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Title:
PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF $g(a)-OXOLACTAMS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/1999/033837
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A method for preparing a $g(a)-oxolactam comprising, reacting a corresponding $g(a)-diazolactam with an oxygen donor, in the presence of a transition metal catalyst, to yield the corresponding $g(a)-oxolactam.

Inventors:
BUYNAK JOHN D (US)
RAO AKIREDDY SRINIVASA (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US1998/027636
Publication Date:
July 08, 1999
Filing Date:
December 29, 1998
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
RES CORP TECHNOLOGIES INC (US)
BUYNAK JOHN D (US)
RAO AKIREDDY SRINIVASA (US)
International Classes:
C07D499/87; C07B61/00; C07D499/00; C07D499/86; C07D499/865; C07D499/897; C07D501/00; C07D501/04; (IPC1-7): C07D499/865; C07D501/04
Foreign References:
EP0367606A11990-05-09
EP0043546A21982-01-13
DE2708219A11977-09-01
Other References:
M.G. MARTIN ET AL.: "Epoxides as alkene protecting groups. A mild and efficient deoxygenation", TETRAHEDRON LETTERS, vol. 25, no. 3, 1984, OXFORD GB, pages 251 - 254, XP002097395
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Viksnins, Ann S. (Lundberg Woessner & Kluth P.O. Box 2938 Minneapolis, MN, US)
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Claims:
What is claimed is:
1. A method for preparing an aoxolactam comprising reacting a corresponding adiazolactam with an oxygen donor, in the presence of a transition metal catalyst, to yield the aoxolactam.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the oxygen donor is an epoxide.
3. The method of claim 2, wherein the epoxide is ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, 1buylene oxide, 2buylene oxide, isobutylene oxide, 1pentene oxide, 2 pentene oxide 1isopentene oxide, 2isopentene oxide, 3isopentene oxide, 1 hexene oxide, 2hexene oxide, 3hexene oxide, cyclopentene oxide, cyclohexene oxide, cycloheptene oxide, or cyclooctene oxide.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein the catalyst comprises rhodium (II), copper (I), copper (II), rhenium (V), or rhenium (VII).
5. The method of claim 1, wherein the catalyst comprises rhodium (II).
6. The method of claim 5, wherein the catalyst is Rh2 (OAc) 4, rhodium octanoate dimer, or rhodium pivalate dimer.
7. The method of claim 1 wherein the catalyst comprises rhenium (V) or rhenium (VII).
8. The method of claim 1 wherein the catalyst comprises MeReO3 or ReOCl3 (PPh3) 2.
9. The method of claim 1 wherein the aoxolactam is a aoxoßlactam, aoxoylactam, or an aoxo8lactam.
10. The method of claim 1 wherein the aoxolactam is a aoxoplactam.
11. A method for preparing an aoxoplactam comprising reacting a corresponding adiazoßlactam with an epoxide in the presence of a catalyst comprising rhodium (II), copper (I), copper (II), rhenium (VII), or rhenium (V).
12. The method of claim 11 wherein the catalyst comprises rhodium (II).
13. The method of claim 1, wherein the aoxolactam is a compound of formula (III): wherein n is 0, 1, or 2; Rg is carboxy, chloro, fluoro, trifluoromethyl, formyl, orCH2M ; M is hydrogen; halo; hydroxy; (C1C10)alkoxy; aryloxy; aryl (C1C10) alkoxy; mercapto; mercapto substituted with (C1C10)alkyl, aryl, or aryl (C,C, o) alkyl; (C2C10)alkanoylthio; (C2Clo)alkanoyloxy; (C2Clo)carbamoyloxy; (C2C10)alkanoyloxy or (C2Clo) carbamoyloxy, substituted with one or more carboxy, aminophenyl, phenyl, (C,C6) alkyl, chloro, bromo or fluoro; or N (R) 2, wherein each R is independently selected from hydrogen, (C1C10) alkyl, or (CCl0) alkanoyl; and Rg is hydrogen, (C1C10)alkyl, (C3C8) cycloalkyl, C3C8) cycloalkyl (C, C, 0) alkyl, aryl, aryl (C,C, o) alkyl, or diaryl (C,C, o) alkyl; or a salt thereof.
14. The method of claim 13 wherein R8 is acetoxymethyl.
15. The method of claim 1, wherein the aoxolactam is a compound of formula (IV): wherein (C3C10)alkyl,R10is (C2C10)alkynyl, (C1C10)alkanoyl, (C3C8) cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aryl (C,C, 0) alkyl, heteroaryl (C1C10) alkyl, orCH2Ra, wherein Ra is halo, cyano, cyanato,ORb, NRcRd, azido, SRe, or (C3C8) cycloalkyl; R"is hydrogen, (C1C10) alkyl, (C3C8) cycloalkyl, (C2C10) alkenyl, (C2C10) alkynyl, aryl, or heteroaryl; m is 0,1, or 2; Rb is hydrogen, (C1C10)alkyl, (C3C8)cycloalkyl, (C2C10) alkenyl, (C2C10)alkynyl, C(=O) N (Rg) 2, aryl, heteroaryl, arylcarbonyl, heteroarylcarbonyl, or (C1C10) alkanoyl, wherein each Rg is independently hydrogen, (C1C10)alkyl, aryl, benzyl, phenethyl, or heteroaryl; each Rc or Rd is independently hydrogen, (C1C10) alkyl, (C3 C8) cycloalkyl, (C2C, o) alkenyl, (C2Clo) alkynyl, (C1C10)alkanoyl, C (=O) N (Rh) 2, aryl, benzyl, phenethyl, heteroaryl oxazolidinyl, isoxazolidinyl, or morpholinyl; wherein each Rh is independently hydrogen, (CICIO) alkyl, aryl, benzyl, phenethyl, or heteroaryl; or Rc and Rd together with the nitrogen to which they are attached are triazolyl, imidazolyl, oxazolidinyl, isoxazolidinyl, pyrrolyl, morpholino, piperidino, pyrrolidino, pyrazolyl, indolyl, or tetrazolyl; and Re is hydrogen, (C,C, o) alkyl, (C3C8)cycloalkyl, (C2C10)alkenyl, (C2Clo) alkynyl, cyano, aryl, benzyl, phenethyl, heteroaryl, oxazolidinyl, isoxazolidinyl, or morpholinyl; wherein any (ClCl0) alkyl, (C3C8) cycloalkyl, (C2C10)alkenyl, (C2C10)alkynyl, (C1C10) alkanoyl, aryl, benzyl, phenethyl, heteroaryl, arylcarbonyl, heteroarylcarbonyl, oxazolidinyl, isoxazolidinyl, or morpholinyl of R10, R", Ra Re, or RgR,, may optionally be substituted with 1,2, or 3 Z; and each Z is independently halo, nitro, cyano, hydroxy, (C1C10) alkyl, (C3C8) cycloalkyl, (CIC, o) alkoxy, (ClC10) alkanoyl, (C2Clo) alkanoyloxy, trifluoromethyl, aryl, aryloxy, heteroaryl, orSRf, wherein Rf is hydrogen, (C, C, o) alkyl, (C3C8) cycloalkyl, aryl, benzyl, phenethyl, or heteroaryl; and further wherein any aryl, aryloxy, heteroaryl, benzyl, or phenethyl of Z may optionally be substituted with 1,2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halo, nitro, cyano, hydroxy, (C1C10)alkoxy,(C1C10)alkanoyl,(C2(C1C10)alkyl,(C3C8)cycloalky, Cl0) alkanoyloxy, benzyloxy, 4methoxybenzyloxy, and trifluoromethyl.
16. The method of claim 15 wherein Rlo is acetoxymethyl.
17. The method of claim 1 further comprising, first preparing the a diazolactam, by diazotizing a corresponding aaminolactam.
18. The method of claim 17 wherein the aaminolactam is diazotized by treatment with isopropyl or isoamyl nitrite in the presence of an acid catalyst.
19. The method of claim 1 wherein the αoxoßlactam is benzhydryl 6 oxopenicillanate, benzhydryl 7oxocephalosporanate, or benzhydryl 7oxo3' (desacetoxy) cephalosporanate.
Description:
PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF α-OXOLACTAMS Background of the Invention a-Oxolactams are useful synthons for preparing a variety of natural products and biologically active compounds (for example see A. Hisham Tetrahedron, 1997,53, no. 5,1813-1822). They can also be used to prepare synthetically useful oc-substituted-X-amino carboxilic acids, and to prepare a variety of isoindigoide dyes (G. Kollenz, et al. Tetrahedron, 1996,52, no. 15, 5427-5440). a-Oxo-p-lactams, such as 6-oxopenams, 7-oxocephems and 6- oxopenems, are also useful for preparing a-alkylidene-p-lactams and oc- vinylidene-ß-lactams, both important classes of ß-lactamase inhibitors (U. S.

Patent Number 5,597,817, issued January 29,1997 ("817"); U. S. Patent Number 5,629,306, issued May 13,1997 ("306"); Buynak et al., J. Org. Chem., 1993,58, 1325.; Buynak et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., Buynak et al., J.

Med. Chem., Buynak et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 1995,5, 1513; Arisawa et al., J. Antibiot., Brenner et al., Biochemistry, 1984,23,5839; Chen et al., Tetrahedron Lett., 1986,27,3449; Bennet et al., J.

Antibiot., 1991,44,969.

α-Oxo-ß-lactams have also been used to prepare cytotoxic analogs of paclitaxel (J. Kant et al. Tetrahedron Letters, 1996,37,6495-6498); and to prepare a-aminoacid N-carboxy anhydrides and their corresponding a-amino acid derivatives (C. Palomo J. Org. Chem., 1994,59,3123-3130).

J. M. van der Veen et al. J. Org. Chem., disclose the preparation of specific o-oxo-ß-lactams by hydrolysis of the corresponding a- chloro-oc-phenylthio-ß-lactams, which are prepared by the treatment of a- phenylthio-p-lactams with N-chlorosuccinimide. C. Palomo et al. J. Org. Chem, disclose the preparation of specific oc-oxo-ß-lactams by oxidation of the corresponding α-hydroxy-ß-lactams using Me2SBr2-NEt3, CrO3- pyridine, or DMSO-P205. U. S. Patents'817 and'306 disclose the preparation of specific a-oxo-p-lactams by treatment of the corresponding α-amino-ß-lactams

with trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride and triethylamine, followed by aqueous acid.

Existing methods for preparing a-oxolactams are limited because they require the use of toxic or corrosive reagents, produce hazardous side products, require starting materials that are difficult or expensive to prepare, or yield products that can not be easily isolated or purified. Additionally, existing methods can not conveniently be preformed to yield products on a commercially useful (e. g. kilogram) scale. Therefore, there is a need for improved methods for preparing a-oxolactams, which overcome one or more of the limitations of the existing synthetic methods.

Summary of the Invention The present invention provides a method comprising reacting an o-diazolactam with an oxygen donor, in the presence of a transition metal catalyst to yield the corresponding a-oxolactam. The method utilizes non-toxic reagents, does not produce hazardous side products, and yields a product that can be easily isolated. Additionally, the method is mild and selective, and allows for the preparation of the a-oxolactam functionality in the presence of a wide variety of other functional groups.

The method may also further comprise the step of preparing the a-diazolactam from a corresponding a-aminolactam by diazotization.

Brief Description of the Figures Figure 1 shows the oc-oxo-ß-lactams prepared in Example 1, Example 2, and Example 3.

Detailed Description of the Invention Oxygen Donors The method of the instant invention may be practiced using any suitable oxygen donor. Preferably, the oxygen donor is an epoxide. For example, the method may be carried out using an epoxide of formula (I):

wherein a) RI, R2, R3, and R4 are each independently hydrogen, or (Cl-Cl0) alkyl; or b) R, and R3, or R, and R2, together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached form a five to eight membered carbocyclic ring; or c) R2 and R4, or R3 and R4, together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached form a five to eight membered carbocyclic ring; or d) any possible combination of a), b), and c).

The nature of the organic epoxide is not critical to the practice of the present method, so long as it is compatible with the reactants to which it is exposed. Preferably, the epoxide is ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, 1-butylene oxide, 2-butylene oxide, isobutylene oxide, 1-pentene oxide, 2-pentene oxide, 1- isopentene oxide, 2-isopentene oxide, 3-isopentene oxide, 1-hexene oxide, 2- hexene oxide, 3-hexene oxide, cyclopentene oxide, cyclohexene oxide, cycloheptene oxide, or cyclooctene oxide.

The method may also be carried out using the epoxides described in M. G.

Martin and B. Ganem, Tetrahedron Letters, or using epoxides similar thereto.

Transition Metal Catalyse The invention may be practiced using any suitable transition metal catalyst, such as an inorganic or organic salt of a group VIII, VIIB, IB, or IIB metal. The catalyst may conveniently comprise rhodium (II), rhenium (V), rhenium (VII), copper (I), or copper (II).

Suitable catalysts comprising copper are well known in the art and include the copper catalysts disclosed to be useful for carrying out intramolecular insertion reactions by S. D. Burke, and P. A. Grieco, Org. React. 26,361-474 (1979). Specific copper catalysts include copper (II) acetylacetonate, copper (I) iodide, copper (I) trifluoromethanesulfonate, copper (II) trifluoromethanesulfonate, copper (II) sulfate, copper (I) oxide, copper (II) oxide, copper powder, copper (I) bromide, and copper (I) chloride.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the catalyst comprises rhodium (II). More preferably, the catalyst comprises a binuclear rhodium (II)

carboxylate salt, for example, Rh2 (OAc) 4, rhodium octanoate dimer, or rhodium pivalate dimer.

In another preferred embodiment of the invention, the catalyst comprises rhenium (V) or rhenium (VII). More preferably, the catalyst comprises MeReO3 or ReOCl3 (PPh3) 2 (B. E. Ledford and E. M. Carreira Tetrahedron Letters, 1997, 38,8125-8128). a-Oxolactams Because of the mild reaction conditions involved, the method of the invention is generally useful for preparing a-oxolactams (e. g. cc-oxo-ß-lactams, a-oxo-y-lactams and oc-oxo-o-lactams).

Specifically, the method of the invention is useful for preparing a-oxo-p-lactams of formula II: wherein R5, R6 and R7, either alone or in any combination, are organic moieties compatible with the reaction conditions of the method of the invention.

The method of the invention is also specifically useful for preparing an a-oxo-p-lactam of formula (II) wherein R5, R6 and R7 are each individually hydrogen, (C1-C10) alkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, or any combination thereof.

The method of the invention is also specifically useful for preparing an a-oxo-p-lactam of formula II wherein R5, R6 and R7 together with the α-oxo-ß- lactam ring to which they are attached, form an a-oxopenam, a-oxopenem, a- oxocarbapenem, a-oxocephem, a-oxocarbacephem or a- (oxo) oxacephem ring system, or an intermediate useful (or subsequently used) for preparing such a ring system. Compounds comprising such a ring system can be used for preparing antibiotics or p-lactamase inhibitors, such as those disclosed in U. S.

Patents'817 and'306 cited hereinabove, and those disclosed by I. Heinze-Krauss et al. J. Med. Chem. In particular, the method is useful for

preparing 6-oxopenams, 7-oxocephems and 6-oxopenems, because it allows for the introduction of the a-oxo-substituent in the presence of the reactive sulfide sulfur of these ring systems.

The method of the invention is also specifically useful for preparing an a-oxo-p-lactam intermediate of formula II wherein R5 is phenyl, R6 is hydrogen and R7 is tert-butyl-dimethylsilyl. This compound is a useful intermediate for preparing taxol analogs (J. Kant Tetrahedron Letters, 1996,37,6495-6498).

The method of the invention is also specifically useful for preparing a-oxo-p-lactam intermediates of formula II wherein R5 is hydrogen, phenyl, methyl, (tert-butyldiphenylsilyloxy) methyl, (1-tert-butoxycarbonylamino) ethyl, or a- (tert-butyl-dimethylsilyloxy) benzyl; R6 is hydrogen; and R7 is 4- methoxyphenyl or benzyl. These compounds are useful for preparing a- aminoacid N-carboxy anhydrides and their corresponding a-amino acid derivatives (C. Palomo J. Org. Chem., 1994,59,3123-3130).

The method of the invention is also specifically useful for preparing a- oxo-p-lactam intermediates of formula II wherein R5 is phenyl, optionally substituted with one or two substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, (Cl-C4) alkyl, (C,-C3) alkoxy, hydroxyl, and cyano; R6 is hydrogen; and R7 is (C,-C4) alkyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, 1-naphthylmethyl, 1- phenethyl, 1-carboxy-2-phenethyl, phenyl, benzyl, or 3-[(C,-C4) alkoxycarbonyl]- l-[(C-C4)[(C-C4) alkoxy-carbonyl] propyl, wherein any phenyl or benzyl may optionally be substituted on the phenyl ring with one or two substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, (Cl-C4) alkyl, (Cl-C3) alkoxy, dimethylamino, carboxy, dichloroacetyl and trifluoromethyl. These compounds are useful for preparing 2-azetidinone blood aggregation inhibitors (Y.

Kawashima Japanese Patent Application Publication Number JP 01135763; and European Patent Application Publication Number 264231).

The method of the invention is also specifically useful for preparing an oc-oxo-ß-lactam of formula (II) wherein R5 and R6 are each hydrogen; and R7 is phenyl. This compound is a useful intermediate for preparing antibiotics (I.

Heinze-Krauss et al. J. Med. Chem. 1996,39,1864-1871).

The method of the invention is also specifically useful for preparing an a-oxo-p-lactam of formula (II) wherein R5 is phenyl, 4-methoxyphenyl, 2-

bromophenyl, or styryl; R6 is hydrogen; and R7 is 4-methoxyphenyl. These compounds are useful for preparing a-allyl-p-lactams which can be used to prepare a variety of heterocyclic compounds including pyrrolidine and piperidine alkaloids (M. Jayaranam et al. Tetrahedron Letters, A. K.

Bose et al. Tetrahedron Letters, 1986,27,5955).

The method of the invention may also specifically be useful for preparing the aldose reductase inhibitor 1-benzyl-3-hydroxy-2 (5H)-oxopyrrole-4- carboxylate as well as other biologically active compounds and intermediates disclosed by B. L. Mylari, J. Med. Chem., 1991,34,1011-1018.

Preferrably, the a-oxo-ß-lactam prepared by the method of the invention is a compound of formula (III): wherein nis0, 1, or2; R8 is hydrogen, carboxy, chloro, fluoro, trifluoromethyl, formyl, or- CH2M; M is hydrogen; halo; hydroxy; (C1-C10)alkoxy; aryloxy; aryl (C,-C, o) alkoxy; mercapto; mercapto substituted with (Cl-Cl0) alkyl, aryl, or aryl (C,-C, 0) alkyl; (C2-C10)alkanoylthio; (C2-C, o)alkanoyloxy;

(C2-C10)carbamoyloxy; (C2-C10) alkanoyloxy or (C2-Clo) carbamoyloxy, substituted with one or more carboxy, aminophenyl, phenyl, (Cl-C6) alkyl, chloro, bromo or fluoro; or N (R) 2, wherein each R is independently selected from hydrogen, (C1-C10)alkyl, or (Cl-Cl0) alkanoyl; and Rg is hydrogen, (C,-C, o) alkyl, (C3-C8) cycloalkyl, C3-C8)cycloalkyl(C1- C10) alkyl, aryl, aryl (C,-C, 0) alkyl, or diaryl (C1-C10)alkyl ; or a salt thereof.

In another preferred embodiment of the invention, the a-oxo-p-lactam prepared by the method of the invention is a compound of formula (IV): wherein R'° is (C3-C10)alkyl, (C2-C10) alkenyl, (C2-Clo) alkynyl, (C,-C, o) alkanoyl, (C3-C8) cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aryl (CI-Cl0) alkyl, heteroaryl (CI-Clo) alkyl, or-CH2Ra, wherein Rais halo, cyano, cyanato,-ORb, -SRe,or(C3-C8)cycloalkyl;-NRcRd,azido, R11R11is hydrogen, (C2-C10)alkenyl,(C3-C8)cycloalkyl, (C2-C10)alkynyl, aryl, or heteroaryl; m is 0,1, or 2; Rb is hydrogen, (C2-C10)alkenyl,(C3-C8)cycloalkyl, (C2-C, o) alkynyl,-C (=O) N (Rg) 2, aryl, heteroaryl, arylcarbonyl, heteroarylcarbonyl, or (C1-C10) alkanoyl, wherein each Rg is independently hydrogen, (C1-C10) alkyl, aryl, benzyl, phenethyl, or heteroaryl; each Rc or Rd is independently hydrogen, (C1-C10) alkyl, (C3- C8) cycloalkyl, (C2-C10) alkenyl, (C2-C10) alkynyl, (C,-C, o) alkanoyl, -C (=O) N (Rh) 2, aryl, benzyl, phenethyl, heteroaryl oxazolidinyl, isoxazolidinyl,

or morpholinyl; wherein each Rh is independently hydrogen, (C1-C10)alkyl, aryl, benzyl, phenethyl, or heteroaryl; or Rc and Rd together with the nitrogen to which they are attached are triazolyl, imidazolyl, oxazolidinyl, isoxazolidinyl, pyrrolyl, morpholino, piperidino, pyrrolidino, pyrazolyl, indolyl, or tetrazolyl; and Reis hydrogen, (C,-C, 0) alkyl, (C3-C8) cycloalkyl, (C2-C, o) alkenyl, (C2-CI0) alkynyl, cyano, aryl, benzyl, phenethyl, heteroaryl, oxazolidinyl, isoxazolidinyl, or morpholinyl; wherein any (C,-C, o) alkyl, (C3-Cg) cycloalkyl, (C2-C10)alkenyl, (C2-C10) alkynyl, (C,-C, 0) alkanoyl, aryl, benzyl, phenethyl, heteroaryl, arylcarbonyl, heteroarylcarbonyl, oxazolidinyl, isoxazolidinyl, or morpholinyl of R'°, R", Ra-Re, or Rg-Rh, may optionally be substituted with 1,2, or 3 Z; and each Z is independently halo, nitro, cyano, hydroxy, (C,-C, 0) alkyl, (C3-C8) cycloalkyl, (C,-Cl0) alkoxy, (C,-C, 0) alkanoyl, (C2-C10)alkanoyloxy, trifluoromethyl, aryl, aryloxy, heteroaryl, or-SRf, wherein Rf is hydrogen, (C,- C, o) alkyl, (C3-C8) cycloalkyl, aryl, benzyl, phenethyl, or heteroaryl; and further wherein any aryl, aryloxy, heteroaryl, benzyl, or phenethyl of Z may optionally be substituted with 1,2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halo, nitro, cyano, hydroxy, <BR> <BR> <BR> <BR> (C-CI0) alkyl, (C3-C8) cycloalkyl, (C1-C10)alkoxy, (C1-C10)alkanoyl, (C2-<BR> <BR> <BR> <BR> <BR> <BR> C, o) alkanoyloxy, benzyloxy, 4-methoxybenzyloxy, and trifluoromethyl; or a salt thereof.

The invention also provides novel compounds of formulae III and IV.

The following definitions apply herein unless otherwise described: halo is fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo. Alkyl, alkoxy, alkenyl, alkynyl etc. denote both straight and branched groups, but reference to an individual radical such as "propyl"embraces only the straight chain radical, a branched chain isomer such as"isopropyl"being specifically referred to. Aryl denotes a phenyl radical or an ortho-fused bicyclic carbocyclic radical having about nine to ten ring atoms in which at least one ring is aromatic. Heteroaryl encompasses a radical attached via a ring carbon of a monocyclic aromatic ring containing five or six ring atoms consisting of carbon and one to four heteroatoms each selected from the group consisting of non-peroxide oxygen, sulfur, and N (X) wherein X is absent or is H, O, (Cl-C4) alkyl, phenyl or benzyl, as well as a radical of an ortho-fused bicyclic

heterocycle of about eight to ten ring atoms derived therefrom, particularly a benz-derivative or one derived by fusing a propylene, trimethylene, or tetramethylene diradical thereto.

It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that a-oxolactams having one or more chiral centers may exist in and be prepared in optically active and racemic forms. The present invention provides a method which is generally useful for preparing any racemic, optically-active, or stereoisomeric form of a given a-oxolactam.

Specifically, (C,-C, o) alkyl can be methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, <BR> <BR> <BR> <BR> iso-butyl, sec-butyl, pentyl, 3-pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl or decyl; (C3-<BR> <BR> <BR> <BR> <BR> <BR> Cg) cycloalkyl can be cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl, or cyclooctyl; (C,-C, o) alkoxy can be methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, isopropoxy, butoxy, iso-butoxy, sec-butoxy, pentoxy, 3-pentoxy, hexyloxy, heptyloxy, octyloxy, nonyloxy, or decyloxy; (C2-C, 0) alkenyl can be vinyl, allyl, 1-propenyl, 2-propenyl, 1-butenyl, 2-butenyl, 3-butenyl, 1,-pentenyl, 2-pentenyl, 3-pentenyl, 4-pentenyl, 1-hexenyl, 2-hexenyl, 3-hexenyl, 4-hexenyl, 5-hexenyl, 1-heptenyl, 2-heptenyl, 3-heptenyl, 4-heptenyl, 5-heptenyl, 6-heptenyl, 1- octenyl, 2-octenyl, 3-octenyl, 4-octenyl, 5-octenyl, 6-octenyl, 7-octenyl, 1- nonenyl, 2-nonenyl, 3-nonenyl, 4-nonenyl, 5-nonenyl, 6-nonenyl, 7-nonenyl, 8- nonenyl, 1-decenyl, 2-decenyl, 3-decenyl, 4-decenyl, 5-decenyl, 6-decenyl, 7- decenyl, 8-decenyl, or 9-decenyl; (C2-C, 0) alkynyl can be ethynyl, 1-propynyl, 2- propynyl, 1-butynyl, 2-butynyl, 3-butynyl, 1-pentynyl, 2-pentynyl, 3-pentynyl, 4-pentynyl, 1-hexynyl, 2-hexynyl, 3-hexynyl, 4-hexynyl, 5-hexynyl, 1-heptynyl, 2-heptynyl, 3-heptynyl, 4-heptynyl, 5-heptynyl, 6-heptynyl, 1-octynyl, 2- octynyl, 3-octynyl, 4-octynyl, 5-octynyl, 6-octynyl, 7-octynyl, 1-nonylyl, 2- nonynyl, 3-nonynyl, 4-nonynyl, 5-nonynyl, 6-nonynyl, 7-nonynyl, 8-nonynyl, 1- decynyl, 2-decynyl, 3-decynyl, 4-decynyl, 5-decynyl, 6-decynyl, 7-decynyl, 8- decynyl, or 9-decynyl; (Cl-Cl0) alkanoyl can be acetyl, propanoyl, butanoyl, isobutanoyl, pentanoyl, hexanoyl, heptanoyl, octanoyl, nonanoyl, or decanoyl; and (C2-CI0) alkanoyloxy can be acetoxy, propanoyloxy, butanoyloxy, isobutanoyloxy, pentanoyloxy, hexanoyloxy, heptanoyloxy, octanoyloxy, nonanoyloxy, or decanoyloxy. Likewise, aryl can be phenyl, indenyl, or naphthyl. Heteroaryl can be furyl, imidazolyl, triazolyl, triazinyl, oxazoyl,

isoxazoyl, thiazolyl, isothiazoyl, pyrazolyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazinyl, tetrazolyl, pyridyl, (or its N-oxide), thienyl, pyrimidinyl (or its N-oxide), indolyl, isoquinolyl (or its N-oxide), thiadiazolyl, thiatriazolyl, oxadiazolyl, or quinolyl (or its N-oxide).

Specific and preferred values given herein for radicals, substituents, and ranges, are for illustration only and they do not exclude other defined values or other values within defined ranges for the radicals and substituents.

StartingMatenals The requisite a-diazolactam starting materials can be prepared from a corresponding a-aminolactams by diazotization using techniques which are well known to the art. The diazotization of an a-amino-p-lactam 1, is illustrated in Scheme I.

Scheme I Treatment of amine 1 with isopropyl or isoamyl nitrite (R-ONO) in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid gives a-diazo-ß-lactam 2. Suitable conditions for diazotizing amines are well known in the art; see for example J. March Advanced Organic Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, 4ed., 1992; or H. O. House Modern Synthetic Reactions, W. A. Benjamin, Inc., 2ed., 1972. Diazo compound 2 can be treated with an epoxide in the presence of a transition metal catalyst to yield a-oxo-ß-lactam 3 and an olefin 4.

Salts In cases where the a-oxolactam product (such as for example a compound of formula III or IV) is sufficiently basic or acidic to form a stable acid or base salt, the invention may further comprise the preparation of such a salt. Examples of acceptable salts are organic acid addition salts formed with

acids which form an acceptable anion, for example, tosylate, methanesulfonate, acetate, citrate, malonate, tartarate, succinate, benzoate, ascorbate, a- ketoglutarate, and a-glycerophosphate. Suitable inorganic salts may also be formed, including hydrochloride, sulfate, nitrate, bicarbonate, and carbonate salts.

Salts may be obtained using standard procedures well known in the art, for example by reacting a sufficiently basic compound such as an amine with a suitable acid affording an acceptable anion. Alkali metal (for example, sodium, potassium or lithium) or alkaline earth metal (for example calcium) salts of carboxylic acids can also be made.

The invention provides a method for the synthesis of an a-oxolactam. It allows for the selective oxidation of an a-diazolactam to the corresponding a-oxolactam in the presence of other easily oxidizable groups. The invention also provides a method that can conveniently and cost effectively yield a- oxolactams on a commercial scale.

The invention will now be illustrated by the following non-limiting Examples.

EXAMPLE 1 Benzhydryl 6-oxopenicillanate To a solution of benzhydryl 6-aminopenicillanate (2 g, 5.23 mmol) in ethyl acetate (20 mL) were added isopropyl nitrite (1.8 mL, 7.85 mmol, 40 % solution in CH2C12) and trifluoroacetic acid (18 mg, 0.16 mmol) and the reaction was allowed to stir for 1 hour at room temperature. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure and redissolved in benzene (15 mL). To this solution was added propylene oxide (30 g, 0.52 mol) followed by rhodium octanoate dimer (5 mg) and the reaction was stirred for 15 minutes (until evolution of nitrogen ceases). Volatiles were removed to yield the title compound (5, Figure 1) (2 g, quantitative, 95% pure). IR (CHC13): 1820,1775, 1730 cm~l;'H NMR (CDC13): 8 7.38 (10 H, bs), 7.00 (1H, s), 5.83 (1 H, s), 4.91 (1 H, s), 1.56 (3 H, s), 1.36 (3 H, s); 13C NMR (CDC13): 8 190.4 (s), 168.0 (s),

165.8 (s), 139.1 (s), 138.6 (s), 128.5,128.2,127.6,127.4,127.1,126.8,126.5, 78.8 (d), 76.8 (d), 71.5 (d), 64.2 (s), 34.1 (q), 24.7 (q).

The starting material, benzhydryl 6-aminopenicillanate, can be readily prepared from 6-aminopenicillinic acid, which is available from Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc. Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA.

EXAMPLE 2 Benzhydryl 7-oxocephalosporanate To a solution of benzhydryl 7-aminocephalosporanate (0.5 g, 1.146 mmol) in ethyl acetate (5 mL) were added isopropyl nitrite (0.38 mL, 1.71 mmol, 40 % solution in CH2Cl2) and trifluoroacetic acid (6.5 mg, 0.05 mmol) and the reaction was allowed to stir for 1 hour at room temperature. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure and redissolved in benzene (5 mL). To this solution was added propylene oxide (6.7 g, 0.114 mol) followed by rhodium octanoate dimer (2 mg) and the reaction was stirred for 15 minutes (until evolution of nitrogen ceases). Volatiles were removed to produce the title compound (6, Figure 1) (0.5 g, quantitative, 90% pure). IR (CHCl3) 3005,1830, 1790,1740 cm~';'H NMR (CDCl3) 6 7.39 (10 H, m), 7.05 (1 H, s), 5.32 (1 H, s), 5.07 (1 H, d, A of ABq, J = 13.9 Hz), 4.85 (1 H, d, B of ABq, J = 14.0 Hz), 3.64 (1 H, d, A of ABq, J = 18.5 Hz), 3.44 (1 H, d, B of ABq, J = 18.6 Hz), 2.05 (3 H, s);"C NMR (CDCl3) 8 188.4 (s), 170.3 (s), 160.1 (s), 158.7 (s), 138.8 (s), 138.6 (s), 128.4,128.2,128.1,127.7,126.9,126.2,80.1 (d), 65.8 (d), 62.6 (t), 27.7 (t), 20.4 (q).

The starting material benzhydryl 7-aminocephalosporanate can be readily prepared from 7-aminocephalosporanic acid, which is available from Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc. Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA.

EXAMPLE 3 Benzhydryl 7-oxo-3'-(desacetoxy) cephalosporanate To a solution of benzhydryl 7-amino-3'-desacetoxycephalosporanate (15 g, 39.47 mmol) in ethyl acetate (300 mL) were added isopropyl nitrite (13.26 mL, 59.21 mmol, 40 % solution in CH2C12) and trifluoroacetic acid (0.134 g, 1.184 mmol) and the reaction was stirred for 1 hour at room temperature, concentrated under reduced pressure, and redissolved in benzene (75 mL).

Propylene oxide (150 mL) oxide was added, followed by rhodium octanoate

dimer (100 mg) and the reacrion was stirred for 15 minutes (until evolution of nitrogen gas ceased). Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure to give the title compound in quantitative yield (15 g, >90% purity);'H NMR (CDCl3) 5 7.97-7.25 (m, 10H), 6.99 (s, 1H), 5.29 (s, 1H), 3.47 (d, J=17.86 Hz, 1H), 3.29 (d, J=17.86 Hz, 1H), 2.18 (s, 3H).

The starting material benzhydryl 7-amino-3'-desacetoxycephalosporanate can be readily prepared from 7-amino-3'-desacetoxycephalosporanic acid, which is available from Gist-brocades BV, a division of Gist-brocades international, Holland.

All publications, patents, and patent documents are incorporated by reference herein, as though individually incorporated by reference. The invention has been described with reference to various specific and preferred embodiments and techniques. However, it should be understood that many variations and modifications may be made while remaining within the spirit and scope of the invention.