethyl acetate. 246 mg of ethyl 3-[2-fluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propan oate are obtained in the form of a yellow oil. Yield = 68%

b. 3-[2-Fluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biDhenyl-4-yllDropan oic acid 227 mg (5.7 mmol, 10 eq) of sodium hydroxide are added to a solution of 243 mg (0.56 mmol, 1 eq) of ethyl 3-[2-fluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4- yljpropanoate in 6 ml of methanol. The reaction mixture is heated at 50°C for 4 hours 30 minutes. The reaction medium is evaporated to dryness, taken up in water, acidified with 2N hydrochloric acid solution and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with water and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvent is evaporated off and the paste obtained (258 mg) is crystallized from ethyl ether, filtered and dried. 150 mg of 3-[2-fluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propan oic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 80-820C). Yield = 64%

1H NMR (CDCU. 400 MHz) : 0.87 (t, 3H); 1.27 (m, 8H); 1.43 (m, 2H); 2.75 (t, 2H); 3.03 (t, 2H); 3.19 (q, 2H) ; 3.32 (s, 3H); 4.47 (t, 1 H); 7.06 (d, 1 H); 7.11 (d, 2H); 7.25 (d, 1 H); 7.37 (t, 1 H); 7.47 (m, 3H). Example 11 : 3-f3'-(3-Hexyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-vnpropanoic acid

a. Ethyl 3-[3'-(3-hexyl-1-methylureido)biDhenyl-4-yl]propanoate 380 μl (2.55 mmol, 1.5 eq) of hexyl isocyanate are added to 482 mg (1.7 mmol, 1 eq) of ethyl 3-(3'-methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoate (Example 7c). The reaction mixture is heated at 100°C by microwave for 30 minutes. The residue is chromatographed on silica gel (50 g FlashSmart Pack column) eluted with 70/30 heptane/ethyl acetate. 470 mg of ethyl 3-[3'-(3-hexyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate are obtained in the form of a yellow oil. Yield = 67%

b. 3-[3'-(3-Hexyl-1-methylureido)biDhenyl-4-ylJpropanoic acid 452 mg (11.3 mmol, 10 eq) of sodium hydroxide are added to a solution of 464 mg (1.13 mmol, 1 eq) of ethyl 3-[3'-(3-hexyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate in 10 mL of ethanol. The reaction mixture is heated at 500C for 6 hours. The reaction medium is evaporated to dryness, taken up in water, acidified with 1 N hydrochloric acid solution and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with water and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvent is evaporated off and the orange oil that crystallizes is taken up in ethyl ether, filtered and dried. 357 mg of 3-[3'-(3-hexyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid are obtained in the form of a cream-coloured powder (m.p. = 119-12O0C). Yield = 83%

1H NMR (CDCU. 400 MHz) : 0.85 (t, 3H); 1.24 (m, 6H); 1.42 (m, 2H); 2.75 (t, 2H); 3.04 (t, 2H); 3.18 (q, 2H) ; 3.32 (s, 3H); 4.43 (t, 1 H); 7.22 (d, 1 H); 7.33 (d, 2H); 7.50 (m, 5H).

Example 12 : 3-r3'-(3-Octyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yllpropanoic acid

a. Ethyl 3-[3'-(3-octyl-1-methylureido)biDhenyl-4-yl]propanoate 464 μl (2.55 mmol, 1.5 eq) of octyl isocyanate are added to 482 mg (1.7 mmol, 1 eq) of ethyl 3-(3'-methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoate (prepared in Example 7c). The reaction mixture is heated at 1000C by microwave for 30 minutes. The residue is chromatographed on silica gel (50 g FlashSmart Pack column) eluted with 70/30 heptane/ethyl acetate. 755 mg of ethyl 3-[3'-(3-octyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4- yl]propanoate are obtained in the form of a yellowish oil. Yield = 100%

b. 3-[3'-(3-Octyl-1-methylureido)biDhenyl-4-yllDroDanoic acid 684 mg (17.1 mmol, 10 eq) of sodium hydroxide are added to a solution of 750 mg (1.71 mmol, 1 eq) of ethyl 3-[3'-(3-octyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate in 15 mL of ethanol. The reaction mixture is heated at 500C for 6 hours. The reaction medium is evaporated to dryness, taken up in water, acidified with 1 N hydrochloric acid solution and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with water and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvent is evaporated off and the orange oil obtained is chromatographed on silica gel (30 g FlashSmart Pack column) eluted with 30/70 heptane/ethyl acetate and then crystallized from ethyl ether, filtered and dried. 500 mg of 3-[3'-(3-octyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 86-88°C). Yield = 71%

1H NMR (CDCU, 400 MHz) : 0.87 (t, 3H); 1.24 (m, 10H); 1.42 (m, 2H); 2.75 (t, 2H); 3.04 (t, 2H); 3.18 (q, 2H) ; 3.32 (s, 3H); 4.43 (t, 1 H); 7.22 (d, 1 H); 7.33 (d, 2H); 7.47-7.54 (m, 5H).

Example 13 : 3-^3'-f3-(4-Benzyloxyphenyl)-1-methylureido1biphenyl-4-yl> ;propanoic acid

a. Ethyl 3-{3'-[3-(4-benzyloxyDhenyl)-1-methylureidolbiphenyl-4-yl}pr opanoate 345 mg (1.5 mmol, 1.5 eq) of 1-benzyloxy-4-isocyanatobenzene are added to 283 mg (1.0 mmol, 1 eq) of ethyl 3-(3'-methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoate (prepared in Example 7c). The reaction mixture is heated at 1000C by microwave for 30 minutes. The residue is taken up in a heptane/ethyl ether mixture, filtered and dried. 522 mg of ethyl 3-{3'-[3-(4-benzyloxyphenyl)-1-methylureido]biphenyl-4-yl}pr opanoate are obtained in the form of a cream-coloured powder. Yield = 100%

b. 3-{3'-f3-(4-Benzyloxyphenyl)-1-methylureidolbiDhenyl-4-yl)Dr oDanoic acid 400 mg (10 mmol, 10 eq) of sodium hydroxide are added to a solution of 515 mg (1.0 mmol, 1 eq) of ethyl 3-{3'-[3-(4-benzyloxyphenyl)-1-methylureido]biphenyl-4- yl}propanoate in 20 mL of ethanol. The reaction mixture is heated at 500C for 5 hours. The reaction medium is evaporated to dryness, taken up in water, acidified with 1 N hydrochloric acid solution and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with water and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvent is evaporated off and the solid obtained is taken up in ethyl ether and then in ethyl acetate, filtered and dried. 441 mg of 3-{3'-[3-(4-benzyloxyphenyl)-1-methylureido]biphenyl-4-yl}pr opanoic acid are obtained in the form of a light-beige powder (m.p. = 173.5-175°C). Yield = 92%

1H NMR (CDCk 400 MHz) : 2.64 (t, 2H); 3.00 (t, 2H); 3.37 (s, 3H); 5.00 (s, 2H); 6.29 (s, 1 H); 6.85 (d, 2H); 7.20 (d, 2H); 7.30-7.40 (m, 8H); 7.50-7.56 (m, 5H).

Example 14 : 3-l3'-r3-(4-ButylphenviH-methylureidolbiphenyl-4-yl}propanoi c acid

a. Eth yl 3-{3 '-[3-(4-Butylphen yl) -1-meth ylureidolbiphen yl-4- vDpropanoate 345 mg (1.5 mmol, 1.5 eq) of 1-butyl-4-isocyanatobenzene are added to 283 mg (1.0 mmol, 1 eq) of ethyl 3-(3'-methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoate (prepared in Example 7c). The reaction mixture is heated at 1000C by microwave for 30 minutes. The mixture is chromatographed on silica gel (15 g FlashSmart column) eluted with 80/20 heptane/ethyl acetate. 442 mg of ethyl 3-{3'-[3-(4-butylphenyl)-1-methylureido]biphenyl-4- yl}propanoate are obtained in the form of a yellow oil that crystallizes. Yield = 96%

b. 3-{3'-f3-(4-Butylphenyl)-1-methylureidolbiphenyl-4-yl)proDan oic acid 380 mg (10 mmol, 10 eq) of sodium hydroxide are added to a solution of 436 mg (1.0 mmol, 1 eq) of ethyl 3-{3'-[3-(4-butylphenyl)-1-methylureido]biphenyl-4- yl}propanoate in 20 mL of ethanol. The reaction mixture is heated at 5O0C for 3 hours. The reaction medium is evaporated to dryness, taken up in water, acidified with 1 N hydrochloric acid solution and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with water and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvent is evaporated off and 352 mg of 3-{3'-[3-(4-butylphenyl)-1-methylureido]biphenyl-4-yl}propan oic acid are obtained in the form of white crystals (m.p. = 157-158°C). Yield = 86%

1H NMR (CDCU. 400 MHz) : 0.88 (t, 3H); 1.30 (m, 2H); 1.52 (m, 2H); 2.52 (t, 2H); 2.72 (t, 2H); 3.01 (t, 2H) ; 3.38 (s, 3H); 6.26 (s, 1 H); 7.04 (d, 2H); 7.18 (d, 2H); 7.30 (m, 3H); 7.54 (m, 5H).

Example 15 : 3-r3'-f3-Heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(2-methoxyethoxy)biphenyl- 4- yllpropanoic acid

a. Methyl 3-benzyloxy-4-iodobenzoate 2.35 mL (19.78 mmol, 1.1 eq) of benzyl bromide are added to a solution of 5.0 g (17.98 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-hydroxy-4-iodobenzoate in 30 ml of methyl ethyl ketone in the presence of 5.0 g (36.18 mmol, 2 eq) of potassium carbonate. The reaction mixture is heated at 600C for 5 hours and then hydrolysed in water and extracted with ethyl acetate. 6.9 g of methyl 3-benzyloxy-4-iodobenzoate are obtained in oil form and are used in the following reaction without further purification.

b. (3-Benzyloxy-4-iodophenyl) methanol 1.18 g (54 mmol, 3 eq) of lithium borohydride are added to a solution of 6.9 g crude (17.98 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-benzyloxy-4-iodobenzoate in 30 ml of THF. The reaction mixture is heated at 600C for 12 hours and then hydrolysed in saturated ammonium chloride solution NH4CI and extracted with ethyl acetate. 6.5 g of (3- benzyloxy-4-iodophenyl)methanol are obtained in oil form and are used in the following reaction without further purification.

c. 3-Benzyloxy-4-iodobenzaldehyde 7.8 g (90 mmol, 5 eq) of manganese oxide are added to a solution of 6.5 g (17.98 mmol, 1 eq) of (3-benzyloxy-4-iodophenyl)methanol in 50 ml_ of dichloromethane. The reaction medium is stirred for 12 hours at room temperature, and the solid is then filtered off and the solvent is evaporated off. The residual oil is chromatographed on silica gel (8/2 heptane/ethyl acetate). The oil obtained is crystallized from pentane. 3.25 g of 3- benzyloxy-4-iodobenzaldehyde are obtained. Yield = 54% for the three steps c, d and e.

d. Methyl (E)-3-(3-benzyloxy-4-iodoDhenyl)acrylate 5.0 g (14.95 mmol, 1.5 eq) of methyl (triphenylphosphoranylidene)acetate are added to a solution of 3.25 g (9.6 mmol, 1 eq) of 3-benzyloxy-4-iodobenzaldehyde in 15 ml of toluene. The reaction mixture is heated at 900C for 1 hour. The solvent is evaporated off and the oil obtained is chromatographed on silica gel (8/2 heptane/ethyl acetate). After recrystallization from dichloromethane/heptane, 2.59 g of methyl (E)-3-(3- benzyloxy-4-iodophenyl)acrylate are obtained. Yield = 68%

e. Methyl (E)-3-F3'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)-2-hvdroxybiphenyl-4-ylla crylate A solution of 4.6 g (11.67 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl (E)-3-(3-benzyloxy-4- iodophenyl)acrylate, 4.8 g (12.83 mmol, 1.1 eq) of 3-heptyl-1-methyl-1-[3-(4,4,5,5- tetramethyl[1 ,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)phenyl]urea (prepared as in Example 1e) in 18 ml of dimethylformamide + 3 ml_ of 2M potassium phosphate solution, in the presence of 128 mg (5 mol%) of palladium acetate and 408 mg (10 mol%) of 2-(dicyclohexyl- phosphino)biphenyl is stirred at 800C for 5 hours. The reaction medium is hydrolysed in water and then extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are washed with saturated sodium chloride solution and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvents are evaporated off and the oil obtained is chromatographed on silica (7/3 heptane/ethyl acetate). 5.89 g of methyl (E)-3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-hydroxybiphenyl-4- yl]acrylate are obtained in oil form. Yield = 98%

f. Methyl 3-f3'-(3-heptyl- 1-methylureido)-2-hydroxybiDhenyl-4-yllDroDanoate A solution of 5.89 g (13.87 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl (E)-3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)-2-hydroxybiphenyl-4-yl]acrylate in 10 ml of methanol and 10 ml_ of ethyl acetate in the presence of 3 mL of acetic acid and 1.0 g (17% by mass) of 10% palladium-on-charcoal is stirred for 12 hours at room temperature under a hydrogen atmosphere. The palladium is filtered off through Celite and the solvents are evaporated off. The residue is chromatographed on silica gel (7/3 heptane/ethyl acetate) and crystallized from pentane. 3.0 g of methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2- hydroxybiphenyl-4-yl]propanoate are obtained in solid form. Yield = 60%

a. Methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(2-methoxyethoxy)biDhenyl- 4-yllDroDanoate A solution of 200 mg (0.47 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)-2-hydroxybiphenyl-4-yl]propanoate, 200 mg (1.36 mmol, 3 eq) of 2- bromoethylmethyl ether and 390 mg (2.82 mmol, 6 eq) of potassium carbonate in the presence of 28 mg (0.188 mmol, 0.4 eq) of sodium iodide in 8 ml of methyl ethyl ketone is refluxed for 15 hours. The insoluble matter is filtered off and the solvent is evaporated off. The oil obtained is chromatographed on silica gel (10 g FlashSmart column) eluted with 40/60 heptane/ethyl acetate. 223 mg of methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(2- methoxyethoxy)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate are obtained in the form of a yellowish oil. Yield = 98%

h. 3-[3'-(3-HeDtyl-1-methylureido)-2-(2-methoxyethoxy)biDhenyl- 4-vπDroDanoic acid 278 mg (6.95 mmol, 10 eq) of sodium hydroxide are added to a solution of 337 mg (0.695 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(2- methoxyethoxy)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate in 10 ml of methanol. The reaction mixture is heated at 5O0C for 2 hours. The reaction medium is evaporated to dryness, taken up in water, acidified with 2N hydrochloric acid solution and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with water and dried over magnesium sulfate. The solvent is evaporated off and the oil obtained is chromatographed on silica gel (10 g FlashSmart column) eluted with ethyl acetate. 274 mg of 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)- 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid are obtained in the form of a whitish oil. Yield = 84%

1H NMR (CDCk. 400 MHz) : 0.84 (t, 3H); 1.22-1.26 (m, 8H); 1.40 (m, 2H); 2.72 (t, 2H); 2.99 (t, 2H); 3.16 (q, 2H) ; 3.29 (s, 3H); 3.33 (s, 3H); 3.66 (m, 2H); 4.13 (m, 2H); 4.5 (t, 1 H); 6.86 (s, 1 H); 6.90 (d, 1 H); 7.17 (d, 1 H); 7.26 (d, 1 H); 7.43 (t, 3H); 7.50 (d, 1 H); 7.52 (s, 1H).

Example 16 : 3-r3'-(3-Heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(3-methylbutoxy)biphenyl-4 - yllpropanoic acid a. Methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl- 1-methylureido)-2-(3-methylbutoxy)biphenyl-4-ylloroDanoate A solution of 300 mg (0.703 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)-2-hydroxybiphenyl-4-yl]propanoate (prepared in Example 15f), 319 mg (2.11 mmol, 3 eq) of 1-bromo-3-methylbutane and 583 mg (4.22 mmol, 6 eq) of potassium carbonate in the presence of 42 mg (0.281 mmol, 0.4 eq) of sodium iodide in 10 ml of methyl ethyl ketone is refluxed for 21 hours. The insoluble matter is filtered off and the solvent is evaporated off. 400 mg of methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(3- methylbutoxy)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate are obtained in the form of a yellowish oil. Quantitative yield.

b. 3-f3'-(3-HeDtyl-1-methylureido)-2-(3-methylbutoxy)biDhenyl-4 -yllDroDanoic acid 281 mg (7.03 mmol, 10 eq) of sodium hydroxide are added to a solution of 400 mg (0.703 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(3- methylbutoxy)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate in 10 ml of methanol. The reaction mixture is heated at 550C for 1 hour. The reaction medium is evaporated to dryness, taken up in water, acidified with 2N hydrochloric acid solution and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with water and dried over magnesium sulfate. The solvent is evaporated off and the oil obtained is chromatographed on silica gel (10 g FlashSmart column) eluted with 30/70 heptane/ethyl acetate. The product is crystallized from heptane and 284 mg of 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(3-methylbutoxy)biphenyl- 4-yl]propanoic acid are obtained in the form of white crystals (m.p. = 60-620C). Yield = 84%

1H NMR (CDCk 400 MHz) : 0.84 (t, 3H); 0.86 (s, 3H); 0.89 (s, 3H); 1.21-1.27 (m, 8H); 1.39 (m, 2H); 1.60 (q, 2H); 1.70-1.75 (m, 1 H); 2.73 (t, 2H); 3.00 (t, 2H); 3.16 (q, 2H) ; 3.29 (s, 3H); 3.99 (t, 2H); 4.41 (t, 1 H); 6.85 (s, 1 H); 6.89 (d, 1 H); 7.17 (d, 1 H); 7.24 (d, 1 H); 7.40-7.45 (m, 3H). Example 17 : 3-r2-(3-Chloropropoxy)-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl- 4- ylipropanoic acid

a. Methyl 3-f2-(3-chloropropoxy)-3'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl- 4-yllDroDanoate A solution of 300 mg (0.703 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)-2-hydroxybiphenyl-4-yl]propanoate (prepared in Example 15f), 319 mg (2.11 mmol, 3 eq) of 1-chloro-3-iodopropane and 583 mg (4.22 mmol, 6 eq) of potassium carbonate in 10 ml of methyl ethyl ketone is refluxed for 7 hours. The insoluble matter is filtered off, the solvent is evaporated off and the oil obtained is chromatographed on silica gel (35 g FlashSmart column) eluted with 60/40 heptane/ethyl acetate. 394 mg of methyl 3-[2-(3-chloropropoxy)-3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate are obtained in the form of a yellowish oil. Quantitative yield.

b. 3-f2-(3-ChloroDroDoxy)-3'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl- 4-yllDrooanoic acid 31 mg (0.773 mmol, 1 eq) of sodium hydroxide are added to a solution of 389 mg (0.773 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[2-(3-chloropropoxy)-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)- biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate in 10 ml of methanol. The reaction mixture is stirred at room temperature for 18 hours. The reaction medium is evaporated to dryness, taken up in water, acidified with 2N hydrochloric acid solution and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with water and dried over magnesium sulfate. The solvent is evaporated off and the oil obtained is chromatographed on silica gel (10 g FlashSmart column) eluted with 98/2 dichloromethane/methanol. The product is crystallized from heptane, the filtrate is evaporated and 21 mg of 3-[2-(3-chloropropoxy)- 3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid are obtained in the form of a whitish oil. Yield = 6%

1H NMR (CDCk 400 MHz) : 0.84 (t, 3H); 1.22-1.27 (m, 8H); 1.40 (m, 2H); 1.98 (m, 2H); 2.73 (t, 2H); 3.00 (t, 2H); 3.15 (q, 2H) ; 3.29 (s, 3H); 3.45 (t, 2H); 4.07 (t, 2H); 4.43 (t, 1 H); 6.87 (s, 1 H); 6.89 (d, 1 H); 7.17 (d, 1 H); 7.24 (d, 1 H); 7.40-7.46 (m, 3H). Example 18 : 3-r3M3-Heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-methoxybiphenyl-4-yllpropano ic acid

a. 3-(Methylamino)phenylboronic acid 166 ml. (0.242 mol, 1.2 eq) of 1.6 M methyllithium in diethyl ether are added to a solution cooled to -700C of 37.6 g (0.202 mol, 1 eq) of 3-bromo-N-methylaniline (prepared in Example 7c) in 300 ml of tetrahydrofuran. The reaction medium is stirred at - 700C for one hour and 306 ml. (0.444 mol, 2.2 eq) of 1.5 M tert-butyllithium in diethyl ether are then added. The reaction medium is stirred at -700C for 45 minutes and 103.5 ml. (0.808 mol, 4 eq) of trimethyl borate are then added. The reaction medium is stirred at room temperature for one hour and then hydrolysed by addition of ice, acidified with 1 L of 2N hydrochloric acid and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with water and dried over magnesium sulfate. The solvent is evaporated off and 4.2 g (14%) of 3-(methylamino)phenylboronic acid are obtained. The aqueous phase is basified and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with water and dried over magnesium sulfate. The solvent is evaporated off and the residue is chromatographed on silica gel (8/2 heptane/ethyl acetate). 3.4 g (11 %) of 3-(methylamino)phenylboronic acid are obtained.

b. Methyl (E)-3-(4-hvdroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate 6.5 g (19.5 mmol, 3 eq) of methyl triphenylphosphoranylideneacetate are added to a solution of 1.0 g (6.5 mmol, 1 eq) of vanillin in 15 ml of toluene. The reaction mixture is stirred for 1 hour at 900C. The solvent is evaporated off and the residual oil is then chromatographed on silica gel (8/2 heptane/ethyl acetate). 1.12 g of methyl (E)-3-(4- hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate are obtained in oil form. Yield = 83%

c. Methyl (E)-3-(3-methoxy-4-trifluoromethoxyDhenyl)acrylate 0.472 ml_ (2.88 mmol, 1.2 eq) of triflic anhydride are added to a solution at 00C of 500 mg (2.40 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl (E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate in 10 mL of dichloromethane in the presence of 1 ml of triethylamine. The reaction mixture is stirred for 1 hour at O0C. The reaction medium is hydrolysed in sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and then extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are washed with saturated sodium chloride solution and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvent is evaporated off and the methyl (E)-3-(3-methoxy-4-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)acrylate obtained in oil form is used in the next step without further purification.

d. Methyl (E)-3-(2-methoxy-3'-methylaminobiDhenyl-4-yl)acrylate 27 mg (5 mol%) of palladium acetate and 84 mg (10 mol%) of dicyclohexylbiphenylphosphine are added to a solution of methyl (E)-3-(3-methoxy-4- trifluoromethoxyphenyl)acrylate (2.40 mmol, 1 eq) obtained in the preceding step, 435 mg (2.88 mmol, 1.2 eq) of 3-(methylamino)phenylboronic acid (prepared in step 18a) in 4 ml of dimethylformamide + 1 ml of 2M potassium phosphate solution. The mixture is heated at 900C for 3 hours. The reaction medium is hydrolysed in water and then extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are washed with saturated sodium chloride solution and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvent is evaporated off and the residual oil is then chromatographed on silica gel (7/3 heptane/ethyl acetate). 560 mg of methyl (E)-3-(2-methoxy-3'-methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)acrylate are obtained in oil form. Yield = 78%

e. Meth yl 3-(2-methoxy-3 '-meth ylaminobiphen yl-4-yl)Drooanoate 100 mg (18% by mass) of 10% palladium-on-charcoal are added to a solution of 560 mg (1.88 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl (E)-3-(2-methoxy-3'-methylaminobiphenyl-4- yl)acrylate in 10 ml of methanol. The reaction mixture is stirred at room temperature under a hydrogen atmosphere for 4 hours. The reaction medium is filtered through Celite and then evaporated to dryness. 495 mg of methyl 3-(2-methoxy-3'- methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoate are obtained in oil form. Yield = 88%

f. Meth yl 3-!3 '-(3-heptyl- 1-meth ylureido) -2-methoxybiphen yl-4- yllpropanoate 540 μl_ (3.3 mmol, 2 eq) of heptyl isocyanate are added to a solution of 495 mg (1.65 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-(2-methoxy-3'-methylaminobiphenyl-4- yl)propanoate in 1O mL of an 8/2 tetrahydrofuran/triethylamine mixture. The reaction mixture is stirred for 12 hours at room temperature. The reaction medium is hydrolysed in water and then extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvents are evaporated off and the residue is then chromatographed on silica gel (70/30 heptane/ethyl acetate). 525 mg of methyl 3-[3'-(3- heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-methoxybiphenyl-4-yl]propanoate are obtained in oil form. Yield = 72%

σ. 3-[3'-(3-HeDtyl-1-methylureido)-2-methoxybiDhenyl-4-yllDropa noic acid 200 mg (5.0 mmol, 4.2 eq) of sodium hydroxide are added to a solution of 525 mg (1.19 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-methoxybiphenyl-4- yl]propanoate in 6 ml of a tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture (8/2). The reaction mixture is stirred at room temperature for 3 hours. The reaction medium is hydrolysed with water, acidified with acetic acid solution and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with sodium chloride solution and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvent is evaporated off and the residual oil is chromatographed on silica (7/3 to 1/1 heptane/ethyl acetate). The product is crystallized from pentane and 216 mg of 3-[3'-(3- heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-methoxybiphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder (m. p. = 100-1010C). Yield = 42%

1H NMR (CDCk 400 MHz) : 0.87 (t, 3H); 1.25 (m, 8H); 1.44 (m, 2H); 2.76 (t, 2H); 3.04 (t, 2H); 3.18 (q, 2H) ; 3.32 (s, 3H); 3.84 (s, 3H); 4.53 (t, 1 H); 6.88 (s, 1 H); 6.92 (d, 1 H); 7.19 (m, 1 H); 7.25 (d, 1 H); 7.43-7.46 (m, 3H).

Example 19 : 3-r3W3-Heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-methylbiphenyl-4-yl1propanoi c acid

a. (4-Bromo-3-methylDhenyl)methanol 284 mg (12.9 mmol, 3 eq) of lithium borohydride are added to a solution of 1.0 g (4.3 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-methyl-4-bromobenzoate in 10 ml of tetrahydrofuran. The reaction mixture is stirred at 60°C for 12 hours. The reaction medium is hydrolysed with ammonium chloride solution and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with sodium chloride solution and dried over sodium sulfate. 900 mg of (4-bromo-3-methylphenyl)methanol are obtained in oil form and used in the following reaction without further purification.

b. 4-Bromo-3-methylbenzaldehvde 3.7 g (43 mmol, 10 eq) of manganese dioxide are added to a solution of 900 mg (4.3 mmol, 1 eq) of (4-bromo-3-rnethylphenyl)methanol in 8 ml. of dichloromethane. The reaction mixture is stirred for 12 hours at room temperature. The solid is filtered off and the solvent is evaporated off. 900 mg of 4-bromo-3-methylbenzaldehyde are obtained in oil form and used in the following reaction without further purification.

c. Methyl (E)-3-(4-bromo-3-methylDhenyl)acrylate 2.1 g (6.45 mmol, 1.5 eq) of methyl triphenylphosphoranylideneacetate are added to a solution of 900 mg of 4-bromo-3-methylbenzaldehyde in 5 ml of toluene. The reaction mixture is heated at 90°C for 1 hour. The solvent is evaporated off and the residual oil is chromatographed on silica gel (8/2 heptane/ethyl acetate). 610 mg of methyl (E)-3-(4-bromo-3-methylphenyl)acrylate are obtained in oil form. Yield = 55% over steps a, b and c.

d. Methyl (E)-3-(2-methyl-3'-methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)acrylate In a manner similar to that of Example (18d), by reaction of 44 mg (10 mol%) of palladium acetate, 136 mg (20 mol%) of dicyclohexylbiphenylphosphine, 500 mg (1.96 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl (E)-3-(4-bromo-3-methylphenyl)acrylate and 355 mg (2.35 mmol, 1.2 eq) of 3-(methylamino)phenylboronic acid (prepared in Example 18a) in 4 ml of dimethylformamide + 1 ml of 2M potassium phosphate solution, 390 mg of methyl (E)-3-(2-methyl-3'-methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)acrylate are obtained in oil form. Yield = 70%

e. Methyl 3-(2-methyl-3'-methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)Dropanoate In a manner similar to that of Example (18e), by reaction of 100 mg (25% by mass) of 10% palladium-on-charcoal and 390 mg (1.39 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl (E)-3-(2- methyl-3'-methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)acrylate in 10 ml of methanol, 360 mg of methyl 3-(2- methyl-3'-methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoate are obtained in oil form. Yield = 92%

f. Methyl 3-[3'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)-2-methylbiDhenyl-4-yllDroDan oate In a manner similar to that of Example (18f), by reaction of 410 μL (2.54 mmol, 2 eq) of heptyl isocyanate and 360 mg (1.27 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-(2-methyl-3'- methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoate in 8 mL of an 8/2 tetrahydrofuran/triethylamine mixture, 360 mg of methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-methylbiphenyl-4- yljpropanoate are obtained in oil form. Yield = 66%

a. 3-f3'-(3-HeDtyl-1-methylureido)-2-methylbiDhenyl-4-yllDroDan oic acid 200 mg (5.0 mmol, 4.2 eq) of sodium hydroxide are added to a solution of 360 mg (0.85 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-methylbiphenyl-4- yl]propanoate in 6 ml of a tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture (8/2). The reaction mixture is stirred at room temperature for 3 hours. The reaction medium is hydrolysed with water, acidified with acetic acid solution and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with sodium chloride solution and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvent is evaporated off and the residual oil is chromatographed on silica (7/3 to 1/1 heptane/ethyl acetate). 185 mg of 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-methylbiphenyl-4- yljpropanoic acid are obtained in oil form. Yield = 53%

1H NMR (CDCk 400 MHz) : 0.87 (t, 3H); 1.25 (m, 8H); 1.42 (m, 2H); 2.28 (s, 3 H); 2.75 (t, 2H); 3.00 (t, 2H); 3.19 (q, 2H) ; 3.31 (s, 3H); 4.42 (t, 1 H); 7.12-7.18 (m, 3H); 7.24 (m, 3H); 7.47 (t, 1 H).

Example 20 : 3-r3'-f1-Methyl-3-(3-phenylpropyl)ureidolbiphenyl-4-yllpropa noic acid

a. Eth yl 3-/3 '-[1 -meth yl-3-(3-phen yloroo W) ureido lbiphen yl-4- ylioropanoate 188 μL (1.2 mmol, 1.5 eq) 3-phenylpropyl isocyanate are added to a solution of 230 mg (0.81 mmol, 1 eq) of ethyl 3-(3'-methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoate (prepared in Example 7c) in 10 mL of an 8/2 dichloromethane/triethylamine mixture. The reaction medium is stirred at 4O0C for 12 hours and then hydrolysed with water and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with sodium chloride solution and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvents are evaporated off and the residual oil is chromatographed on silica (7/3 heptane/ethyl acetate). 348 mg of ethyl 3- {3'-[1-methyl-3-(3-phenylpropyl)ureido]biphenyl-4-yl}propano ate are obtained in solid form. Yield = 96%

b. 3-f3'-(3-Heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-methylbiDhenyl-4-yllDropan oic acid 100 mg (2.5 mmol, 3.2 eq) of sodium hydroxide are added to a solution of 348 mg (0.78 mmol, 1 eq) of ethyl 3-{3'-[1-methyl-3-(3-phenylpropyl)ureido]biphenyl-4- yl}propanoate in 6 ml of a tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture (8/2). The reaction mixture is stirred at room temperature for 12 hours. The reaction medium is hydrolysed with water, acidified with acetic acid solution and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with sodium chloride solution and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvent is evaporated off and the residual oil is chromatographed on silica (7/3 to 1/1 heptane/ethyl acetate). 180 mg of 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-methylbiphenyl-4- yl]propanoic acid are obtained in the form of a tacky solid. Yield = 55%

1H NMR (CDCk 400 MHz) : 1.76-1.82 (m, 2H); 2.59 (t, 2H); 2.75 (t, 2H); 3.04 (t, 2H); 3.24 (q, 2H) ; 3.32 (s, 3H); 4.44 (t, 1 H); 7.10- 7.24 (m, 6H); 7.33 (d, 2H); 7.47-7.53 (m, 5H).

Example 21 : (E)-3-r5'-(3-Heptyl-1-methylureido)-2'-methylbiphenyl-4-ylla crylic acid

a. tert-Butyl (3-bromo-4-methylphenyl)carbamate 57.62 g (0.3 mol, 1 eq) of 3-bromo-4-methylaniline are added to a solution of 75.8 g (0.344 mol, 1.15 eq) of di-tert-butyl dicarbonate in 580 mL of 2N sodium hydroxide solution. The reaction medium is refluxed for one hour and stirred at room temperature for 4 hours. The reaction medium is filtered and the solid is washed with water until the filtrate is neutral, and then dried. 90.33 g of tert-butyl (3-bromo-4- methylphenyl)carbamate are obtained in solid form. Crude yield > 100%

b. tert-Butyl (3-bromo-4-methylphenyl) methyl carbamate 1.6 g (0.042 mol, 1.2 eq) of 60% sodium hydride are added to a solution of 10.0 g (0.035 mol, 1 eq) of tert-butyl (3-bromo-4-methylphenyl)carbamate in 150 ml of dimethylformamide. The reaction medium is stirred at room temperature for 2 hours and 6.2 ml. (0.099 mol, 3 eq) of methyl iodide are then added. The reaction medium is stirred at room temperature for 20 hours and then hydrolysed in water and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with water and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvent is evaporated off and 10.4 g of tert-butyl (3-bromo-4- methylphenyl)methyl carbamate are obtained. Yield = 100%

c. (3-Bromo-4-methylphenyl)methylamine A solution of 10.4 g (0.035 mol, 1 eq) of tert-butyl (3-bromo-4- methylphenyl)methyl carbamate in 25 mL of dichloromethane in the presence of 13.5 mL (0.173 mol, 5 eq) of trifluoroacetic acid is stirred at room temperature for 30 hours. The reaction medium is hydrolysed in water, basified to pH 8-9 with 1 N sodium hydroxide solution and extracted with dichloromethane. The organic phases are combined and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvent is evaporated off and 6.39 g of (3-bromo-4- methylphenyl)methylamine are obtained. Yield = 91 %

d. Methyl[4-methyl-3-(4.4.5,5-tetramethyl[1.3.2]dioxaborolan-2- yl)Dhenyllamine In a manner similar to that of Example (7a), by reaction of 3.2 g (0.016 mol, 1 eq) of (3-bromo-4-methylphenyl)rnethylamine, 4.06 g (0.016 mol, 1 eq) of pinacol diborane and 4.7 g (0.048 mol, 3 eq) of potassium acetate in the presence of 650 mg (5 mol%) of diphenylphosphinoferrocenepalladium dichloride in 20 ml of dimethylformamide, at 900C for 8 hours, 3.28 g of methyl[4-methyl-3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl[1 ,3,2]dioxaborolan- 2-yl)phenyl]amine are obtained . Yield = 83%

e. Ethyl (E)-3-(2'-methyl-5'-methylaminobiDhenyl-4-yl)acrylate In a manner similar to that of Example (18d), by reaction of 45 mg (5 mol%) of palladium acetate, 140 mg (10 mol%) of dicyclohexylbiphenylphosphine, 1.1 g (4.4 mmol, 1.1 eq) of of ethyl 4-bromocinnamate and 1.0 g (4.0 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl[4- methyl-3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl[1 ,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)phenyl]amine in 18 ml of dimethylformamide + 3 ml of 2M potassium phosphate solution, 805 mg of ethyl (E)-3-(2'- methyl-5'-methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)acrylate are obtained in oil form. Yield = 68% f. Ethyl (E)-3-[5'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2'-methylbiDhenyl-4-ylla crylate 660 μl_ (4.0 mmol, 1.5 eq) of heptyl isocyanate are added to a solution of 805 mg (2.72 mmol, 1 eq) of ethyl (E)-3-(2'-methyl-5'-methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)acrylate in 8 mL of a 7/1 dichloromethane/triethylamine mixture. The reaction medium is stirred at 5O0C for 12 hours and then hydrolysed with water and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with sodium chloride solution and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvents are evaporated off and the residual oil is chromatographed on silica (7/3 heptane/ethyl acetate). 920 mg of ethyl (E)-3-[5'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)- 2'-methylbiphenyl-4-yl]acrylate are obtained in oil form. Yield = 77%

α. (E)-3-[5'-(3-Heptyl-1'methylureiclo)-2'-methylbiDhenyl-4-yll acrylic acid In a manner similar to that of Example (19g), by reaction of 200 mg (5.0 mmol, 4.7 eq) of sodium hydroxide and 460 mg (1.05 mmol, 1 eq) of ethyl (E)-3-[5'- (3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2'-methylbiphenyl-4-yl]acrylate in 6 ml of a tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture (8/2), and after crystallization from a dichloromethane/pentane mixture, 160 mg of (E)-3-[5'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2'- methylbiphenyl-4-yl]acrylic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder, (m.p. = 159°C). Yield = 37%

1H NMR (CDCU. 400 MHz) : 0.87 (t, 3H); 1.25 (m, 8H); 1.43 (m, 2H); 2.32 (s, 3 H); 3.19 (q, 2H) ; 3.30 (s, 3H); 4.43 (t, 1 H); 6.52-6.56 (d, 1 H); 7.15-7.20 (m, 2H); 7.33-7.39 (m, 3H); 7.64 (d, 2H); 7.83-7.87 (d, 1 H). Example 22 : 3-r5'-(3-HeDtvl-1-methvlureido)-2'-methvlbiphenvl-4-vnpropan oic acid

a. Ethyl 3-[5'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)-2'-methylbiDhenyl-4-yllDropa noate A solution of 460 mg of ethyl (E)-3-[5'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2'- methylbiphenyl-4-yl]acrylate (prepared in step 21 f) in 10 ml of methanol is stirred for 12 hours at room temperature in the presence of 100 mg (22% by mass) of 10% palladium- on-charcoal under a hydrogen atmosphere. The palladium is filtered off and the solvent is evaporated off. The oil is used directly in the following step.

b. 3-l5'-(3-HeDtyl-1-methylureido)-2'-methylbiDhenyl-4-yl]proDa noic acid In a manner similar to that of Example (19g), by reaction of 200 mg (5.0 mmol, 4.7 eq) of sodium hydroxide, the oil obtained above (ethyl 3-[5'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)-2'-methylbiphenyl-4-yl]propanoate) in 6 ml of a tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture (8/2), and after crystallization from pentane, 170 mg of 3-[5'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)-2'-methylbiphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder, (m.p. = 1040C). Yield = 39% over the two steps a and b.

1H NMR (CDCk. 400 MHz) : 0.87 (t, 3H); 1.28 (m, 8H); 1.42 (m, 2H); 2.30 (s, 3 H); 2.76 (t, 2H); 3.05 (t, 2H); 3.18 (q, 2H) ; 3.28 (s, 3H); 4.44 (t, 1 H); 7.12-7.15 (m, 2H); 7.24-7.32 (m, 5H). Example 23 : (E^3-r3-Fluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yllacr ylic acid

In a manner similar to that of Example (19g), by reaction of 200 mg (5.0 mmol, 4.7 eq) of sodium hydroxide, 210 mg (0.51 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl (E)-3-[3- fluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylate (prepared in Example 3b) in 6 ml of a tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture (8/2), and after crystallization from pentane, 165 mg of (E)-3-[3-fluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]ac rylic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder, (m.p. = 148-149°C). Yield = 81%

1H NMR (CDCk. 400 MHz) : 0.87 (t, 3H); 1.25 (m, 8H); 1.44 (m, 2H); 3.21 (q, 2H) ; 3.35 (s, 3H); 4.40 (t, 1H); 6.61-6.66 (d, 1H); 7.30-7.33 (m, 3H); 7.36-7.38 (m, 3H); 7.52-7.55 (t, 1 H); 7.94-7.98 (d, 1 H).

Example 24 : (E)-3-r2-Benzyloxy-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-vn acrylic acid

a. Methyl 3-benzyloxy-4-iodobenzoate 2.35 ml_ (19.78 mmol, 1.1 eq) of benzyl bromide are added to a solution of 5.0 g (17.98 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-hydroxy-4-iodobenzoate in 30 ml of methyl ethyl ketone in the presence of 5.0 g of potassium carbonate. The reaction medium is heated at 600C for 5 hours and then hydrolysed with water arid extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined and the solvents are evaporated off. 6.9 g of methyl 3- benzyloxy-4-iodobenzoate in oil form are used in the following reaction without further purification.

ib. (3-Benzyloxy-4-iodoDhenyl)methanol 1.18 g (54 mmol, 3 eq) of lithium borohydride are added to a solution of 6.9 g of methyl 3-benzyloxy-4-iodobenzoate in 30 ml of tetrahydrofuran. The reaction medium is heated at 600C for 12 hours and then hydrolysed with ammonium chloride solution and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined and the solvents are evaporated off. 6.5 g of (3-benzyloxy-4-iodophenyl)methanol in oil form are used in the following reaction without further purification.

c. 3-Benzyloxy-4-iodobenzaldeh vde 7.8 g (90 mmol, 5 eq) of manganese dioxide are added to a solution of 6.5 g of (3-benzyloxy-4-iodophenyl)methanol in 50 ml. of dichloromethane. The reaction medium is stirred at room temperature for 12 hours. The solid is filtered off and the solvent is evaporated off. The residual oil is chromatographed on silica gel (8/2 heptane/ethyl acetate) and then crystallized from pentane. 3.25 g of 3-benzyloxy-4-iodobenzaldehyde are obtained in solid form. Yield = 54% over the three steps a, b and c.

d. Methyl (E)-3-(3-benzyloxy-4-iodθDhenyl)acrylate 5.0 g (14.95 mmol, 1.8 eq) of methyl triphenylphosphoranylideneacetate are added to a solution of 3.25 g (8.2 mmol, 1 eq) of 3-benzyloxy-4-iodobenzaldehyde in 15 ml of toluene. The reaction mixture is stirred for 1 hour at 900C. The solvent is evaporated off and the residual oil is then chromatographed on silica gel (8/2 heptane/ethyl acetate) and recrystallized from dichloromethane/heptane. 2.59 g of methyl (E)-3-(3-benzyloxy-4-iodophenyl)acrylate are obtained in solid form. Yield = 68%

e. Methyl (E)-3-[2-benzyloxy-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl ]acrylate In a manner similar to that of Example (18d), by reaction of 50 mg (10 mol%) of palladium acetate, 180 mg (20 mol%) of dicyclohexylbiphenylphosphine, 1.0 g (2.53 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl (E)-3-(3-benzyloxy-4-iodophenyl)acrylate and 1.0 g (2.79 mmol, 1.1 eq) of 3-heptyl-1-methyl-1-[3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl[1 ,3,2]dioxaborolan-2- yl)phenyl]urea (prepared in Example 1e) in 8 ml of dimethylformamide + 2 ml of 2M potassium phosphate solution, 980 mg of methyl (E)-3-[2-benzyloxy-3'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylate are obtained in oil form. Yield = 75%

f. (E)-3-[2-Benzyloxy-3'-(3-heDtyl- 1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yllacrylic acid In a manner similar to that of Example (19g), by reaction of 200 mg (5.0 mmol, 12.8 eq) of sodium hydroxide and 200 mg (0.39 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl (E)-3- [2-benzyloxy-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acryl ate in 6 ml of a tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture (8/2), and after crystallization from pentane, 125 mg of (E)-3-[2-benzyloxy-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl ]acrylic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 115-1160C). Yield = 64%

1H NMR (CDCk 400 MHz) : 0.86 (t, 3H); 1.26 (m, 8H); 1.38 (m, 2H); 3.12 (q, 2H) ; 3.24 (S1 3H); 4.41 (t, 1 H); 5.16 (s, 2H); 6.48-6.52 (d, 1 H); 7.23-7.53 (m, 12H); 7.79-7.83 (d, 1 H).

Example 25 : 3-r3'-(3-Heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-propoxybiphenyl-4-yllpropa noic acid

a. Methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-propoxybiphenyl-4-yllDropa noate 100 μL (1.0 mmol, 1.5 eq) of 1-iodopropane are added to a solution of 285 mg (0.67 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-hydroxybiphenyl-4- yl]propanoate (prepared in Example 15f) in 6 ml of methyl ethyl ketone in the presence of 200 mg (1.45 mmol, 2.2 eq) of potassium carbonate. The reaction medium is heated at 600C for 16 hours. The solid is filtered off and the solvent is evaporated off. The methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-propoxybiphenyl-4-yl]propa noate obtained in oil form is used in the following reaction without further purification.

b. 3-[3'-(3-Heotyl- 1-methylureido)-2-propoxybiphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid In a manner similar to that of Example (19g), by reaction of 200 mg (5.0 mmol, ~8 eq) of sodium hydroxide and methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2- propoxybiphenyl-4-yl]propanoate, prepared in the preceding step, in 6 ml of a tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture (8/2), and after crystallization from pentane, 180 mg of 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-propoxybiphenyl-4-yl]propa noic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 79-800C). Yield = 59% over the two steps b and c.

1H NMR (CDCU, 400 MHz) : 0.87 (t, 3H); 0.98 (t, 3H); 1.23-1.29 (m, 8H); 1.41 (m, 2H); 1.72-1.79 (m, 2H); 2.75 (t, 2H); 3.02 (t, 2H); 3.17 (q, 2H) ; 3.30 (s, 3H); 3.96 (t, 2H); 4.43 (t, 1 H); 6.86 (s, 1 H); 6.90 (d, 1 H); 7.19 (d, 1 H); 7.26 (d, 1 H); 7.42-7.49 (m, 3H).

Example 26 : 3-r2-Butoxy-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-vHpropano ic acid

a. Methyl 3-f2-butoxy-3'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)biDhenyl-4-yl]proDan oate In a manner similar to that of Example (25a), by reaction of 114 μl_ (1.0 mmol, 1.5 eq) of 1-iodobutane and 285 mg (0.67 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)-2-hydroxybiphenyl-4-yl]propanoate (prepared in Example 15f) in 6 ml of methyl ethyl ketone in the presence of 200 mg of potassium carbonate, methyl 3-[2- butoxy-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate is obtained in oil form and is used in the following reaction without further purification.

b. 3-[2-Butoxy-3'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yllDropan oic acid In a manner similar to that of Example (19g), by reaction of 200 mg (5.0 mmol, ~8 eq) of sodium hydroxide and methyl 3-[2-butoxy-3'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate, prepared in the preceding step, in 6 ml of a tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture (8/2), and after crystallization from pentane, 200 mg of 3-[2-butoxy-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propan oic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 77-780C). Yield = 64% over the two steps a and b. 1H NMR (CDCk. 400 MHz) : 0.87 (t, 3H); 0.93 (t, 3H); 1.24 (m, 8H); 1.38-1.46 (m, 4H); 1.69-1.76 (m, 2H); 2.75 (t, 2H); 3.02 (t, 2H); 3.17 (q, 2H) ; 3.31 (s, 3H); 3.99 (t, 2H); 4.43 (t, 1 H); 6.87 (s, 1 H); 6.90 (d, 1H); 7.19 (d, 1 H); 7.26 (d, 1 H); 7.44-7.49 (m, 3H).

Example 27 : (E)-3-r3'-(1-Ethyl-3-heptylureido)biphenyl-4-yllacrylic acid

a. N-(3-Bromophenyl)acetamide 691 mL of acetic anhydride are added to a solution cooled to 10°C of 1200 g (6.976 mol, 1 eq) of 3-bromoaniline in 6 L of dichloromethane in the presence of 1.07 L (7.67 mol, 1.1 eq) of triethylamine and 25.6 g (0.209 mol, 0.03 eq) of 4- (dimethylamino)pyridine. The reaction medium is stirred at room temperature for 4 hours and then hydrolysed with 850 mL of 1 N hydrochloric acid solution, and the phases are separated by settling. The organic phase is washed with 0.5N hydrochloric acid solution and then with water, and the solvent is evaporated off. After recrystallization from diisopropyl ether/heptane, 1506.1 g of N-(3-bromophenyl)acetamide are obtained in solid form. Yield = 100%

b. N-(3-BromoDhenyl)-N-ethylacetamide 820 mg (20.5 mmol, 1.1 eq) of 60% sodium hydride are added to a solution of 4.0 g (18.7 mmol, 1eq) of N-(3-bromophenyl)acetamide and 1.80 mL (22.4 mmol, 1.2 eq) of ethyl iodide in 15 ml of tetrahydrofuran in the presence of 1.5 ml of dimethylformamide. The reaction medium is stirred at room temperature for 12 hours and then hydrolysed with water and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with sodium chloride solution and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvents are evaporated off and the N-(3-bromophenyl)-N-ethylacetamide obtained in oil form is used in the following reaction without further purification.

c. (3-BromoDhenyl)ethylamine 10 ml of 2.5 M potassium hydroxide solution are added to a solution of N-(3- bromophenyl)-N-ethylacetamide (obtained in the preceding step) in 10 ml of ethanol. The reaction medium is refluxed for 12 hours and then hydrolysed with water and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with sodium chloride solution and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvents are evaporated off and the residual oil is chromatographed on silica (7/3 heptane/ethyl acetate). 2.3 g of (3- bromophenyl)ethylamine are obtained in oil form. Yield = 62% over the two steps.

d. 1-(3-Bromophenyl)-1-ethyl-3-heptylurea In a manner similar to that of Example (11ac), by reaction of 1.6 ml. (10 mmol, 2 eq) of heptyl isocyanate and 1.0 g (5.0 mmol, 1 eq) of (3- bromophenyl)ethylamine, 1.6 g of 1-(3-bromophenyl)-1-ethyl-3-heptylurea are obtained. Yield = 94%

e. 1-Ethyl-1-(4'-formylbiDhenyl-3-yl)-3-heDtylurea 135 mg (5 mol%) of tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium are added to a solution of 800 mg (2.34 mmol, 1 eq) of 1-(3-bromophenyl)-1-ethyl-3-heptylurea and 460 mg (3.0 mmol, 1.3 eq) of 4-formylphenylboronic acid in 1O mL of a mixture of dimethylformamide and of 2M potassium phosphate solution (8/2). The reaction mixture is stirred for 3 hours at 900C. The reaction is stopped by addition of 50 ml. of water and then extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvents are evaporated off and the residue is then chromatographed on silica gel (70/30 heptane/ethyl acetate). 740 mg of 1 -ethyl- 1-(4'- formylbiphenyl-3-yl)-3-heptylurea are obtained in oil form. Yield = 86%

f. Methyl (E)-3-f3'-(1-ethyl-3-heDtylureido)biDhenyl-4-yllacrylate 1.0 g (3 mmol, 1.5 eq) of methyl triphenylphosphoranylideneacetate are added to a solution of 740 mg (2.02 mmol, 1 eq) of 1-ethyl-1-(4'-formylbiphenyl-3-yl)-3- heptylurea in 8 ml of toluene. The reaction mixture is heated at 9O0C for 1 hour. The solvent is evaporated off and the residual oil is then chromatographed on silica gel (8/2 heptane/ethyl acetate). 775 mg of methyl (E)-3-[3'-(1-ethyl-3-heptylureido)biphenyl-4- yl]acrylate are obtained in the form of an off-white solid. Yield = 91%

g. (E)-3-[3'-(1-Ethyl-3-heDtylureido)biDhenyl-4-yl]acrylic acid In a manner similar to that of Example (19g), by reaction of 400 mg (10 mmol, 5.5 eq) of sodium hydroxide and 775 mg (1.83 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl (E)-3-[3'- (1-ethyl-3-heptylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylate in 15 ml of a tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture (8/2), and after crystallization from dichloromethane/heptane, 580 mg of (E)-3-[3'- (1-ethyl-3-heptylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 116°C). Yield = 77%

1H NMR (CDCI,. 400 MHz) : 0.87 (t, 3H); 1.16 (t, 3H); 1.24 (m, 8H); 1.42 (m, 2H); 3.19 (m, 2H) ; 3.82 (m, 2H); 4.21 (m, 1 H); 6.52-6.56 (d, 1 H); 7.26 (m, 2H); 7.50-7.66 (m, 6H); 7.83-7.87 (d, 1 H).

Example 28 : (E)-3-r3'-(3-Heptyl-1-propylureido)biphenyl-4-vπacrylic acid

a. N-(3-Bromophenyl)-N-proDylacetamide In a manner similar to that of Example (27b), by reaction of 820 mg (20.5 mmol, 1.1 eq) of 60% sodium hydride, 4.0 g (18.7 mmol, 1 eq) of N-(3- bromophenyl)acetamide (prepared in Example 27a) and 2.20 ml. (22.4 mmol, 1.2 eq) of 1-iodopropane in 15 ml of tetrahydrofuran in the presence of 1.5 ml of dimethylformamide, N-(3-bromophenyl)-N-propylacetamide is obtained in oil form and is used in the following reaction without further purification.

b. (3-Bromophenyl)propylamine In a manner similar to that of Example (27c), by reaction of 10 mL of 2.5 M potassium hydroxide solution and N-(3-bromophenyl)-N-propylacetamide (obtained in the preceding step) in 10 mL of ethanol, 2.0 g of (3-bromophenyl)propylamine are obtained in oil form. Yield = 50% over the two steps a and b.

c. 1-(3-Bromophen yl) - 1 -prop yl-3-heptylurea In a manner similar to that of Example (11a), by reaction of 1.6 mL (10 mmol, 2.1 eq) of heptyl isocyanate and 1.0 g (4.7 mmol, 1 eq) of (3-bromophenyl)propylamine, 1.45 g of 1-(3-bromophenyl)-1-propyl-3-heptylurea are obtained. Yield = 90% d. 1-ProDyl-1-(4'-formylbiDhenyl-3-yl)-3-heDtylurea 135 mg (5 mol%) of tetrakis(triphenyl-phosphine)palladium are added to a solution of 830 mg (2.34 mmol, 1 eq) of 1-(3-bromophenyl)-1-propyl-3-heptylurea and 460 mg (3.0 mmol, 1.3 eq) of 4-formylphenylboronic acid in 1O mL of a mixture of dimethylformamide and of 2M potassium phosphate solution (8/2). The reaction mixture is stirred for 3 hours at 900C. The reaction is stopped by addition of 50 mL of water and then extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvents are evaporated off and the residue is then chromatographed on silica gel (70/30 heptane/ethyl acetate). 735 mg of 1-propyl-1-(4'- formylbiphenyl-3-yl)-3-heptylurea are obtained in oil form. Yield = 82%

e. Methyl (E)-3-[3'-(1-propyl-3-heptylureido)biphenyl-4-yllacrylate In a manner similar to that of Example (27f), by reaction of 1.0 g (3 mmol, 1.5 eq) of methyl triphenylphosphoranylideneacetate and 735 mg (1.93 mmol, 1 eq) of 1- propyl-1-(4'-formylbiphenyl-3-yl)-3-heptylurea in 8 ml of toluene, 680 mg of methyl (E)-3- [3'-(1-propyl-3-heptylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylate are obtained in the form of an off-white solid. Yield = 81%

f. (E)-3-f3'-(1-Propyl-3-heDtylureido)biphenyl-4-yllacrylic acid In a manner similar to that of Example (19g), by reaction of 400 mg (10 mmol, 6.4 eq) of sodium hydroxide and 680 mg (1.55 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl (E)-3-[3'- (1-propyl-3-heptylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylate in 15 ml of a tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture (8/2), and after crystallization from dichloromethane/heptane, 560 mg of (E)-3-[3'- (1-propyl-3-heptylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 126°C). Yield = 85%

1H NMR (CDCU. 400 MHz) : 0.87 (t, 3H); 0.92 (t, 3H); 1.24 (m, 8H); 1.40-1.45 (m, 2H); 1.53-1.63 (m, 2H); 3.19 (m, 2H) ; 3.71 (m, 2H); 4.22 (m, 1 H); 6.52-6.56 (d, 1 H); 7.26 (m, 2H); 7.50-7.69 (m, 6H); 7.83-7.87 (d, 1 H). Example 29 ; (El-S-rS.S-Difluoro-S'-O-heptyl-i-methylureido^biphenyl-A-yl lacrylic acid

a. 4-Bromo-2.6-difluorobenzaldehyde 0.7 g (7.7 mmol 10 eq) of manganese dioxide is added to a solution of 1.0 g (0.77 mmol, 1 eq) of 2,6-difluoro-4-bromobenzylalcool in 15 mL of dichloromethane. The reaction medium is stirred at room temperature for 48 hours. The solid is filtered off and the solvent is evaporated off. The residual oil is chromatographed on silica gel (8/2 heptane/ethyl acetate) and 760 mg of 4-bromo-2,6- difluorobenzaldehyde are obtained. Yield = 76%

b. Methyl 3-(4-bromo-2,6-difluorophenyl)acrylate In a manner similar to that of Example (3a), by reaction of 1.7 g (5.15 mmol, 1.5 eq) of methyl triphenylphosphoranylideneacetate and 760 mg (3.44 mmol, 1 eq) of 4- bromo-2, 6-difluorobenzaldehyde in 15 ml of toluene, 550 mg of methyl 3-(4-bromo-2,6- difluorophenyl)acrylate are obtained in solid form. Yield = 57%

c. Methyl (E)-3-f3.5-difluoro-3'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-y llacrylate In a manner similar to that of Example (1f), by reaction of 550 mg (1.98 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-(4-bromo-2,6-difluorophenyl)acrylate, 965 mg (2.58 mmol, 1.3 eq) 3-heptyl-1-methyl-1-[3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl[1 ,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)phenyl]urea (prepared in Example 1e) and 100 mg (5 mol%) of tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium in 10 mL of a 6/1 mixture of dimethylformamide and of 2M potassium phosphate solution, 630 mg of methyl (E)-3-[3,5-difluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-y l]acrylate are obtained in oil form. Yield = 72%

d. (E)-3-f3.5-Difluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biDhenyl-4-y llacrylic acid In a manner similar to that of Example (19g), by reaction of 400 mg (10 mmol, 7.0 eq) of sodium hydroxide and 630 mg (1.41 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl (E)-3- [3,5-difluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acry late in 15 ml of a tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture (8/2), and after crystallization from dichloromethane/heptane, 450 mg of (E)-3-[3,5-difluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 1360C). Yield = 74%

1H NMR (CDCk. 400 MHz) : 0.86 (m, 3H); 1.25 (m, 8H); 1.44 (m, 2H); 3.21 (m, 2H) ; 3.34 (S, 3H); 4.37 (m, 1 H); 6.80-6.86 (d, 1 H); 7.20-7.23 (d, 2H); 7.34 (d, 1 H); 7.50-7.57 (m, 3H); 7.88-7.94 (d, 1 H).

Example 30 : 343W1-Ethyl-3-heptylureido)biphenyl-4-yllpropanoic acid

A solution of 400 mg (0.98 mmol, 1 eq) of (E)-3-[3'-(1-ethyl-3- heptylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylic acid (prepared in Example 27g) in 10 ml. of ethyl acetate in the presence of 0.2 ml of methanol is stirred for 4 hours at room temperature in the presence of 200 mg (50% by mass) of 10% palladium-on-charcoal under a hydrogen atmosphere. The reaction medium is filtered through Celite and then evaporated to dryness. After crystallization from ethyl ether/pentane, 265 mg of 3-[3'-(1- ethyl-3-heptylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 700C). Yield = 66%

1H NMR (CDCk 400 MHz) : 0.86 (t, 3H); 1.15 (t, 3H); 1.23 (m, 8H); 1.42 (m, 2H); 2.75 (t, 2H); 3.05 (t, 2H); 3.17 (m, 2H) ; 3.79 (q, 2H); 4.22 (t, 1 H); 7.19 (d, 1 H); 7.34 (d, 2H); 7.45-7.57 (m, 5H).

Example 31 : 3-r3'-(3-Heptyl-1-propylureido)biphenyl-4-yllpropanoic acid In a manner similar to that of Example (18e), by reaction of 400 mg (0.95 mmol, 1 eq) of (E)-3-[3'-(1-propyl-3-heptylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylic acid (prepared in Example 28f) and 200 mg (50% by mass) of 10% palladium-on-charcoal in 10 ml. of ethyl acetate in the presence of 0.2 ml of methanol, 250 mg of 3-[3'-(1-propyl-3- heptylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 79°C). Yield = 63%

1H NMR (CDCK. 400 MHz) : 0.86 (t, 3H); 0.90 (t, 3H); 1.23 (m, 8H); 1.41 (m, 2H); 1.51- 1.61 (m, 2H); 2.75 (t, 2H); 3.05 (t, 2H); 3.17 (m, 2H) ; 3.99 (m, 2H); 4.23 (m, 1 H); 7.19 (d, 1 H); 7.34 (d, 2H); 7.44-7.55 (m, 5H).

Example 32 : 3-r3.5-Difluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yllpr opanoic acid

In a manner similar to that of Example (18e), by reaction of 300 mg (0.69 mmol, 1 eq) of (E)-3-[3,5-difluoro-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-y l]acrylic acid (prepared in Example 29d) and 200 mg (67% by mass) of 10% palladium-on-charcoal in 10 mL of ethyl acetate in the presence of 0.2 ml of methanol, 130 mg of 3-[3,5-difluoro- 3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 86°C). Yield = 44% 1H NMR (CDCk 400 MHz) : 0.86 (t, 3H); 1.24 (m, 8H); 1.43 (m, 2H); 2.72 (t, 2H); 3.08 (t, 2H); 3.19 (q, 2H) ; 3.33 (s, 3H); 4.38 (t, 1 H); 7.11 (d, 2H); 7.30 (s, 1 H); 7.45 (s, 1 H); 7.47- 7.54 (m, 2H).

Example 33 : 3-{3V3-(4-ButoxyphenvO-1-methylureidolbiphenyl-4-yl)propanoi c acid

a. Ethyl 3-{3'-[3-(4-butoxyphenyl)- 1-methylureido]biphenyl-4-yl)propanoate In a manner similar to that of Example (5a), by reaction of 574 μl (3.17 mmol, 3 eq) of 4-butoxyphenyl isocyanate and 300 mg (1.06 mmol, 1 eq) of ethyl 3-(3'- methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoate at 100°C by microwave for 15 minutes, 490 mg of ethyl 3-{3'-[3-(4-butoxyphenyl)-1-methylureido]biphenyl-4-yl}propa noate are obtained in the form of a white solid. Yield = 97%

b. 3-/3 '-[3-(4-Butoxyphen yl) -1-meth ylureidolbiphen yl-4- yl) propanoic acid In a manner similar to that of Example (19g), by reaction of 200 mg (5.0 mmol, 4.8 eq) of sodium hydroxide and 490 mg (1.03 mmol, 1 eq) of ethyl 3-{3'-[3- (4-butoxyphenyl)-1-methylureido]biphenyl-4-yl}propanoate in 6 ml of a tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture (8/2), and after recrystallization from ethyl acetate/heptane, 330 mg of 3-{3'-[3-(4-butoxyphenyl)-1-methylureido]biphenyl-4- yl}propanoic acid are obtained in the form of white crystals, (m.p. = 165°C). Yield = 71 %

1H NMR (CDCk 400 MHz) : 0.95 (t, 3H); 1.43-1.48 (m, 2H); 1.68-1.75 (m, 2H); 2.73 (t, 2H); 3.01 (t, 2H); 3.37 (s, 3H); 3.89 (t, 2H); 6.18 (s, 1 H); 6.77 (d, 2H); 7.16 (d, 2H); 7.29- 7.32 (m, 3H); 7.51-7.56 (m, 5H).

Example 34 : 3-(3'-f3-(4-Butoxyphenvπ-1-ethylureido1biphenyl»4-yl>pr opanoic acid a. Ethyl (E)-3-[4-(4.4.5.5-tetramethvin.3.21dioxaborolan-2-yl)Dhenyll acrylate In a manner similar to that of Example (1e), by reaction of 7.0 g (27 mmol, 1 eq) of of ethyl 4-bromocinnamate, 8.0 g (81 mmol, 3 eq) of potassium acetate and 8.3 g (33 mmol, 1.2 eq) of pinacol diborane in the presence of 980 mg (5 mol%) of diphenylphosphinoferrocenepalladium dichloride in 50 ml of dimethylformamide, 8.0 g of ethyl (E)-3-[4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl[1 ,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)phenyl]acrylate are obtained in oil form. Yield = 98%

b. Ethyl 3-[4-(4.4.5,5-tetramethyl[1.3.2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)phenyl]pro panoate In a manner similar to that of Example (18e), by reaction of 400 mg (5% by mass) of 10% palladium-on-charcoal and 8.0 g (1.39 mmol, 1 eq) of ethyl (E)-3-[4- (4,4,5,5-tetramethyl[1 ,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)phenyl]acrylate in 30 ml of methanol, 7.8 g of ethyl 3-[4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl[1 ,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)phenyl]propanoate are obtained in the form of a colourless oil. Yield = 96%

c. Ethyl 3-(3'-ethylaminobiDhenyl-4-yl)propanoate In a manner similar to that of Example (1f), by reaction of 1.5 g (4.93 mmol, 1 eq) of ethyl 3-[4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl[1 ,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)phenyl]propanoate, 1.28 g (6.41 mmol, 1.3 eq) of (3-bromophenyl)ethylamine (prepared in Example 27c) and 280 mg (5 mol%) of tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)-palladium in 15 mL of a 6/1 mixture of dimethylformamide and of 2M potassium phosphate solution, and after crystallization from pentane, 700 mg of ethyl (3-(3'-ethylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoate are obtained in the form of a white solid. Yield = 48%

d. Ethyl 3-{3'-[3-(4-butoxyDhenyl)-1-ethylureido]biphenyl-4-yl)propan oate In a manner similar to that of Example (11a), by reaction of 543 μl (3.0 mmol, 3 eq) of 4-butoxyphenyl isocyanate and 300 mg (1.0 mmol, 1 eq) of ethyl 3-(3'- methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoate, 460 mg of ethyl 3-{3'-[3-(4-butoxyphenyl)-1- ethylureido]biphenyl-4-yl}propanoate are obtained in the form of a colourless oil. Yield = 94%

e. S-O'-p-^-ButoxyDhenvD-i-ethvIureidolbiDhenvI-A-vDDroDanoic acicl In a manner similar to that of Example (19g), by reaction of 200 mg (5.0 mmol, 4.8 eq) of sodium hydroxide and 460 mg (0.94 mmol, 1 eq) of ethyl 3-{3'-[3- (4-butoxyphenyl)-1-ethylureido]biphenyl-4-yl}propanoate in 6 ml of a tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture (8/2), and after crystallization from pentane, 118 mg of 3-{3'-[3-(4-butoxyphenyl)-1-ethylureido]biphenyl-4-yl}propan oic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 102-1030C). Yield = 27%

1H NMR (CDCU. 400 MHz) : 0.94 (t, 3H); 1.19 (t, 3H); 1.40-1.50 (m, 2H); 1.68-1.75 (m, 2H); 2.72 (t, 2H); 3.02 (t, 2H); 3.82 (m, 2H); 3.89 (t, 2H); 6.02 (s, 1 H); 6.77 (d, 2H); 7.16 (d, 2H); 7.27-7.32 (m, 3H); 7.51-7.58 (m, 5H). Example 35 : 3-r2-Cvclopropylmethoxy-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl -4- yllpropanoic acid

a. Methyl 3-f2-cvcloDroDylmethoxy-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biDhenyl -4-yllDroDanoate In a manner similar to that of Example (25a), by reaction of 170 μl_ (1.75 mmol, 1.5 eq) of methylcyclopropyl bromide and 500 mg (1.17 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3- [3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-hydroxybiphenyl-4-yl]propano ate (prepared in Example 15f) in 10 ml of methyl ethyl ketone in the presence of 500 mg (3.61 mmol, 3 eq) of potassium carbonate, methyl 3-[2-cyclopropylmethoxy-3'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate is obtained in oil form and is used in the following reaction without further purification.

b. 3-[2-CvcloproDylmethoxy-3'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl -4-yllDroDanoic acid In a manner similar to that of Example (19g), by reaction of 400 mg (10.0 mmol, 4.8 eq) of sodium hydroxide and methyl 3-[2-cyclopropylmethoxy-3'-(3- heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate, obtained in the preceding step, in 10 ml of a tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture (8/2), and after crystallization from pentane, 426 mg of S-p-cydopropylmethoxy-SXS-heptyM-methylureidoJbiphenyM-yltø ropanoic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 64°C). Yield = 78% over the two steps

1H NMR (DMSO-d6. 400 MHz) : 0.29 (m, 2H); 0.51 (m, 2H); 0.85 (t, 3H); 1.17-1.21 (m, 8H); 1.37 (m, 2H); 2.57 (t, 2H); 2.84 (t, 2H); 2.99 (m, 2H) ; 3.18 (s, 3H); 3.86 (d, 2H); 5.92 (t. 1 H); 6.88 (d, 1 H); 6.97 (s, 1 H); 7.17 (d, 1 H); 7.24 (d, 1 H); 7.38-7.43 (m, 3H).

Example 36 : 3-f2-Ethoxy-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-vnpropano ic acid

a. Methyl 3-f2-ethoxy-3'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)biDhenyl-4-ylJpropan oate In a manner similar to that of Example (25a), by reaction of 200 μl_ (2.46 mmol, 3 eq) of 1 -iodoethane and 350 mg (0.82 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)-2-hydroxybiphenyl-4-yl]propanoate (prepared in Example 15f) in 6 ml of methyl ethyl ketone in the presence of 500 mg (3.61 mmol, 4.4 eq) of potassium carbonate at 800C for 5 hours, methyl 3-[2-ethoxy-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4- yl]propanoate is obtained in oil form and is used in the following reaction without further purification.

b. 3-[2-Ethoxy-3'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)biDhenyl-4-yl]propan oic acid In a manner similar to that of Example (19g), by reaction of 400 mg (10.0 mmol, 4.8 eq) of sodium hydroxide and methyl 3-[2-ethoxy-3'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate, obtained in the preceding step, in 10 ml of a tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture (8/2), and after crystallization from pentane/isopropyl ether, 246 mg of 3-[2-ethoxy-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propan oic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 64°C). Yield = 78% over the two steps

1H NMR (CDCk 400 MHz) : 0.84 (t, 3H); 1.22-1.27 (m, 8H); 1.35 (t, 3H); 1.40 (m, 2H); 2.73 (t, 2H); 3.00 (t, 2H); 3.16 (q, 2H) ; 3.29 (s, 3H); 4.05 (q, 2H); 4.44 (t, 1 H); 6.84 (s, 1 H); 6.88 (d, 1 H); 7.17 (d, 1 H); 7.24 (d, 1 H); 7.40-7.47 (m, 3H). Example 37 : 3-r3'-(3-Heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(3.3.3-trifluoroproPoxy)bi phenyl-4- yllpropanoic acid

a. Methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(3.3.3-trifluoroDropoxy)bi phenyl-4-yl]pro- panoate In a manner similar to that of Example (25a), by reaction of 1.0 ml. (8.52 mmol, 7.3 eq) 1-iodo-3,3,3-trifluoropropane and 500 mg (1.17 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3- [3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-hydroxybiphenyl-4-yl]propano ate (prepared in Example 15f) in 10 ml of methyl ethyl ketone in the presence of 500 mg (3.61 mmol, 3 eq) of potassium carbonate at 800C for 7 days, 50 mg of methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)- 2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropoxy)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate are obtained in oil form. Yield = 8%

b. 3-f3'-(3-Heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(3.3.3-trifluoroDroDoxy)bi phenyl-4-yllpropanoic acid In a manner similar to that of Example (19g), by reaction of 50 mg (1.25 mmol, 13 eq) of sodium hydroxide and 50 mg (0.096 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[3'-(3- heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropoxy)biphenyl-4- yl]propanoate in 3 ml of a tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture (8/2) at room temperature for 2 hours, and after crystallization from pentane/isopropyl ether, 14 mg of 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2- (3,3,3-trifluoropropoxy)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 9O0C). Yield = 29%

1H NMR (CDCU. 400 MHz) : 0.84 (t, 3H); 1.21-1.32 (m, 8H); 1.40 (m, 2H); 2.53 (m, 2H); 2.68 (t, 2H); 2.99 (t, 2H); 3.15 (q, 2H) ; 3.28 (s, 3H); 4.19 (t, 2H); 4.36 (t, 1 H); 6.82 (s, 1 H); 6.92 (d, 1 H); 7.17 (m, 1 H); 7.25 (m, 1 H); 7.26-7.42 (m, 3H).

Example 38 ; 3-f3'-(3-Heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(4.4.4-trifluorobutoxy)bip henyl-4- ylipropanoic acid a. Methyl 3-[3'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)-2-(4.4.4-trifluorobutoxy)biD henyl-4-yllproDanoate In a manner similar to that of Example (25a), by reaction of 500 μl_ (3.78 mmol, 5.8 eq) of 1-iodo-4,4,4-trifluorobutane and 280 mg (0.65 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3- [3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-hydroxybiphenyl-4-yl]propano ate (prepared in Example 15f) in 10 ml of methyl ethyl ketone in the presence of 500 mg (3.61 mmol, 5.5 eq) of potassium carbonate at 800C for 12 hours, methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2- (4,4,4-trifluorobutoxy)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate is obtained in oil form and is used in the following reaction without further purification.

b. 3-f3'-(3-Heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(4,4,4-trifluorobutoxy)biD henyl-4-yl]propanoic acid In a manner similar to that of Example (19g), by reaction of 400 mg (10.0 mmol, 4.8 eq) of sodium hydroxide and methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2- (4,4,4-trifluorobutoxy)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate, obtained in the preceding step, in 10 ml of a tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture (8/2), and after crystallization from pentane, 252 mg of 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(4,4,4-trifluorobutoxy)bip henyl-4-yl]propanoic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 78°C). Yield = 74% over the two steps

1H NMR (CDCk 400 MHz) : 0.84 (t, 3H); 1.21-1.27 (m, 8H); 1.39 (m, 2H); 1.95-2.0 (m, 2H); 2.12-2.17 (m, 2H); 2.73 (t, 2H); 3.00 (t, 2H); 3.15 (q, 2H) ; 3.29 (s, 3H); 4.02 (t, 2H); 4.39 (t, 1 H); 6.83 (s, 1 H); 6.93 (d, 1 H); 7.18 (m, 1 H); 7.24 (d, 1 H); 7.38 (s, 1 H); 7.43 (d, 2H).

Example 39 : 3-r3'-(3-Heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(3-hydroxypropoxy)biphenyl -4- yllpropanoic acid a. Meth yl 3-f3 '-(3-heptyl- 1-meth ylureido) -2-(3-h vdroxypropoxy) biohen yl-4- ylloropanoate In a manner similar to that of Example (25a), by reaction of 500 μL (5.2 mmol, 7.4 eq) of 3-iodo-1-propanol and 300 mg (0.7 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[3'-(3- heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-hydroxybiphenyl-4-yl]propanoate (prepared in Example 15f) in 10 ml of methyl ethyl ketone in the presence of 500 mg (3.61 mmol, 5.1 eq) of potassium carbonate at 800C for 15 hours, 270 mg of methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(3- hydroxypropoxy)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate are obtained in oil form. Yield = 79%

b. 3-f3'-(3-HeDtyl-1-methylureido)-2-(3-hvdroxyDroDoxy)biphenyl -4-yllDroDanoic acid In a manner similar to that of Example (19g), by reaction of 400 mg (10.0 mmol, 18 eq) of sodium hydroxide and 270 mg (0.55 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[3'-(3- heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(3-hydroxypropoxy)biphenyl-4-yl]pro panoate in 3 ml of a tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture (8/2), and after crystallization from ethyl acetate/heptane, 135 mg of 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(3- hydroxypropoxy)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 1070C). Yield = 51%

1H NMR (CDCU. 400 MHz) : 0.84 (t, 3H); 1.22-1.27 (m, 8H); 1.40 (m, 2H); 1.92-1.98 (m, 2H); 2.73 (t, 2H); 3.00 (t, 2H); 3.15 (q, 2H) ; 3.26 (s, 3H); 3.67 (t, 2H); 4.15 (t, 2H); 4.76 (t, 1 H); 6.87 (s, 1 H); 6.92 (d, 1 H); 7.18-7.22 (m, 2H); 7.35 (d, 2H); 7.43 (t, 1 H).

Example 40 : 3-r3W3-Heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(4-hvdroxybutoxy)biphenyl-4- yllpropanoic acid a. Methyl 3-r3'-(3-Heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(4-hvdroxybutoxy)biphenyl- 4-yl]propanoate In a manner similar to that of Example (25a), by reaction of 500 μl_ (3.45 mmol, 4.9 eq) of 4-bromobutyl acetate and 300 mg (0.7 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[3'-(3- heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-hydroxybiphenyl-4-yl]propanoate (prepared in Example 15f) in 6 ml of methyl ethyl ketone in the presence of 500 mg (3.61 mmol, 5.1 eq) of potassium carbonate at 800C for 15 hours, 305 mg of methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(4- hydroxybutoxy)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate are obtained in oil form. Yield = 80%

b. 3-[3'-(3-Heptyl- 1-methylureido)-2-(4-hvdroxybutoxy)biphenyl-4-yllDropanoic acid In a manner similar to that of Example (19g), by reaction of 300 mg (7.5 mmol, 13 eq) of sodium hydroxide and 305 mg (0.56 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[3'-(3- heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(4-hydroxybutoxy)biphenyl-4-yl]prop anoate in 3 ml of a tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture (8/2), 156 mg of 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(4- hydroxybutoxy)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid are obtained in the form of a whitish oil. Yield = 57%

1H NMR (CDCk. 400 MHz) : 0.84 (t, 3H); 1.21-1.27 (m, 8H); 1.38-1.41 (m, 2H); 1.63-1.68 (m, 2H); 1.78-1.83 (m, 2H); 2.71 (t, 2H); 2.99 (t, 2H); 3.14 (q, 2H) ; 3.28 (s, 3H); 3.57 (t, 2H); 4.03 (t, 2H); 4.63 (t, 1 H); 6.86 (s, 1 H); 6.88 (d, 1 H); 7.17 (m, 1 H); 7.24 (d, 1 H); 7.42- 7.46 (m, 3H).

Example 41 : 3-r2-Butoxy-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yllpropan oic acid a. Methyl (E)-3-(2-benzyloxy-3'-methylaminobiDhenyl-4-yl)acrylate In a manner similar to that of Example (15e), by reaction of 130 mg (5 mol%) of palladium acetate, 406 mg (10 mol%) of dicyclohexylbiphenyl phosphine, 4.6 g (11.7 mmol, 1.0 eq) of methyl (E)-3-(3-benzyloxy-4-iodophenyl)acrylate (prepared in Example 15d) and 3.26 g (14.0 mmol, 1.2 eq) of methyl[3-(4,4,5,5- tetramethyl[1 ,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)phenyl]amine (prepared in Example 7a) in 20 mL of a mixture of dimethylformarnide/2M potassium phosphate solution (6/1 ), 4.3 g of methyl (E)-3-(2-benzyloxy-3'-methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)acrylate are obtained in oil form. Yield = 98%

b. Methyl (E)-3-[2-benzyloxy-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl lacrylate In a manner similar to that of Example (1d), by reaction of 600 μl_ (4.6 mmol, 3.5 eq) of pentyl isocyanate and 500 mg (1.33 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl (E)-3-(2-benzyloxy- 3'-methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)acrylate, 544 mg of methyl (E)-3-[2-benzyloxy-3'-(1-methyl- 3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylate are obtained in oil form. Yield = 84%

c. Methyl 3-[2-hvdroxy-3'-(1-methyl-3-Dentylureido)biphenyl-4-yllDroDa noate In a manner similar to that of Example (18e), by reaction of 100 mg (18% by mass) of 10% palladium-on-charcoal and 544 mg (1.12 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl (E)-3-[2- benzyloxy-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylate in 10 ml of methanol, 530 mg of methyl 3-[2-hydroxy-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propa noate are obtained in oil form. Yield = 97%

d. Methyl 3-f2-butoxy-3'-(1-methyl-3-Dentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]proDan oate In a manner similar to that of Example (25a), by reaction of 500 μl_ (4.4 mmol, 3.3 eq) of 1-iodobutane and 530 mg (1.33 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[2-hydroxy-3'- (1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate in 10 ml of methyl ethyl ketone in the presence of 500 mg (3.61 mmol, 2.7 eq) of potassium carbonate at 8O0C for 16 hours, methyl 3-[2-butoxy-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propan oate is obtained in oil form and is used in the following reaction without further purification.

e. 3-ϊ2-Butoxy-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biDhenyl-4-yllDrθD anoic acid In a manner similar to that of Example (25a), by reaction of 400 mg (lO mmol, 7.5 eq) of sodium hydroxide and methyl 3-[2-butoxy-3'-(1-methyl-3- pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate, obtained in the preceding step, in 6 ml of a tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture (8/2), and after crystallization from pentane, 220 mg of 3-[2-butoxy-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propan oic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 78°C). Yield = 46% over the two steps.

1H NMR (CDCk. 400 MHz) : 0.84 (t, 3H); 0.91 (t, 3H); 1.18-1.27 (m, 4H); 1.36-1.44 (m, 4H); 1.68-1.72 (m, 2H); 2.73 (t, 2H); 3.00 (t, 2H); 3.15 (q, 2H) ; 3.29 (s, 3H); 3.97 (t, 2H); 4.41 (t, 1 H); 6.84 (s, 1H); 6.87 (d, 1 H); 7.17 (d, 1 H); 7.25 (d, 1 H); 7.42-7.46 (m, 3H). Example 42 : 3-r2-Benzyloxy-3W3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yllpropa noic acid

a. Methyl 3-[2-benzyloxy-3'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)biDhenyl-4-yllDro panoate In a manner similar to that of Example (25a), by reaction of 300 μl_ (2.5 mmol, 2.7 eq) of benzyl bromide and 400 mg (0.93 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl- 1-methylureido)-2-hydroxybiphenyl-4-yl]propanoate (prepared in Example 15f) in 10 ml of methyl ethyl ketone in the presence of 500 mg (3.61 mmol, 3.9 eq) of potassium carbonate at 900C for 3 hours, methyl 3-[2-benzyloxy-3'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate is obtained in oil form and is used in the following reaction without further purification.

b. 3-f2-Benzyloxy-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yllDro Danoic acid In a manner similar to that of Example (19g), by reaction of 400 mg (10 mmol, 10 eq) of sodium hydroxide and methyl 3-[2-benzyloxy-3'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate, obtained in the preceding step, in 10 ml of a tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture (8/2), and after crystallization from pentane, 305 mg of 3-[2-benzyloxy-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]pro panoic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 76°C). Yield = 65% over the two steps.

1H NMR (CDCk 400 MHz) : 0.83 (t, 3H); 1.19-1.26 (m, 8H); 1.30-1.35 (m, 2H); 2.72 (t, 2H); 3.00 (t, 2H); 3.05-3.10 (q, 2H) ; 3.20 (s, 3H); 4.39 (t, 1 H); 5.07 (s, 2H); 6.92 (d, 2H); 7.17 (d, 1 H); 7.28-7.33 (m, 6H); 7.42-7.47 (m, 3H). Example 43 : 3-r2-(3-Fluorobenzyloxy)-3W3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl- 4-yll- propanoic acid

a. Methyl 3-[2-(3-fluorobenzyloxy)-3'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)bipheny l-4-yl]propanoate In a manner similar to that of Example (25a), by reaction of 300 μl_ (2.4 mmol, 2.6 eq) of 3-fluorobenzyl bromide and 400 mg (0.93 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[3'- (3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-hydroxybiphenyl-4-yl]propanoate (prepared in Example 15f) in 10 ml of methyl ethyl ketone in the presence of 500 mg (3.61 mmol, 3.9 eq) of potassium carbonate at 900C for 3 hours, methyl 3-[2-(3-fluorobenzyloxy)-3'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate is obtained in oil form and is used in the following reaction without further purification.

b. 3-f2-(3-Fluorobenzyloxy)-3'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)biDheny l-4-yllDroDanoic acid In a manner similar to that of Example 19g, by reaction of 400 mg (10 mmol, 10 eq) of sodium hydroxide and methyl 3-[2-(3-fluorobenzyloxy)-3'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate, obtained in the preceding step, in 10 ml of a tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture (8/2), and after crystallization from pentane, 305 mg of 3-[2-(3-fluorobenzyloxy)-3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 73°C). Yield = 68% over the two steps.

1H NMR (CDCk 400 MHz) : 0.83 (t, 3H); 1.19-1.26 (m, 8H); 1.31-1.36 (m, 2H); 2.72 (t, 2H); 3.00 (t, 2H); 3.07-3.12 (q, 2H) ; 3.23 (s, 3H); 4.40 (t, 1 H); 5.06 (s, 2H); 6.90 (s, 1 H); 6.93-7.00 (m, 3H); 7.08 (d, 1 H); 7.18 (d, 1 H); 7.28 (m, 2H); 7.44-7.46 (m, 3H). Example 44 : 3-r2-(4-Fluorobenzyloxy)-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)bipheny l-4- ylipropanoic acid

a. Methyl 3-[2-(4-fluorobenzyloxy)-3'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)bipheny l-4-yllpropanoate In a manner similar to that of Example (25a), by reaction of 300 μl_ (2.4 mmol, 2.6 eq) of 3-fluorobenzyl bromide and 400 mg (0.93 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[3'- (3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-hydroxybiphenyl-4-yl]propanoate (prepared in Example 15f) in 10 ml of methyl ethyl ketone in the presence of 500 mg (3.61 mmol, 3.9 eq) of potassium carbonate at 900C for 3 hours, methyl 3-[2-(4-fluorobenzyloxy)-3'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate is obtained in oil form and is used in the following reaction without further purification.

b. 3-f2-(4-Fluorobenzyloxy)-3'-(3-heDtyl- 1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yllDroDanoic acid In a manner similar to that of Example (19g), by reaction of 400 mg (10 mmol, 10 eq) of sodium hydroxide and methyl 3-[2-(4-fluorobenzyloxy)-3'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate, obtained in the preceding step, in 10 ml of a tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture (8/2), and after crystallization from pentane, 310 mg of 3-[2-(4-fluorobenzyloxy)-3'-(3-heptyl-1 -methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 79°C). Yield = 64% over the two steps.

1H NMR (CDCU. 400 MHz) : 0.83 (t, 3H); 1.19-1.26 (m, 8H); 1.32-1.36 (m, 2H); 2.73 (t, 2H); 3.00 (t, 2H); 3.07-3.12 (q, 2H) ; 3.21 (s, 3H); 4.38 (t, 1 H); 5.03 (s, 2H); 6.92 (d, 2H); 6.99-7.03 (m, 2H); 7.17 (d, 1 H); 7.27-7.29 (m, 3H); 7.42-7.45 (m, 3H). Example 45 : 3-r3'-(3-Heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-pentyloxybiphenyl-4-vHprop anoic acid a. Methyl 3-[3'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)-2-DentyloxybiDhenyl-4-yljDro panoate In a manner similar to that of Example (25a), by reaction of 500 μl_ (3.8 mmol, 5.4 eq) of 1-iodopentane and 300 mg (0.7 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)-2-hydroxybiphenyl-4-yl]propanoate (prepared in Example 15f) in 10 ml of methyl ethyl ketone in the presence of 500 mg (3.61 mmol, 5.1 eq) of potassium carbonate at 800C for 12 hours, methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2- pentyloxybiphenyl-4-yl]propanoate is obtained in oil form and is used in the following reaction without further purification.

b. 3-!3'-(3-HeDtyl-1-methylureido)-2-DentyloxybiDhenyl-4-vπDro Danoic acid In a manner similar to that of Example (19g), by reaction of 400 mg (10 mmol, 14 eq) of sodium hydroxide and methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2- pentyloxybiphenyl-4-yl]propanoate, obtained in the preceding step, in 10 ml of a tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture (8/2), and after crystallization from pentane, 260 mg of 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-pentyloxybiphenyl-4-yl]pro panoic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 69°C). Yield = 77% over the two steps.

1H NMR (CDCk 400 MHz) : 0.84 (t, 3H); 0.88 (t, 3H); 1.21-1.25 (m, 8H); 1.32-1.40 (m, 6H); 1.72 (m, 2H); 2.73 (t, 2H); 3.00 (t, 2H); 3.15 (q, 2H) ; 3.29 (s, 3H); 3.96 (t, 2H); 4.42 (t, 1 H); 6.84 (s, 1 H); 6.87 (d, 1 H); 7.17 (d, 1 H); 7.24 (d, 1 H); 7.40-7.46 (m, 3H).

Example 46 : 3-r3'-M-Methyl-3-pentylureido)-2-pentyloxybiphenyl-4-yllprop anoic acid

a. 1-(3-BromoDhenyl)-1-methyl-3-pentylurea A solution of 50.0 g (0.442 mol, 1 eq) of pentyl isocyanate in 50 ml. of dichloromethane is added to a mixture of 82.2 g (0.442 mol, 1 eq) of (3- bromophenyl)methylamine in 250 ml. of dichloromethane in the presence of 20 mL (0.143 mol, 0.3 eq) of triethylamine. The reaction medium is refluxed for 3 days and then hydrolysed in 200 mL of 1N hydrochloric acid solution and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with water and sodium chloride, and evaporated. 123 g of 1-(3-bromophenyl)-1-methyl-3-pentylurea are obtained. Yield = 93%

b. 3-(1-Methyl-3-Dentylureido)phenylboronic acid In a manner similar to that of Example (18a), by reaction of 123 g (0.411 mol, 1 eq) of 1-(3-bromophenyl)-1-methyl-3-pentylurea in 1.23 L of tetrahydrofuran, 150 mL (0.452 mol, 1.1 eq) of methyllithium, 530 mL (0.904 mol, 2.2 eq) of a 1.7 M solution of tert-butyllithium in pentane and 115 mL (0.904 mol, 2.2 eq) of trimethyl borate, and after purification by chromatography on silica gel (50/50 heptane/ethyl acetate) and crystallization from ethyl acetate/heptane, 42.0 g of 3-(1-methyl-3- pentylureido)phenylboronic acid are obtained in the form of a pink-coloured powder. Yield = 39%

c. Methyl (E)-3-[2-benzyloxy-3'-(1-methyl-3-Dentylureido)biDhenyl-4-yl lacrylate In a manner similar to that of Example (18d), by reaction of 17 mg (2 mol%) of palladium acetate, 53 mg (4 mol%) of dicyclohexylbiphenyl phosphine, 1.5 g (3.8 mmol, 1.0 eq) of methyl (E)-3-(3-benzyloxy-4-iodophenyl)acrylate (prepared in Example 24d) and 1.3 g (4.94 mmol, 1.3 eq) of 3-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)phenylboronic acid in 20 mL of a mixture of dimethylformamide/2M potassium phosphate solution (6/1 ), 1.54 g of methyl (E)-3-[2-benzyloxy-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl ]acrylate are obtained in oil form. Yield = 83%

d. Methyl 3-[2-hvdroxy-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yllDroDa noate In a manner similar to that of Example (18e), by reaction of 400 mg (26% by mass) of 10% palladium-on-charcoal, 1.54 g (3.16 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl (E)-3-[2- benzyloxy-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]acrylate in 20 ml of methanol and 5 mL of ethyl acetate, and after crystallization from pentane, 1.1 g of methyl 3-[2-hydroxy- 3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate are obtained in solid form. Yield = 87%

e. Methyl 3-[3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)-2-pentyloxybiDhenyl-4-yllDro Danoate In a manner similar to that of Example (25a), by reaction of 500 μL (3.8 mmol, 3.8 eq) of 1-iodopentane and 400 mg (1.0 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[2-hydroxy-3'- (1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate in 10 ml of methyl ethyl ketone in the presence of 500 mg (3.61 mmol, 3.6 eq) of potassium carbonate at 800C for 12 hours, methyl 3-[3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)-2-pentyloxybiphenyl-4-yl]pro panoate is obtained in oil form and is used in the following reaction without further purification.

f. 3-f3'-(1-Methyl-3-Dentylureido)-2-pentyloxybiphenyl-4-yllDro Danoic acid In a manner similar to that of Example (19g), by reaction of 400 mg (10 mmol, 10 eq) of sodium hydroxide and methyl 3-[3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)-2- pentyloxybiphenyl-4-yl]propanoate, obtained in the preceding step, in 10 ml of a tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture (8/2), and after crystallization from pentane, 312 mg of 3-[3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)-2-pentyloxybiphenyl-4-yl]pro panoic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 830C). Yield = 74% over the two steps.

1H NMR (CDCI-,. 400 MHz) : 0.83 (t, 3H); 0.88 (t, 3H); 1.19-1.40 (m, 10H); 1.72 (m, 2H); 2.73 (t, 2H); 3.00 (t, 2H); 3.15 (q, 2H) ; 3.29 (s, 3H); 3.96 (t, 2H); 4.43 (t, 1 H); 6.84 (s, 1 H); 6.88 (d, 1 H); 7.16 (d, 1 H); 7.24 (d, 1 H); 7.42-7.47 (m, 3H).

Example 47 : 3-r2-(2-Ethoxyethoxy)-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4 - yllpropanoic acid

a. Methyl 3-f2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)-3'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4 -yl]propanoate In a manner similar to that of Example (25a), by reaction of 500 μl_ (4.43 mmol, 5.4 eq) of 2-bromoethyl ethyl ether and 350 mg (0.82 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[3'- (3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-hydroxybiphenyl-4-yl]propanoate (prepared in Example 15f) in 10 ml of methyl ethyl ketone in the presence of 500 mg (3.61 mmol, 4.4 eq) of potassium carbonate at 90°C for 12 hours, methyl 3-[2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)-3'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate is obtained in oil form and is used in the following reaction without further purification.

b. 3-[2-(2-Ethoxyethoxy)-3'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)biDhenyl-4 -yliDroDanoic acid In a manner similar to that of Example (19g), by reaction of 400 mg (lO mmol, 14 eq) of sodium hydroxide and methyl 3-[2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)-3'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate, obtained in the preceding step, in 10 ml of a tetrahydrofuran/methanol mixture (8/2), and after crystallization from pentane and isopropyl ether, 245 mg of 3-[2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4 - yljpropanoic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 63°C). Yield = 62% over the two steps.

1H NMR (CDCk. 400 MHz) : 0.85 (t, 3H); 1.17 (t, 3H); 1.21-1.27 (m, 8H); 1.40 (m, 2H); 2.73 (t, 2H); 3.01 (t, 2H); 3.16 (q, 2H) ; 3.29 (s, 3H); 3.46-3.51 (q, 2H); 3.70 (m, 2H); 4.13 (m, 2H); 4.47 (t, 1 H); 6.87 (s, 1 H); 6.90 (d, 1 H); 7.17 (d, 1 H); 7.24 (s, 1 H); 7.41 (t, 1 H); 7.51 (d, 2H).

Example 48 : 3-r2-Butoxy-3'-(1-methyl-3-phenylureido)biphenyl-4-yllpropan oic acid

a. 3-Hvdroxy-4-iodobenzoic acid 21.0 g (0.52 mol, 1.05 eq) of sodium hydroxide and then 78.7 g (0.52 mol, 1.05 eq) of sodium iodide are added to a solution of 69.1 g (0.5 mol, 1 eq) of 3- hydroxybenzoic acid in 700 ml of methanol. The reaction mixture is cooled to O0C and potassium hypochlorite solution (0.52 mol, 1.05 eq) is then added dropwise. The reaction medium is stirred at 0-50C for 2 hours and then at room temperature overnight. The methanol is evaporated off and the reaction medium is then acidified with concentrated hydrochloric acid solution. The precipitated product is filtered off, washed with water and dried. 121 g of 3-hydroxy-4-iodobenzoic acid are obtained in the form of an off-white solid. Yield = 92 %

b. Methyl 3-hvdroxy-4-iodobenzoate 59 ml (1.10 mol, 2.4 eq) of sulphuric acid are added to a solution of 121 g (0.458 mol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-hydroxy-4-iodobenzoic acid in 700 ml of methanol. The reaction mixture is refluxed for 6 days. The methanol is evaporated off and the reaction medium is then poured into water and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with water and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvent is concentrated and the solid obtained is filtered off and dried. 88.56 g of methyl 3-hydroxy- 4-iodobenzoate are obtained in the form of white crystals. Yield = 70%

c. Methyl 3-butoxy-4-iodobenzoate In a manner similar to that of Example (25a), by reaction of 21.5 ml. (0.189 mol, 1.5 eq) of 1-iodobutane and 35.03 g (0.126 mol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-hydroxy-4- iodobenzoate in 350 ml of methyl ethyl ketone in the presence of 52.24 g (0.378 mol, 3 eq) of potassium carbonate at 85°C for 2 hours 30 minutes, and after washing with heptane, 41.78 g of methyl 3-butoxy-4-iodobenzoate are obtained in the form of white crystals. Yield = 99%

d. (3-Butoxy-4-iodoDhen yl) methanol 8.17 g (0.375 mol, 3 eq) of lithium borohydride are added to a solution of 41.78 g (0.125 mol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-butoxy-4-iodobenzoate in 210 ml of tetrahydrofuran. The reaction medium is heated at 600C for 2 hours and then hydrolysed cautiously in ice-cold saturated ammonium chloride solution. The reaction medium is neutralized with concentrated hydrochloric acid and then extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are washed with water and dried over magnesium sulfate. The solvent is evaporated off and 38.31 g of (3-butoxy-4-iodophenyl)methanol are obtained in the form of a whitish oil. Yield = 100%

e. 3-Butoxy-4-iodobenzaldehvde 89.5 g (0.875 mol, 7 eq) of manganese dioxide are added to a solution of 38.30 g (0.125 mol, 1 eq) of (3-butoxy-4-iodophenyl)methanol in 250 ml. of dichloromethane. The reaction medium is stirred at room temperature for 18 hours and then filtered through silica gel. The solvent is evaporated off and 29.61 g of 3-butoxy-4- iodobenzaldehyde are obtained in the form of an orange oil. Yield = 78%

f. Methyl (E)-3-(3-butoxy-4-iodophenyl)acrylate 65.08 g (0.195 mol, 2 eq) of methyl triphenylphosphoranylideneacetate are added to a solution of 29.60 g (0.097 mol, 1 eq) of methyl-3-butoxy-4-iodobenzaldehyde in 360 ml of toluene. The reaction mixture is refluxed for 2 hours. The solvent is evaporated off and the oil obtained is chromatographed on silica gel (50/50 heptane/dichloromethane). 30.47 g of methyl (E)-3-(3-butoxy-4-iodophenyl)acrylate are obtained in the form of pale yellow crystals. Yield = 87%

σ. Methyl (E)-3-(2-Butoxy-3'-methylaminobiDhenyl-4-yl)acrylate In a manner similar to that of Example (18d), by reaction of 28 mg (1 mol%) of palladium acetate, 88 mg (2 mol%) of dicyclohexylbiphenylphosphine, 4.5 g (12.5 mmol, 1.0 eq) of methyl (E)-3-(3-butoxy-4-iodophenyl)acrylate and 3.79 g (16.2 mmol, 1.3 eq) of methyl[3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl[1 ,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)phenyl]amine (prepared in Example 7a) in 72 ml. of a mixture of dimethylformamide/2M potassium phosphate solution (5/1 ) at 900C for 2 hours, 3.67 g of methyl (E)-3-(2-butoxy-3'-methylamino- biphenyl-4-yl)acrylate are obtained in the form of crystals. Yield = 86%

h. Methyl 3-(2-butoxy-3'-methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)Dropanoate A solution of 3.63 g (10.7 mmol) of methyl (E)-3-(2-butoxy-3'- methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)acrylate in 70 ml of methanol is stirred for 4 hours at room temperature in the presence of 363 mg (10% by mass) of 10% palladium-on-charcoal under a hydrogen atmosphere. The palladium is filtered off and the solvent is evaporated off. 3.39 g of methyl 3-(2-butoxy-3'-rnethylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoate are obtained in the form of a yellowish oil. Yield = 93%.

/'. Met h yl 3-[2-butoxy-3 '-(1-meth yl-3-phen ylureido)biphen yl-4- ylipropanoate In a manner similar to that of Example (1d), by reaction of 165 μl (1.5 mmol, 1.5 eq) of phenyl isocyanate and 342 mg (1.0 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-(2-butoxy-3'- methylaminobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoate, 437 mg of methyl 3-[2-butoxy-3'-(1-methyl-3- phenylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate are obtained in the form of a yellow paste. Yield = 95%

/'. 3-[2-Butoxy-3'-(1-methyl-3-phenylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propan oic acid In a manner similar to that of Example (19g), by reaction of 187 mg (4.7 mmol, 5 eq) of sodium hydroxide and 437 mg (0.93 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[2- butoxy-3'-(1-methyl-3-phenylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate in 5 ml of methanol, 305 mg of 3-[2-butoxy-3'-(1-methyl-3-phenylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propan oic acid are obtained in the form of white crystals (m.p. = 134-136°C). Yield = 73% 1H NMR (CDCk 400 MHz): 0.84 (t, 3H) ; 1.33-1.39 (m, 2H) ; 1.62-1.67 (m, 2H) ; 2.73 (t, 2H); 2.99 (t, 2H); 3.37 (s, 3H); 3.95 (t, 2H); 6.34 (s, 1 H); 6.84 (s, 1H); 6.85 (d, 1 H); 6.98 (t, 1 H); 7.2-7.3 (m, 5H); 7.50 (m, 2H); 7.57 (s, 1H).

Example 49 : 3-r2-(2-Ethoxyethoxy)-3W1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-y llpro- panoic acid

a. Methyl 3-[2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)-3'-(1-methyl-3-Dentylureido)biphenyl-4 -yl1proDanoate In a manner similar to that of Example (25a), by reaction of 230 mg (1 mmol, 1.5 eq) of 2-bromoethyl ethyl ether and 400 mg (1.0 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[2-hydroxy- 3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate (prepared as in Example 46d) in 10 ml of methyl ethyl ketone in the presence of 415 mg (3.0 mmol, 3 eq) of potassium carbonate and 60 mg (0.4 mmol, 0.4 eq) of sodium iodide at 900C for 48 hours, 450 mg of methyl 3-[2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)-3'-(1-rnethyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl- 4-yl]propanoate are obtained in the form of a yellow oil. Yield = 96%

b. 3-f2-(2-Ethoxyethoxy)-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biDhenyl-4 -ylJpropanoic acid In a manner similar to that of Example (19g), by reaction of 181 mg (4.5 mmol, 5 eq) of sodium hydroxide and 427 mg (0.90 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[2-(2- ethoxyethoxy)-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]prop anoate in 5 ml of methanol, 304 mg of 3-[2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4 -yl]propanoic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 61-62X). Yield = 73%

1H NMR (CDCh. 400 MHz) : 0.84 (t, 3H); 1.15 (t, 3H); 1.20-1.27 (m, 4H); 1.37-1.42 (m, 2H); 2.72 (t, 2H); 2.99 (t, 2H); 3.46-3.51 (q, 2H) ; 3.70 (t, 2H); 4.13 (t, 2H); 4.49 (t, 1 H); 6.87 (s, 1 H); 6.90 (d, 1 H); 7.15 (d, 1 H); 7.17 (s, 1 H); 7.41 (t, 3H); 7.50 (s, 1 H); 7.51 (d, 1 H). Example 50 : 3-r2-(2-Diethylaminoethoxy)-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biph enyl-4- vllpropanoic acid hydrochloride

a. Methyl 3-[2-(2-diethylaminoethoxy)-3'-(3-heDtyl- 1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yllDroDano- ate A solution of 500 mg (1.17 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)-2-hydroxybiphenyl-4-yl]propanoate (prepared in Example 15f) in 5 ml of tetrahydrofuran in the presence of 150 mg (1.29 mmol, 1.1 eq) of 2-diethylaminoethanol, 460 mg (1.76 mmol, 1.5 eq) of triphenylphosphine and 280 μl_ (1.76 mmol, 1.5 eq) of diethyl azodicarboxylate (DEAD) is stirred at room temperature for 24 hours. The reaction medium is concentrated and the residue is then chromatographed on silica gel (40/60 heptane/ethyl acetate). 490 mg of methyl 3-[2-(2-diethylaminoethoxy)-3'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate are obtained. Yield = 80%

b. 3-[2-(2-Diethylaminoethoxy)-3'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)biDh enyl-4-yliDroDanoic acid hydrochloride 220 mg (9.3 mmol, 10 eq) of lithium hydroxide are added to a solution of 490 mg (0.93 mmol) of methyl 3-[2-(2-diethylaminoethoxy)-3'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate in 7 ml of 5/1/1 tetrahydrofuran/methanol/water. The reaction mixture is stirred for 4 hours at room temperature. The reaction medium is hydrolysed with water and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with water and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvents are evaporated off and the residue is then chromatographed on silica gel (90/10 dichloromethane/methanol), purified on a preparative thin-layer silica plate and then placed in hydrochloride form. 14 mg of 3-[2-(2-diethylaminoethoxy)-3'-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid hydrochloride are obtained in the form of a colourless oil. Yield = 3% 1H NMR (CDCI?. 400 MHz) : 0.77 (t, 3H); 0.93 (t, 3H); 1.16 (m, 8H); 1.32 (m, 2H); 2.48 (t, 2H); 2.63-2.68 (q, 4H); 2.87 (m, 4H); 3.04-3.08 (q, 2H) ; 3.19 (s, 3H); 4.11 (m, 2H); 4.36 (t, 1H); 6.77 (d, 1H); 6.82 (s, 1H); 7.07 (d, 2H); 7.30 (d, 3H).

Example 51 : 3-r3'-(3-Heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(2-morpholin-4-ylethoxy)bi phenyl-4- ylipropanoic acid

a. Methyl 3-f3'-(3-Heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(2-morpholin-4-ylethoxy)bi phenyl-4-ylJproDan- oate In a manner similar to that of Example (50a), by reaction of 500 mg (1.17 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-hydroxybiphenyl-4-yl]propa noate (prepared in Example 15f) in 5 ml of tetrahydrofuran, 170 mg (1.29 mmol, 1.1 eq) of N- (2-hydroxyethyl)morpholine, 460 mg (1.76 mmol, 1.5 eq) of triphenylphosphine and 280 μl_ (1.76 mmol, 1.5 eq) of diethyl azodicarboxylate (DEAD), 420 mg of methyl 3-[3'-(3- heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(2-morpholin-4-ylethoxy)biphenyl-4- yl]propanoate are obtained. Yield = 68%

b. 3-f3'-(3-Heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(2-morpholin-4-ylethoxy)bi phenyl-4-ylJpropanoic acid 630 mg (1.56 mmol, 2 eq) of sodium hydroxide are added to a solution of 420 mg (0.78 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-(2-morpholin-4- ylethoxy)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate in 8 ml of 8/1/1 tetrahydrofuran/methanol/water. The reaction mixture is stirred for 4 hours at room temperature. The reaction medium is hydrolysed with water and acetic acid and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with water and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvents are evaporated off and the residue is then chromatographed on silica gel (40/60 heptane/ethyl acetate) and then on preparative HPLC. 10 mg of 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methyl- ureido)-2-(2-morpholin-4-ylethoxy)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid are obtained in oil form. Yield = 2% 1H NMR (CDCU, 400 MHz) : 0.79 (t, 3H); 1.18 (m, 8H); 1.37 (m, 2H); 2.57 (t, 2H); 2.94 (t, 2H); 3.02-3.14 (q, 2H) ; 3.22 (s, 3H); 3.31 (m, 2H); 3.73 (m, 4H); 4.38 (t, 2H); 4.43 (t, 1 H); 6.85 (s, 1 H); 6.87 (d, 1 H); 7.10-7.17 (m, 2H); 7.24 (d, 1 H); 7.33-7.37 (m, 3H).

Example 52 : 3-r2-Amino-3'-M-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yllpropanoi c acid

a. Methyl (E)-3-(4-chloro-3-nitroDhenyl)acrylate A solution of 5.0 g (0.027 mol, 1 eq) of 4-chloro-3-nitrobenzaldehyde in 150 ml of toluene in the presence of 18.0 g (0.054 mol, 2 eq) of triphenylphospharanylidene is refluxed for 1 hour 30 minutes. The cooled reaction medium is hydrolysed by addition of 100 mL of water and the phases are then separated by settling. The organic phase is dried over sodium sulfate and evaporated. The residue is chromatographed on silica gel (70/30 heptane/ethyl acetate) and 6.3 g of methyl (E)-3-(4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl)acrylate are obtained in the form of a pale yellow solid. Yield = 97%

b. Methyl (E)-3-[3'-(1-methyl-3-Dentylureido)-2-nitrobiDhenyl-4-yllacr ylate In a manner similar to that of Example (18d), by reaction of 38 mg (2 mol%) of palladium acetate, 118 mg (4 mol%) of dicyclohexylbiphenylphosphine, 2.0 g (8.28 mmol, 1.0 eq) of methyl (E)-3-(4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl)acrylate and 2.6 g (9.9 mmol, 1.2 eq) of 3-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)phenylboronic acid in 25 mL of a mixture of dimethylformamide/2M potassium phosphate solution (4/1 ), 2.90 g of methyl (E)-3-[3'-(1- methyl-3-pentylureido)-2-nitrobiphenyl-4-yl]acrylate are obtained in the form of a yellow oil. Yield = 82%

c. Methyl 3-[2-amino-3'-(1-methyl-3-Dentylureido)biDhenyl-4-yl]DroDano ate In a manner similar to that of Example (18e), by reaction of 300 mg (10% by mass) of 10% palladium-on-charcoal and 2.90 g (6.8 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl (E)-3-[3'-(1- methyl-3-pentylureido)-2-nitrobiphenyl-4-yl]acrylate in 50 ml of methanol, and after purification by chromatography on silica gel (50/50 heptane/ethyl acetate), 2.57 g of methyl 3-[2-amino-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propano ate are obtained in the form of a yellow oil. Yield = 95%

d. 3-f2-Amino-3'-(1-methyl-3-Dentylureido)biphenyl-4-yllDroDano ic acid A solution of 123.9 mg (0.311 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[2-amino-3'-(1-methyl- 3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate in 3 ml of tetrahydrofuran in the presence of 550 μL (0.623 mmol, 2 eq) of 1 N lithium hydroxide solution is stirred at room temperature for 4 hours. The reaction medium is concentrated, hydrolysed with water, acidified with acetic acid and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phase is dried over sodium sulfate and evaporated. The residue is taken up in heptane and then recrystallized from acetonitrile. 302.8 mg of 3-[2-amino-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propano ic acid are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 84.90C) Yield = 75%

1H NMR (CDCk. 400 MHz) : 0.85 (t, 3H); 1.19-1.31 (m, 4H); 1.31-1.46 (m, 2H); 2.70 (t, 2H); 2.92 (t, 2H); 3.15-3.20 (q, 2H) ; 3.29 (s, 3H); 4.45 (t, 1 H); 6.65 (s, 1 H); 6.69 (d, 1 H); 7.03 (d, 1 H); 7.22 (d, 1 H); 7.34 (s, 1 H); 7.39 (d, 1 H); 7.47 (t, 1 H). Example 53 : 3-r2-Butylamino-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yllpr opanoic acid hydrochloride

a. Methyl 3-[2-butylamino-3'-(1-methyl-3-Dentylureido)biDhenyl-4-yllpr oDanoate A solution of 200 mg (0.5 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[2-amino-3'-(1-methyl-3- pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate (prepared in Example 52c) and 60 μl_ (0.55 mmol, 1.1 eq) of 1-iodobutane in 2 ml of dimethylformamide in the presence of 170 μl_ (10.5 mmol, 2.1 eq) of diisopropylethylamine is heated at 800C for 16 hours. The reaction medium is hydrolysed with water and then extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with saturated sodium chloride solution and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvent is evaporated off and the residue is chromatographed on silica gel (70/30 heptane/ethyl acetate). 114.8 mg of methyl 3-[2-butylamino-3'-(1-methyl- 3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate are obtained in the form of a yellow oil. Yield = 51 %

b. 3-[2-Butylamino-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yllDr oDanoic acid hydrochloride In a manner similar to that of Example (52d), by reaction of 114.8 mg (0.25 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[2-butylamino-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4- yl]propanoate and 500 μl_ (0.50 mmol, 2 eq) of 1 N lithium hydroxide solution in 2 ml of tetrahydrofuran, the product is obtained and is precipitated in hydrochloride form by addition of a solution of hydrogen chloride in ethyl acetate. The solid obtained is recrystallized from acetonitrile and 44 mg of 3-[2-butylamino-3'-(1-methyl-3- pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid hydrochloride are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 163.90C). Yield = 37%

1H NMR (CDCh. 400 MHz) : 0.79 (t, 3H); 0.82 (t, 3H); 1.18-1.28 (m, 6H); 1.41-1.49 (m, 2H); 1.63-1.69 (m, 2H); 2.70 (t, 2H); 3.02 (t, 2H); 3.08-3.16 (m, 4H) ; 3.29 (s, 3H); 5.35 (m, 1 H); 7.24-7.36 (m, 5H); 7.50 (t, 1 H); 7.72 (s, 1 H). Example 54 : 3-r2-Benzylamino-3W1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yllpro panoic acid hydrochloride

a. Methyl 3-f2-benzylamino-3'-(1-methyl-3-Dentylureido)biphenyl-4-yljD roDanoate A solution of 200 mg (0.5 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[2-amino-3'-(1-methyl-3- pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propanoate (prepared in Example 52c) and 72 μl_ (0.70 mmol, 1.4 eq) of benzaldehyde in 4 ml of methanol in the presence of 63 mg (1.0 mmol, 2 eq) of sodium cyanoborohydride is stirred at room temperature for 16 hours. The reaction medium is hydrolysed with ammonium chloride solution and then extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phases are combined, washed with saturated sodium chloride solution and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvent is evaporated off and the residue is chromatographed on silica gel (70/30 heptane/ethyl acetate). 144 mg of methyl 3-[2- benzylamino-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propan oate are obtained in the form of a colourless oil. Yield = 59%

b. 3-[2-Benzylamino-3'-(1-methyl-3-Dentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]p roDanoic acid hydro¬ chloride In a manner similar to that of Example (52d), by reaction of 144 mg (0.30 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[2-benzylamino-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4- yl]propanoate and 590 μl_ (0.60 mmol, 2 eq) of 1 N lithium hydroxide solution in 2 ml of tetrahydrofuran, 42 mg of 3-[2-benzylamino-3'-(1-rnethyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4- yl]propanoic acid hydrochloride are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 1050C). Yield = 28%

1H NMR (CDCk. 400 MHz) : 0.84 (t, 3H); 1.20-1.30 (m, 8H); 1.41-1.49 (m, 2H); 2.65 (t, 2H); 2.95 (t, 2H); 3.17 (m, 2H) ; 3.22 (s, 3H); 4.32 (s, 2H); 4.95 (m, 1 H); 6.98 (m, 2H); 7.07 (d, 2H); 7.20-7.28 (m, 7H); 7.39 (t, 1 H). Example 55 : 3-r2-Diethylamino-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-vnp ropanoic acid hydrochloride

a. Meth yl 3-[2-diethylamino-3 '-(1-meth yl-3-Dentylureido)biphen yl-4-ylJpropanoate In a manner similar to that of Example (54a), by reaction of 300 mg (0.75 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[2-amino-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propano ate (prepared in Example 52c) and 100 μL (1.70 mmol, 2.4 eq) of acetaldehyde in 6 ml of methanol in the presence of 95 mg (1.5 mmol, 2 eq) of sodium cyanoborohydride, 279.3 mg of methyl 3-[2-diethylamino-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl] propanoate are obtained in the form of a colourless oil. Yield = 82%

b. 3-[2-Diethylamino-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl] propanoic acid hydro¬ chloride In a manner similar to that of Example (52d), by reaction of 279 mg (0.62 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[2-diethylamino-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4- yljpropanoate and 1.23 ml_ (1.24 mmol, 2 eq) of 1 N lithium hydroxide solution in 3 ml of tetrahydrofuran, 214 mg of 3-[2-diethylamino-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4- yljpropanoic acid hydrochloride are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 183.2°C) Yield = 73%

1H NMR (CDCI3. 400 MHz) : 0.84 (t, 3H); 1.15 (t, 6H); 1.22-1.31 (m, 4H); 1.49-1.54 (m, 2H); 2.70 (t, 2H); 3.07 (t, 2H); 3.14 (m, 2H) ; 3.25 (s, 3H); 3.77 (m, 2H); 6.65 (rrt, 1H); 7.03 (s, 1 H); 7.07 (d, 1 H); 7.30 (d, 2H); 7.38 (d, 2H); 7.52 (t, 1 H); 11.2 (m, 1 H).

Example 56 : 3-f3'-(1-Methyl-3-pentylureido)-2-propylaminobiphenyl-4-vnpr opanoic acid hydrochloride

a. Methyl 3-[3'-(1-methyl-3-Dentylureido)-2-DroDylaminobiphenyl-4-yl]p ropanoate In a manner similar to that of Example (54a), by reaction of 300 mg (0.75 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[2-amino-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propano ate (prepared in Example 52c) and 77 μl_ (1.70 mmol, 1.4 eq) of propionaldehyde in 6 ml of methanol in the presence of 95 mg (1.5 mmol, 2 eq) of sodium cyanoborohydride, 207.3 mg of methyl 3-[3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)-2-propylaminobiphenyl-4-yl]p ropanoate are obtained in the form of a colourless oil. Yield = 62%

b. 3-[3'-(1-Methyl-3-Dentylureido)-2-DropylaminobiDhenyl-4-vπD ropanoic acid hydro¬ chloride In a manner similar to that of Example (52d), by reaction of 207 mg (0.47 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)-2-propylaminobiphenyl-4- yl]propanoate and 0.94 mL (0.94 mmol, 2 eq) of 1 N lithium hydroxide solution in 4 ml of tetrahydrofuran, 178.4 mg of 3-[3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)-2-propylaminobiphenyl-4- yl]propanoic acid hydrochloride are obtained in the form .of a white powder (m.p. = 172.8°C). Yield = 82%

1H NMR (CDCK. 400 MHz) : 0.79-0.84 (2t, 6H); 1.18-1.28 (m, 8H); 1.41-1.47 (m, 2H); 1.67-1.73 (m, 2H); 2.69 (t, 2H); 3.02 (t, 2H); 3.06 (m, 2H) ; 3.14 (t, 2H); 3.29 (s, 3H); 5.45 (m, 1 H); 7.24-7.34 (m, 5H); 7.50 (t, 1 H); 7.68 (s, 1 H).

Example 57 : 3-F2-(4-Fluorobenzylamino)-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphe nyl-4- yllpropanoic acid hydrochloride a. Methyl 3-[2-(4-Fluorobenzylamino)-3'-(1-methyl-3-Dentylureido)biphe nyl-4-yliDroDan- oate In a manner similar to that of Example (54a), by reaction of 200 mg (0.5 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[2-amino-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propano ate (prepared in Example 52c) and 76 μl_ (0.70 mmol, 1.4 eq) of 4-fluorobenzaldehyde in 4 ml of methanol in the presence of 63 mg (1.0 mmol, 2 eq) of sodium cyanoborohydride, 220.3 mg of methyl 3-[2-(4-fluorobenzylamino)-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphe nyl-4- yl]propanoate are obtained in the form of a colourless oil. Yield = 87%

b. 3-f2-(4-Fluorobenzylamino)-3'-(1-methyl-3-Dentylureido)biphe nyl-4-yl]propanoic acid hydrochloride In a manner similar to that of Example (52d), by reaction of 220 mg (0.47 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[2-(4-fluorobenzylamino)-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)biphe nyl-4- yljpropanoate and 0.87 ml_ (0.87 mmol, 2 eq) of 1 N lithium hydroxide solution in 4 ml of tetrahydrofuran, 98 mg of 3-[2-(4-fluorobenzylamino)-3'-(1-methyl-3-pentylureido)- biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid hydrochloride are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 169.6°C). Yield = 43%

1H NMR (CDiOD. 400 MHz) : 0.88 (t, 3H); 1.29-1.33 (m, 4H); 1.49-1.54 (m, 2H); 2.68 (m, 2H); 3.01 (m, 2H); 3.18 (m, 2H) ; 3.25 (s, 3H); 4.49 (s, 2H); 6.84 (s, 1 H); 7.01-7.07 (m, 3H); 7.15 (m, 2H); 7.16 (d, 1 H); 7.33-7.37 (m, 3H); 7.50 (m, 1 H).

Example 58 : 3-r2-Butylamino-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-vπpr opanoic acid hydrochloride

a. 1-(3-BromoDhenyl)-3-heptyl-1-methylurea In a manner similar to that of Example (46a), by reaction of 50.0 g (0.354 mol, 1 eq) of heptyl isocyanate and 65.9 g (0.354 mol, 1 eq) of (3- bromophenyl)methylamine (prepared in Example 7c) in 300 ml_ of dichloromethane in the presence of 20 ml. (0.143 mol, 0.4 eq) of triethylamine, 113 g of 1-(3-bromophenyl)-3- heptyl-1-methylurea are obtained. Yield = 97%

b. 3-(3-HeDtyl-1-methylureido)Dhenylboronic acid In a manner similar to that of Example (18a), by reaction of 113 g (0.345 mol, 1 eq) of 1-(3-bromophenyl)-3-heptyl-1-methylurea in 1.13 L of tetrahydrofuran, 127 mL (0.38 mol, 1.1 eq) of methyllithium, 530 mL (0.76 mol, 2.2 eq) of a 1.7M solution of tert- butyllithium in pentane and 97 mL (0.904 mol, 2.2 eq) of trimethyl borate, and after purification by chromatography on silica gel (50/50 heptane/ethyl acetate) and crystallization from ethyl acetate/heptane, 36.0 g of 3-(3-heptyl-1- methylureido)phenylboronic acid are obtained in the form of a pinkish powder. Yield = 36%

c. Methyl (E)-3-[3'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)-2-nitrobiphenyl-4-yllacr ylate In a manner similar to that of Example (18d), by reaction of 56 mg (2 mol%) of palladium acetate, 174 mg (4 mol%) of dicyclohexylbiphenylphosphine, 3.0 g (12.0 mmol, 1.0 eq) of methyl (E)-3-(4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl)acrylate (prepared in Example 52a) and 4.4 g (15.0 mmol, 1.2 eq) of 3-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)phenylboronic acid in 48 mL of a mixture of dimethylformamide/2M potassium phosphate solution (5/1 ), 4.06 g of methyl (E)-3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-nitrobiphenyl-4-yl]acr ylate are obtained in the form of a pale yellow powder. Yield = 72%

d. Methyl 3-r2-amino-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biDhenyl-4-yllDroDano ate In a manner similar to that of Example (18e), by reaction of 400 mg (10% by mass) of 10% palladium-on-charcoal and 4.0 g (8.8 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl (E)-3-[3'-(3- heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-nitrobiphenyl-4-yl]acrylate in 80 ml of methanol, and after purification by chromatography on silica gel (50/50 heptane/ethyl acetate), 3.81 g of methyl 3-[2-amino-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propano ate are obtained in the form of a colourless oil. Yield = 100%

e. Methyl 3-[2-butylamino-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biDhenyl-4-yllDr oDanoate In a manner similar to that of Example (54a), by reaction of 400 mg (0.94 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[2-amino-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propano ate and 120 μL (1.30 mmol, 1.4 eq) of butyraldehyde in 8 ml of methanol in the presence of 120 mg (1.9 mmol, 2 eq) of sodium cyanoborohydride, 335.5 mg of methyl 3-[2- butylamino-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propano ate are obtained in the form of a colourless oil. Yield = 74%

f. 3-[2-Butylamino-3'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)biDhenyl-4-yl]pr opanoic acid hydrochloride In a manner similar to that of Example (52d), by reaction of 155 mg (0.32 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[2-butylamino-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4- yl]propanoate and 0.64 ml. (0.64 mmol, 2 eq) of 1 N lithium hydroxide solution in 2 ml of tetrahydrofuran, 67 mg of 3-[2-butylamino-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4- yl]propanoic acid hydrochloride are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 132.4°C) Yield = 42%

1H NMR (CDCU. 400 MHz) : 0.79 (t, 3H); 0.83 (t, 3H); 1.16-1.28 (m, 10H); 1.45 (m, 2H); 1.63-1.70 (m, 2H); 2.70 (t, 2H); 3.02-3.10 (m, 4H) ; 3.10 (t, 2H); 3.30 (s, 3H); 5.25 (m, 1 H); 7.23-7.34 (m, 4H); 7.38 (d, 1 H); 7.51 (t, 1 H); 7.75 (s, 1 H). Example 59 : 3-r2-Benzylamino-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-vnpr opanoic acid hydrochloride

a. Methyl 3-[2-benzylamino-3'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)biDhenyl-4-yllD roDanoate In a manner similar to that of Example (54a), by reaction of 200 mg (0.5 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[2-amino-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propano ate (prepared in Example 58d) and 67 μl_ (0.66 mmol, 1.4 eq) of benzaldehyde in 4 ml of methanol in the presence of 59 mg (0.94 mmol, 2 eq) of sodium cyanoborohydride, 126.8 mg of methyl 3-[2-benzylamino-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]p ropanoate are obtained in the form of a colourless oil. Yield = 52%

b. 3-f2-Benzylamino-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yllD roDanoic acid hydro¬ chloride In a manner similar to that of Example (52d), by reaction of 126 mg (0.25 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[2-benzylamino-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4- yl]propanoate and 0.98 m!_ (0.98 mmol, 2 eq) of 1 N lithium hydroxide solution in 2 ml of tetrahydrofuran, 57 mg of 3-[2-benzylamino-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4- yl]propanoic acid hydrochloride are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 145.3°C). Yield = 43%

1H NMR (CDCk. 400 MHz) : 0.84 (t, 3H); 1.24-1.27 (m, 8H); 1.49 (m, 2H); 2.63 (t, 2H); 2.97 (t, 2H); 3.18 (m, 2H) ; 3.20 (s, 3H); 4.32 (s, 2H); 5.5 (m, 1 H); 6.70 (s, 1 H); 6.80 (d, 1H); 7.09-7.36 (m, 9H); 7.42 (s, 1H). Example 60 : 3-r2-Diethylamino-3W3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yllpr opanoic acid hydrochloride

a. Methyl 3-[2-diethylamino-3'-(3-heptyl- 1-methylureido)biDhenyl-4-yl]propanoate In a manner similar to that of Example (54a), by reaction of 300 mg (0.7 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[2-amino-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propano ate (prepared in Example 58d) and 60 μL (1.06 mmol, 1.5 eq) of acetaldehyde in 6 ml of methanol in the presence of 89 mg (1.4 mmol, 2 eq) of sodium cyanoborohydride, 210 mg of methyl 3-[2-diethylamino-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl] propanoate are obtained in the form of a colourless oil. Yield = 62%

b. 3-[2-Diethylamino-3'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)biDhenyl-4-yll Dropanoic acid hydro¬ chloride In a manner similar to that of Example (52d), by reaction of 210 mg (0.44 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[2-diethylamino-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4- yl]propanoate and 0.87 mL (0.87 mmol, 2 eq) of 1 N lithium hydroxide solution in 4 ml of tetrahydrofuran, 132 mg of 3-[2-diethylamino-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4- yl]propanoic acid hydrochloride are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 178.6°C). Yield = 60%

1H NMR (CDCk. 400 MHz) : 0.84 (t, 3H); 1.13 (t, 3H); 1.23-1.28 (m, 8H); 1.50 (m, 2H); 2.74 (t, 2H); 3.08 (t, 2H); 3.23 (s, 3H); 3.27 (m, 2H) ; 3.75 (m, 2H); 6.7 (m, 1 H); 7.00 (s, 1 H); 7.08 (d, 1 H); 7.28 (d, 2H); 7.37 (d, 2H); 7.51 (t, 1 H). Example 61 : 3-r3'-(3-Heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-propylaminobiphenyl-4-yllp ropanoic acid hydrochloride

a. Methyl 3-[3'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)-2-DroDylaminobiDhenyl-4-yllp roDanoate In a manner similar to that of Example (54a), by reaction of 300 mg (0.7 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[2-amino-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propano ate (prepared in Example 58d) and 72 μl_ (0.99 mmol, 1.4 eq) of propionaldehyde in 6 ml of methanol in the presence of 89 mg (1.4 mmol, 2 eq) of sodium cyanoborohydride, 131.6 mg of methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-propylaminobiphenyl-4-yl]p ropanoate are obtained in the form of a colourless oil. Yield = 40%

b. 3-[3'-(3-HeDtyl-1-methylureido)-2-propylaminobiDhenyl-4-ylJp ropanoic acid hydro¬ chloride In a manner similar to that of Example (52d), by reaction of 131 mg (0.44 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-propylaminobiphenyl-4- yljpropanoate and 0.56 mL (0.56 mmol, 2 eq) of 1 N lithium hydroxide solution in 2 ml of tetrahydrofuran, 102 mg of 3-[3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)-2-propylaminobiphenyl-4- yljpropanoic acid hydrochloride are obtained in the form of a white powder (m.p. = 140.80C). Yield = 74%

1H NMR (CDCk 400 MHz) : 0.79-0.86 (2t, 6H); 1.25 (m, 8H); 1.45 (m, 2H); 1.67-1.72 (m, 2H); 2.70 (t, 2H); 3.02 (t, 2H); 3.05 (m, 2H) ; 3.15 (m, 2H); 3.29 (s, 3H); 5.35 (m, 1 H); 7.23-7.34 (m, 5H); 7.50 (t, 1 H); 7.67 (s, 1 H). Example 62 : 3-f2-(4-Fluorobenzylamino)-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphe nyl-4-yll- propanoic acid hydrochloride

a. Methyl 3-f2-(4-fluorobenzylamino)-3'-(3-heDtyl-1-methylureido)biDhe nyl-4-yllDroDano- ate In a manner similar to that of Example (54a), by reaction of 200 mg (0.47 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[2-amino-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphenyl-4-yl]propano ate (prepared in Example 58d) and 71 μl_ (0.99 mmol, 1.4 eq) of 4-fluorobenzaldehyde in 4 ml of methanol in the presence of 59 mg (1.4 mmol, 2 eq) of sodium cyanoborohydride, 207.1 mg of methyl 3-[2-(4-fluorobenzylamino)-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphe nyl-4- yl]propanoate are obtained in the form of a colourless oil. Yield = 83%

b. 3-[2-(4-Fluorobenzylamino)-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphe nyl-4-yl1propanoic acid hydrochloride In a manner similar to that of Example (52d), by reaction of 207 mg (0.38 mmol, 1 eq) of methyl 3-[2-(4-fluorobenzylamino)-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)biphe nyl-4- yl]propanoate and 0.78 ml_ (0.78 mmol, 2 eq) of 1N lithium hydroxide solution in 4 ml of tetrahydrofuran, 154 mg of 3-[2-(4-fluorobenzylamino)-3'-(3-heptyl-1-methylureido)- biphenyl-4-yl]propanoic acid hydrochloride are obtained in the form of a white powder. Crude yield = 73%

1H NMR (CD^OD. 400 MHz) : 0.80 (t, 3H); 1.14-1.20 (m, 8H); 1.39 (m, 2H); 2.59 (m, 2H); 3.02 (m, 2H); 3.06 (m, 2H) ; 3.20 (s, 3H); 4.24 (s, 2H); 6.91 (m, 1 H); 7.18-7.29 (m, 8H); 7.41 (t, 1 H); 7.46 (m, 1 H). EXAMPLE 63 - CROSS-CURVE PPAR TRAN SACTIVATI O N TESTS The activation of PPAR receptors with an agonist (activator) in HeLN cells leads to the expression of a reporter gene, luciferase, which, in the presence of a substrate, generates light. The modulation of the PPAR receptors is measured by quantifying the luminescence produced after incubating the cells in the presence of a reference agonist. The ligands displace the agonist from its site. The measurement of the activity is performed by quantifying the light produced. This measurement makes it possible to determine the modulatory activity of the compounds according to the invention by determining the constant that represents the affinity of the molecule for the PPAR receptor. Since this value can fluctuate depending on the basal activity and the expression of the receptor, it is referred to as Kd apparent (KdApp in nM). To determine this constant, "cross curves" of the test product against a reference agonist are produced in a 96-well plate: 10 concentrations of the test product plus a concentration 0 are arranged in a line, and 7 concentrations of the agonist plus a concentration 0 are arranged in a column. This represents 88 measurement points for 1 product and 1 receptor. The remaining 8 wells are used for repeatability controls. In each well, the cells are in contact with a concentration of the test product and a concentration of the reference agonist, 2-(4-{2-[3-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-1- heptylureido]ethyl}phenylsulfanyl)-2-methylpropionic acid for PPARα, {2-methyl-4-[4- methyl-2-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)thiazol-5-ylmethylsulfanyl ]phenoxy}acetic acid for PPARδ and 5-{4-[2-(methylpyrid-2-ylamino)ethoxy]benzyl}thiazolidine-2, 4-dione for PPARγ. Measurements are also taken for total agonist controls with the same products. The HeLN cell lines used are stable transfectants containing the plasmids ERE-βGlob-Luc-SV-Neo (reporter gene) and PPAR (α, δ, γ) Gal-hPPAR. These cells are inoculated into 96-well plates at a rate of 10 000 cells per well in 100 μl of DMEM medium without phenol red and supplemented with 10% of defatted calf serum. The plates are then incubated at 37°C and 7% CO2 for 16 hours. The various dilutions of the test products and of the reference ligand are added at a rate of 5 μl per well. The plates are then incubated for 18 hours at 37°C and 7% CO2. The culture medium is removed by turning over and 100 μl of a 1 :1 PBS/luciferin mixture are added to each well. After 5 minutes, the plates are read by the luminescence detector. These cross curves make it possible to determine the AC50 values (concentration at which 50% activation is observed) of the reference ligand at various concentrations of test product. These AC50 values are used to calculate the Schild regression by plotting a straight line corresponding to the Schild equation ("quantitation in receptor pharmacology" Terry P. Kenakin, Receptors and Channels, 2001, 7, 371-385), which allows the Kd app values (in nM) to be obtained.

Transactivation results:

n.a means not active ; nd means not determined

These results show the affinity of the compounds for the PPAR receptors and more particularly the specificity of the affinity of the compounds of the invention for the PPARγ subtype, compared with the affinity of the compounds for the PPARα subtype or for the PPARδ subtype. EXAMPLE 64 - RAT SEBOCYTE CULTURE TESTS

Sebocytes in culture obtained from rat preputial gland constitute a pertinent model for evaluating sebaceous function modulatory compounds as described by Rosenfield et al. (Mechanisms of androgen induction of sebocyte differentiation. Rosenfield R.L., Deplewski D., Kentsis A., Ciletti N., Dermatology. 1998;196(1 ):43-6). This model has especially been used to characterize PPAR compounds with potential in dermatology (Rat preputial sebocyte differentiation involves peroxisome proliferator- activated receptors. Rosenfield R. L., Kentsis A., Deplewski D., Ciletti N., J. Invest. Dermatol. 1999 Feb;112(2):226-32). These sebocytes have functional similarities close to those of human skin sebocytes (response to androgens and to antiandrogens, accumulation of specific sebum lipids, expression of specific markers of the sebaceous gland). The data resulting from this test are considered as pertinent of potential activity on the human sebaceous gland.

Protocol for culturing sebocytes obtained from rat preputial glands : The preputial glands are obtained from 10-week-old male rats. They are extracted under anaesthesia with isoflurane, before euthanasing the animals. The glands are then digested enzymatically with trypsin (0.25% trypsin + collagenase H 1.5 mg/ml/gland). The cells are cultured for 24 hours in 24-well plates (37°C, 5% CO2) in DMEM culture medium supplemented with various factors, especially fcetal calf serum (10%), glutamine (1%), a cocktail of antibiotics and antimycotic agents and insulin (5 μg/ml). The cells are then placed in Cellgro medium supplemented with various factors (Mediatech®) and the test compounds are then added in response doses (duplicate). After incubation for 5 days, 10 μl of radiolabeled (14C) acetate are added to the culture medium (0.2 μCi/μl, Amersham). The cells are incubated for 24 hours and then washed and recovered after digestion with trypsin. The radiolabeled lipids are then extracted using a methanol/dichloromethane mixture (1/2) and placed on a silica TLC plate (Merck®) using a loading robot. The lipids are then separated and quantified after revelation using a Phosphorimager (analysis by image analysis software). For each compound, the AC50 (concentration for which 50% of the effect of the compound is obtained) is determined. The results are expressed as nanomolar concentration for the following specific sebaceous gland lipids : Triglycerides and/or Cholesterol esters.

Results on sebocytes :

EXAMPLE 65 - COMPOSITIONS Various concrete formulations based on the compounds according to the invention are illustrated in this example.

A- ORAL ROUTE

(a) 0.2 g tablet Compound of Example 1 0.001 g Starch 0.114 g Dicalcium phosphate 0.020 g Silica 0.020 g Lactose 0.030 g Talc 0.01O g Magnesium stearate 0.005 g

(b) Drinkable suspension in 5 ml ampules Compound of Example 5 0.001 g Glycerol 0.500 g 70% sorbitol 0.500 g Sodium saccharinate 0.01O g Methyl parahydroxybenzoate 0.040 g Flavouring qs Purified water qs 5 ml

(c) 0.2 g tablet Compound of Example 2 0.050 g Lactose monohydrate 0.132 g - Crosspovidone 0.007 g - Povidone 0.005 g - Aerosil 200 0.004 g - Magnesium stearate 0.002g

(d) Drinkable suspension in 10 ml ampules - Compound of Example 4 0.200 g - Glycerol 1.000 g - 70% sorbitol 1.00O g - Sodium saccharinate 0.01O g - Methyl parahydroxybenzoate 0.080 g - Flavouring qs - Purified water qs 10 ml

PICAL ROUTE

(a) Ointment - Compound of Example 6 0.020 g - lsopropyl myristate 81.700 g - Fluid petroleum jelly oil 9.10O g - Silica ("Aerosil 200" sold by Degussa) 9.18O g

(b) Ointment - Compound of Example 2 0.300 g - White petroleum jelly codex qs 100 g

(c) Nonionic water-in-oil cream - Compound of Example 1 0.100 g - Mixture of emulsifying lanolin alcohols, waxes and oils ("Anhydrous Eucerin" sold by BDF) 39.900 g - Methyl parahydroxybenzoate 0.075 g - Propyl parahydroxybenzoate 0.075 g - Sterile demineralized water qs 100 g

(d) Lotion - Compound of Example 3 0.100 g - Polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) 69.900 g - 95% ethanol 30.000 g

(e) Hydrophobic ointment - Compound of Example 5 0.300 g - lsopropyl myristate 36.400 g - Silicone oil ("Rhodorsil 47 V 300" sold by Rhόne-Poulenc) 36.400 g - Beeswax 13.600 g - Silicone oil ("Abil 300.000 cSt" sold by Goldschmidt) qs 100 g

(f) Nonionic oil-in-water cream - Compound of Example 2 1.000 g - Cetyl alcohol 4.000 g - Glyceryl monostearate 2.50O g - PEG 50 stearate 2.500 g - Shea butter 9.200 g - Propylene glycol 2.000 g - Methyl parahydroxybenzoate 0.075 g - Propyl parahydroxybenzoate 0.075 g - Sterile demineralized water qs 100 g