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Title:
PERSONALIZED CANCER VACCINES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/191494
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The invention provides for a recombinant adenoviral vector comprising a recombinant oncolytic adenovirus which has: (1) a modified transcription regulatory sequence wherein the adenoviral vector is transcriptionally active in cancer cells and/or hyperproliferative cells and transcriptionally attenuated in normal cells, and (2) a transgene encoding one or more cancer antigens that are specific to a subject. The invention further provides a method of producing said recombinant adenoviral vector. The recombinant oncolytic adenoviral vector described above is used in methods of stimulating a heightened immune response against a cancer antigen in a subject or a method of treating cancer in a subject.

Inventors:
LARSON CHRISTOPHER (US)
ORONSKY BRYAN T (US)
REID TONY R (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2019/024684
Publication Date:
October 03, 2019
Filing Date:
March 28, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
EPICENTRX INC (US)
International Classes:
A61K39/00; A61K35/761; A61P35/00; C12N7/00; C12N15/861
Domestic Patent References:
WO2010101921A22010-09-10
WO2010086838A22010-08-05
WO2016049201A12016-03-31
Foreign References:
US8216819B22012-07-10
Other References:
HSU KF ET AL.: "Conditionally replicating E1B-deleted adenovirus driven by the squamous cell carcinoma antigen 2 promoter for uterine cervical cancer therapy", CANCER GENE THERAPY, vol. 15, no. 8, 2008, pages 526 - 534, XP055640368
LEE SJ ET AL.: "Targeting Prostate Cancer with Conditionally Replicative Adenovirus Using PSMA Enhancer", MOLECULAR THERAPY, vol. 10, no. 6, 2004, pages 1051 - 1058, XP004651496, DOI: 10.1016/j.ymthe.2004.08.028
HEDJRAN F ET AL.: "Deletion analysis of Ad5 Ela transcriptional control region: Impact on tumor-selective expression of Ela and Elb", CANCER GENE THERAPY, vol. 18, 2011, pages 717 - 723, XP002679460
CAPASSO C ET AL.: "Oncolytic adenoviruses coated with MHC-1 tumor epitopes increase the antitumor immunity and efficacy against melanoma", ONCOIMMUNOLOGY, vol. 5, no. 4, 2016, pages 1 - 11, XP055271942, DOI: 10.1080/2162402X.2015.1105429
See also references of EP 3773649A4
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
DAVENPORT, Andrew M. et al. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A personalized recombinant adenovirus for stimulating a heightened immune response against one or more cancer antigens in a subject, wherein the recombinant virus comprises:

(1) a modified transcription regulatory sequence compared to a corresponding wild type adenovirus, wherein the modified transcription regulatory sequence comprises one or more modifications of one or more transcription factor binding sites, and wherein the modified transcription regulatory sequence is transcriptionally active in cancer cells and/or hyperproliferative cells, but is transcriptionally attenuated in normal cells;

(2) one or more transgenes, wherein each of the transgene comprises one or more nucleotide sequences encoding one or more cancer antigens specific to the subject,

wherein the one or more transgenes are located at one or more insertion sites in the genome of the recombinant adenovirus under the regulation of the modified transcription regulatory sequence, and

wherein the recombinant adenovirus stimulates a heightened immune response against the cancer antigens when administered to the subject.

2. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 1, wherein the recombinant adenovirus is a type 5 adenovirus (Ad5) or a type 2 adenovirus (Ad2).

3. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 1, wherein the nucleotide sequences encoding one or more cancer antigens specific to the subject are identified by sequencing DNA or RNA in a sample obtained from the subject.

4. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 1, wherein the modification of the transcription factor binding site is a deletion, a substitution, and/or an addition of one or more nucleotides compared to the corresponding wild type transcription regulatory sequence.

5. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 1, wherein the modified transcription regulatory sequences comprise a modified Ela promoter.

6. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 5, wherein the modified Ela promoter comprises one or more modifications on one or more binding sites selected from Pea3 I, E2F I, Pea3 II, E2F II, Pea3 III, Pea3 IV, and Pea3 V.

7. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 5, wherein the modified Ela promoter comprises a modified Pea3 binding site.

8. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 7, wherein the modified Pea3 binding site comprise:

a. a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to about -300 to about -250 upstream of the initiation site of Ela,

b. a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -305 to -255 upstream of the initiation site of Ela, and/or

c. a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 195-244 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1);

9. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 5, wherein the modified Ela promoter comprises the sequence GGTGTTTTGG (SEQ ID NO: 2).

10. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 5, wherein the modified Ela promoter comprises the sequence CTAGGACTG (SEQ ID NO: 17), AGTGCCCG (SEQ ID NO: 101), or TATTCCCG (SEQ ID NO: 102).

11. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 1, wherein the recombinant adenovirus comprises one or more Pea3 transcription binding site deletions without one or more E2F transcription binding site deletions in the El A region.

12. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 1, wherein the recombinant adenovirus comprises one or more E2F transcription binding site deletions without one or more Pea3 transcription binding site deletions in the El A region.

13. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 5, wherein the recombinant adenovirus comprises an Ela promoter lacking a functional TATA box or lacking a functional CAAT box.

14. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 13, wherein the Ela promoter comprises a deletion of the entire TATA box.

15. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 13, wherein the Ela promoter comprises a deletion of the entire CAAT box.

16. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 1, wherein the recombinant adenovirus comprises:

1) a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -27 to -24 of the Ela promoter, a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -29 to -26 of the Ela promoter,

2) a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -33 to -26 of the Ela promoter,

3) a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -31 to -24 of the Ela promoter,

4) a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -44 to +52 of the Ela promoter,

5) a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -44 to +54 of the Ela promoter,

6) a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -148 to +52 of the Ela promoter,

7) a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 353-552 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1),

8) a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 423 to 431 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO:

1),

9) a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 468 to 475 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO:

1),

10) a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 472 to 475 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO:

1),

11) a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 455 to 552 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO:

1),

12) a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 560-1545 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1),

13) a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 557-1678 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1), and

14) the sequence GACTGTGCGC (SEQ ID NO: 3),

17. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 1, wherein the one or more insertion sites are selected from the group consisting of an Elb-l9K insertion site, an E3 insertion site, an E4 insertions site, an IX-E2 insertion site, an L5-E4 insertion site, and combinations thereof.

18. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 17, wherein the Elb-l9K insertion site is:

1) located between the start site of Elb-l9K and the stop codon of Elb-l9K;

2) comprises a deletion of about 200 nucleotides adjacent the start site of Elb-l9K;

3) comprises a deletion of 202 or 203 nucleotides adjacent the start site of Elb-l9K; or

4) comprises a deletion corresponding to nucleotides 1714-1917 or 1714-1916 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1).

19. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 17, wherein the transgene is inserted either between nucleotides corresponding to 1714 and 1917 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1), or inserted between CTGACCTC (SEQ ID NO: 4) and TCACCAGG (SEQ ID NO: 5).

20. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 17, wherein the E3 insertion site:

1) is located between the stop codon of pVIII and the start site of Fiber;

2) is located between the stop codon of E3-10.5K and the stop codon of E3-14.7K and the start site of Fiber;

3) comprises a deletion of from about 500 to about 3185, from about 500 to about 3000, from about 500 to about 2500, from about 500 to about 2000, from about 500 to about 1500, from about 500 to about 1000, from about 1000 to about 3185, from about 1000 to about 3000, from about 1000 to about 2500, from about 1000 to about 2000, from about 1000 to about 1500, from about 1500 to about 3185, from about 1500 to about 3000, from about 1500 to about 2000, from about 2000 to about 3185, from about 2000 to about 3000, from about 2000 to about 2500, from about 2500 to about 3185, from about 2500 to about 3000, or about 3000 to about 3185 nucleotides;

4) comprises a deletion of from about 500 to about 1551, from about 500 to about 1500, from about 500 to about 1000, from about 1000 to about 1551, from about 1000 to about 1500, or from about 1500 to about 1551 nucleotides adjacent the stop codon of E3- 10.5K;

5) comprises a deletion of about 1,050 nucleotides adjacent the stop codon of E3-10.5K;

6) comprises a deletion of 1,063 or 1,064 nucleotides adjacent the stop codon of E3-10.5K;

7) comprises a deletion corresponding to the Ad5 dl309 E3 deletion;

8) comprises a deletion of the RID alpha, RID beta, and 14.7K genes positioned after adenoviral death protein;

9) comprises a disrupted E3 gpl9K gene wherein the fourth codon is mutated to a stop codon;

10) comprises a deletion corresponding to nucleotides 29773-30836 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1);

11) is located between CAGTATGA (SEQ ID NO: 8) and TAATAAAAAA (SEQ ID NO:

9).

21. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 17, wherein the IX-E2 insertion site is located between the stop codon of adenovirus IX gene and the stop codon of adenovirus IVa2 gene.

22. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 17, wherein the L5-E4 insertion site is located between the stop codon of adenovirus fiber gene and the stop codon of ORF6 or ORF6/7 of adenovirus E4 gene.

23. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 1, wherein each of the nucleotide sequences encodes a peptide having about 5 to about 30 amino acids of the cancer antigens specific to the subject.

24. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 1, wherein the transgene comprises at least two nucleotide sequences encoding one or more cancer antigen polypeptide in the subject.

25. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 1, wherein the transgene comprises at least about 10 to about 100 nucleotide sequences encoding about 10 to about 100 cancer antigens in the subject.

26. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 24, wherein transgene encodes a concatemer, wherein the concatemer comprises the at least two cancer antigens specific to the subject, wherein each of the cancer antigens is separated by a peptide linker, an internal ribosome entry site (IRES), a ribosome skipping sequence, or a combination thereof.

27. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 26, wherein the peptide linker promotes proteasomal cleavage between the cancer antigens.

28. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 27, wherein the peptide linker consists of SEQ ID NO: 6.

29. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 26, wherein the concatemer further comprises a C-terminal ubiquitin.

30. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 26, wherein the IRES is an encephalomyocarditis virus IRES, a foot-and-mouth disease virus IRES, a poliovirus IRES, or a combination thereof.

31. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 1 , wherein at least

one cancer antigen specific to the subject is a peptide of catenin alpha-2 (CTNNA2), myosin-IIIb isoform 2 (MY03B), sodium/calcium exchanger 3 isoform C precursor (SLC8A3), sodium- dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)ATl (SLC6A19), double- stranded RNA-specific editase B2 (ADARB2), T-complex protein 11 homolog (TCP11), leucine -rich repeat and transmembrane domain-containing protein 2 precursor (LRTM2), nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group A member 2 (NR5A1), prolactin-releasing peptide receptor (PRLHR), prolow-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 preproprotein (LRP1), alpha-2-macroglobulin isoform a precursor (A2M), RUS1 family protein Cl6orf58 (Cl6orf58), tyrosine -protein kinase BAZ1B (BAZ1B), phospholipid phosphatase 2 (PPAP2C), chondroitin sulfate glucuronyltransferase (CHPF2), pre-mRNA 3' end processing protein WDR33 (WDR33), Ul small nuclear ribonucleoprotein A (SNRPA), GTP-binding protein 1 (GTPB), probable ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX46 (DDX), cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta (PRKA), lysine- specific demethylase 5B (KDM), jmjC domain-containing protein 8 (JMJ), CTD small phosphatase-like protein isoform 1 (CTDS), transmembrane protein 9B isoform a precursor (TMEM9B/1), transmembrane protein 9B isoform b (TMEM9B/2), dedicator of cytokinesis protein 1 (DOCK1), retinoblastoma-associated protein (RB 1), lysine-specific demethylase 4A (KDM4A), E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase NEDD4-like (NEDD4L), serine/threonine -protein kinase TA03 (TAOK3), transcription elongation regulator 1 (TCERG1), E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RNF19B (RNF19B), rho GTPase-activating protein 45 (HMHA1), semaphorin-5A precursor (SEMA5A), adenomatous polyposis cob protein (APC), zinc finger protein 732 (ZNF732), contactin-l isoform 1 precursor (CNTN1), cellular tumor antigen p53 (TP53), KRAS, BRAF, NR AS, PIK3CA, EGFR, IDH1, SETD1B, RPL22, and RNF43.

32. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 1, wherein at least one of nucleotide sequences comprises at least one modification compared to its corresponding wild type nucleotide sequence.

33. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 32, wherein the modification leads to substitution, deletion, insertion of one or more amino acids, stop codon, or frameshift of each of the cancer antigen compared to the corresponding wild type sequence.

34. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 33, wherein the modification leads to frameshift of at least one cancer antigen compared to the corresponding wild type sequence.

35. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 31, wherein the cancer antigen polypeptide comprises at least one of the following:

1) a substitution mutation in TP53;

2) a substitution mutation in KRAS;

3) a substitution mutation in BRAF;

4) a substitution mutation in NRAS;

5) a substitution mutation in PIK3CA;

6) a substitution mutation in EGFR;

7) a substitution mutation in IDFll;

8) a frameshift mutation in SETD1B;

9) a frameshift mutation in RPL22; and/or

10) a frameshift mutation in RNF43.

36. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 35, wherein the cancer antigen polypeptide comprises at least one of the following:

1) a substitution mutation in TP53, selected from R175F1, R273C, R248Q, R273F1, R248W, R282W, Y220C, G245S, H179R, and V157F;

2) a substitution mutation in KRAS, selected from G12D, G12V, G12C, G13D, G12A, G12R, G12S, G13C, A146T, and Q61H;

3) a substitution mutation in BRAF, selected from V600E and V600M;

4) a substitution mutation in NRAS, selected from Q61R and Q61K;

5) a substitution mutation in PIK3CA, selected from E545K, F11047R, E542K, R88Q, G118D, N345K, C420R, E453K, Q546R, E726K, and H1047L;

6) a substitution mutation in EGFR, selected from A289V, G598V, and L858R

7) a substitution mutation in IDH1, comprising R132F1

8) a frameshift mutation in SETD1B, comprising H8 frameshift;

9) a frameshift mutation in RPL22, comprising K15 frameshift; and/or 10) a frameshift mutation in RNF43, comprising G659 frameshift.

37. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 31, wherein the cancer antigen polypeptide comprises at least one of the following:

a substitution mutation in CTNNA2;

a substitution mutation in MY03B;

a substitution mutation in SLC8A3

a substitution mutation in SLC6A19;

a substitution mutation in ADARB2;

a substitution mutation in TCP11 ;

a substitution mutation in LRTM2;

a substitution mutation in NR5A1 ;

a substitution mutation in PRLHR;

a substitution mutation in LRP1 ;

a substitution mutation in A2M;

a substitution mutation in Cl6orf58;

a substitution mutation in BAZ1B;

a substitution mutation in PPAP2C;

a substitution mutation in CHPF2;

a substitution mutation in WDR33;

a frameshift mutation SNRPA;

a substitution mutation in GTPB;

a substitution mutation in DDX46;

a substitution mutation in PRKA;

a substitution mutation in KDM;

a substitution mutation in JMJ;

a substitution mutation in CTDS;

a substitution mutation in TMEM9B/1;

a substitution mutation in TMEM9B/2;

a substitution mutation in DOCK1;

a substitution mutation in RB 1 ;

a substitution mutation in KDM4A;

a substitution mutation in NEDD4L;

a substitution mutation in TAOK3; a substitution mutation in TCERG1;

a substitution mutation in RNF19B;

a substitution mutation in HMHA1;

a substitution mutation in SEMA5A;

a substitution mutation in ZNF732;

a substitution mutation in CNTN 1 ;

a substitution mutation in tumor antigen p53 (TP53);

a substitution mutation in APC; and

a frameshift mutation in APC.

38. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 31, wherein the cancer antigen polypeptide comprises any of SEQ ID NOs. 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, 31, 33, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43, 45, 47,

49, 51, 53, 55, 57, 59, 61, 63, 65, 67, 69, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, 83, 85, 87, 89, 91, 93, 95, 98, and 99.

39. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 1, wherein the recombinant adenovirus comprises one or more compensatory deletions to one or more genomic regions.

40. A method for producing a personalized recombinant adenovirus for a subject in need thereof, comprising the steps of:

1) sequencing DNA or RNA in a sample obtained from the subject to identify one or more mutant nucleotide sequences encoding one or more cancer antigen specific to the subject,

2) producing one or more transgenes, wherein each of the transgenes comprises one or more mutant nucleotide sequences identified in step (1), and wherein the one or more mutant nucleotide sequences are separated by a peptide linker, an internal ribosome entry site (IRES), a ribosome skipping sequence, or a combination thereof;

3) inserting the one or more transgenes in step (2) into the genome of a recombinant adenovirus to produce the personalized recombinant adenovirus, wherein transcription of the transgenes is active in cancer cells and/or hyperproliferative cells, but is attenuated in normal cells;

41. The method of claim 40, the adenovirus is a type 5 adenovirus (Ad5) or a type 2 adenovirus (Ad2).

42. The method of claim 40, wherein the recombinant adenovirus comprise one or more modifications at one or more transcription factor binding sites.

43. The method of claim 42, wherein the modification to the transcription factor binding site is a deletion, a substitution, and/or an addition of one or more nucleotides compared to the corresponding wild type transcription regulatory sequence.

44. The method of claim 42, wherein the modified transcription regulatory sequences comprise a modified El a promoter.

45. The method of claim 44, wherein the modified El a promoter comprises one or more modifications on one or more binding sites selected from Pea3 I, E2F I, Pea3 II, E2F II, Pea3 III, Pea3 IV, and Pea3 V.

46. The method of claim 44, wherein the modified Ela promoter comprises a modified Pea3 binding site.

47. The method of claim 46, wherein the modified Pea3 binding site comprise:

a. a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to about -300 to about -250 upstream of the initiation site of Ela,

b. a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -305 to -255 upstream of the initiation site of Ela, and/or

c. a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 195-244 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1);

48. The method of claim 44, wherein the modified Ela promoter comprises the sequence GGTGTTTTGG (SEQ ID NO: 2).

49. The method of claim 44, wherein the modified Ela promoter comprises the sequence CTAGGACTG (SEQ ID NO: 17), AGTGCCCG (SEQ ID NO: 101), or TATTCCCG (SEQ ID NO: 102).

50. The method of claim 43, wherein the recombinant adenovirus comprises one or more Pea3 transcription binding site deletions without one or more E2F transcription binding site deletions in the El A region.

51. The method of claim 43, wherein the recombinant adenovirus comprises one or more E2F transcription binding site deletions without one or more Pea3 transcription binding site deletions in the El A region.

52. The method of claim 44, wherein the recombinant adenovirus comprises an Ela promoter lacking a functional TATA box or lacking a functional CAAT box.

53. The method of claim 52, wherein the Ela promoter comprises a deletion of the entire TATA box.

54. The method of claim 52, wherein the Ela promoter comprises a deletion of the entire CAAT box.

55. The method of claim 40, wherein the recombinant adenovirus comprises:

1) a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -27 to -24 of the Ela promoter, a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -29 to -26 of the Ela promoter,

2) a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -33 to -26 of the Ela promoter,

3) a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -31 to -24 of the Ela promoter,

4) a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -44 to +52 of the Ela promoter,

5) a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -44 to +54 of the Ela promoter,

6) a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -148 to +52 of the Ela promoter,

7) a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 353-552 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1),

8) a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 423 to 431 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO:

1),

9) a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 468 to 475 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO:

1),

10) a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 472 to 475 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO:

1),

11) a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 455 to 552 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO:

1),

12) a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 560-1545 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1),

13) a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 557-1678 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1), and

14) the sequence GACTGTGCGC (SEQ ID NO: 3),

56. The method of claim 40, wherein the one or more transgenes are inserted into one or more insertion sites selected from the group consisting of an Elb-l9K insertion site, an E3 insertion site, an E4 insertions site, an IX-E2 insertion site, an L5-E4 insertion site, and combinations thereof.

57. The method of claim 56, wherein the Elb-l9K insertion site is:

1) located between the start site of Elb-l9K and the stop codon of Elb-l9K;

2) comprises a deletion of about 200 nucleotides adjacent the start site of Elb-l9K;

3) comprises a deletion of 202 or 203 nucleotides adjacent the start site of Elb-l9K; or

4) comprises a deletion corresponding to nucleotides 1714-1917 or 1714-1916 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1).

58. The method of claim 56, wherein the transgene is inserted either between nucleotides corresponding to 1714 and 1917 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1), or inserted between CTGACCTC (SEQ ID NO: 4) and TCACCAGG (SEQ ID NO: 5).

59. The method of claim 56, wherein the E3 insertion site:

1) is located between the stop codon of pVIII and the start site of Fiber;

2) is located between the stop codon of E3-10.5K and the stop codon of E3-14.7K and the start site of Fiber;

3) comprises a deletion of from about 500 to about 3185, from about 500 to about 3000, from about 500 to about 2500, from about 500 to about 2000, from about 500 to about 1500, from about 500 to about 1000, from about 1000 to about 3185, from about 1000 to about 3000, from about 1000 to about 2500, from about 1000 to about 2000, from about 1000 to about 1500, from about 1500 to about 3185, from about 1500 to about 3000, from about 1500 to about 2000, from about 2000 to about 3185, from about 2000 to about 3000, from about 2000 to about 2500, from about 2500 to about 3185, from about 2500 to about 3000, or about 3000 to about 3185 nucleotides;

4) comprises a deletion of from about 500 to about 1551, from about 500 to about 1500, from about 500 to about 1000, from about 1000 to about 1551, from about 1000 to about 1500, or from about 1500 to about 1551 nucleotides adjacent the stop codon of E3- 10.5K;

5) comprises a deletion of about 1,050 nucleotides adjacent the stop codon of E3-10.5K;

6) comprises a deletion of 1,063 or 1,064 nucleotides adjacent the stop codon of E3-10.5K; 7) comprises a deletion corresponding to the Ad5 dl309 E3 deletion;

8) comprises a deletion of the RID alpha, RID beta, and 14.7K genes positioned after adenoviral death protein;

9) comprises a disrupted E3 gpl9K gene wherein the fourth codon is mutated to a stop codon;

10) comprises a deletion corresponding to nucleotides 29773-30836 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1);

11) is located between CAGTATGA (SEQ ID NO: 8) and TAATAAAAAA (SEQ ID NO:

9).

60. The method of claim 56, wherein the IX-E2 insertion site is located between the stop codon of adenovirus IX gene and the stop codon of adenovirus IVa2 gene.

61. The method of claim 56, wherein the L5-E4 insertion site is located between the stop codon of adenovirus fiber gene and the stop codon of ORF6 or ORF6/7 of adenovirus E4 gene.

62. The method of claim 40, wherein each of the nucleotide sequences encodes a peptide having about 5 to about 30 amino acids of the cancer antigens specific to the subject.

63. The method of claim 40, wherein the transgene comprises at least two nucleotide sequences encoding one or more cancer antigen polypeptide in the subject.

64. The method of claim 40, wherein the transgene comprises at least about 10 to about 100 nucleotide sequences encoding about 10 to about 100 cancer antigens in the subject.

65. The method of claim 40, wherein transgene encodes a concatemer, wherein the concatemer comprises the at least two cancer antigens specific to the subject, wherein the cancer antigens are separated by a peptide linker, an internal ribosome entry site (IRES), a ribosome skipping sequence, or a combination thereof.

66. The method of claim 65, wherein the peptide linker promotes proteasomal cleavage between the cancer antigens.

67. The method of claim 66, wherein the peptide linker consists of SEQ ID NO: 6.

68. The method of claim 65, wherein the concatemer further comprises a C-terminal ubiquitin.

69. The method of claim 66, wherein the IRES is an encephalomyocarditis virus IRES, a foot- and-mouth disease virus IRES, a poliovirus IRES, or a combination thereof.

70. The method of claim 40 wherein at least one cancer antigen specific to the subject is a peptide of catenin alpha-2 (CTNNA2), myosin-IIIb isoform 2 (MY03B), sodium/calcium exchanger 3 isoform C precursor (SLC8A3), sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)ATl (SLC6A19), double-stranded RNA-specific editase B2 (ADARB2), T-complex protein 11 homolog (TCP11), leucine-rich repeat and transmembrane domain-containing protein 2 precursor (LRTM2), nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group A member 2 (NR5A1), prolactin releasing peptide receptor (PRLHR), prolow-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 preproprotein (LRP1), alpha-2-macroglobulin isoform a precursor (A2M), RUS1 family protein Cl6orf58 (Cl6orf58), tyrosine-protein kinase BAZ1B (BAZ1B), phospholipid phosphatase 2 (PPAP2C), chondroitin sulfate glucuronyltransferase (CHPF2), pre-mRNA 3' end processing protein WDR33 (WDR33), Ul small nuclear ribonucleoprotein A (SNRPA, frameshitf), GTP- binding protein 1 (GTPB), probable ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX46 (DDX), cAMP- dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta (PRKA), lysine-specific demethylase 5B (KDM), jmjC domain-containing protein 8 (JMJ), CTD small phosphatase-like protein isoform 1 (CTDS), transmembrane protein 9B isoform a precursor (TMEM9B/1), transmembrane protein 9B isoform b (TMEM9B/2), dedicator of cytokinesis protein 1 (DOCK1), retinoblastoma- associated protein (RB1), lysine-specific demethylase 4A (KDM4A), E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase NEDD4-like (NEDD4L), serine/threonine-protein kinase TA03 (TAOK3), transcription elongation regulator 1 (TCERG1), E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RNF19B (RNF19B), rho GTPase-activating protein 45 (HMHA1), semaphorin-5A precursor (SEMA5A), adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC (frameshift)), zinc finger protein 732 (ZNF732), contactin-l isoform 1 precursor (CNTN1), cellular tumor antigen p53 (TP53), KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, PIK3CA, EGFR, IDH1, SETD1B, RPL22, and RNF43.

71. The method of claim 40, wherein at least one of nucleotide sequences comprises at least one modification compared to its corresponding wild type nucleotide sequence.

72. The method of claim 71, wherein the modification leads to substitution, deletion, insertion of one or more amino acids, or frameshift of each of the cancer antigen compared to the corresponding wild type sequence.

73. The method of claim 71, wherein the modification leads to frameshift of at least one cancer antigen compared to the corresponding wild type sequence.

74. The method of claim 40, wherein the cancer antigen polypeptide comprises at least one of the following:

1) a substitution mutation in TP53;

2) a substitution mutation in KRAS;

3) a substitution mutation in BRAF;

4) a substitution mutation in NRAS;

5) a substitution mutation in PIK3CA;

6) a substitution mutation in EGFR;

7) a substitution mutation in IDFll ;

8) a frameshift mutation in SETD1B;

9) a frameshift mutation in RPL22; and/or

10) a frameshift mutation in RNF43.

75. The method of claim 40, wherein the cancer antigen polypeptide comprises at least one of the following:

1) a substitution mutation in TP53, selected from R175H, R273C, R248Q, R273H, R248W, R282W, Y220C, G245S, H179R, and V157F;

2) a substitution mutation in KRAS, selected from G12D, G12V, G12C, G13D, G12A, G12R, G12S, G13C, A146T, and Q61H;

3) a substitution mutation in BRAF, selected from V600E and V600M;

4) a substitution mutation in NRAS, selected from Q61R and Q61K;

5) a substitution mutation in PIK3CA, selected from E545K, F11047R, E542K, R88Q, G118D, N345K, C420R, E453K, Q546R, E726K, and H1047L;

6) a substitution mutation in EGFR, selected from A289V, G598V, and L858R

7) a substitution mutation in IDF11, comprising R132F1

8) a frameshift mutation in SETD1B, comprising H8 frameshift;

9) a frameshift mutation in RPL22, comprising K15 frameshift; and/or 10) a frameshift mutation in RNF43, comprising G659 frameshift.

76. The method of claim 40, wherein the cancer antigen polypeptide comprises at least one of the following:

a substitution mutation in CTNNA2;

a substitution mutation in MY03B;

a substitution mutation in SLC8A3

a substitution mutation in SLC6A19;

a substitution mutation in ADARB2;

a substitution mutation in TCP11 ;

a substitution mutation in LRTM2;

a substitution mutation in NR5A1 ;

a substitution mutation in PRLHR;

a substitution mutation in LRP1 ;

a substitution mutation in A2M;

a substitution mutation in Cl6orf58;

a substitution mutation in BAZ1B;

a substitution mutation in PPAP2C;

a substitution mutation in CHPF2;

a substitution mutation in WDR33;

a frameshift mutation SNRPA;

a substitution mutation in GTPB;

a substitution mutation in DDX46;

a substitution mutation in PRKA;

a substitution mutation in KDM;

a substitution mutation in JMJ;

a substitution mutation in CTDS;

a substitution mutation in TMEM9B/1;

a substitution mutation in TMEM9B/2;

a substitution mutation in DOCK1;

a substitution mutation in RB 1 ;

a substitution mutation in KDM4A;

a substitution mutation in NEDD4L;

a substitution mutation in TAOK3; a substitution mutation in TCERG1;

a substitution mutation in RNF19B;

a substitution mutation in HMHA1;

a substitution mutation in SEMA5A;

a substitution mutation in ZNF732;

a substitution mutation in CNTN 1 ;

a substitution mutation in tumor antigen p53 (TP53);

a substitution mutation in APC; and

a frameshift mutation in APC.

77. The method of claim 40, wherein the cancer antigen polypeptide comprises any of SEQ ID NOs. 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, 31, 33, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43, 45, 47, 49, 51, 53, 55, 57, 59, 61, 63, 65, 67, 69, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, 83, 85, 87, 89, 91, 93, 95, 98, and 99.

78. The method of claim 40, wherein the recombinant adenovirus comprises one or more compensatory deletions to one or more genomic regions.

79. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of any of claims 1 to 39, wherein the subject is a human.

80. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of any of claims 1 to 39, wherein the subject is a pediatric human.

81. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of any of claims 1 to 39, wherein the cancer is selected from melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, basal cell carcinoma, head and neck cancer, breast cancer, anal cancer, cervical cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, mesothelioma, small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, prostate cancer, gastroesophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, testicular cancer, bladder cancer, ovarian cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, brain cancer, endometrial cancer, neuroendocrine cancer, merkel cell carcinoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, a sarcoma, and pancreatic cancer.

82. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of any of claims 1 to 39, wherein the recombinant adenovirus further comprises a nucleotide sequence encoding a therapeutic polypeptide, wherein the therapeutic polypeptide enhances immune response against the one or more cancer antigens when expressed in the subject.

83. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 82, wherein the therapeutic polypeptide is selected from GM-CSF, CD80, CD137L, IL-23, IL-23A/pl9, IL-27, IL-27A/p28, IL-27B/EBI3, ICAM-l, a TGF-b trap, TGF-b, CD19, CD20, IL-l, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-9, CD154, CD86, BORIS/CTCFL, FGF, IL-24, MAGE, NY-ESO-l, acetylcholine, interferon-gamma, DKKl/Wnt, p53, thymidine kinase; an anti-PD-l antibody heavy chain or light chain, an anti- PD-L1 antibody heavy chain or light chain, FLT3L, FLT3, or any combination thereof.

84. The personalized recombinant adenovirus of claim 83, wherein the cancer antigen is derived from a mutant TP53 (p53), and the therapeutic polypeptide is FLT3L.

85. The method of any of claims 40 to 78, wherein the subject is a human.

86. The method of any of claims 40 to 78, wherein the subject is a pediatric human.

87. The method of any of claims 40 to 78, wherein the cancer is selected from melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, basal cell carcinoma, head and neck cancer, breast cancer, anal cancer, cervical cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, mesothelioma, small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, prostate cancer, gastroesophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, testicular cancer, bladder cancer, ovarian cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, brain cancer, endometrial cancer, neuroendocrine cancer, merkel cell carcinoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, a sarcoma, and pancreatic cancer.

88. The method of any of claims 40 to 78, wherein the recombinant adenovirus further comprises a nucleotide sequence encoding a therapeutic polypeptide, wherein the therapeutic polypeptide enhances immune response against the one or more cancer antigens when expressed in the subject.

89. The method of claim 88, wherein the therapeutic polypeptide is selected from GM-CSF, CD80, CD137L, IL-23, IL-23A/pl9, IL-27, IL-27 A/p28, IL-27B/EBI3, ICAM-l, a TGF-b trap, TGF-b, CD19, CD20, IL-l, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-9, CD154, CD86, BORIS/CTCFL, FGF, IL-24, MAGE, NY-ESO-l, acetylcholine, interferon-gamma, DKKl/Wnt, p53, thymidine kinase; an anti-PD-l antibody heavy chain or light chain, an anti-PD-Ll antibody heavy chain or light chain, FLT3L, FLT3, or any combination thereof.

90. The method of claim 89, wherein the cancer antigen is derived from a mutant TP53 (p53), and the therapeutic polypeptide is FLT3L.

91. A method of stimulating a heightened immune response against a cancer antigen in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a recombinant vector comprising an exogenous nucleotide sequence encoding the cancer antigen to stimulate the heightened immune response against the cancer antigen in the subject, wherein the cancer antigen has been identified by sequencing DNA or RNA from a sample from the subject.

92. A method of stimulating a heightened immune response against a cancer antigen in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a personalized recombinant adenovirus of any of claims 1 to 39 and claims 78-84.

93. The method of claim 91 or claim 92, wherein the recombinant vector or the personalized recombinant adenovirus is administered in combination with one or more therapies selected from surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, hormone therapy, phototherapy, and virotherapy.

94. The method of claim 91 or claim 92, wherein the recombinant vector or the personalized recombinant adenovirus is administered in combination with a TGF-b trap or an expression vector comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding a TGF-b trap.

95. A method of treating a cancer in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a recombinant vector comprising an exogenous nucleotide sequence encoding at least one cancer antigen to treat the cancer in the subject, wherein the cancer antigen has been identified by sequencing DNA or RNA from a sample from the subject.

96. A method of treating a cancer in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of personalized recombinant adenovirus of any of claims 1 to 39 and claims 78-84.

97. The method of claim 95 or claim 96, wherein the recombinant vector or the personalized recombinant adenovirus is administered in combination with one or more therapies selected from surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, hormone therapy, phototherapy, and virotherapy.

98. The method of claim 95 or claim 96, wherein the recombinant vector or the personalized recombinant adenovirus is administered in combination with a TGF-b trap or an expression vector comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding a TGF-b trap.

Description:
PERSONALIZED CANCER VACCINES

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

[0001] The present applications claims priority to, and the benefits of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Serial No. 62/649,206, filed March 28, 2018, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0002] The field of the invention is methods and compositions for treating cancer.

BACKGROUND

[0003] Despite extensive knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms that cause cancer, most advanced cancers remain incurable with current chemotherapy and radiation protocols. Oncolytic viruses have emerged as a platform technology that has the potential to significantly augment current standard treatment for a variety of malignancies (Kumar, S. et al. (2008) CURRENT OPINION IN MOLECULAR THERAPEUTICS 10(4): 371-379; Kim, D. (2001) EXPERT OPINION ON BIOLOGICAL THERAPY l(3):525-538; Kim D. (2000) ONCOGENE 19(56):6660-6669). These viruses have shown promise as oncolytic agents that not only directly destroy malignant cells via an infection-to-reproduction-to-lysis chain reaction but also indirectly induce anti-tumor immunity. These immune stimulatory properties have been augmented with the insertion of therapeutic transgenes that are copied and expressed each time the virus replicates.

[0004] Previously developed oncolytic viruses include the oncolytic serotype 5 adenovirus (Ad5) referred to as TAV-255 that is transcriptionally attenuated in normal cells but transcriptionally active in cancer cells (see, PCT Publication No. W02010/101921). It is believed that the mechanism by which the TAV-255 vector achieves such tumor selectivity is through targeted deletion of three transcriptional factor (TF) binding sites for the transcription factors Pea3 and E2F, proteins that regulate adenovirus expression of El a, the earliest gene to be transcribed after virus entry into the host cell, through binding to specific DNA sequences.

[0005] Despite the efforts to date, there is a need for improved oncolytic viruses for treating cancers and hyperproliferative disorders in human patients, and improved methods for treating cancers and hyperproliferative disorders in human patients which are explicitly tailored to the individual patient. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0006] The invention is based, in part, upon the discovery that a recombinant vector, e.g., a recombinant oncolytic adenovirus, can be used to express selectively express a cancer antigen in a cancer cell in a subject and stimulate a heightened immune response against the cancer antigen in the subject and/or treat the cancer in the subject. In addition, a recombinant vector, e.g., a recombinant oncolytic adenovirus, can be used to selectively express in a cancer cell in a subject a cancer antigen that has been identified by sequencing DNA or RNA from a sample from the subject, thereby stimulating a heightened immune response against an antigen that is specific to the cancer of the subject. The features of the recombinant vectors, e.g., recombinant oncolytic adenoviruses, described herein, enable the repeated generation and administration of different recombinant vectors, e.g., recombinant oncolytic adenoviruses that express different subject- specific cancer antigens, thereby to treat refractory cancers.

[0007] The present disclosure provides a personalized cancer vaccine. In some embodiments, the personalized cancer vaccine comprises a personalized recombinant virus. In some embodiments, the personalized recombinant virus is an oncolytic adenovirus. In some embodiments, the personalized recombinant adenovirus is capable of stimulating a heightened immune response against one or more cancer antigens in a specific subject in need thereof.

[0008] In some embodiments, the personalized recombinant adenovirus comprises a modified transcription regulatory sequence compared to a corresponding wild type adenovirus. In some embodiments, the modified transcription regulatory sequence comprises one or more modifications of one or more transcription factor binding sites. The modified transcription regulatory sequence is transcriptionally active in cancer cells and/or hyperproliferative cells, but is transcriptionally attenuated in normal cells.

[0009] In some embodiments, the personalized recombinant adenovirus comprises one or more transgenes. In some embodiments, each of the transgene comprises one or more nucleotide sequences encoding one or more cancer antigen specific to the subject.

[0010] In some embodiments, a cancer antigen comprises about 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,

14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39,

40, 41, 44, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50 or more amino acids of a protein in a cancer cell of the subject. In some embodiments, the cancer antigen comprises one or more mutations compared to a corresponding wild type sequence of the same species that the subject belongs to. In some embodiments, the mutation is a substation, a deletion, an insertion, a frameshift, or combination thereof. In some embodiments, the cancer antigen polypeptide comprises the mutation, and amino acids flanking the mutation.

[0011] In some embodiments, the one or more transgenes are located at one or more insertion sites in the genome of the recombinant oncolytic adenovirus, and are under the regulation of the modified transcription regulatory sequence.

[0012] In some embodiments, the adenovirus is a human adenovirus. In some embodiments, the adenovirus is a type 5 adenovirus (Ad5) or a type 2 adenovirus (Ad2). More oncolytic adenovirus are described in Alemany 2014 (Biomedicines. 2014 Mar; 2(1): 36-49.), and U.S. Patent Nos. 9115337, 10016470, 10047347, 8859287, 9410129, and US20180153946, US20100233125, US20180169271, WO/2008/080003A2, WO/2012/156933A1, and WO/2010/128182A1, each of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety. In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus is a type 35 adenovirus (Ad35).

[0013] In some embodiments, the nucleotide sequences encoding one or more cancer antigen specific to the subject are identified by sequencing DNA or RNA in a sample obtained from the subject. In some embodiments, the sample is a tumor tissue or a blood sample.

[0014] In some embodiments, the modification of the transcription factor binding site is a deletion, a substitution, an addition of one or more nucleotides compared to the corresponding wild type transcription regulatory sequence, or any combination thereof. In some embodiments, the modified transcription regulatory sequence comprises a modified El a promoter. In some embodiments, the modified Ela promoter comprises one or more modifications on one or more binding sites selected from Pea3 I, E2F I, Pea3 II, E2F II, Pea3 III, Pea3 IV, and Pea3 V. In some embodiments, the modified Ela promoter comprises a modified Pea3 binding site.

[0015] In some embodiments, the modified Pea3 binding site comprise: a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to about -300 to about -250 upstream of the initiation site of Ela, a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -305 to -255 upstream of the initiation site of Ela, and/or a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 195-244 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1). In some embodiments, the modified Ela promoter comprises the sequence GGTGTTTTGG (SEQ ID NO: 2). In some embodiments, the modified Ela promoter comprises the sequence CTAGGACTG (SEQ ID NO: 17), AGTGCCCG (SEQ ID NO: 101), or TATTCCCG (SEQ ID NO: 102).

[0016] In some embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus comprises one or more Pea3 transcription binding site deletions without one or more E2F transcription binding site deletions in the El A region. [0017] In some embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus comprises one or more E2F transcription binding site deletions without one or more Pea3 transcription binding site deletions in the El A region.

[0018] In some embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus comprises an El a promoter lacking a functional TATA box or lacking a functional CAAT box. In some embodiments, the Ela promoter comprises a deletion of the entire TATA box. In some embodiments, the Ela promoter comprises a deletion of the entire CAAT box.

[0019] In some embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus comprises a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -27 to -24 of the Ela promoter, a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -29 to -26 of the Ela promoter, a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -33 to -26 of the Ela promoter, a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -31 to -24 of the Ela promoter, a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -44 to +52 of the Ela promoter, a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -44 to +54 of the Ela promoter, a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -148 to +52 of the Ela promoter, a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 353-552 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1), a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 423 to 431 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1), a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 468 to 475 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1), a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 472 to 475 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1), a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 455 to 552 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1), a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 560-1545 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1), a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 557-1678 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1), or the sequence GACTGTGCGC (SEQ ID NO: 3).

[0020] In some embodiments, the one or more insertion sites are selected from the group consisting of an Elb-19K insertion site, an E3 insertion site, an E4 insertions site, an IX-E2 insertion site, an L5-E4 insertion site, and combinations thereof.

[0021] In some embodiments, the Elb-19K insertion site is located between the start site of Elb-19K and the stop codon of Elb-19K. In some embodiments, the Elb-19K insertion site comprises a deletion of about 200 nucleotides adjacent the start site of Elb-19K. In some embodiments, the Elb-19K insertion site comprises a deletion of 202 or 203 nucleotides adjacent the start site of Elb-19K, or a deletion corresponding to nucleotides 1714-1917 or 1714-1916 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1).

[0022] In some embodiments, the transgene is inserted either between nucleotides corresponding to 1714 and 1917 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1), or inserted between CTGACCTC (SEQ ID NO: 4) and TCACCAGG (SEQ ID NO: 5). [0023] In some embodiments, the E3 insertion site is located between the stop codon of pVIII and the start site of Fiber. In some embodiments, the E3 insertion site is located between the stop codon of E3-10.5K and the stop codon of E3-14.7K and the start site of Fiber. In some embodiments, the E3 insertion site comprises a deletion of from about 500 to about 3185, from about 500 to about 3000, from about 500 to about 2500, from about 500 to about 2000, from about 500 to about 1500, from about 500 to about 1000, from about 1000 to about 3185, from about 1000 to about 3000, from about 1000 to about 2500, from about 1000 to about 2000, from about 1000 to about 1500, from about 1500 to about 3185, from about 1500 to about 3000, from about 1500 to about 2000, from about 2000 to about 3185, from about 2000 to about 3000, from about 2000 to about 2500, from about 2500 to about 3185, from about 2500 to about 3000, or about 3000 to about 3185 nucleotides. In some embodiments, the E3 insertion site comprises a deletion of from about 500 to about 1551, from about 500 to about 1500, from about 500 to about 1000, from about 1000 to about 1551, from about 1000 to about 1500, or from about 1500 to about 1551 nucleotides adjacent the stop codon of E3-10.5K. In some embodiments, the E3 insertion site comprises a deletion of about 1,050 nucleotides adjacent the stop codon of E3- 10.5K. In some embodiments, the E3 insertion site comprises a deletion of 1,063 or 1,064 nucleotides adjacent the stop codon of E3-10.5K. In some embodiments, the E3 insertion site comprises a deletion corresponding to the Ad5 dl309 E3 deletion. In some embodiments, the E3 insertion site comprises a deletion of the RID alpha, RID beta, and 14.7K genes positioned after adenoviral death protein. In some embodiments, the E3 insertion site is a disrupted E3 gpl9K gene wherein the fourth codon is mutated to a stop codon. In some embodiments, the E3 insertion site comprises a deletion corresponding to nucleotides 29773-30836 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1). In some embodiments, the E3 insertion site is located between CAGTATGA (SEQ ID NO: 8) and TAATAAAAAA (SEQ ID NO: 9).

[0024] In some embodiments, the IX-E2 insertion site is located between the stop codon of adenovirus IX gene and the stop codon of adenovirus IVa2 gene.

[0025] In some embodiments, the L5-E4 insertion site is located between the stop codon of adenovirus fiber gene and the stop codon of ORF6 or ORF6/7 of adenovirus E4 gene.

[0026] In some embodiments, the transgene comprises at least two nucleotide sequences encoding one or more cancer antigen in the subject.

[0027] In some embodiments, the transgene comprises at least about 1 to about 100 nucleotide sequences encoding about 1 to about 100 cancer antigens in the subject, such as about 5, about 10, about 15, about 20, about 25, about 30, about 35, about 40, about 45, about 50, about 55, about 60, about 65, about 70, about 75, about 80, about 85, about 90, about 95, or about 100 cancer antigens.

[0028] In some embodiments, the transgene encodes a concatemer, wherein the concatemer comprises the at least two cancer antigens specific to the subject, wherein the cancer antigens are separated by a peptide linker, an internal ribosome entry site (IRES), a ribosome skipping sequence, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, the peptide linker promotes proteasomal cleavage between the cancer antigens. In some embodiments, the peptide linker consists of SEQ ID NO: 6. In some embodiments, the IRES is an encephalomyocarditis virus IRES, a foot-and-mouth disease virus IRES, a poliovirus IRES, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, the concatemer further comprises a C-terminal ubiquitin.

[0029] In some embodiments, at least one cancer antigen polypeptide specific to the subject is a polypeptide of catenin alpha-2 (CTNNA2), myosin-IIIb isoform 2 (MY03B), sodium/calcium exchanger 3 isoform C precursor (SLC8A3), sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19), double-stranded RNA-specific editase B2 (ADARB2), T- complex protein 11 homolog (TCP11), leucine-rich repeat and transmembrane domain- containing protein 2 precursor (LRTM2), nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group A member 2 (NR5A1), prolactin-releasing peptide receptor (PRLHR), prolow-density lipoprotein receptor- related protein 1 preproprotein (LRP1), alpha-2-macroglobulin isoform a precursor (A2M), RUS1 family protein C16orf58 (C16orf58), tyrosine -protein kinase BAZ1B (BAZ1B), phospholipid phosphatase 2 (PPAP2C), chondroitin sulfate glucuronyltransferase (CHPF2), pre- mRNA 3' end processing protein WDR33 (WDR33), U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein A (SNRPA), GTP-binding protein 1 (GTPB), probable ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX46 (DDX), cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta (PRKA), lysine-specific demethylase 5B (KDM), jmjC domain-containing protein 8 (JMJ), CTD small phosphatase-like protein isoform 1 (CTDS), transmembrane protein 9B isoform a precursor (TMEM9B/1), transmembrane protein 9B isoform b (TMEM9B/2), dedicator of cytokinesis protein 1 (DOCK1), retinoblastoma-associated protein (RBI), lysine-specific demethylase 4A (KDM4A), E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase NEDD4-like (NEDD4L), serine/threonine-protein kinase TA03 (TAOK3), transcription elongation regulator 1 (TCERG1), E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RNF19B (RNF19B), rho GTPase-activating protein 45 (HMHA1), semaphorin-5A precursor (SEMA5A), adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC), zinc finger protein 732 (ZNF732), contactin-1 isoform 1 precursor (CNTN1), cellular tumor antigen p53 (TP53), KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, PIK3CA, EGFR, IDH1, SETD1B, RPL22, or RNF43. [0030] In some embodiments, a nucleotide sequence encoding the cancer antigen polypeptide comprises at least one modification compared to its corresponding wild type nucleotide sequence. In some embodiments, the modification leads to substitution, deletion, insertion of one or more amino acids, stop codon, or frameshift of each of the cancer antigen compared to the corresponding wild type sequence.

[0031] In some embodiments, the cancer antigen polypeptide comprises at least one of the following: a substitution mutation in TP53; a substitution mutation in KRAS; a substitution mutation in BRAF; a substitution mutation in NRAS; a substitution mutation in PIK3CA; a substitution mutation in EGFR; a substitution mutation in IDH1; a frameshift mutation in SETD1B; a frameshift mutation in RPL22; and/or a frameshift mutation in RNF43.

[0032] In some embodiments, the cancer antigen polypeptide comprises at least one of the following: a substitution mutation in TP53, selected from R175H, R273C, R248Q, R273H, R248W, R282W, Y220C, G245S, H179R, and V157F; a substitution mutation in KRAS, selected from G12D, G12V, G12C, G13D, G12A, G12R, G12S, G13C, A146T, and Q61H; a substitution mutation in BRAF, selected from V600E and V600M; a substitution mutation in NRAS, selected from Q61R and Q61K; a substitution mutation in PIK3CA, selected from E545K, H1047R, E542K, R88Q, G118D, N345K, C420R, E453K, Q546R, E726K, and H1047L; a substitution mutation in EGFR, selected from A289V, G598V, and L858R, a substitution mutation in IDH1, comprising R132H, a frameshift mutation in SETD1B, comprising H8 frameshift; a frameshift mutation in RPL22, comprising K15 frameshift; and/or a frameshift mutation in RNF43, comprising G659 frameshift.

[0033] In some embodiments, the cancer antigen polypeptide comprises at least one of the following: a substitution mutation in CTNNA2; a substitution mutation in MY03B; a substitution mutation in SLC8A3; a substitution mutation in SLC6A19; a substitution mutation in ADARB2; a substitution mutation in TCP11; a substitution mutation in LRTM2; a substitution mutation in NR5A1; a substitution mutation in PRLHR; a substitution mutation in LRP1; a substitution mutation in A2M; a substitution mutation in Cl6orf58; a substitution mutation in BAZ1B; a substitution mutation in PPAP2C; a substitution mutation in CHPF2; a substitution mutation in WDR33; a frameshift mutation SNRPA; a substitution mutation in GTPB; a substitution mutation in DDX46; a substitution mutation in PRKA; a substitution mutation in KDM; a substitution mutation in JMJ; a substitution mutation in CTDS; a substitution mutation in TMEM9B/1; a substitution mutation in TMEM9B/2; a substitution mutation in DOCK1; a substitution mutation in RB1; a substitution mutation in KDM4A; a substitution mutation in NEDD4L; a substitution mutation in TAOK3; a substitution mutation in TCERG1; a substitution mutation in RNF19B; a substitution mutation in HMHA1; a substitution mutation in SEMA5A; a substitution mutation in ZNF732; a substitution mutation in CNTN1; a substitution mutation in tumor antigen p53 (TP53); a substitution mutation in APC; and a frameshift mutation in APC.

[0034] In some embodiments, the cancer antigen polypeptide comprises any of SEQ ID NOs. 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, 31, 33, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43, 45, 47, 49, 51, 53, 55, 57, 59, 61, 63, 65, 67, 69, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, 83, 85, 87, 89, 91, 93, 95, 98, and 99.

[0035] In some embodiments, the recombinant oncolytic adenovirus comprises one or more compensatory deletions to one or more genomic regions.

[0036] The present disclosure further provides a method for producing a personalized recombinant oncolytic adenovirus for a subject in need thereof. In some embodiments, the method comprises sequencing DNA or RNA in a sample obtained from the subject to identify one or more mutant nucleotide sequences encoding one or more cancer antigens specific to the subject. In some embodiments, the method further comprises producing one or more transgenes, wherein each of the transgenes comprises one or more mutant nucleotide sequences identified. In some embodiments, the one or more mutant nucleotide sequences are separated by a peptide linker, an internal ribosome entry site (IRES), a ribosome skipping sequence, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, the method further comprises inserting the one or more transgenes into the genome of a recombinant oncolytic adenovirus to produce the personalized recombinant oncolytic adenovirus. In some embodiments, transcription of the transgenes is active in cancer cells and/or hyperproliferative cells, but is attenuated in normal cells;

[0037] In some embodiments, the subject of the present invention is a human. In some embodiments. In some embodiments, the subject is a pediatric human.

[0038] In some embodiments, the cancer of the present invention is selected from melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, basal cell carcinoma, head and neck cancer, breast cancer, anal cancer, cervical cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, mesothelioma, small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, prostate cancer, gastroesophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, testicular cancer, bladder cancer, ovarian cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, brain cancer, endometrial cancer, neuroendocrine cancer, merkel cell carcinoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, a sarcoma, and pancreatic cancer.

[0039] The present disclosure further provides a method of stimulating a heightened immune response against a cancer antigen in a subject in need thereof. In some embodiments, the method comprises administering to the subject an effective amount of a recombinant vector, e.g., a recombinant oncolytic vector, comprising an exogenous nucleotide sequence encoding the cancer antigen to stimulate the heightened immune response against the cancer antigen in the subject, wherein the cancer antigen has been identified by sequencing DNA or RNA from a sample from the subject. Any recombinant adenovirus of the present disclosure can be used.

[0040] In another aspect, the invention provides a method of treating a cancer in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a recombinant vector, e.g., a recombinant oncolytic vector, comprising an exogenous nucleotide sequence encoding at least one cancer antigen to treat the cancer in the subject, wherein the cancer antigen has been identified by sequencing DNA or RNA from a sample from the subject. Any recombinant adenovirus of the present disclosure can be used.

[0041] In certain embodiments, in any of the foregoing methods, the subject has previously been administered a prior recombinant vector comprising an exogenous nucleotide sequence encoding at least one cancer antigen. In certain embodiments, the cancer is refractory to the administration of the prior recombinant vector and/or the recombinant vector encodes at least one cancer antigen that was not encoded by the prior recombinant oncolytic vector.

[0042] In another aspect, the invention provides a method of treating a cancer in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising: (a) identifying a cancer antigen by sequencing DNA or RNA from a sample from the subject; and (b) administering to the subject an effective amount of a recombinant vector, e.g., a recombinant oncolytic vector, comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding the cancer antigen to treat the cancer in the subject. In certain embodiments, the method further comprises, after step (b): (c) identifying an additional cancer antigen by sequencing DNA or RNA from a sample from the subject; and (d) administering to the subject an effective amount of an additional recombinant vector, e.g., a recombinant oncolytic vector, comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding the additional cancer antigen to treat the cancer in the subject. The cancer may, for example, be refractory to the administration of step (b).

[0043] In certain embodiments, in any of the foregoing methods, the sample is a tumor sample (e.g., from a tumor biopsy), or a blood sample.

[0044] In certain embodiments, in any of the foregoing methods, the exogenous nucleotide sequence comprises at least about 1 to about 100 nucleotide sequences encoding about 10 to about 100 cancer antigens in the subject, such as about 5, about 10, about 15, about 20, about 25, about 30, about 35, about 40, about 45, about 50, about 55, about 60, about 65, about 70, about 75, about 80, about 85, about 90, about 95, or about 100 cancer antigens. [0045] In certain embodiments, in any of the foregoing methods, the cancer antigen or cancer antigens stimulate the release of an immunostimulatory cytokine, e.g., IFN-g, from autologous lymphocytes isolated from the subject. In certain embodiments, the cancer antigen or cancer antigens stimulate the release of an immunosuppressive cytokine, e.g., TGF-b, IL-10 or IL-5, from autologous lymphocytes isolated from the subject. In certain embodiments, the cancer antigen or cancer antigens comprise a self-antigen. In certain embodiments, in any of the foregoing methods, the cancer antigen or cancer antigens are selected by a method comprising (i) identifying a candidate cancer antigen by sequencing DNA or RNA from a sample from a subject with cancer; (ii) culturing autologous lymphocytes in the presence of the candidate cancer antigen; and (iii) assaying for the release of an immunosuppressive cytokine, e.g., TGF-b, IL-10 or IL-5, from the autologous lymphocytes.

[0046] In certain embodiments, in any of the foregoing methods, the cancer antigen or antigens are derived from 9D7, androgen receptor, a BAGE family protein, b-catenin, BING-4, BRAF, BRCA1/2, a CAGE family protein, calcium-activated chloride channel 2, CD19, CD20, CD30, CDK4, CEA, CML66, CT9, CT10, cyclin-Bl, EGFRvIII, Ep-CAM, EphA3, fibronectin, a GAGE family protein, gpl00/pmell7, Her-2/neu, HPV E6, HPV E7, Ig, immature laminin receptor, a MAGE family protein (e.g., MAGE-A3), MART-l/melan-A, MART2, MC1R, mesothelin, a mucin family protein (e.g., MUC-l), NY-ESO-l/LAGE-l, P.polypeptide, p53, podocalyxin (Podxl), PRAME, a ras family protein (e.g., KRAS), prostate specific antigen, a SAGE family protein, SAP-l, SSX-2, survivin, TAG-72, TCR, telomerase, TGF^RII, TRP-l, TRP-2, tyrosinase, a XAGE family protein.

[0047] In certain embodiments, in any of the foregoing methods, the cancer antigen is derived from KRAS, e.g., KRAS where Gly at position 12 has been substituted with Asp (KRAS G12D). For example, in certain embodiments, the recombinant vector comprises the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 16, or a nucleotide sequence encoding the amino acid sequence encoded by SEQ ID NO: 16.

[0048] In certain embodiments, in any of the foregoing methods, the nucleotide sequences encoding each cancer antigen are separated by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES), e.g., an encephalomyocarditis virus IRES, a foot-and-mouth disease virus IRES, or a poliovirus IRES, e.g., an IRES comprising SEQ ID NO: 13. In certain embodiments, the nucleotide sequences encoding each cancer antigen are separated by a nucleotide sequence encoding a protein linker, e.g., a protein linker comprising AAY (SEQ ID NO: 6), or protein linker comprising a cleavage site. [0049] In certain embodiments, in any of the foregoing methods, the recombinant vector is a recombinant adenovirus, e.g., a type 5 adenovirus (Ad5) or a type 2 adenovirus (Ad2).

[0050] In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus, e.g., recombinant oncolytic adenovirus, comprises an Ela promoter having a deletion of a functional Pea3 binding site. In certain embodiments, the deletion of a functional Pea3 binding site comprises a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to about -300 to about -250 upstream of the initiation site of Ela or a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -304 to -255 upstream of the initiation site of Ela. In certain embodiments, the deletion comprises a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 195-244 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1). In certain embodiments, the deletion of a functional Pea3 binding site results in a recombinant adenovirus comprising the sequence GGTGTTTTGG (SEQ ID NO: 2).

[0051] In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus, e.g., recombinant oncolytic adenovirus, comprises an Ela promoter having a deletion of a functional TATA box, e.g., the deletion of an entire TATA box. For example, in certain embodiments, the virus comprises a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -27 to -24, -31 to -24, -44 to +54, or -146 to +54 of the adenovirus type 5 Ela promoter, which correspond, respectively, to nucleotides 472 to 475, 468 to 475, 455 to 552, and 353 to 552 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1). In certain embodiments, the virus comprises a polynucleotide deletion that results in a virus comprising the sequence CTAGGACTG (SEQ ID NO: 17), AGTGCCCG (SEQ ID NO: 101), or TATTCCCG (SEQ ID NO: 102), which result from joining the two polynucleotide sequences that would otherwise flank the deleted polynucleotide sequence.

[0052] In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus, e.g., recombinant oncolytic adenovirus, comprises an Ela promoter having a deletion of a functional CAAT box, e.g., the deletion of an entire CAAT box. For example, in certain embodiments, the virus comprises a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -76 to -68 of the adenovirus type 5 Ela promoter, which corresponds to nucleotides 423 to 431 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1). In certain embodiments, the virus comprises a polynucleotide deletion that results in a virus comprising the sequence TTCCGTGGCG (SEQ ID NO: 103), which results from joining the two polynucleotide sequences that would otherwise flank the deleted polynucleotide sequence. In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus comprises a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 477 to 484 of the Ad35 genome (SEQ ID NO: 113).

[0053] In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus, e.g., recombinant oncolytic adenovirus, comprises a deletion of a functional Ela coding region. In certain embodiments, the deletion of a functional El a coding region comprises a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to the entire coding region of the El a gene. In certain embodiments, the deletion of a functional Ela coding region comprises a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 560-1545 of the Ad5 genome or a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 557-1678 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1). In certain embodiments, the deletion of a functional Ela coding region results in a recombinant adenovirus comprising the sequence GACTGTGCGC (SEQ ID NO: 3).

[0054] In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus, e.g., recombinant oncolytic adenovirus, comprises a deletion of a functional Elb-l9k coding region. In certain embodiments, the deletion of a functional Elb-l9k coding region comprises a deletion of from about 100 to about 305, about 100 to about 300, about 100 to about 250, about 100 to about 200, about 100 to about 150, about 150 to about 305, about 150 to about 300, about 150 to about 250, or about 150 to about 200 nucleotides adjacent to the start site of Elb-l9K. In certain embodiments, the deletion of a functional Elb-l9k coding region comprises a deletion of about 200 nucleotides, e.g., 203 nucleotides adjacent to the start site of Elb-l9K. In certain embodiments, the deletion of a functional Elb-l9k coding region comprises a deletion corresponding to nucleotides 1714-1916 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1).

[0055] In certain embodiments the recombinant adenovirus, e.g., recombinant oncolytic adenovirus, comprises an E3 deletion. In certain embodiments, the E3 deletion comprises a deletion of from about 500 to about 3185, from about 500 to about 3000, from about 500 to about 2500, from about 500 to about 2000, from about 500 to about 1500, from about 500 to about 1000, from about 1000 to about 3185, from about 1000 to about 3000, from about 1000 to about 2500, from about 1000 to about 2000, from about 1000 to about 1500, from about 1500 to about 3185, from about 1500 to about 3000, from about 1500 to about 2000, from about 2000 to about 3185, from about 2000 to about 3000, from about 2000 to about 2500, from about 2500 to about 3185, from about 2500 to about 3000, or from about 3000 to about 3185 nucleotides. In certain embodiments, the E3 deletion site is located between the stop site of pVIII and the start site of Fiber. In certain embodiments, the E3 deletion site is located between the stop site of E3- 10.5K and the stop site of E3-14.7K. In certain embodiments, the E3 deletion comprises a deletion of from about 500 to about 1551, from about 500 to about 1500, from about 500 to about 1000, from about 1000 to about 1551, from about 1000 to about 1500, or from about 1500 to about 1551 nucleotides adjacent to the stop site of E3-10.5K. In certain embodiments, the E3 deletion comprises a deletion of about 1050 nucleotides adjacent to the stop site of E3-10.5K, e.g., the E3 deletion comprises a deletion of 1064 nucleotides adjacent to the stop site of E3- 10.5K. In certain embodiments, the E3 deletion comprises a deletion corresponding to the Ad5 dl309 E3 deletion. In certain embodiments, the E3 deletion comprises a deletion corresponding to nucleotides 29773-30836 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1).

[0056] In certain embodiments, the exogenous nucleotide sequence encoding the at least one cancer antigen is inserted into the deletion of a functional Elb-l9k coding region, the deletion of a functional Ela coding region, or the E3 deletion. For example, in certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus comprises an exogenous nucleotide sequence inserted into the deletion of a functional Elb-l9k coding region, for example, the exogenous nucleotide sequence is inserted between CTGACCTC (SEQ ID NO: 4) and TCACCAGG (SEQ ID NO: 5), e.g., the recombinant adenovirus comprises, in a 5’ to 3’ orientation, CTGACCTC (SEQ ID NO: 4), the exogenous nucleotide sequence, and TCACCAGG (SEQ ID NO: 5). In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus comprises an exogenous nucleotide sequence inserted into the E3 deletion, for example, the exogenous nucleotide sequence is inserted between CAGTATGA (SEQ ID NO: 8) and TAATAAAAAA (SEQ ID NO: 9), e.g., the recombinant adenovirus comprises, in a 5’ to 3’ orientation, CAGTATGA (SEQ ID NO: 8), the exogenous nucleotide sequence, and TAATAAAAAA (SEQ ID NO: 9).

[0057] In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus, e.g., recombinant oncolytic adenovirus, may comprise a deletion of at least one E2F binding site, or a functional portion thereof. In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus may comprise a deletion of at least one E2F binding site, or a functional portion thereof, and not comprise a deletion of a Pea3 binding site.

[0058] In certain embodiments, in any of the foregoing methods, the recombinant vector, e.g., recombinant oncolytic vector, further comprises an exogenous nucleotide sequence encoding a therapeutic transgene. For example, in certain embodiments, the recombinant vector further comprises an exogenous nucleotide sequence encoding a polypeptide, or a fragment thereof, selected from CD80, CD137L, IL-23, IL-23A/pl9, IL-27, IL-27A/p28, IL-27B/EBI3, ICAM-l, a TGF-b trap, TGF-b, CD19, CD20, IL-l, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-9, CD154, CD86, BORIS/CTCFL, FGF, IL-24, MAGE, NY-ESO-l, acetylcholine, interferon-gamma, DKKl/Wnt, p53, thymidine kinase, an anti-PD-l antibody heavy chain or light chain, an anti- PD-L1 antibody heavy chain or light chain, FLT3L, and FLT3.

[0059] In certain embodiments, in any of the foregoing methods, the recombinant vector may be a recombinant oncolytic vector. In certain embodiments, in any of the foregoing methods, the recombinant oncolytic vector may selectively express the transgene in a hyperproliferative cell. The hyperproliferative cell may be a cancer cell, e.g., a lung cancer cell, a colon cancer cell, and a pancreatic cancer cell.

[0060] In certain embodiments, the recombinant vector, e.g., recombinant oncolytic vector, does not comprise an exogenous promoter sequence and the nucleotide sequence encoding the cancer antigen is not operably linked to an exogenous promoter sequence.

[0061] In certain embodiments, in any of the foregoing methods, the cancer is selected from melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, basal cell carcinoma, head and neck cancer, breast cancer, anal cancer, cervical cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, mesothelioma, small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, prostate cancer, gastroesophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, testicular cancer, bladder cancer, ovarian cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, brain cancer, endometrial cancer, neuroendocrine cancer, merkel cell carcinoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, a sarcoma, and pancreatic cancer.

[0062] In each of the foregoing methods, the recombinant adenovirus can, e.g., be administered in combination with one or more therapies selected from surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, hormone therapy, phototherapy, and virotherapy. In each of the foregoing methods, the recombinant adenovirus can, e.g., be administered in combination with a TGF-b trap or an expression vector comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding a TGF-b trap.

[0063] In another aspect, the invention provides a method of stimulating a heightened immune response against an antigen in a subject. The method comprises administering to the subject an effective amount of a recombinant vector comprising an exogenous nucleotide sequence encoding the antigen. In certain embodiments, the antigen is derived from a pathogenic organism, e.g., F1IV, HepC, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), Ebola virus and mycobacterium tuberculosis.

[0064] In each of the foregoing methods, the effective amount of the recombinant adenovirus can be, e.g., 102 -1015 plaque forming units (pfus). In each of the foregoing methods, the subject can, e.g., be a human, e.g., a pediatric human, or an animal.

[0065] These and other aspects and advantages of the invention are illustrated by the following figures, detailed description and claims.

STATEMENT REGARDING SEQUENCE LISTING

[0066] The Sequence Listing associated with this application is provided in text format in lieu of a paper copy, and is hereby incorporated by reference into the specification. The name of the text file containing the Sequence Listing is RDX-036WO_SeqList_ST25.txt. The text file is about 182 KB, was created on March 27, 2019 and is being submitted electronically via EFS- Web.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0067] FIGURE 1 is a schematic representation of a protein concatemer containing three cancer antigens or epitopes separated by Alanine- Alanine-Tyrosine (AAY; SEQ ID NO: 6) linkers and a C-terminal Ubiquitin that promotes proteasomal targeting and processing for MHC presentation.

[0068] FIGURES 2A-2C are tables listing the cancer-associated antigens identified from a patient, as described in Example 2. In each instance, a mutant amino acid sequence (top) and the corresponding wild-type amino acid sequence (bottom) are displayed. The mutated amino acid residues are in boxes.

[0069] FIGURE 3 is a graph that shows ELISA-based quantification of IL-24 and GM-CSF expression in A549 cells infected with control virus (TAV-Al9k) or IL-24 and GM-CSF expressing virus (TAV-hIL24-hGMCSF).

[0070] FIGURE 4A to FIGURE 4D depict an example of a pseudoprogressing paraspinal metastasis which enlarged and developed central radiolucency before regressing. The photos in FIGURE 4A to FIGURE 4D were taken on different dates.

[0071] FIGURE 5 is a graph showing ELISA-based quantification of mouse p53 expression in A549 cells infected with the virus AdFL-Gen-p53, the virus AdFL-Sol-p53, or kept as non- infected controls (labeled CN). Cells were assayed at 24 hours, 48 hours, or 72 hours after infection as indicated on the x-axis labels.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0072] It is to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting.

[0073] Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which the present application belongs. Although any methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can be used in the practice or testing of the present application, representative methods and materials are herein described.

[0074] Following long-standing patent law convention, the terms "a", "an", and "the" refer to "one or more" when used in this application, including the claims. Thus, for example, reference to "a foam suppression agent" includes mixtures of one or more foam suppression agent, two or more foam suppression agent.

[0075] Unless otherwise indicated, all numbers expressing quantities of ingredients, reaction conditions, and so forth used in the specification and claims are to be understood as being modified in all instances by the term "about". Accordingly, unless indicated to the contrary, the numerical parameters set forth in the present specification and attached claims are approximations that can vary depending upon the desired properties sought to be obtained by the present application. As used herein, the term“about” or“approximately” when preceding a numerical value indicates the value plus or minus a range of 10%. For example,“about 100” encompasses 90 and 110.

[0076] The term“wild type”, abbreviated as“WT”, is a term of the art understood by skilled persons and means the typical form of an organism, strain, gene, protein, or characteristic as it occurs in nature as distinguished from mutant or variant forms. For example, a WT protein is the typical form of that protein as it occurs in nature.

[0077] The term“mutant protein” is a term of the art understood by skilled persons and refers to a protein that is distinguished from the WT form of the protein on the basis of the presence of amino acid modifications, such as, for example, amino acid frameshift mutations, substitutions, insertions and/or deletions.

[0078] Amino acid substitution, interchangeably referred to as amino acid replacement, at a specific position on the protein sequence is denoted herein in the following manner:“one letter code of the WT amino acid residue -amino acid position- one letter code of the amino acid residue that replaces this WT residue”. For example, a p53 polypeptide which is a R175F1 mutant refers to a mutant p53 polypeptide in which the wild type residue at the l75th amino acid position (R or arginine) is replaced with Fl or histidine.

[0079] As used herein,“treatment” is an approach for obtaining beneficial or desired clinical results. For purposes of this invention, beneficial or desired clinical results include, but are not limited to, one or more of the following: improvement in at least one symptom associated with cancer, including lessening severity or alleviation of one or more symptoms associated with cancer, preventing, and/or the delaying the development and/or progression of cancer.

[0080] The invention is based, in part, upon the discovery that a recombinant vector, e.g., a recombinant oncolytic adenovirus, can be used to express selectively express a cancer antigen in a cancer cell in a subject and stimulate a heightened immune response against the cancer antigen in the subject and/or treat the cancer in the subject. In addition, a recombinant vector, e.g., a recombinant oncolytic adenovirus, can be used to selectively express in a cancer cell in a subject a cancer antigen that has been identified by sequencing DNA or RNA from a sample from the subject, thereby stimulating a heightened immune response against an antigen that is specific to the cancer of the subject. The features of the recombinant vectors, e.g., recombinant oncolytic adenoviruses, described herein, enable the repeated generation and administration of different recombinant vectors, e.g., recombinant oncolytic adenoviruses that express different subject- specific cancer antigens, thereby to treat refractory cancers.

[0081] Accordingly, in one aspect, the present disclosure provides a method of stimulating a heightened immune response against a cancer antigen in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a recombinant vector, e.g., a recombinant oncolytic vector, comprising an exogenous nucleotide sequence encoding the cancer antigen to stimulate the heightened immune response against the cancer antigen in the subject, wherein the cancer antigen has been identified by sequencing DNA or RNA from a sample from the subject.

[0082] In another aspect, the present disclosure provides a method of treating a cancer in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a recombinant vector e.g., a recombinant oncolytic vector, comprising an exogenous nucleotide sequence encoding at least one cancer antigen to treat the cancer in the subject, wherein the cancer antigen has been identified by sequencing DNA or RNA from a sample from the subject.

[0083] In certain embodiments, in any of the foregoing methods, the subject has previously been administered a prior recombinant vector comprising an exogenous nucleotide sequence encoding at least one cancer antigen. In certain embodiments, the cancer is refractory to the administration of the prior recombinant vector and/or the recombinant vector encodes at least one cancer antigen that was not encoded by the prior recombinant vector. It is contemplated that the subject may have previously been administered more than one prior recombinant vector (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or more prior recombinant vectors).

[0084] In another aspect, the present disclosure provides a method of treating a cancer in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising: (a) identifying a cancer antigen by sequencing DNA or RNA from a sample from the subject; and (b) administering to the subject an effective amount of a recombinant vector e.g., a recombinant oncolytic vector, comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding the cancer antigen to treat the cancer in the subject. In certain embodiments, the method further comprises, after step (b): (c) identifying an additional cancer antigen by sequencing DNA or RNA from a sample from the subject; and (d) administering to the subject an effective amount of an additional recombinant vector e.g., a recombinant oncolytic vector, comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding the additional cancer antigen to treat the cancer in the subject. The cancer may, for example, be refractory to the administration of step (b) It is contemplated that the subject may be administered more than one additional recombinant vectors (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or more recombinant vectors).

[0085] The present disclosure also provides a recombinant vector. In some embodiments, the recombinant vector is an oncolytic vector, e.g., a vector that exhibits tumor-selective gene expression and/or replication. In certain embodiments, a recombinant vector of the invention exhibits selective expression of a transgene (e.g., a cancer antigen) in a hyperproliferative cell, e.g., a cancer cell, relative to a non-hyperproliferative cell. As used herein, the term cancer antigen refers to an antigenic substance produced in a cancer cell. The cancer antigen can be a full length protein, or a fragment thereof, such as about 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16,

17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 44,

43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50 or more amino acids of a full length protein in a cancer cell. In some embodiments, the cancer antigen comprises one or more mutations compared to a corresponding wild type sequence. In some embodiments, the mutation is a substation, a deletion, an insertion, a frameshift, or combination thereof. In some embodiments, the cancer antigen polypeptide comprises the mutation, and amino acids flanking the mutation.

[0086] In certain embodiments, the expression of a transgene in a non-hyperproliferative cell is about 90%, about 80%, about 70%, about 60%, about 50%, about 40%, about 30%, about 20%, about 10% , or about 5% of the expression of the gene in the hyperproliferative cell. In certain embodiments, the vector exhibits no detectable expression of a transgcnc in a non- hyperproliferative cell. Transgene expression may be determined by any appropriate method known in the art, e.g., Western blot or ELISA. The hyperproliferative cell may be a cancer cell, e.g., a carcinoma, sarcoma, leukemia, lymphoma, prostate cancer, lung cancer, gastrointestinal tract cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, stomach cancer, thyroid cancer, mesothelioma, liver cancer, kidney cancer, skin cancer, head and neck cancer, or brain cancer cell.

I. Recombinant Vectors

[0087] Recombinant vectors suitable for use in the invention include, e.g., viruses, bacteria (e.g., Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica or Serovar typhimurium), nanoparticles, liposomes, exosomes, or microemulsions. [0088] The term "virus" is used herein to refer any of the obligate intracellular parasites having no protein-synthesizing or energy-generating mechanism. The viral genome may be RNA or DNA. The viruses useful in the practice of the present invention include recombinantly modified enveloped or non-enveloped DNA and RNA viruses, preferably selected from baculoviridiae, parvoviridiae, picornoviridiae, herpesviridiae, poxyiridae, or adenoviridiae. A recombinantly modified virus is referred to herein as a“recombinant virus.” A recombinant virus may, e.g., be modified by recombinant DNA techniques to be replication deficient, conditionally replicating, or replication competent, and/or be modified by recombinant DNA techniques to include expression of exogenous transgenes. Chimeric viral vectors which exploit advantageous elements of each of the parent vector properties (See, e.g., Feng et al. (1997) NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY 15:866-870) may also be useful in the practice of the present invention. Although it is generally favored to employ a virus from the species to be treated, in some instances it may be advantageous to use vectors derived from different species that possess favorable pathogenic features. For example, equine herpes virus vectors for human gene therapy are described in PCT Publication No. WO 98/27216. The vectors are described as useful for the treatment of humans as the equine virus is not pathogenic to humans. Similarly, ovine adenoviral vectors may be used in human gene therapy as they are claimed to avoid the antibodies against the human adenoviral vectors. Such vectors are described in PCT Publication No. WO 97/06826.

[0089] Exemplary viruses useful in the practice of the invention include adenovirus, adeno- associated virus (AAV) , rhabdovirus, measles virus, vaccinia virus, myxoma virus, parvovirus, Newcastle disease virus, Semliki Forest virus, fowlpox virus, lentivirus, herpes virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Maraba virus, polio virus, and alpha virus. In certain embodiments, without wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that a recombinant virus can provide a “danger signal” that can active that innate immune system and increase the efficacy of an immune response against a cancer antigens in a subject.

[0090] In certain embodiments, the recombinant virus is selected from an adenovirus and an adeno-associated virus (AAV). Preferably, the recombinant virus is an adenovirus. Adenoviruses are medium-sized (90-100 nm), non-enveloped (naked), icosahedral viruses composed of a nucleocapsid and a double-stranded linear DNA genome. Adenoviruses replicate in the nucleus of mammalian cells using the host's replication machinery. The term "adenovirus" refers to any virus in the genus Adenoviridiae including, but not limited to, human, bovine, ovine, equine, canine, porcine, murine, and simian adenovirus subgenera. In particular, human adenoviruses includes the A-F subgenera as well as the individual serotypes thereof, the individual serotypes and A-F subgenera including but not limited to human adenovirus types 1, 2, 3, 4, 4a, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 (Adl la and Adl lp), 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, l9a, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 34a, 35, 35p, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, and 91. Preferred are recombinant adenoviruses derived from human adenovirus types 2 and 5. Unless stated otherwise, all adenovirus type 5 nucleotide numbers are relative to the NCBI reference sequence AC_000008.l, which is depicted herein in SEQ ID NO: 1.

[0091] The adenovirus replication cycle has two phases: an early phase, during which 4 transcription units El, E2, E3, and E4 are expressed, and a late phase which occurs after the onset of viral DNA synthesis when late transcripts are expressed primarily from the major late promoter (MLP). The late messages encode most of the virus's structural proteins. The gene products of El, E2 and E4 are responsible for transcriptional activation, cell transformation, viral DNA replication, as well as other viral functions, and are necessary for viral growth.

[0092] The Ela gene of Ad5 is processed by mRNA splicing to yield five distinct isoforms; 13S, 12S, 11 S, 10S and 9S. The major forms 13S and 12S code for two Ela proteins, 289R and 243R respectively, that regulate transcription of both viral and cellular genes in adenovirus- infected cells and are essential for adenoviral replication. The 289R form includes a critical transactivation domain that activates transcription of the early adenoviral genes: E2, E3, and E4 (Berk, Lee et al. 1979; Jones and Shenk 1979). This domain is spliced out to generate the 243R isoform of Ela and viruses expressing only the 243R form are unable to transactivate expression from the early viral genes (Montell, Courtois et al. 1984). Ela induces expression of cellular genes including c-Fos, c-Jun, and c-Myc and represses the transcription of c-erbB2 and epidermal growth factor receptor. Ela proteins can drive quiescent cells into cell division by interaction with critical cellular cell cycle proteins including pRB, p27, cyclin A, cyclin E, CtBP, and p300/CBP.

[0093] The general structure of the mature Adenovirion is conserved among different Adenoviral species. The Adenoviral capsid is composed of three major proteins (II, III, and IV) and five minor proteins, VI, VIII, IX, Ilia, and IVa2.“IVa2 gene” used herein refers to the gene encoding the IVa2 protein, modified versions, and/or fragment thereof.“IX gene” used herein refers to the gene encoding the IX protein, modified versions, and/or fragment thereof.

[0094] Primary transcripts from E4 are subject to alternative splicing events and are predicted to encode seven different polypeptides: ORF1, ORF2, ORF3, ORF3/4, ORF4, ORF5, ORF6, and ORF6/7. (Leppard et al., Journal of General Virology (1997) 78:2131-8)“ORF’ is used herein to refer to either the polypeptide or the nucleotide sequence encoding the polypeptide, modified versions, and/or fragment thereof. [0095] In addition, the fiber protein (also known as protein IV or SPIKE) forms spikes that protrude from each vertex of the icosahedral capsid.“Fiber gene” used herein refers to the gene encoding the fiber protein, also known as L5 gene, modified versions, and/or fragment thereof.

[0096] Recombinant adenoviruses and method of making and using them are described in US Application No. 15/991,745, US Application No. 16/058,886, PCTVUS2018/034888, and PCT/US2018/030929, each of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety.

A. Modified Ela Transcriptional Control Region

[0097] In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenoviruses comprise one or more modifications to a regulatory sequence or promoter. A modification to a regulatory sequence or promoter comprises a deletion, substitution, or addition of one or more nucleotides compared to the wild-type sequence of the regulatory sequence or promoter.

[0098] In one embodiment, the modification of a regulatory sequence or promoter comprises a modification of sequence of a transcription factor binding site to reduce affinity for the transcription factor, for example, by deleting a portion thereof, or by inserting a single point mutation into the binding site. In certain embodiments, the additional modified regulatory sequence enhances expression in neoplastic cells, but attenuates expression in normal cells.

[0099] In one embodiment, at least one of these seven binding sites, or a functional binding site, is deleted. As used herein, a“functional binding site” refers to a binding site that is capable of binding to a respective binding partner, e.g., a transcription factor, e.g., a binding site that has at least 100%, at least 90%, at least 80%, at least 70%, at least 60%, at least 50%, or at least 40%, of the binding activity of a corresponding wild-type binding site sequence. As used herein, a“non-functional binding site” refers to a binding site that, e.g., has less than 30%, less than 20%, less than 10%, or 0% of the binding activity of a corresponding wild-type binding site sequence.

[00100] In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenoviruses comprise a modified Ela regulatory sequence. In certain embodiments, a disclosed recombinant adenovirus may, e.g., comprise a deletion of a functional Ela coding region. As used herein, a“functional Ela coding region” refers to an Ela coding region that encodes for a functional Ela protein, e.g., an Ela protein that is capable of binding to a respective binding partner (e.g., CREB binding protein (CBP)), e.g., an Ela protein that has at least 100%, at least 90%, at least 80%, at least 70%, at least 60%, at least 50%, or at least 40%, of the binding activity of a corresponding wild-type Ela protein. As used herein, a“non-functional Ela coding region” refers to a coding region that encodes for an Ela protein that, e.g., has less than 30%, less than 20%, less than 10%, or 0% of the binding activity of a corresponding wild- type Ela protein.

[00101] In certain embodiments, the deletion of a functional Ela coding region comprises a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to the entire coding region of the Ela gene. In certain embodiments, the deletion of a functional Ela coding region comprises a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 560-1545 of the Ad5 genome or a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 557-1678 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1). In certain embodiments, the deletion of a functional Ela coding region results in a recombinant adenovirus comprising the sequence GACTGTGCGC (SEQ ID NO: 3). In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus includes an Ela insertion site, e.g., the adenovirus has a transgene inserted into the deletion of a functional Ela coding region.

[00102] The adenoviral Elb-l9k gene functions primarily as an anti-apoptotic gene and is a homolog of the cellular anti-apoptotic gene, BCL-2. Since host cell death prior to maturation of the progeny viral particles would restrict viral replication, Elb-l9k is expressed as part of the El cassette to prevent premature cell death thereby allowing the infection to proceed and yield mature virions. Accordingly, in certain embodiments, a recombinant adenovirus is provided that includes a deletion of a functional Elb-l9k coding region.

[00103] A disclosed recombinant adenovirus may, e.g., comprise a deletion of a functional Elb-l9k coding region. As used herein, a“functional Elb-l9k coding region” refers to an Elb- l9k coding region that encodes for a functional Elb-l9k protein, e.g., an Elb-l9k protein that is capable of binding to a respective binding partner (e.g., BAK), e.g., an Elb-l9k protein that has at least 100%, at least 90%, at least 80%, at least 70%, at least 60%, at least 50%, or at least 40%, of the binding activity of a corresponding wild-type Elb-l9k protein. As used herein, a “non-functional Elb-l9k coding region” refers to a coding region that encodes for an Elb-l9k protein that, e.g., has less than 30%, less than 20%, less than 10%, or 0% of the binding activity of a corresponding wild-type Elb-l9k protein.

[00104] In certain embodiments, the deletion of a functional Elb-l9k coding region comprises a deletion located between the start site of Elb-l9K (i.e., the nucleotide sequence encoding the start codon of Elb-l9k, e.g., corresponding to nucleotides 1714-1716 of SEQ ID NO: 1) and the start site of Elb-55K (i.e., the nucleotide sequence encoding the start codon of Elb-55k, e.g., corresponding to nucleotides 2019-2021 of SEQ ID NO: 1). In certain embodiments, the deletion of a functional Elb-l9k coding region comprises a deletion located between the start site of Elb-l9K (i.e., the nucleotide sequence encoding the start codon of Elb- l9k, e.g., corresponding to nucleotides 1714-1716 of SEQ ID NO: 1) and the stop site of Elb- 19K (i.e., the nucleotide sequence encoding the stop codon of Elb-l9k, e.g., corresponding to nucleotides 2242-2244 of SEQ ID NO: 1). Throughout the description and claims, an insertion between two sites, for example, an insertion between (i) a start site of a first gene (e.g., Elb-l9k) and a start site of a second gene, (e.g., Elb-55K), (ii) a start site of a first gene and a stop site of a second gene, (iii) a stop site of a first gene and start site of a second gene, or (iv) a stop site of first gene and a stop site of a second gene, is understood to mean that all or a portion of the nucleotides constituting a given start site or a stop site surrounding the insertion may be present or absent in the final virus. Similarly, an insertion between two nucleotides is understood to mean that the nucleotides surrounding the insertion may be present or absent in the final virus. The term “transgene” refers to an exogenous gene, or fragment thereof, or exogenous polynucleotide sequence. As used herein“transgene” is understood to encompass a single a exogenous gene, or fragment thereof, or exogenous polynucleotide sequence, or multiple (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, or 15) exogenous genes, or fragments thereof, or exogenous polynucleotide sequences The term“therapeutic transgene” refers to a transgene, which when replicated and/or expressed in or by the virus imparts a therapeutic effect in a target cell, body fluid, tissue, organ, physiological system, or subject.

[00105] In certain embodiments, the deletion of a functional Elb-l9k coding region comprises a deletion of from about 100 to about 305, about 100 to about 300, about 100 to about 250, about 100 to about 200, about 100 to about 150, about 150 to about 305, about 150 to about 300, about 150 to about 250, or about 150 to about 200 nucleotides adjacent to the start site of Elb-l9K (i.e., the nucleotide sequence encoding the start codon of Elb-l9k, e.g., corresponding to nucleotides 1714-1716 of SEQ ID NO: 1). In certain embodiments, the deletion of a functional Elb-l9k coding region comprises a deletion of about 200 nucleotides, e.g., 203 nucleotides adjacent to the start site of Elb-l9K. In certain embodiments, the deletion of a functional Elb-l9k coding region comprises a deletion corresponding to nucleotides 1714-1916 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1). Throughout the description and claims, a deletion adjacent to a site, for example, a deletion adjacent to a start site of a gene or a deletion adjacent to a stop site of a gene, is understood to mean that the deletion may include a deletion of all, a portion, or none of the nucleotides constituting a given start site or a stop site.

[00106] In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus comprises one or more exogenous nucleotide sequences inserted in one or more of an Elb-l9K insertion site, an E3 insertion site, an E4 insertion site, an IX-E2 insertion site, an L5-E4 insertion site, and any combinations thereof. In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus selectively expresses the cancer antigen in tumor cells. In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus selectively replicates in cells of a cancer.

[00107] In certain embodiments, the nucleotide sequence is inserted between nucleotides corresponding to about 3899 and 3970 of the Ad35 genome (SEQ ID NO: 113). In certain embodiments, the nucleotide sequence is inserted between nucleotides corresponding to 3899 and 3920, nucleotides corresponding to 3920 and 3940, or nucleotides corresponding to 3940 and 3970 of the Ad35 genome (SEQ ID NO: 113). In certain embodiments, the nucleotide sequence is inserted between nucleotides corresponding to about 31799 and 31821 of the Ad35 genome (SEQ ID NO: 113). In certain embodiments, the nucleotide sequence is inserted between nucleotides corresponding to 31799 and 32810, or nucleotides corresponding to 32810 and 31821 of the Ad35 genome (SEQ ID NO: 113).

[00108] In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus comprises an Elb-l9K insertion site, e.g., the adenovirus has an exogenous nucleotide sequence inserted into the deletion of a functional Elb-l9k coding region. For example, in certain embodiments, an exogenous nucleotide sequence is inserted between nucleotides corresponding to 1714 and 1916 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1). In certain embodiments, an exogenous nucleotide sequence is inserted between CTGACCTC (SEQ ID NO: 4) and TCACCAGG (SEQ ID NO: 5), e.g., the recombinant adenovirus comprises, in a 5’ to 3’ orientation, CTGACCTC (SEQ ID NO: 4), the exogenous nucleotide sequence, and TCACCAGG (SEQ ID NO: 5). CTGACCTC (SEQ ID NO: 4) and TCACCAGG (SEQ ID NO: 5) define unique boundary sequences for a Elb-l9K insertion site within the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1).

[00109] In certain embodiments the recombinant adenovirus comprises an E3 deletion. In certain embodiments, the E3 deletion comprises a deletion of from about 500 to about 3185, from about 500 to about 3000, from about 500 to about 2500, from about 500 to about 2000, from about 500 to about 1500, from about 500 to about 1000, from about 1000 to about 3185, from about 1000 to about 3000, from about 1000 to about 2500, from about 1000 to about 2000, from about 1000 to about 1500, from about 1500 to about 3185, from about 1500 to about 3000, from about 1500 to about 2000, from about 2000 to about 3185, from about 2000 to about 3000, from about 2000 to about 2500, from about 2500 to about 3185, from about 2500 to about 3000, or from about 3000 to about 3185 nucleotides.

[00110] In certain embodiments, the E3 deletion comprises a deletion located between the stop site of pVIII (i.e., the nucleotide sequence encoding the stop codon of pVIII, e.g., corresponding to nucleotides 27855-27857 of SEQ ID NO: 1) and the start site of Fiber (i.e., the nucleotide sequence encoding the start codon of Fiber, e.g., corresponding to nucleotides 31042- 31044 of SEQ ID NO: 1). In certain embodiments, the E3 deletion comprises a deletion located between the stop site of E3-10.5K (i.e., the nucleotide sequence encoding the stop codon of E3- 10.5K, e.g., corresponding to nucleotides 29770-29772 of SEQ ID NO: 1) and the stop site of E3-14.7K (i.e., the nucleotide sequence encoding the stop codon of E3-14.7K, e.g., corresponding to nucleotides 30837-30839 of SEQ ID NO: 1). In certain embodiments, the E3 deletion comprises a deletion of from about 500 to about 1551, from about 500 to about 1500, from about 500 to about 1000, from about 1000 to about 1551, from about 1000 to about 1500, or from about 1500 to about 1551 nucleotides adjacent to the stop site of E3-10.5K. In certain embodiments, the E3 deletion comprises a deletion of about 1050 nucleotides adjacent to the stop site of E3-10.5K (i.e., the nucleotide sequence encoding the stop codon of E3-10.5K, e.g., corresponding to nucleotides 29770-29772 of SEQ ID NO: 1), e.g., the E3 deletion comprises a deletion of 1064 nucleotides adjacent to the stop site of E3-10.5K. In certain embodiments, the E3 deletion comprises a deletion corresponding to the Ad5 dl309 E3 deletion. In certain embodiments, the E3 deletion comprises a deletion corresponding to nucleotides 29773-30836 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1).

[00111] In certain embodiments, the E3 deletion comprises a deletion located between the stop site of E3-gpl9K (i.e., the nucleotide sequence encoding the stop codon of E3-gpl9K, e.g., corresponding to nucleotides 29215-29217 of SEQ ID NO: 1) and the stop site of E3-14.7K (i.e., the nucleotide sequence encoding the stop codon of E3-14.7K, e.g., corresponding to nucleotides 30837-30839 of SEQ ID NO: 1). In certain embodiments, the E3 deletion comprises a deletion of from about 500 to about 1824, from about 500 to about 1500, from about 500 to about 1000, from about 1000 to about 1824, from about 1000 to about 1500, or from about 1500 to about 1824 nucleotides adjacent the stop site of E3-gpl9K. In certain embodiments, the E3 deletion comprises a deletion of about 1600 nucleotides adjacent the stop site of E3-gpl9K. e.g., the E3 insertion site comprises a deletion of 1622 nucleotides adjacent the stop site of E3-gpl9K. In certain embodiments, the E3 deletion comprises a deletion corresponding to nucleotides 29218- 30839 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1).

[00112] In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus comprises an E3 insertion site, e.g., the adenovirus has an exogenous nucleotide sequence inserted into the E3 deletion. For example, in certain embodiments, an exogenous nucleotide sequence is inserted between nucleotides corresponding to 29773 and 30836 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1). In certain embodiments, the exogenous nucleotide sequence is inserted between CAGTATGA (SEQ ID NO: 8) and TAATAAAAAA (SEQ ID NO: 9), e.g., the recombinant adenovirus comprises, in a 5’ to 3’ orientation, CAGTATGA (SEQ ID NO: 8), the exogenous nucleotide sequence, and TAATAAAAAA (SEQ ID NO: 9). CAGTATGA (SEQ ID NO: 8) and TAATAAAAAA (SEQ ID NO: 9) define unique boundary sequences for an E3 insertion site within the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1).

[00113] In certain embodiments, the exogenous nucleotide sequence is inserted between nucleotides corresponding to 29218 and 30839 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1). In certain embodiments, the exogenous nucleotide sequence is inserted between TGCCTTAA (SEQ ID NO: 11) and TAAAAAAAAAT (SEQ ID NO: 12), e.g., the recombinant adenovirus comprises, in a 5’ to 3’ orientation, TGCCTTAA (SEQ ID NO: 11), the exogenous nucleotide sequence, and TAAAAAAAAAT (SEQ ID NO: 12). TGCCTTAA (SEQ ID NO: 11) and TAAAAAAAAAT (SEQ ID NO: 12) define unique boundary sequences for an E3 insertion site within the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1).

[00114] In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus comprises an E4 deletion. In certain embodiments, the E4 deletion is located between the start site of E4-ORF6/7 (i.e., the nucleotide sequence encoding the start codon of E4-ORF6/7, e.g., corresponding to nucleotides 34075-34077 of SEQ ID NO: 1) and the right inverted terminal repeat (ITR; e.g., corresponding to nucleotides 35836-35938 of SEQ ID NO: 1). In certain embodiments, the E4 deletion is located between the start site of E4-ORF6/7 and the start site of E4-ORF1 (i.e., the nucleotide sequence encoding the start codon of E4-ORF1, e.g., corresponding to nucleotides 35524-35526 of SEQ ID NO: 1). In certain embodiments, the E4 deletion comprises a deletion of a nucleotide sequence between the start site of E4-ORF6/7 and the start site of E4-ORF1. In certain embodiments, the E4 deletion comprises a deletion of from about 500 to about 2500, from about 500 to about 2000, from about 500 to about 1500, from about 500 to about 1000, from about 1000 to about 2500, from about 1000 to about 2000, from about 1000 to about 1500, from about 1500 to about 2500, from about 1500 to about 2000, or from about 2000 to about 2500 nucleotides. In certain embodiments, the E4 deletion comprises a deletion of from about 250 to about 1500, from about 250 to about 1250, from about 250 to about 1000, from about 250 to about 750, from about 250 to about 500, from 500 to about 1500, from about 500 to about 1250, from about 500 to about 1000, from about 500 to about 750, from 750 to about 1500, from about 750 to about 1250, from about 750 to about 1000, from about 1000 to about 1500, or from about 1000 to about 1250 nucleotides adjacent the start site of E4-ORF6/7. In certain embodiments, the E4 deletion comprises a deletion of about 1450 nucleotides adjacent the start site of E4- ORF6/7, e.g., the E4 deletion comprises a deletion of about 1449 nucleotides adjacent the start site of E4-ORF6/7. In certain embodiments, the E4 deletion comprises a deletion corresponding to nucleotides 34078-35526 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1).

[00115] In certain embodiments, an E4 insertion site comprises any one of the ORF of the E4 gene. For example, a nucleotide sequence can be inserted in E4 ORF1, and/or E4 ORF2. In certain embodiments, portions of or the entire E4 region may be deleted.

[00116] In certain embodiments, the insertion site is the IX-E2 insertion site. In certain embodiments, the IX-E2 insertion site is located between the stop codon of adenovirus IX gene and the stop codon of adenovirus IVa2 gene. In certain embodiments, the exogenous nucleotide sequence is inserted between nucleotides corresponding to 4029 and 4093 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1). In certain embodiments, the exogenous nucleotide sequence is inserted between nucleotides corresponding to 4029 and 4050, nucleotides corresponding to 4051 and 4070, or nucleotides corresponding to 4071 and 4093 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1). In some embodiments, the IX-E2 insertion site has at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95%, or at least 99% identity to nucleotides corresponding to 4029 and 4093 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1).

[00117] In certain embodiments, the insertion site is an L5-E4 insertion site. In certain embodiments, the L5-E4 insertion site is located between the stop codon of adenovirus fiber gene and the stop codon of ORF6 or ORF6/7 of the adenovirus E4 gene. In certain embodiments, the exogenous nucleotide sequence is inserted between nucleotides corresponding to 32785 to 32916 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1). In certain embodiments, the exogenous nucleotide sequence is inserted between nucleotides corresponding to 32785 and 32800, nucleotides corresponding to 32801 and 32820, nucleotides corresponding to 32821 and 32840, nucleotides corresponding to 32841 and 32860, nucleotides corresponding to 32861 and 32880, nucleotides corresponding to 32881 and 32900, or nucleotides corresponding to 32901 and 32916 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1). In some embodiments, the L5-E4 insertion site has at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95%, or at least 99% identity to nucleotides corresponding to 32785 to 32916 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1).

[00118] In certain embodiments, the IX-E2 insertion site comprises a deletion of about 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, or 60 nucleotides. In certain embodiments, the L5-E4 insertion site comprises a deletion of about 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 105, 110, 115, 120, 125, or 130 nucleotides.

[00119] The term "operably linked" refers to a linkage of polynucleotide elements in a functional relationship. A nucleic acid sequence is "operably linked" when it is placed into a functional relationship with another nucleic acid sequence. For instance, a promoter or enhancer is operably linked to a gene if it affects the transcription of the gene. Operably linked nucleotide sequences are typically contiguous. However, as enhancers generally function when separated from the promoter by several kilobases and intronic sequences may be of variable lengths, some polynucleotide elements may be operably linked but not directly flanked and may even function in trans from a different allele or chromosome.

[00120] In certain embodiments, tire virus has one or more modifications to a regulatory sequence or promoter. A modification to a regulatory sequence or promoter comprises a deletion, substitution, or addition of one or more nucleotides compared to the wild-type sequence of the regulatory sequence or promoter.

[00121] In certain embodiments, the modification of a regulatory sequence or promoter comprises a modification of the sequence of a transcription factor binding site to reduce affinity for the transcription factor, for example, by deleting a portion thereof, or by inserting a single point mutation into the binding site. In certain embodiments, the modified regulatory sequence enhances expression in neoplastic cells and/or attenuates expression in normal cells.

[00122] In certain embodiments, the modified regulatory sequence is operably linked to a sequence encoding a protein. In certain embodiments, at least one of the adenoviral Ela and Elb genes (coding regions) is operably linked to a modified regulatory sequence. In certain embodiments, the Ela gene is operably linked to a modified regulatory sequence.

[00123] The Ela regulatory sequence contains five binding sites for the transcription factor Pea3, designated Pea3 I, Pea3 II, Pea3 III, Pea3 IV, and Pea3 V, where Pea3 I is the Pea3 binding site most proximal to the Ela start site, and Pea3 V is most distal. The Ela regulatory sequence also contains binding sites for the transcription factor E2F, hereby designated E2F I and E2F II, where E2F I is the E2F binding site most proximal to the Ela start site, and E2F II is more distal. From the Ela start site, the binding sites are arranged: Pea3 I, E2F I, Pea3 II, E2F II, Pea3 III, Pea3 IV, and Pea3 V.

[00124] In certain embodiments, at least one of these seven binding sites, or at least one of seven functional binding sites, is deleted. As used herein, a“functional binding site” refers to a binding site that is capable of binding to a respective binding partner, e.g., a transcription factor, e.g., a binding site that has at least 100%, at least 90%, at least 80%, at least 70%, at least 60%, at least 50%, or at least 40%, of the binding activity of a corresponding wild-type binding site sequence. As used herein, a“non-functional binding site” refers to a binding site that, e.g., has less than 30%, less than 20%, less than 10%, or 0% of the binding activity of a corresponding wild-type binding site sequence. [00125] In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus comprises an Ela promoter having a deletion of a functional Pea3 binding site, e.g., the deletion of an entire Pea3 binding site. As used herein, a“functional Pea3 binding site” refers to a Pea3 binding site that is capable of binding to its respective transcription factor (e.g., Pea3), e.g., a Pea3 binding site that has at least 100%, at least 90%, at least 80%, at least 70%, at least 60%, at least 50%, or at least 40%, of the Pea3 binding activity of a corresponding wild-type Pea3 binding site sequence. As used herein, a“non-functional Pea3 binding site” refers to a Pea3 binding site that, e.g. , has less than 30%, less than 20%, less than 10%, or 0% of the Pea3 binding activity of a corresponding wild- type Pea3 binding site sequence. Assays for determining whether a Pea3 binding site binds to Pea3 are known in the art. Exemplary binding assays include electrophoretic mobility shift assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, and DNAse footprinting assays.

[00126] In certain embodiments, at least one Pea3 binding site, or a functional Pea3 binding site, is deleted. The deleted Pea3 binding site can be Pea3 I, Pea3 II, Pea3 III, Pea3 IV, and/or Pea3 V. In certain embodiments, the deleted Pea3 binding site is Pea3 II, Pea3 III, Pea3 IV, and/or Pea3 V. In certain embodiments, the deleted Pea3 binding site is Pea3 IV and/or Pea3 V. In another embodiment, the deleted Pea3 binding site is Pea3 II and/or Pea3 III. In certain embodiments, the deleted Pea3 binding site is both Pea3 II and Pea3 III. In certain embodiments, the Pea3 I binding site, or a functional Pea3 I binding site, is retained.

[00127] In certain embodiments, at least one E2F binding site, or a functional E2F binding site, is deleted. In certain embodiments, at least one E2F binding site, or a functional E2F binding site, is retained. In certain embodiments, the retained E2F binding site is E2F I and/or E2F II. In certain embodiments, the retained E2F binding site is E2F II. In certain embodiments, the total deletion consists essentially of one or more of Pea3 II, Pea3 III, Pea3 IV, and/or Pea3 V. In certain embodiments, the virus has a deletion of a 50 base pair region located from -304 to -255 upstream of the Ela initiation site, e.g., corresponding to 195-244 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1), hereafter referred to as the TAV-255 deletion. In certain embodiments, the TAV-255 deletion results in an Ela promoter that comprises the sequence GGTGTTTTGG (SEQ ID NO: 2).

[00128] In one embodiment, the recombinant adenovirus has the same or similar Ela modification as in the oncolytic serotype 5 adenovirus (Ad5) called TAV-255 described in PCT Publication No. W02010101921 and US Publication No. 20160017294A1, each of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. It is believed that the mechanism by which the TAV-255 vector achieves this tumor selectivity is through targeted deletion of three transcriptional factor (TF) binding sites for the transcription factors Pea3 and E2F, proteins that regulate adenovirus expression of El a, the earliest gene to be transcribed after virus entry into the host cell, through binding to specific DNA sequences. These three Pea3 and E2F deletions attenuate replication in growth-arrested, normal cells but not in malignant ones, indicating that these DNA sequences are only dispensable for transcriptional regulation and growth in cancer cells.

[00129] In one embodiment, the recombinant adenovirus comprises one or more Pea3 transcription binding site deletions without one or more E2F transcription binding site deletions in the E1A region. In other embodiment, the recombinant adenovirus comprises one or more E2F transcription binding site deletions without one or more Pea3 transcription binding site deletions in the El A region.

[00130] In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus comprises an Ela promoter lacking a functional TATA box, or lacking a functional CAAT box. In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus comprises a deletion of the entire TATA box. In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus comprises a deletion of the entire CAAT box.

[00131] The TATA box is recognized by Transcription Factor IIB (TFIIB) and the TATA binding protein (TBP), which are required for the recruitment of RNA pol II. The central role of the TATA box in transcription is supported by experimental observations of impaired or inactivated transcription following the mutation or removal of a TATA box, e.g., the removal of the TATA box in the promoter of the adenoviral Ela gene (Wu et al. (1987) NATURE 326(6112):512-5).

[00132] An additional sequence present in many promoters is a CAAT box. A CAAT box is typically located approximately 60-100 bases upstream of a gene’s transcription start site and has the consensus sequence GG(T/C)CAATCT. The CAAT box is recognized by core binding factors (also referred to as nuclear factor Y or NF-Y) and CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs).

[00133] In certain embodiments, a recombinant adenovirus comprises an Ela promoter having a deletion of a functional TATA box, e.g., the deletion of an entire TATA box. As used herein, a“functional TATA box” refers to a TATA box that is capable of binding to a TATA box binding protein (TBP), e.g., a TATA box that has at least 100%, at least 90%, at least 80%, at least 70%, at least 60%, at least 50%, or at least 40%, of the TBP binding activity of a corresponding wild-type TATA box sequence. As used herein, a“non-functional TATA box” refers to a TATA box that, e.g., has less than 30%, less than 20%, less than 10%, or 0% of the TBP binding activity of a corresponding wild-type TATA box sequence. Assays for determining whether a TBP binds to a TATA box are known in the art. Exemplary binding assays include electrophoretic mobility shift assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, and DNAse footprinting assays.

[00134] In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus comprises a modified TATA box-based promoter may, e.g., comprise a deletion of the entire Ela promoter TATA box, e.g., comprise a deletion corresponding to nucleotides -27 to -24 of the Ad5 Ela promoter. For example, in certain embodiments, a recombinant adenovirus comprises a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -27 to -24, -31 to -24, -44 to +54, or -146 to +54 of the adenovirus type 5 Ela promoter, which correspond, respectively, to nucleotides 472 to 475, 468 to 475, 455 to 552, and 353 to 552 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1). In certain embodiments, the virus comprises a polynucleotide deletion that results in a virus comprising the sequence CTAGGACTG (SEQ ID NO: 17), AGTGCCCG (SEQ ID NO: 101), or TATTCCCG (SEQ ID NO: 102), which result from joining the two polynucleotide sequences that would otherwise flank the deleted polynucleotide sequence. In some embodiments, the virus may comprise a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -29 to -26, -33 to -26, -44 to +52, or -148 to +52 upstream of the initiation site of Ela. In certain embodiments, the deletion comprises a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to 353-552 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1), and/or the Ela promoter comprises the sequence CTAGGACTG (SEQ ID NO: 17).

[00135] In certain embodiments, a recombinant adenovirus may comprise an Ela promoter having a deletion of a functional CAAT box, e.g., the deletion of an entire CAAT box. As used herein, a“functional CAAT box” refers to a CAAT box that is capable of binding to a C/EBP or NF-Y protein, e.g., a CAAT box that has at least 100%, at least 90%, at least 80%, at least 70%, at least 60%, at least 50%, or at least 40%, of the a C/EBP or NF-Y binding activity of a corresponding wild-type CAAT box sequence. As used herein, a“non-functional CAAT box” refers to a CAAT box that, e.g., has less than 30%, less than 20%, less than 10%, or 0% of the a C/EBP or NF-Y binding activity of a corresponding wild-type CAAT box sequence. Assays for determining whether a C/EBP or NF-Y protein binds to a CAAT box are known in the art. Exemplary binding assays include electrophoretic mobility shift assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, and DNAse footprinting assays. In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus comprises a modified CAAT box-based promoter may, e.g., comprise a deletion of the entire Ela promoter CAAT box, e.g., comprise a deletion corresponding to nucleotides -76 to -68 of the adenovirus type 5 Ela promoter, which corresponds to nucleotides 423 to 431 of SEQ ID NO: 1. [00136] For example, in certain embodiments, a recombinant adenovirus comprises a deletion of nucleotides corresponding to -76 to -68 of the adenovirus type 5 El a promoter, which corresponds to nucleotides 423 to 431 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1). In certain embodiments, the virus comprises a polynucleotide deletion that results in a virus comprising the sequence TTCCGTGGCG (SEQ ID NO: 103), which results from joining the two polynucleotide sequences that would otherwise flank the deleted polynucleotide sequence.

B. Insertion Sites

[00137] In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus comprises one or more nucleotide sequences comprising a transgene inserted in one of more of an Elb-l9K insertion site, an E3 insertion site, an E4 insertion site, an IX-E2 insertion site, an L5-E4 insertion site, and combinations thereof. In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus selectively expresses the transgene in tumor cells. In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus selectively replicates in cells of a cancer.

[00138] In certain embodiments, the Elb-l9K insertion site is located between the start site of Elb-l9K and the start site of Elb-55K. The adenoviral Elb-l9k gene functions primarily as an anti-apoptotic gene and is a homolog of the cellular anti-apoptotic gene, BCL-2. Since host cell death prior to maturation of the progeny viral particles would restrict viral replication, Elb-l9k is expressed as part of the El cassette to prevent premature cell death thereby allowing the infection to proceed and yield mature virions. Accordingly, in certain embodiments, a recombinant virus is provided that includes an Elb-l9K insertion site, e.g., the adenovirus has an exogenous nucleotide sequence inserted into an Elb-l9K insertion site. In certain embodiments, the insertion site is located between the start site of Elb-l9K and the stop codon of Elb-l9K.

[00139] In certain embodiments, the Elb-l9K insertion site comprises a deletion of from about 100 to about 305, about 100 to about 300, about 100 to about 250, about 100 to about 200, about 100 to about 150, about 150 to about 305, about 150 to about 300, about 150 to about 250, or about 150 to about 200 nucleotides adjacent to the start site of Elb-l9K. In certain embodiments, the Elb-l9K insertion site comprises a deletion of about 200 nucleotides, e.g., 202 nucleotides adjacent to the start site of Elb-l9K. In certain embodiments, the Elb-l9K insertion site comprises a deletion corresponding to nucleotides 1714-1917 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1), or, an exogenous nucleotide sequence encoding a transgene is inserted between nucleotides corresponding to 1714 and 1917 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1). In certain embodiments, an exogenous nucleotide sequence encoding a transgene is inserted between CTGACCTC (SEQ ID NO: 4) and TCACCAGG (SEQ ID NO: 5), e.g., the recombinant adenovirus comprises, in a 5’ to 3’ orientation, CTGACCTC (SEQ ID NO: 4), an exogenous nucleotide sequence encoding a transgene, and TCACCAGG (SEQ ID NO: 5).

[00140] In certain embodiments, the E3 insertion site is located between the stop codon of pVIII and the start site of Fiber. In certain embodiments, the E3 insertion site is located between the stop codon of E3-10.5K and the stop codon of E3-14.7K and the start site of Fiber.

[00141] In certain embodiments, the E3 insertion site comprises a deletion of from about 500 to about 3185, from about 500 to about 3000, from about 500 to about 2500, from about 500 to about 2000, from about 500 to about 1500, from about 500 to about 1000, from about 1000 to about 3185, from about 1000 to about 3000, from about 1000 to about 2500, from about 1000 to about 2000, from about 1000 to about 1500, from about 1500 to about 3185, from about 1500 to about 3000, from about 1500 to about 2000, from about 2000 to about 3185, from about 2000 to about 3000, from about 2000 to about 2500, from about 2500 to about 3185, from about 2500 to about 3000, or about 3000 to about 3185 nucleotides. In certain embodiments, the E3 insertion site is located between the stop codon of E3-10.5K and the stop codon of E3-14.7K. In certain embodiments, the E3 insertion site comprises a deletion of from about 500 to about 1551, from about 500 to about 1500, from about 500 to about 1000, from about 1000 to about 1551, from about 1000 to about 1500, or from about 1500 to about 1551 nucleotides adjacent the stop codon of E3-10.5K. In certain embodiments, the E3 insertion site comprises a deletion of about 1050 nucleotides adjacent the stop codon of E3-10.5K, e.g., the E3 insertion site comprises a deletion of 1063 nucleotides adjacent the stop codon of E3-10.5K. In certain embodiments, the E3 insertion site comprises a deletion corresponding to the Ad5 dl309 E3 deletion. In certain embodiments, the E3 insertion site comprises a deletion corresponding to nucleotides 29773- 30836 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1), or the second therapeutic transgene is inserted between nucleotides corresponding to 29773 and 30836 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1). In certain embodiments, the E3 insertion site comprises a deletion corresponding to nucleotides 29119-30622 of the Ad35 genome (SEQ ID NO: 113).

[00142] In certain embodiments, an E4 insertion site comprises any one of the ORF of the E4 gene. For example, a nucleotide sequence can be inserted in E4 ORF1, and/or E4 ORF2. In certain embodiments, portions of or the entire E4 region may be deleted.

[00143] In certain embodiments, the insertion site is the IX-E2 insertion site. In certain embodiments, the IX-E2 insertion site is located between the stop codon of adenovirus IX gene and the stop codon of adenovirus IVa2 gene. In certain embodiments, the nucleotide sequence is inserted between nucleotides corresponding to 4029 and 4093 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1). In certain embodiments, the nucleotide sequence is inserted between nucleotides corresponding to 4029 and 4050, nucleotides corresponding to 4051 and 4070, or nucleotides corresponding to 4071 and 4093 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1). In some embodiments, the IX-E2 insertion site has at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95%, or at least 99% identity to nucleotides corresponding to 4029 and 4093 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1).

[00144] In certain embodiments, the insertion site is an L5-E4 insertion site. In certain embodiments, the L5-E4 insertion site is located between the stop codon of adenovirus fiber gene and the stop codon of ORF6 or ORF6/7 of the adenovirus E4 gene. In certain embodiments, the nucleotide sequence is inserted between nucleotides corresponding to 32785 to 32916 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1). In certain embodiments, the nucleotide sequence is inserted between nucleotides corresponding to 32785 and 32800, nucleotides corresponding to 32801 and 32820, nucleotides corresponding to 32821 and 32840, nucleotides corresponding to 32841 and 32860, nucleotides corresponding to 32861 and 32880, nucleotides corresponding to 32881 and 32900, or nucleotides corresponding to 32901 and 32916 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1). In some embodiments, the L5-E4 insertion site has at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95%, or at least 99% identity to nucleotides corresponding to 32785 to 32916 of the Ad5 genome (SEQ ID NO: 1).

[00145] In certain embodiments, the IX-E2 insertion site comprises a deletion of about 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, or 60 nucleotides. In certain embodiments, the L5-E4 insertion site comprises a deletion of about 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 105, 110, 115, 120, 125, or 130 nucleotides.

[00146] In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus comprises two or more nucleotide sequences, wherein the nucleotide sequences each comprises a transgene, wherein the nucleotide sequences are optionally separated by a linker. In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus expresses two transgenes, when expressed, produce a single polypeptide chain, which may be cleaved posttranslationally into two polypeptide chains. In certain embodiments, the linker is an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element and/or a self-cleaving 2A peptide sequence. The IRES may, e.g., be selected from the group consisting of the encephalomyocarditis virus IRES, the foot-and-mouth disease virus IRES, and the poliovirus IRES.

[00147] In certain embodiments, the two or more nucleotide sequences are inserted in an Elb- 19K insertion site, an E3 insertion site, an E4 insertion site, an IX-E2 insertion site, or an L5-E4 insertion site. In certain embodiments, the two or more nucleotide sequences are inserted in the same insertion site. In certain embodiments, the two or more nucleotide sequences are inserted in different insertion sites.

[00148] Nucleic acids encoding viral genes can be incorporated into plasmids and introduced into host cells through conventional transfection or transformation techniques. Specific production and purification conditions will vary depending upon the virus and the production system employed. For adenovirus, the traditional method for the generation of viral particles is co-transfection followed by subsequent in vivo recombination of a shuttle plasmid (usually containing a small subset of the adenoviral genome and optionally containing a potential transgene an expression cassette) and an adenoviral helper plasmid (containing most of the entire adenoviral genome).

[00149] In certain embodiments, a recombinant adenovirus of the invention is an oncolytic virus, e.g., a virus that exhibits tumor- selective replication and/or viral mediated lysis. In certain embodiments, a recombinant adenovirus of the invention exhibits selective expression of a patient-specific transgene in a hyperproliferative cell, e.g., a cancer cell, a tumor cell, relative to a nonhyperproliferative cell. In certain embodiments, the expression of a patient transgene in a non-hyperproliferative cell is about 90%, about 80%, about 70%, about 60%, about 50%, about 40%, about 30%, about 20%, about 10% , or about 5% of the expression of the gene in the hyperproliferative cell. In certain embodiments, the virus exhibits no detectable expression of a patient-specific transgene in a non-hyperproliferative cell. Transgene expression may be determined by any appropriate method known in the art, e.g., Western blot or ELISA. The hyperproliferative cell may be a cancer cell, e.g., a carcinoma, sarcoma, leukemia, lymphoma, prostate cancer, lung cancer, gastrointestinal tract cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, stomach cancer, thyroid cancer, mesothelioma, liver cancer, kidney cancer, skin cancer, head and neck cancer, or brain cancer cell.

II. Methods of Viral Production

[00150] Methods for producing recombinant viruses of the invention are known in the art. Typically, a disclosed virus is produced in a suitable host cell line using conventional techniques including culturing a transfected or infected host cell under suitable conditions so as to allow the production of infectious viral particles. Nucleic acids encoding viral genes can be incorporated into plasmids and introduced into host cells through conventional transfection or transformation techniques. Exemplary suitable host cells for production of disclosed viruses include human cell lines such as HeLa, Hela-S3, HEK293, 911, A549, HER96, or PER-C6 cells. Specific production and purification conditions will vary depending upon the virus and the production system employed. For adenovirus, the traditional method for the generation of viral particles is co-transfection followed by subsequent in vivo recombination of a shuttle plasmid (usually containing a small subset of the adenoviral genome and optionally containing a potential transgene an expression cassette) and an adenoviral helper plasmid (containing most of the entire adenoviral genome)

[00151] Alternative technologies for the generation of adenovirus include utilization of the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAG) system, in vivo bacterial recombination in a recA÷ bacterial strain utilizing two plasmids containing complementary adenoviral sequences, and the yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) system.

[00152] Following production, infectious viral particles are recovered from the culture and optionally purified. Typical purification steps may include plaque purification, centrifugation, e.g., cesium chloride gradient centrifugation, clarification, enzymatic treatment, e.g., benzonase or protease treatment, chromatographic steps, e.g., ion exchange chromatography or filtration steps.

III. Cancer Antigens

[00153] The disclosed recombinant vectors, e.g., recombinant oncolytic viruses, may comprise an exogenous nucleotide sequence that encodes for one or more cancer antigens, e.g., one or more tumor associated antigens or neoantigens.

[00154] As used herein, the term“antigen” refers a substance capable of being recognized and bound specifically by an antibody or by a T cell receptor. An antigen may additionally be capable of inducing a humoral immune response and/or cellular immune response leading to the production of B- and/or T-lymphocytes. Antigens can include, for example, peptides, proteins, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, gangliosides and lipids, portions thereof and combinations thereof. As used herein, the term antigen is understood to include a portion of an antigen that is bound specifically by an antibody or by a T cell receptor, also referred to as an“epitope.” Furthermore, it is understood that an antigen may be derived from a sequence of substituents that are consequence or non-consecutive, for example, in a protein, it is understood that an antigen may be defined by the primary sequence of amino acids in the protein and/or by the tertiary structure of the protein.

[00155] As here herein, a“mutant cancer-associated protein” or“mutant tumor-associated protein” is a version of a protein that comprises at least one mutation as compared to the wild- type form of the protein. In some aspects, the mutant cancer-associated protein is identified as being present in a subject having at least one symptom of cancer or in a subject susceptible to cancer. In some embodiments, a cancer antigen of the present disclosure comprise amino acids of a mutant cancer-associated protein. In some embodiments, the cancer antigen comprises a polypeptide derived from a mutant cancer-associated protein. In some embodiments, the cancer antigen comprises at least one mutation present in the mutant cancer-associated protein.

[00156] In some aspects, the cancer antigen ranges in length of about 4 amino acids to about 50 amino acids, or more. For example, the cancer antigen may be about 5 amino acids, 6 amino acids, 7 amino acids, 8 amino acids, 9 amino acids, 10 amino acids, 11 amino acids, 12 amino acids, 13 amino acids, 14 amino acids, 15 amino acids, 16 amino acids, 17 amino acids, 18 amino acids, 19 amino acids, 20 amino acids, 25 amino acids, 30 amino acids, 35 amino acids, 40 amino acids, 45 amino acids, or 50 amino acids, including all sub ranges and values therebetween. In some aspects, the cancer antigen is about 9 amino acids long.

[00157] In some aspects, the cancer antigen is capable of inducing an immune response against the cancer cells. In some aspects, the induced immune response delays the development and/or progression of the cancer. In some aspects, the induced immune response kills the cancer cells.

[00158] In some aspects, the mutant cancer-associated protein is identified as being present in a subject having at least one symptom of cancer or in a subject susceptible to cancer through sequencing of the whole or part of the genome and/or transcriptome of the subject.

[00159] In certain embodiments, whole or part of the genomic DNA or expressed RNA (transcriptome) is isolated from a sample from a subject, and sequenced e.g., using next generation sequencing (NGS). Based on the sequencing results, one or more mutant proteins that are associated with or correlated with cancer are identified. In some aspects, the one or more mutant cancer-associated proteins have amino acid modifications such as point mutation, for example, amino acid insertions, deletions, or substitutions. In some aspects, the one or more mutant cancer-associated proteins have one or more frameshift mutations.

[00160] In some aspects, the subject has been diagnosed to have cancer. In other aspects, the subject has not been diagnosed to have cancer. In some aspects, the subject who does not have cancer is determined to be at high risk or susceptible to the development of cancer, such as hereditary cancer. The sample may, for example, be a tumor sample (e.g., from a tumor biopsy), or a blood sample.

[00161]

[00162] Any technique for sequencing nucleic acid known to those skilled in the art may be used in the methods disclosed herein. DNA sequencing techniques include classic dideoxy sequencing reactions (Sanger method) using labeled ter inators or primers and gel separation in slab or capillary, sequencing by synthesis using reversibly terminated labeled nucleotides, pyrosequencing, 454 sequencing, allele specific hybridization to a library of labeled oligonucleotide probes, sequencing by synthesis using allele specific hybridization to a library of labeled clones that is followed by ligation, real time monitoring of the incorporation of labeled nucleotides during a polymerization step, polony sequencing, and SOLiD sequencing. Sequencing of the separated molecules has more recently been demonstrated by sequential or single extension reactions using polymerases or ligases as well as by single or sequential differential hybridizations with libraries of probes. These reactions have been performed on many clonal sequences in parallel including demonstrations in current commercial applications of over 100 million sequences in parallel.

[00163] In some aspects, the genome of the subject is sequenced by next-generation sequencing (NGS). As used herein, NGS, refers to oligonucleotide sequencing technologies that have the capacity to sequence oligonucleotides at speeds above those possible with conventional sequencing methods (e.g., Sanger sequencing), due to performing and reading out thousands to millions of sequencing reactions in parallel. Non-limiting examples of next-generation sequencing methods/platforms include Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (Lynx Therapeutics), 454 pyro- sequencing (454 Life Sciences/Roche Diagnostics), solid-phase, reversible dye-terminator sequencing (Solexa/Illumina), SOLiD technology (Applied Biosystems), Ion semiconductor sequencing (ION Torrent), DNA nanoball sequencing (Complete Genomics), True Single Molecule Sequencing, and technologies available from Pacific Biosciences, Intelligen Bio-systems, Oxford Nanopore Technologies, and Helicos Biosciences.

[00164] In some aspects, 454 pyro-sequencing, which involves two steps, is used for sequencing in the methods disclosed herein. In the first step, DNA is sheared into fragments of approximately 300-800 base pairs, and the fragments are blunt ended. Oligonucleotide adaptors are then ligated to the ends of the fragments. The adaptors serve as primers for amplification and sequencing of the fragments. The fragments can be attached to DNA capture beads, e.g., streptavidin-coated beads using, e.g., Adaptor B, which contains 5 '-biotin tag. The fragments attached to the beads are PCR amplified within droplets of an oil-water emulsion. The result is multiple copies of clonally amplified DNA fragments on each bead. In the second step, the beads are captured in wells (pico-liter sized). Pyrosequencing is performed on each DNA fragment in parallel. Addition of one or more nucleotides generates a light signal that is recorded by a CCD camera in a sequencing instrument. The signal strength is proportional to the number of nucleotides incorporated. Pyrosequencing makes use of pyrophosphate (PPi) which is released upon nucleotide addition. PPi is converted to ATP by ATP sulfurylase in the presence of adenosine 5' phosphosulfate. Luciferase uses ATP to convert luciferin to oxyluciferin, and this reaction generates light that is detected and analyzed.

[00165] In some aspects, Solexa/Illumina sequencing is used in the methods disclosed herein. SOLEXA sequencing is based on the amplification of DNA on a solid surface using fold-back PCR and anchored primers. Genomic DNA is fragmented, and adapters are added to the 5' and 3' ends of the fragments. DNA fragments that are attached to the surface of flow cell channels are extended and bridge amplified. The fragments become double stranded, and the double stranded molecules are denatured. Multiple cycles of the solid-phase amplification followed by denaturation can create several million clusters of approximately 1,000 copies of single-stranded DNA molecules of the same template in each channel of the flow cell. Primers, DNA polymerase and four fluorophore-labeled, reversibly terminating nucleotides are used to perform sequential sequencing. After nucleotide incorporation, a laser is used to excite the fluorophores, and an image is captured and the identity of the first base is recorded. The 3' terminators and fluorophores from each incorporated base are removed and the incorporation, detection and identification steps are repeated.

[00166] In some aspects, SOLiD sequencing technology is used in the methods disclosed herein. In SOLiD sequencing, genomic DNA is sheared into fragments, and adaptors are attached to the 5' and 3' ends of the fragments to generate a fragment library. Alternatively, internal adaptors can be introduced by ligating adaptors to the 5' and 3' ends of the fragments, circularizing the fragments, digesting the circularized fragment to generate an internal adaptor, and attaching adaptors to the 5' and 3' ends of the resulting fragments to generate a mate -paired library. Next, clonal bead populations are prepared in microreactors containing beads, primers, template, and PCR components. Following PCR, the templates are denatured and beads are enriched to separate the beads with extended templates. Templates on the selected beads are subjected to a 3' modification that permits bonding to a glass slide. The sequence can be determined by sequential hybridization and ligation of partially random oligonucleotides with a central determined base (or pair of bases) that is identified by a specific fluorophore. After a color is recorded, the ligated oligonucleotide is cleaved and removed and the process is then repeated.

[00167] Further details on sequencing techniques are provided in U.S. Patent Publication No. US 2018 / 0112278 Al, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. [00168] Sequencing data, for example, whole exome sequencing (WES) or whole genome sequencing (WGS) data, can be analyzed for mutations, for example, single nucleotide variations (SNV), small insertions/deletions (indels), larger copy-number aberrations (CNAs) and large- genome rearrangements, also called structural variants (SVs). Preferred cancer antigens to be encoded by a disclosed recombinant vector include antigens corresponding to“driver mutations” which push or drive the growth of the tumor cells, providing them with a selective advantage over their non-malignant counterparts. Driver mutations are distinguished from“passenger mutations” that, while present, do not increase the fitness of the tumor cells and, as such, are not responsible for a cancer phenotype. Mutations may be detected in DNA or RNA sequencing data using methods known in the art, e.g., using mutation calling algorithms such as MuTect (Cibulskis et al. (2013) NAT. BIOTECHNOL. 31(3): 213-9).

[00169] Cancer antigens to be encoded by a disclosed recombinant vector e.g., a recombinant oncolytic vector, generate peptides which are presented by one or more Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules in a subject. Furthermore, preferred cancer antigens to be encoded by a disclosed recombinant vector, e.g., a recombinant oncolytic vector, include immunogenic antigens, e.g., antigens capable stimulating a cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response. Immunogenicity of cancer antigens identified by sequencing DNA or RNA from a sample from a subject may be assayed by methods known in the art, including in silico epitope prediction algorithms such as NetMHCpan (Nielsen et al. (2016) GENOME MEDICINE 8(1): 33, Hoof et al. (2009) IMMUNOGENETICS 61(1): 1-13).

[00170] Immunogenicity of cancer antigens identified by sequencing DNA or RNA from a sample from a subject may also be assayed by functional or immunologic assays, including peptide-HLA binding assays, or cytokine secretion assays (CSA), e.g., ELISPOT (enzyme- linked immunospot) assays. In cytokine secretion assays, candidate cancer antigens, or peptides derived therefrom, are co-cultured with autologous lymphocytes to determine the response of host lymphocytes upon exposure to the antigen, as measured by the release of cytokines. To control for auto-reactivity, corresponding wild-type antigens can also be tested for their effect on lymphocytes to ensure that responses display specificity for the mutated cancer antigen.

[00171] In certain embodiments, co-culturing a cancer antigen with autologous lymphocytes stimulates secretion of an immunostimulatory cytokine, e.g., IEN-g, from the lymphocytes. In other embodiments, co-culturing a cancer antigen with autologous lymphocytes stimulates secretion of an immunosuppressive cytokine, e.g., TGF-b, IL-10 or IL-5, from the lymphocytes. In certain embodiments, the cancer antigen or cancer antigens are selected by a method comprising (i) identifying a candidate cancer antigen by sequencing DNA or RNA from a sample from a subject with cancer; (ii) culturing autologous lymphocytes in the presence of the candidate cancer antigen; and (iii) assaying for the release of an immunosuppressive cytokine, e.g., TGF-b, IL-10 or IL-5, from the autologous lymphocytes. Surprisingly, it has been discovered that a subject may be treated for cancer using a cancer vaccine that comprises or encodes for an immunosuppressive cancer antigen, e.g., a cancer antigen that stimulates the secretion of an immunosuppressive cytokine, e.g., TGF-b, IL-10 or IL-5, from autologous lymphocytes. Without wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that a cancer vaccine may best treat a cancer in a subject by eliciting an effective immune response against a cancer antigen that the subject’s immune system was unable to respond to effectively without the aid of the cancer vaccine. As an immunosuppressive cancer antigen represents a cancer antigen that the subject’s immune system was unable to effectively respond to, it certain instances, an optimal cancer vaccine may comprise or encode for an immunosuppressive cancer antigen.

[00172] In certain embodiments, the cancer antigen is a self-antigen.

[00173] In certain embodiments, the one or more cancer antigens are derived from 9D7, androgen receptor, a BAGE family protein, b-catenin, BING-4, BRAF, BRCA1/2, a CAGE family protein, calcium-activated chloride channel 2, CD 19, CD20, CD30, CDK4, CEA, CML66, CT9, CT10, cyclin-Bl, EGFRvIII, Ep-CAM, EphA3, fibronectin, a GAGE family protein, gpl00/pmell7, Her-2/neu, HPV E6, HPV E7, Ig, immature laminin receptor, a MAGE family protein (e.g., MAGE-A3), MART-l/melan-A, MART2, MC1R, mesothelin, a mucin family protein (e.g., MUC-l), NY-ESO-l/LAGE-l, P.polypeptide, p53, podocalyxin (Podxl), PRAME, a ras family protein (e.g., KRAS), prostate specific antigen, a SAGE family protein, SAP-l, SSX-2, survivin, TAG-72, TCR, telomerase, TGF^RII, TRP-l, TRP-2, tyrosinase, or a XAGE family protein. Additional exemplary cancer antigens are described in U.S. Patent Publication Nos. US2012/0276045 and US2017/0152324, International (PCT) Publication Nos. W02001/041741 and WO2010/148496, Cheever et al. (2009) CLIN. CANCER RES. 15(17): 5323- 5337, Lu et al. (2016) SEMIN. IMMUNOL. 28(1): 22-27, and Sjoblom et al. (2014) SCIENCE 314: 268-24, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[00174] In certain embodiments, the one or more cancer antigens are derived from catenin alpha-2 (CTNNA2), myosin-lllb isoform 2 (MY03B), sodium/calcium exchanger 3 isoform C precursor (SLC8A3), sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19), double-stranded RNA-specific editase B2 (ADARB2), T-complex protein 11 homolog (TCP11), leucine-rich repeat and transmembrane domain-containing protein 2 precursor (LRTM2), nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group A member 2 (NR5A1), prolactin-releasing peptide receptor (PRLHR), prolow-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 preproprotein (LRP1), alpha-2- macroglobulin isoform a precursor (A2M), RUS1 family protein Cl6orf58 (Cl6orf58), tyrosine- protein kinase BAZ1B (BAZ1B), phospholipid phosphatase 2 (PPAP2C), chondroitin sulfate glucuronyltransferase (CHPF2), pre-mRNA 3' end processing protein WDR33 (WDR33), Ul small nuclear ribonucleoprotein A (SNRPA), GTP-binding protein 1 (GTPB), probable ATP- dependent RNA helicase DDX46 (DDX), cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta (PRKA), lysine-specific demethylase 5B (KDM), jmjC domain-containing protein 8 (JMJ), CTD small phosphatase-like protein isoform 1 (CTDS), transmembrane protein 9B isoform a precursor (TMEM9B/1), transmembrane protein 9B isoform b (TMEM9B/2), dedicator of cytokinesis protein 1 (DOCK1), retinoblastoma-associated protein (RB1), lysine- specific demethylase 4 A (KDM4A), E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase NEDD4-like (NEDD4L), serine/threonine -protein kinase TA03 (TAOK3), transcription elongation regulator 1 (TCERG1), E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RNF19B (RNF19B), rho GTPase-activating protein 45 (F1MF1A1), semaphorin-5A precursor (SEMA5A), adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC), zinc finger protein 732 (ZNF732), contactin-l isoform 1 precursor (CNTN1), cellular tumor antigen p53 (TP53), KRAS, BRAF, NR AS, PIK3CA, EGFR, IDH1, SETD1B, RPL22, or RNF43.

[00175] In some embodiments, the one or more cancer antigens are derived from a mutant p53 protein carrying one or more of the amino acid substitutions - R175H, R273C, R248Q, R273H, R248W, R282W, Y220C, G245S, H179R, V157F; a KRAS mutant protein carrying one or more of the following amino acid substitutions - G12D, G12V, G12C, G13D, G12A, G12R, G12S, G13C, A146T, Q61H; a BRAF mutant protein carrying the amino acid substitutions V600E and/or V600M; an NRAS mutant protein carrying the amino acid substitution Q61R and/or Q61K; a PIK3CA mutant protein carrying one or more of the following amino acid substitutions - E545K, H1047R, E542K, R88Q, G118D, N345K, C420R, E453K, Q546R, E726K, H1047L; a mutant EGFR protein carrying one or more of the amino acid substitutions - A289V, G598V, L858R; a mutant IDH1 protein carrying the amino acid substitution, R132H; a mutant SETD1B protein carrying a frameshift mutant at H8 position; a mutant RPL22 protein carrying a frameshift mutation at K15 position; a mutant RNF43 protein carrying a frameshift mutation at G659; or any combination thereof.

[00176] In certain embodiments, the cancer antigen is derived from KRAS, e.g., KRAS where Gly at position 12 has been substituted with Asp (KRAS G12D). An exemplary cancer antigen derived from KRAS G12D is MTE YKL V V V GADGV GKS A (SEQ ID NO: 20). In certain embodiments, the recombinant vector comprises a nucleotide sequence encoding SEQ ID NO: 20, or comprises a sequence having 80%, 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 20, e.g., the recombinant vector comprises the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 16.

[00177] In some aspects, the one or more cancer antigens are derived from a mutant APC protein. In some aspects, the mutant APC protein contains at least one amino acid modification such as a frameshift mutation. For example, a nucleotide sequence encoding a cancer antigen derived from a mutant APC protein with a frameshift mutation is set forth in SEQ ID NO: 99. In some aspects, the mutant APC protein contains at least one amino acid modification such as point mutation, for example, an amino acid insertion, deletion and/or substitution. For example, a nucleotide sequence encoding a cancer antigen derived from a mutant APC protein with an amino acid substitution is set forth in SEQ ID NO: 98 (see Example 2).

[00178] Sequence identity may be determined in various ways that are within the skill in the art, e.g., using publicly available computer software such as BLAST, BLAST-2, ALIGN or Megalign (DNASTAR) software. BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) analysis using the algorithm employed by the programs blastp, blastn, blastx, tblastn and tblastx (Karlin et al., (1990) PROC. NATL. ACAD. SCI. USA 87:2264-2268; Altschul, (1993) J. MOL. EVOL. 36, 290- 300; Altschul et al., (1997) NUCLEIC ACIDS RES. 25:3389-3402, incorporated by reference) are tailored for sequence similarity searching. For a discussion of basic issues in searching sequence databases see Altschul et al, (1994) NATURE GENETICS 6:119-129, which is fully incorporated by reference. Those skilled in the art can determine appropriate parameters for measuring alignment, including any algorithms needed to achieve maximal alignment over the full length of the sequences being compared. The search parameters for histogram, descriptions, alignments, expect (i.e., the statistical significance threshold for reporting matches against database sequences), cutoff, matrix and filter are at the default settings. The default scoring matrix used by blastp, blastx, tblastn, and tblastx is the BLOSUM62 matrix (Henikoff et al., (1992) PROC. NATL. ACAD. SCI. USA 89:10915-10919, fully incorporated by reference). Four blastn parameters may be adjusted as follows: Q=10 (gap creation penalty); R=10 (gap extension penalty); wink=l (generates word hits at every wink. sup. th position along the query); and gapw=16 (sets the window width within which gapped alignments are generated). The equivalent Blastp parameter settings may be Q=9; R=2; wink=l; and gapw=32. Searches may also be conducted using the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) BLAST Advanced Option parameter (e.g.: -G, Cost to open gap [Integer]: default = 5 for nucleotides/ 11 for proteins; -E, Cost to extend gap [Integer]: default = 2 for nucleotides/ 1 for proteins; -q, Penalty for nucleotide mismatch [Integer]: default = -3; -r, reward for nucleotide match [Integer]: default = 1; -e, expect value [Real]: default = 10; -W, wordsize [Integer]: default = 11 for nucleotides/ 28 for megablast/ 3 for proteins; -y, Dropoff (X) for blast extensions in bits: default = 20 for blastn/ 7 for others; -X, X dropoff value for gapped alignment (in bits): default = 15 for all programs, not applicable to blastn; and -Z, final X dropoff value for gapped alignment (in bits): 50 for blastn, 25 for others). ClustalW for pairwise protein alignments may also be used (default parameters may include, e.g., Blosum62 matrix and Gap Opening Penalty = 10 and Gap Extension Penalty = 0.1). A Bestfit comparison between sequences, available in the GCG package version 10.0, uses DNA parameters GAP=50 (gap creation penalty) and LEN=3 (gap extension penalty) and the equivalent settings in protein comparisons are GAP=8 and LEN=2.

[00179] In certain embodiments, the nucleotide sequences encoding each cancer antigen are separated by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). The IRES may, e.g., be selected from the group consisting of the encephalomyocarditis virus IRES (e.g., an IRES comprising SEQ ID NO: 13), the foot-and-mouth disease virus IRES, and the poliovirus IRES.

IV. Construction of recombinant vectors

[00180] In some aspects, the recombinant vectors disclosed herein comprise an exogenous nucleotide sequence comprising one or more nucleotide sequences, each encoding a cancer antigen. In some aspects, the exogenous nucleotide sequence comprises multiple nucleotide sequences, each encoding a different cancer antigen. An exogenous nucleotide sequence comprising multiple nucleotide sequences may be referred to herein as a concatemer.

[00181] For instance, the exogenous nucleotide sequence may comprise a range of about 1 nucleotide sequence encoding about 1 cancer antigen to about 100 nucleotide sequences encoding about 100 cancer antigens. For example, the exogenous nucleotide sequence may comprise about 5 nucleotide sequences encoding 5 cancer antigens, 10 nucleotide sequences encoding 10 cancer antigens, 15 nucleotide sequences encoding 15 cancer antigens, 20 nucleotide sequences encoding 20 cancer antigens, 25 nucleotide sequences encoding 25 cancer antigens, 30 nucleotide sequences encoding 30 cancer antigens, 35 nucleotide sequences encoding 35 cancer antigens, 40 nucleotide sequences encoding 40 cancer antigens, 45 nucleotide sequences encoding 45 cancer antigens, 50 nucleotide sequences encoding 50 cancer antigens, 55 nucleotide sequences encoding 55 cancer antigens, 60 nucleotide sequences encoding 60 cancer antigens, 65 nucleotide sequences encoding 65 cancer antigens, 70 nucleotide sequences encoding 70 cancer antigens, 75 nucleotide sequences encoding 75 cancer antigens, 80 nucleotide sequences encoding 80 cancer antigens, 85 nucleotide sequences encoding 85 cancer antigens, 90 nucleotide sequences encoding 90 cancer antigens, or 95 nucleotide sequences encoding 95 cancer antigens, inclusive of any subranges and values that lie therebetween.

[00182] In certain embodiments, the multiple nucleotide sequences each encoding a cancer antigen are separated from each other by one or more nucleotide sequences, each encoding a protein linker. In some aspects, the linker comprises from about 5 to about 50 amino acid residues. For example, the amino acid linker may comprise, e.g., from about 5 to about 15, from about 5 to about 20, from about 5 to about 30, from about 10 to about 15, from about 10 to about 20, from about 10 to about 30, from about 10 to about 40, from about 15 to about 20, from about 15 to about 30, or from about 15 to about 50 amino acid residues, inclusive of any subranges and values that lie therebetween.

[00183] In some aspects, the protein linker comprises an amino acid sequence of AAY (SEQ ID NO: 6). See Velders et al. (2001) J. IMMUNOL.166:5366-5373, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In some aspects, the protein linker consists of an amino acid sequence of AAY (SEQ ID NO: 6). In some embodiments, the linker comprises a self-cleaving 2A peptide sequence.

[00184] In some aspects, the linker comprises a cleavage site, e.g., a proteolytic or a non- proteolytic cleavage site, or a ribosome skipping sequence, e.g., a T2A sequence. In certain embodiments, the multiple nucleotide sequences each encoding a cancer antigen are separated by a proteolytic cleavage site. In certain embodiments, the proteolytic cleavage site is cleaved by a protease present in a specific tissue, organelle or intracellular compartment. In certain embodiments, the linker comprises a proteolytic cleavage site and two cysteine residues that result in a disulfide linkage following proteolytic cleavage. In certain embodiments, the proteolytic cleavage site is cleaved by a protease selected from a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), furin, PCI, PC2, PC3, cathepsin B, proteinase 3, and caspase 3.

[00185] In certain embodiments, the cleavage site is a proteolytic cleavage site that is cleaved by a protease that is present in the endoplasmic reticulum or golgi of a eukaryotic cell. In certain embodiments, the proteolytic cleavage site is a furin cleavage site. Furin is a protease that is ubiquitously expressed and is localized to the Golgi, where it recognizes the consensus sequence RX X R (SEQ ID NO: 18), wherein X is any amino acid, and X 2 is Lys or Arg, and cleaves after the final Arg. Furin plays a biological role in cleaving propeptides of proteins that are trafficked through the Golgi. Accordingly, in certain embodiments the proteolytic cleavage site is a furin cleavage site comprising the sequence RX J X 2 R (SEQ ID NO: 18), wherein X is any amino acid, and X 2 is Lys or Arg, e.g., a furin cleavage site comprising the sequence RAKR (SEQ ID NO: 19).

[00186] In certain embodiments, wherein a recombinant vector e.g., a recombinant oncolytic vector, comprises multiple nucleotide sequences, each of which encodes a cancer antigen, for example, wherein the recombinant vector comprises a nucleotide sequence encoding a single polypeptide chain comprising multiple cancer antigens, each separated by a protein linker, the recombinant vector may further comprise anucleotide sequence encoding ubiquitin to enhance proteolysis of the single polypeptide chain (see, Velders et al. (2001) J. IMMUNOL. 166: 5366- 5373, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

[00187] In some aspects, the exogenous nucleotide sequence comprising one or more nucleotide sequences, each encoding a cancer antigen, is inserted into one insertion site selected from the group consisting of Elb-19K insertion site, E3 insertion site, E4 insertion site, IX-E2 insertion site, and L5-E4 insertion site, wherein each of the nucleotide sequences is separated from each other by at least one linker. In some aspects, multiple nucleotide sequences, each encoding a cancer antigen, are inserted in such a manner that they are distributed among 2 or more insertion sites selected from the following insertion sites - Elb-19K insertion site, E3 insertion site, E4 insertion site, IX-E2 insertion site, and L5-E4 insertion site. For instance, if the exogenous nucleotide sequences comprises 2 nucleotide sequences, each encoding a cancer antigen, then the 2 nucleotide sequences may be inserted in the following combinations as shown below:

Table 1

[00188] As another example, if the exogenous nucleotide sequences comprises 3 nucleotide sequences, each encoding a cancer antigen, then the 3 nucleotide sequences may be inserted in the following combinations as shown below:

Table 2

[00189] It is understood that the arrangement in the above mentioned examples can be similarly applied to the situation when more cancer antigens (e.g., about 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100 or more) are included in the recombinant vectors. For example, when there are about 5, about 10, about 15, about 20, about 25, about 30, about 35, about 40, about 45, about 50, about 55, about 60, about 65, about 70, about 75, about 80, about 85, about 90, about 95, about 100, or more cancer antigens, they can be either combined in a single concatemer, and inserted into any of the insertion site, or be divided into different groups to form several concatemers, and the several concatemers are inserted into different insertion sites of the present disclosure. In some embodiments, the cancer antigens are divided into 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 groups, so that they are be included in 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 concatemers, and inserted into the insertion sites of the present disclosure. Within the same concatemers, a same linker or several different linkers can be used to separate the cancer antigens.

[00190] In some aspects, the recombinant vectors disclosed herein may comprise one or more deletions of adenoviral capsid genes to accommodate the insertion of concatemers, referred to herein as compensatory deletions. In some aspects, the recombinant vectors disclosed herein comprise one or more compensatory deletions in El region, E2 region, E3 region, E4 region, or any combination thereof. In some aspects, one or more of the genes, RID alpha, RID beta and 14.7K genes in the E3 region of the recombinant vectors disclosed herein may be deleted. In some aspects, the E3 gpl9K gene of the recombinant vectors disclosed herein comprises one or more amino acid mutations, as compared to the WT E3 gpl9K gene. In some cases, the one or more mutation is a mutation that converts the fourth codon of the E3 gpl9K gene into a stop codon. In some aspects, the E4 region of the recombinant vectors disclosed herein retains E4 ORF 6/7.

V. Therapeutic Transgenes

[00191] A disclosed recombinant vector, e.g., a recombinant oncolytic virus, may further comprise an exogenous nucleotide sequence encoding a therapeutic transgene. A therapeutic transgene may encode a therapeutic nucleic acid, e.g., an antisense RNA or ribozyme RNA, which enhances the anti-cancer activity of the recombinant vectors disclosed herein. The therapeutic transgene may encode a therapeutic peptide or polypeptide, which enhances the anti cancer activity of the recombinant vectors disclosed herein, such as, for e.g., an oncoprotein, tumor suppressor peptide or polypeptide, enzyme, cytokine, immune modulating peptide or polypeptide, antibody, lytic peptide, vaccine antigen, a peptide or polypeptide which complements genetic defects in somatic cells, or a peptide or polypeptide which catalyzes processes leading to cell death. In some embodiments, a therapeutic transgene may enhance the activity of immune recognition of a cancer antigen in the recombinant vectors disclosed herein.

[00192] In some aspects, the recombinant vectors disclosed herein may encode at least one therapeutic nucleic acid and/or at least one therapeutic polypeptide. In some aspects, the recombination vectors disclosed herein may encode about 1 to about 50 therapeutic nucleic acids. For instance, the recombination vectors disclosed herein may encode 1 therapeutic nucleic acid, 2 therapeutic nucleic acids, 3 therapeutic nucleic acids, 4 therapeutic nucleic acids, 5 therapeutic nucleic acids, 6 therapeutic nucleic acids, 7 therapeutic nucleic acids, 8 therapeutic nucleic acids, 9 therapeutic nucleic acids, 10 therapeutic nucleic acids, 15 therapeutic nucleic acids, 20 therapeutic nucleic acids, 25 therapeutic nucleic acids, 30 therapeutic nucleic acids, 35 therapeutic nucleic acids, 40 therapeutic nucleic acids, 45 therapeutic nucleic acids, or 50 therapeutic nucleic acids, including all values that lie therebetween. In some aspects, the recombination vectors disclosed herein may encode about 1 to about 50 therapeutic polypeptides. For instance, the recombination vectors disclosed herein may encode 1 therapeutic polypeptide, 2 therapeutic polypeptides, 3 therapeutic polypeptides, 4 therapeutic polypeptides, 5 therapeutic polypeptides, 6 therapeutic polypeptides, 7 therapeutic polypeptides, 8 therapeutic polypeptides, 9 therapeutic polypeptides, 10 therapeutic polypeptides, 15 therapeutic polypeptides, 20 therapeutic polypeptides, 25 therapeutic polypeptides, 30 therapeutic polypeptides, 35 therapeutic polypeptides, 40 therapeutic polypeptides, 45 therapeutic polypeptides, or 50 therapeutic polypeptides, including all values that lie therebetween.

[00193] In certain embodiments, a recombinant vector, e.g., a recombinant oncolytic vector, described herein comprises an exogenous nucleotide sequence encoding a therapeutic polypeptide selected from GM-CSF, CD80, CD137L, IL-23, IL-23A/pl9, IL-27, IL-27A/p28, IL-27B/EBI3, ICAM-l, a TGF-b trap, TGF-b, CD19, CD20, IL-l, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-9, CD 154, CD86, BORIS/CTCFL, FGF, IL-24, MAGE, NY-ESO-l, acetylcholine, interferon-gamma, DKKl/Wnt, p53, thymidine kinase; an anti-PD-l antibody heavy chain or light chain; an anti-PD-Ll antibody heavy chain or light chain; FLT3L; FLT3 or any combination thereof. [00194] In certain embodiments, the therapeutic polypeptide is IL-24. A nucleotide sequence encoding human IL-24 is depicted in SEQ ID NO: 104, and a nucleotide sequence encoding mouse IL-24 is depicted in SEQ ID NO: 105. In certain aspects, the therapeutic polypeptide is GM-CSF. In some aspects, the therapeutic polypeptides are IL-24 and GM-CSF.

[00195] In certain embodiments, the at least one therapeutic transgene is inserted into one insertion site selected from the group consisting of Elb-l9K insertion site, E3 insertion site, E4 insertion site, IX-E2 insertion site, and L5-E4 insertion site. In some aspects, at least two therapeutic transgenes are inserted into two or more insertion sites selected from the group consisting of Elb-l9K insertion site, E3 insertion site, E4 insertion site, IX-E2 insertion site, and L5-E4 insertion site. In certain embodiments, the recombinant adenovirus selectively expresses the therapeutic transgene in tumor cells.

[00196] In certain embodiments, the at least one therapeutic transgene is inserted at the same site as the one or more nucleotide sequences, each encoding one cancer antigen. In some embodiments, the at least one therapeutic transgene is inserted at a different insertion site than the one or more nucleotide sequences, each encoding one cancer antigen.

VI. Pharmaceutical Compositions

[00197] For therapeutic use, a recombinant vector, e.g., a recombinant oncolytic virus, disclosed herein is preferably combined with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. As used herein,“pharmaceutically acceptable carrier” means buffers, carriers, and excipients suitable for use in contact with the tissues of human beings and animals without excessive toxicity, irritation, allergic response, or other problem or complication, commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio. The carrier(s) should be“acceptable” in the sense of being compatible with the other ingredients of the formulations and not deleterious to the recipient. Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers include buffers, solvents, dispersion media, coatings, isotonic and absorption delaying agents, and the like, that are compatible with pharmaceutical administration. The use of such media and agents for pharmaceutically active substances is known in the art.

[00198] Pharmaceutical compositions containing recombinant viruses can be presented in a dosage unit form and can be prepared by any suitable method. A pharmaceutical composition should be formulated to be compatible with its intended route of administration. Examples of routes of administration are intravenous (IV), intradermal, inhalation, transdermal, topical, transmucosal, intratumoral, intraarterial, intramuscular, intrapleural, intravesicular, intracavitary, peritoneal, oral and rectal administration. [00199] Useful formulations can be prepared by methods known in the pharmaceutical art. For example, see Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, l8th ed. (Mack Publishing Company, 1990). Formulation components suitable for parenteral administration include a sterile diluent such as water for injection, saline solution, fixed oils, polyethylene glycols, glycerine, propylene glycol or other synthetic solvents; antibacterial agents such as benzyl alcohol or methyl parabens; antioxidants such as ascorbic acid or sodium bisulfite; chelating agents such as EDTA; buffers such as acetates, citrates or phosphates; and agents for the adjustment of tonicity such as sodium chloride or dextrose.

[00200] For intravenous administration, suitable carriers include physiological saline, bacteriostatic water, Cremophor ELTM (BASF, Parsippany, NJ) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The carrier should be stable under the conditions of manufacture and storage, and should be preserved against microorganisms. The carrier can be a solvent or dispersion medium containing, for example, water, ethanol, polyol (for example, glycerol, propylene glycol, and liquid polyetheylene glycol), and suitable mixtures thereof.

[00201] Pharmaceutical formulations preferably are sterile. Sterilization can be accomplished by any suitable method, e.g., filtration through sterile filtration membranes. Where the composition is lyophilized, filter sterilization can be conducted prior to or following lyophilization and reconstitution.

[00202] The term“effective amount” as used herein refers to the amount of an active component (e.g., the amount of a recombinant vector, e.g., a recombinant oncolytic virus) sufficient to effect beneficial or desired results. An effective amount can be administered in one or more administrations, applications or dosages and is not intended to be limited to a particular formulation or administration route.

[00203] In certain embodiments, a therapeutically effective amount of active component is in the range of 0.1 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg, e.g., 1 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg to 10 mg/kg. In certain embodiments, a therapeutically effective amount of a recombinant virus e.g., a recombinant oncolytic virus, is in the range of 10 to 10 plaque forming units (pfus), e.g., 10 to 10 10 10 2 to 10 5 , 10 5 to 10 15 , 10 5 to 10 10 , or 10 10 to 10 15 plaque forming units. The amount administered will depend on variables such as the type and extent of disease or indication to be treated, the overall health of the patient, the in vivo potency of the active component, the pharmaceutical formulation, and the route of administration. The initial dosage can be increased beyond the upper level in order to rapidly achieve the desired blood-level or tissue-level. Alternatively, the initial dosage can be smaller than the optimum, and the daily dosage may be progressively increased during the course of treatment. Human dosage can be optimized, e.g., in a conventional Phase I dose escalation study designed to run from 0.5 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg. Dosing frequency can vary, depending on factors such as route of administration, dosage amount, serum half-life of the antibody, and the disease being treated. Exemplary dosing frequencies are once per day, once per week and once every two weeks. A preferred route of administration is parenteral, e.g., intravenous infusion.

VII. Therapeutic Uses

[00204] The viruses disclosed herein can be used to treat various medical indications, for example, cancers. As used herein,“treat”,“treating” and“treatment” mean the treatment of a disease in a subject, e.g., in a human. This includes: (a) inhibiting the disease, i.e., arresting its development; and (b) relieving the disease, i.e., causing regression of the disease state. As used herein, the terms“subject” and“patient” refer to an organism to be treated by the methods and compositions described herein. Such organisms preferably include, but are not limited to, mammals (e.g., murines, simians, equines, bovines, porcines, canines, felines, and the like), and more preferably includes humans.

[00205] Examples of cancers include solid tumors, soft tissue tumors, hematopoietic tumors and metastatic lesions. Examples of hematopoietic tumors include, leukemia, acute leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), B-cell, T-cell or FAB ALL, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), e.g., transformed CLL, diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma, hairy cell leukemia, myelodyplastic syndrome (MDS), a lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, a malignant lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, or Richter’s Syndrome (Richter’s Transformation). Examples of solid tumors include malignancies, e.g., sarcomas, adenocarcinomas, and carcinomas, of the various organ systems, such as those affecting head and neck (including pharynx), thyroid, lung (small cell or non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC)), breast, lymphoid, gastrointestinal (e.g., oral, esophageal, stomach, liver, pancreas, small intestine, colon and rectum, anal canal), genitals and genitourinary tract (e.g., renal, urothelial, bladder, ovarian, uterine, cervical, endometrial, prostate, testicular), CNS (e.g., neural or glial cells, e.g., neuroblastoma or glioma), or skin (e.g., melanoma).

[00206] In certain embodiments, the cancer is selected from melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, basal cell carcinoma, head and neck cancer, breast cancer, anal cancer, cervical cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, mesothelioma, small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, prostate cancer, gastroesophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, testicular cancer, bladder cancer, ovarian cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, brain cancer, endometrial cancer, neuroendocrine cancer, and pancreatic cancer.

[00207] In certain embodiments, the cancer is selected from nasopharyngeal cancer, basal cell carcinoma, synovial cancer, hepatocellular cancer, renal cancer, cancer of connective tissues, melanoma, lung cancer, bowel cancer, colon cancer, rectal cancer, colorectal cancer, brain cancer, throat cancer, oral cancer, liver cancer, bone cancer, pancreatic cancer, choriocarcinoma, gastrinoma, neuroendocrine, pheochromocytoma, prolactinoma, T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, neuroma, von Hippel-Lindau disease, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, adrenal cancer, anal cancer, bile duct cancer, bladder cancer, ureter cancer, brain cancer, oligodendroglioma, neuroblastoma, meningioma, spinal cord tumor, bone cancer, osteochondroma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, cancer of unknown primary site, carcinoid, carcinoid of gastrointestinal tract, fibrosarcoma, breast cancer, Paget's disease, cervical cancer, colorectal cancer, rectal cancer, esophagus cancer, gall bladder cancer, head cancer, eye cancer, neck cancer, kidney cancer, Wilms' tumor, liver cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, prostate cancer, lung cancer, testicular cancer, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, oral cancer, skin cancer, mesothelioma, multiple myeloma, ovarian cancer, endocrine pancreatic cancer, glucagonoma, pancreatic cancer, parathyroid cancer, penis cancer, pituitary cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, retinoblastoma, small intestine cancer, stomach cancer, thymus cancer, thyroid cancer, trophoblastic cancer, hydatidiform mole, uterine cancer, endometrial cancer, vagina cancer, vulva cancer, acoustic neuroma, mycosis fungoides, insulinoma, carcinoid syndrome, somatostatinoma, gum cancer, heart cancer, lip cancer, meninges cancer, mouth cancer, nerve cancer, palate cancer, parotid gland cancer, peritoneum cancer, pharynx cancer, pleural cancer, salivary gland cancer, tongue cancer and tonsil cancer.

[00208] In certain embodiments, a disclosed method or composition is administered to the subject in combination with one or more therapies, e.g., surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, hormone therapy, phototherapy or virotherapy. In certain embodiments, a disclosed method or composition is administered in combination with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, e.g., erlotinib. In certain embodiments, a disclosed method or composition is administered in combination with a checkpoint inhibitor, e.g., an anti-CTLA-4 antibody, an anti-PD-l antibody, or an anti-PD-Ll antibody. Exemplary anti-PD-l antibodies include, for example, nivolumab (Opdivo®, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.), pembrolizumab (Keytruda®, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.), PDR001 (Novartis Pharmaceuticals), and pidilizumab (CT-011, Cure Tech). Exemplary anti-PD-Ll antibodies include, for example, atezolizumab (Tecentriq®, Genentech), duvalumab (AstraZeneca), MEDI4736, avelumab, and BMS 936559 (Bristol Myers Squibb Co.). In certain embodiments, a disclosed method or composition is administered in combination with a TGF-b trap, or an expression vector, e.g., a recombinant adenovirus, comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding for a TGF-b trap. A TGF-b trap is a fusion protein containing a soluble portion of the extracellular domain of the TϋRb type II receptor or the TOHb type III receptor. Exemplary TGF-b traps are described in U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/400,338 filed September 27, 2016, and may, e.g., comprise the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 14 or SEQ ID NO: 15.

[00209] The term administered "in combination," as used herein, is understood to mean that two (or more) different treatments are delivered to the subject during the course of the subject’s affliction with the disorder, such that the effects of the treatments on the patient overlap at a point in time. In certain embodiments, the delivery of one treatment is still occurring when the delivery of the second begins, so that there is overlap in terms of administration. This is sometimes referred to herein as "simultaneous" or "concurrent delivery." In other embodiments, the delivery of one treatment ends before the delivery of the other treatment begins. In some embodiments of either case, the treatment is more effective because of combined administration. For example, the second treatment is more effective, e.g., an equivalent effect is seen with less of the second treatment, or the second treatment reduces symptoms to a greater extent, than would be seen if the second treatment were administered in the absence of the first treatment, or the analogous situation is seen with the first treatment. In certain embodiments, delivery is such that the reduction in a symptom, or other parameter related to the disorder is greater than what would be observed with one treatment delivered in the absence of the other. The effect of the two treatments can be partially additive, wholly additive, or greater than additive. The delivery can be such that an effect of the first treatment delivered is still detectable when the second is delivered.

[00210] In certain embodiments, a disclosed method or composition is administered in combination with an adjuvant. Exemplary adjuvants include aluminum salts (e.g., aluminium phosphate or aluminium hydroxide), squalene, MF59, virus like particles, tetanus toxoid, Freund’s complete adjuvant, Freund’s incomplete adjuvant, muramyl dipeptide, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), NOD-like receptors (NLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), flagellin, and oligodeoxynucleotides containing specific CpG motifs (CpG ODNs; e.g., ODN 1826 and ODN 2006). [00211] In certain embodiments, a disclosed method or composition is administered in combination with an immunosuppressive drug. Exemplary immunosuppressive drugs include tacrolimus, cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, mycophenolate sodium, azathioprine, and. sirolimus In certain embodiments, a disclosed method or composition is administered in combination with a corticosteroids, e.g., prednisone.

[00212] In certain embodiments, a disclosed recombinant vector, e.g., a recombinant oncolytic virus, is administered to one or more organs of a subject. In certain embodiments, a disclosed recombinant vector, e.g., a recombinant oncolytic virus, is administered to the lymphatic system of a subject.

[00213] Throughout the description, where viruses, compositions and systems are described as having, including, or comprising specific components, or where processes and methods are described as having, including, or comprising specific steps, it is contemplated that, additionally, there are compositions, devices, and systems of the present invention that consist essentially of, or consist of, the recited components, and that there are processes and methods according to the present invention that consist essentially of, or consist of, the recited processing steps.

[00214] In the application, where an element or component is said to be included in and/or selected from a list of recited elements or components, it should be understood that the element or component can be any one of the recited elements or components, or the element or component can be selected from a group consisting of two or more of the recited elements or components.

[00215] Further, it should be understood that elements and/or features of a virus, a composition, a system, a method, or a process described herein can be combined in a variety of ways without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention, whether explicit or implicit herein. For example, where reference is made to a particular virus, that virus can be used in various embodiments of compositions of the present invention and/or in methods of the present invention, unless otherwise understood from the context. In other words, within this application, embodiments have been described and depicted in a way that enables a clear and concise application to be written and drawn, but it is intended and will be appreciated that embodiments may be variously combined or separated without parting from the present teachings and invention(s). For example, it will be appreciated that all features described and depicted herein can be applicable to all aspects of the invention(s) described and depicted herein.

[00216] It should be understood that the expression“at least one of’ includes individually each of the recited objects after the expression and the various combinations of two or more of the recited objects unless otherwise understood from the context and use. The expression “and/or” in connection with three or more recited objects should be understood to have the same meaning unless otherwise understood from the context.

[00217] The use of the term“include,”“includes,”“including,”“have,” “has,”“having,” “contain,”“contains,” or“containing,” including grammatical equivalents thereof, should be understood generally as open-ended and non-limiting, for example, not excluding additional unrecited elements or steps, unless otherwise specifically stated or understood from the context.

[00218] At various places in the present specification, viruses, compositions, systems, processes and methods, or features thereof, are disclosed in groups or in ranges. It is specifically intended that the description include each and every individual subcombination of the members of such groups and ranges. By way of other examples, an integer in the range of 1 to 20 is specifically intended to individually disclose 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,

18, 19, and 20.

[00219] It should be understood that the order of steps or order for performing certain actions is immaterial so long as the present invention remain operable. Moreover, two or more steps or actions may be conducted simultaneously.

[00220] The use of any and all examples, or exemplary language herein, for example,“such as” or“including,” is intended merely to illustrate better the present invention and does not pose a limitation on the scope of the invention unless claimed. No language in the specification should be construed as indicating any non-claimed element as essential to the practice of the present invention.

[00221] The following examples illustrate various aspects of the invention. The examples should, of course, be understood to be merely illustrative of only certain embodiments of the invention and not to constitute limitations upon the scope of the invention.

EXAMPLES

[00222] The following Examples are merely illustrative and are not intended to limit the scope or content of the invention in any way.

Example 1

[00223] This Example describes the construction of a recombinant oncolytic adenovirus expressing KRAS. KRAS is a proto-oncogene which is frequently mutated in cancer, including a majority of pancreatic cancers and many colorectal and non-small cell lung cancers. There are no available therapies that directly target activated KRAS, and KRAS mutations are associated with resistance to agents targeting the epidermal growth factor pathway. A common mechanism of KRAS activation is mutation in codon 12 or codon 13, and a common cancer-associated mutation is the glycine to aspartic acid mutation in codon 12 (the G12D mutation).

[00224] An adenovirus type 5 virus was constructed that carried the deletion of a nucleotide region located from -304 to -255 upstream of the Ela initiation, which renders Ela expression cancer-selective (as previously described in U.S. Patent No. 9,073,980). The adenovirus was further modified to carry a Sall site at the start site of the Elb-l9k region and an Xhol site 200 base pairs 3' of the Sall site to facilitate insertion of therapeutic transgenes. The resulting virus, is hereafter referred to as TAV. The nucleotide sequence of the modified Elb-l9k region is as follows, with the residual bases from the fused Sall and Xhol sites underlined:

ATCTTGGTTACATCTGACCTCGTCGAGTCACCAGGCGCTTTTCCAA (SEQ ID NO: 7).

[00225] A nucleotide sequence encoding a KRAS peptide including the G12D mutation was cloned in the modified Elb-l9k region of TAV. The resulting virus is hereafter referred to as TAV-KRAS-G12D. The nucleotide sequence encoding the KRAS G12D peptide inserted in to the Elb-l9k region is as follows, where the KRAS G12D coding region is capitalized, the flanking restriction sites used for cloning are underlined, and the flanking viral sequence including is lowercase:

gttacatctgacctcGTCGACATGACTGAATATAAACTTGTGGTAGTTGGAGCTGAT GGCGTAG GCAAGAGTGCCCTCGAGtcaccaggcgcttttc (SEQ ID NO: 16).

Example 2

[00226] This Example describes the construction of recombinant oncolytic adenoviruses expressing either a concatemer of multiple cancer antigens or a single cancer antigen identified by genomic sequencing of a patient with cancer.

[00227] Genomic sequencing of a cancer patient was performed, which identified multiple mutations that could potentially act as cancer antigens and be recognized by the immune system. To incorporate these cancer antigens into a virus, a series of 38 peptides was generated, each peptide including the cancer-associated point mutation and the eight flanking amino acids 5’ or 3’ from the point mutation in the mutated protein. These peptides could be processed into a 9- mer peptide to be loaded onto an MHC class I molecule, with the cancer-associated mutation occurring at any position in the 9-mer. Frameshift mutations were incorporated as peptides with eight amino acids N-terminal to the frameshift followed by the mutated amino acids following the frameshift. [00228] A nucleotide sequence was generated that encoded a patient-specific cancer antigen concatemer. The concatemer included the set of 38 peptides described above. Each peptide was separated by an Alanine-Alanine-Tyrosine (AAY; SEQ ID NO: 6) linker to promote proteasomal cleavage between the potential cancer antigen peptides. The concatemer further included a C- terminal ubiquitin, also joined with an AAY linker, in order to promote proteasomal targeting and processing for MHC presentation. A schematic representation of the concatemer is shown in FIGURE 1. For simplicity, the schematic in FIGURE 1 only depicts 3 cancer antigens/epitopes rather than the full set of 38. The nucleotide sequence of the entire concatemer with the C- terminal ubiquitin, N-terminal start codon, and 3’ stop codon is provided in SEQ ID NO: 96. A list of the cancer antigen peptides that were incorporated into the concatemer is shown in FIGURE 2.

[00229] An adenovirus type 5 with a TAV deletion and a modified Elb-19k region to facilitate insertion of therapeutic transgenes was generated as described in Example 1. The nucleotide sequence encoding the patient-specific cancer antigen concatemer (SEQ ID NO: 96) was inserted into modified Elb-19k region. To accommodate insertion of the large patient- specific cancer antigen concatemer into the viral genome without exceeding the packaging capacity of an adenoviral capsid, compensatory deletions were made in the E3 and E4 regions. In the E3 region, the RID alpha, RID beta, and 14.7K genes positioned after adenoviral death protein were deleted, and the E3 gpl9k gene was disrupted by mutating the fourth codon to a stop codon. The E4 region retained E4 ORF6/7. This virus was named PSV1 and the full genomic sequence of the virus is provided in SEQ ID NO: 97. The complete nucleic acid sequence of the concatemer present in PSV1 encoding multiple cancer antigens, including the start methionine, linking AAY residues, ubiquitin, and stop codon (all shown in uppercase) and flanking adenoviral sequence around the E1B-19K insertion site and residual Sail and Xhol site nucleotides (all lowercase) is set forth in SEQ ID NO: 108.

[00230] Genomic sequencing of two additional cancer patients was performed. In each patient, sequencing identified mutations in only a single gene, the APC gene. The first patient had a frameshift mutation in the APC gene, and the second patient had a point mutation in the APC gene. Nucleotide sequences were generated that encoded the single APC mutation from each patient and a C-terminal ubiquitin, joined with an AAY linker. The nucleotide sequence encoding the APC mutation from the first patient (with a point mutation in APC) is shown in SEQ ID NO: 98. The virus carrying SEQ ID NO: 98 was named PSV2. The amino acid sequence encoded by SEQ ID NO: 98 is E K I G T R S A Q D P V S E V P A (SEQ ID NO. I l l), in which the mutated amino acid“Q” replaces the wild type residue“E” at that position. The complete nucleic acid sequence encoding the cancer antigen present in PSV2 including the start methionine, linking AAY residues, ubiquitin, and stop codon (all shown in uppercase) and flanking adenoviral sequence around the E1B-19K insertion site and residual Sail and Xhol site nucleotides (all lowercase) is set forth in SEQ ID NO: 109.

[00231] The nucleotide sequence encoding the APC mutation from the second patient (with a frameshift mutation in APC) is shown in SEQ ID NO: 99. The virus carrying SEQ ID NO: 99 was named PSV3. The amino acid sequence encoded by SEQ ID NO: 99 is T L Q I A E I K D W N (SEQ ID NO: 112) comprising the mutated amino acids“D W N” as compared to the wild type sequence of APC. The complete nucleic acid sequence encoding the cancer antigen present in PSV3 including the start methionine, linking AAY residues, ubiquitin, and stop codon (all shown in uppercase) and flanking adenoviral sequence around the E1B-19K insertion site and residual Sail and Xhol site nucleotides (all lowercase) is set forth in SEQ ID NO: 110.

[00232] An adenovirus type 5 with a TAV deletion and a modified Elb-19k region to facilitate insertion of therapeutic transgenes was generated as described in Example 1. Nucleotide sequences that encoded the APC mutations linked to a C-terminal ubiquitin (SEQ ID NO: 98 or SEQ ID NO: 99) were inserted into the modified Elb-19k region. Deletions were made in the E3 and E4 regions. In the E3 region, the RID alpha, RID beta, and 14.7K genes positioned after adenoviral death protein were deleted, and the E3 gpl9k gene was disrupted by mutating the fourth codon to a stop codon. The E4 region retained E4 ORF6/7.

[00233] PSV1, PSV2, and PSV3 were manufactured and formulated for clinical use. The patient for whom PSV1 was prepared clinically deteriorated and expired without being dosed with the virus. The patient for whom PSV2 was prepared was treated with intratumoral injections of 1E12 viral particles given every 2 weeks. With the first injection of PSV2, circulating adenoviral genomes were measured in the blood with the following results, with persistence of circulating viral DNA suggesting ongoing viral shedding.

[00234] The patient treated with PSV2 had a mixed response to therapy, including some tumors which showed pseudoprogression - initial enlargement followed by regression - suggestive of an immune mediated response, see FIGURE 4.

[00235] The patient for whom PSV3 was prepared could not be treated with intratumoral injections of the virus because the cancer’s location was not amenable to safely inject, so the patient was dosed subcutaneously. With subcutaneous administration, the cancer-associated antigen can be expressed by infected normal cells and potentially induce an immune response against the antigen, but direct cell killing by the virus is not expected to occur.

Example 3

[00236] This Example describes the construction of a recombinant oncolytic adenovirus expressing both IL-24 and GM-CSF.

[00237] Additional modifications could potentially enhance the activity of oncolytic viruses expressing cancer antigens. For example, GM-CSF is a cytokine that promotes dendritic cell activity. Viruses can be modified to express GM-CSF, or other immunomodulatory transgenes.

[00238] An adenovirus type 5 with a TAV deletion and a modified Elb-19k region to facilitate insertion of therapeutic transgenes was generated as described in Example 1. The gene for interleukin 24 (IF-24) was inserted into the modified Elb-19k region. The nucleotide sequence of the IF-24 gene is as follows:

ATGAATTTTCAACAGAGGCTGCAAAGCCTGTGGACTTTAGCCAGACCCTTCTGCCCTCCT TTGC TGGCGACAGCCTCTCAAATGCAGATGGTTGTGCTCCCTTGCCTGGGTTTTACCCTGCTTC TCTG GAGCCAGGTATCAGGGGCCCAGGGCCAAGAATTCCACTTTGGGCCCTGCCAAGTGAAGGG GGTT GTTCCCCAGAAACTGTGGGAAGCCTTCTGGGCTGTGAAAGACACTATGCAAGCTCAGGAT AACA TCACGAGTGCCCGGCTGCTGCAGCAGGAGGTTCTGCAGAACGTCTCGGATGCTGAGAGCT GTTA CCTTGTCCACACCCTGCTGGAGTTCTACTTGAAAACTGTTTTCAAAAACTACCACAATAG AACA GTTGAAGTCAGGACTCTGAAGTCATTCTCTACTCTGGCCAACAACTTTGTTCTCATCGTG TCAC AACTGCAACCCAGTCAAGAAAATGAGATGTTTTCCATCAGAGACAGTGCACACAGGCGGT TTCT GCTATTCCGGAGAGCATTCAAACAGTTGGACGTAGAAGCAGCTCTGACCAAAGCCCTTGG GGAA GTGGACATTCTTCTGACCTGGATGCAGAAATTCTACAAGCTCTGA (SEQ ID NO: 104).

[00239] The virus was further modified in the E3 region, and the gene for GM-CSF was inserted into the modified E3 region. The nucleotide sequence of the GM-CSF gene (capitalized) with flanking viral nucleotides indicating its insertion site in the viral E3 region (lowercase) is as follows: atgttcttttctcttacagtatgattaaatgagacATGTGGCTGCAATCCCTGCTGCTCT TGGG

CACTGTTGCCTGCTCCATCTCTGCACCCGCCCGCTCGCCCTCCCCCTCCACGCAACC CTGGGAA

CATGTTAATGCCATCCAAGAAGCCCGGCGCCTCCTGAACCTGTCCCGGGACACTGCT GCTGAAA

TGAATGAAACCGTTGAAGTTATCTCTGAAATGTTTGACCTCCAAGAACCGACCTGCC TACAAAC

CCGCCTGGAACTCTACAAACAAGGCCTGCGGGGCTCCCTCACCAAACTCAAAGGCCC CTTGACC

ATGATGGCCTCCCACTACAAACAACACTGCCCTCCAACCCCGGAAACTTCCTGCGCA ACCCAAA

TTATCACCTTTGAATCCTTCAAAGAAAACCTGAAAGACTTTCTGCTTGTTATCCCCT TTGACTG

CTGGGAACCTGTTCAAGAATGAcggtctcaaagatcttattccctttaactaataaa (SEQ ID

NO: 100).

[00240] This resulting virus was called TAV-hTI .24-hGMCSF. To test expression of both IL- 24 and GM-CSF, A549 cells were infected at 5 MOI with T A V-hTT .24-hGMCSF or with a control virus, TAV-Al9k, which has a deletion in the E1B-19K site and disruption of the E3 site present in the dl309 strain of adenovirus. Four days after infection, conditioned media from the cells was collected and the levels of IF- 24 and GM-CSF were measured by EFISA. As shown in FIGURE 3, both genes were expressed.

Example 4

[00241] This example describes a recombinant oncolytic adenovirus expressing both a mutated p53 protein, incorporating the mouse isoform of p53 with a mutation homologous to the human p53 R175H mutation for use in mouse experiments, and mouse Flt3F to stimulate dendritic cell maturation. The TP53 R175H gene (SEQ ID NO: 114) encoding the mutant mouse p53 was inserted in the F5-E4 site, and the FFT3F gene (SEQ ID NO: 115) encoding Flt3F was inserted in the E1B-19K site. The recombinant oncolytic adenovirus also incorporated the same TAV deletion in the El A promoter used in PSV1, the same E3 region deletion of RID alpha, RID beta, and 14.7K genes used in PSV1, the same partially deleted E4 region retaining E4 ORF6/7 used in PSV1, and the same mutation in E3 gpl9k converted the fourth codon to a stop codon used in PSV1. This recombinant oncolytic adenovirus is named AdFE-Gen-p53.

[00242] In another example, a recombinant oncolytic adenovirus was constructed with the same design except with a transgene encoding only the soluble extracellular domain of Flt3E instead of the full-length Flt3E gene. The sequence of the transgene encoding only the soluble extracellular domain of Flt3E is shown in SEQ ID NO: 116. This recombinant oncolytic adenovirus is named AdFL-Sol-p53.

[00243] To test for expression of the mutated mouse p53 gene by these viruses, A549 cells (human cancer cells) were infected with either virus or kept as non-infected controls. 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours after infection, mouse p53 expression was measured with an ELISA. As shown in FIGURE 5, higher levels of mouse p53 were detected in the cells infected with either virus at 24 hours and 48 hours after infection than in control non-infected cells.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

[00244] The entire disclosure of each of the patent documents and scientific articles referred to herein is incorporated by reference for all purposes.

EQUIVALENTS

[00245] The invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit or essential characteristics thereof. The foregoing embodiments are therefore to be considered in all respects illustrative rather than limiting on the invention described herein. Scope of the invention is thus indicated by the appended claims rather than by the foregoing description, and all changes that come within the meaning and the range of equivalency of the claims are intended to be embraced therein.