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Title:
POLYURETHANES, POLISHING ARTICLES AND POLISHING SYSTEMS THEREFROM AND METHOD OF USE THEREOF
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2022/091069
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present disclosure relates to polyurethane comprising a reaction product of a reactive mixture including a polyester polyol, a diol chain extender, a diisocyanate; and a reactive, tertiary amine. The present disclosure further provides polishing layers and polishing pads fabricated therefrom. Additionally, the present disclosure provides polishing systems and polishing methods employing said polishing layers and polishing pads.

Inventors:
RULE JOSEPH D (US)
LEHUU DUY K (US)
STOMBERG JAIMIE E (US)
JENNEN JAY M (US)
Application Number:
PCT/IB2021/060127
Publication Date:
May 05, 2022
Filing Date:
November 02, 2021
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
3M INNOVATIVE PROPERTIES CO (US)
International Classes:
C08G18/66; B24D3/28; C08G18/18; C08G18/20; C08G18/42; C08K3/013; C08L75/06
Foreign References:
KR102170859B12020-10-28
KR20160140874A2016-12-07
JP2017114924A2017-06-29
KR20160021860A2016-02-26
Other References:
KROL, P. ET AL.: "Modelling the surface free energy parameters of polyurethane coats-part 2. Waterborne coats obtained from cationomer polyurethanes", COLLOID AND POLYMER SCIENCE, vol. 292, no. 5, 2014, pages 1051 - 1059, XP035317403, DOI: 10.1007/s00396-013-3156-x
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
IDEN, Daniel J. et al. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A polyurethane comprising a reaction product of a reactive mixture including, a polyester polyol; a diol chain extender; a diisocyanate; and a reactive, tertiary amine according to Formula I wherein,

R1 is a C1-C16 substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, wherein the substituted alkyl includes at least one of an alcohol, primary amine and secondary amine,

R2 and R2' are independently one of H and a substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, wherein the substituted alkyl includes at least one of an alcohol, primary amine and secondary amine group,

R3 and R3' are independently a substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, wherein the substituted alkyl includes at least one of an alcohol, primary amine and secondary amine group,

R4 and R4' are independently a substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, wherein the substituted alkyl includes at least one of an alcohol, primary amine and secondary amine group and wherein a total number of alcohol, primary amine and secondary amine groups in the reactive, tertiary amine is at least one.

2. The polyurethane of claim 1, wherein the total number of alcohol, primary amine and secondary amine groups in the reactive, tertiary amine is no greater than four.

3. The polyurethane of claim 1, wherein the substituted C1-C16 alkyl of R1 and the substituted C1- C8 alkyls of R2, R2', R3, R3', R4 and R4' are free of primary amine and secondary amine groups.

4. The polyurethane of claim 1, wherein R4 and R4' form a cyclic structure.

5. The polyurethane of claim 1, wherein a reactive, tertiary amine is at least one of 4-hydroxy-

1 ,2,2,6,6-pentamethylpiperidine, N,N-diisopropylaminoethanol, 1 -hydroxyethyl -2,2,6, 6-tetramethyl -4- piperidinol and 4-amino-1,2,2,6,6-pentamethylpiperidine.

6. The polyurethane of claim 1, wherein the polyester polyol includes at least one of polybutylene adipate.

7. The polyurethane of claim 1, wherein the diol chain extender is between 2% to 15% by wt. of the reactive mixture.

8. The polyurethane of claim 1, wherein the diol chain extender includes at least one of a C1-C16 aliphatic diol and C4-C16 cycloaliphatic diol.

9. The polyurethane of claim 1, wherein the diisocyanate includes a diphenylmethane diisocyanate, a reaction product of a diphenylmethane diisocyanate and a hydroxyl terminated, linear oligomer or polymer, toluene diisocyanate, a reaction product of toluene diisocyanate and a hydroxyl terminated, linear oligomer or polymer and combinations thereof.

10. The polyurethane of claim 1, further comprising a polyol having at least three hydroxyl groups

11. A polishing pad comprising a polishing layer having a working surface and a second surface opposite the working surface, wherein the polishing layer includes the polyurethane of any one of the preceding claims, optionally, wherein the polishing layer includes at least 90% by weight of the polyurethane.

12. The polishing pad of claim 11, wherein the working surface includes a land region and at least one of a plurality of precisely shaped pores and a plurality of precisely shaped asperities.

13. The polishing pad of claim 11 , wherein the polishing layer further comprises a plurality of independent or inter-connected macro-channels.

14. The polishing pad of claim 11, wherein the polishing layer includes less than 1% by volume inorganic abrasive particles.

15. A method of polishing a substrate, the method comprising: providing a polishing pad according claim 11 ; providing a substrate; contacting the working surface of the polishing layer with the substrate surface; moving the polishing pad and the substrate relative to one another while maintaining contact between the working surface of the polishing pad and the substrate surface, wherein polishing is conducted in the presence of a polishing solution.

Description:
POLYURETHANES, POLISHING ARTICLES AND POLISHING SYSTEMS THEREFROM AND METHOD OF USE THEREOF

Field of the Disclosure

The present disclosure relates to polyurethane materials and articles containing such materials.

Background

Polyurethane synthesis and film fabrication are described in, for example, U.S. Pat. Publication 2020/0277517 and U.S. Patent No. 10,590,303. Use of polyurethane films in polishing articles is described in, for example, U.S. Patent Nos. 10,071,461 and 10,252,396.

Brief Description of the Figures

The disclosure may be more completely understood in consideration of the following detailed description of various embodiments of the disclosure in connection with the accompanying figures, in which:

FIG. 1 is a schematic cross-sectional diagram of a portion of a polishing layer in accordance with some embodiments of the present disclosure.

FIG. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional diagram of a polishing pad in accordance with some embodiments of the present disclosure.

FIG. 3 illustrates a schematic diagram of an example of a polishing system for utilizing the polishing pads and methods in accordance with some embodiments of the present disclosure.

Detailed Description

Polyurethanes are versatile resins that are, generally, synthesized from mixtures of polyols, i.e. an organic compound having at least two alcohol functional groups, and polyisocyanates, i.e. an organic compound having at least two isocyanate functional groups. In addition to these components, other compounds may be added during synthesis including chain extenders, chain termination agents, crosslinkers, catalysts and the like. Both thermoplastic and thermoset polyurethanes are readily synthesized and, due to the large breadth in the compounds that may be used for their synthesis, a wide range of material properties may be achieved. Due to their toughness, abrasion resistance and chemical resistance, polyurethanes are often used as protective coatings and films.

One area where polyurethane films have recently been employed is as abrasive materials for various polishing applications, for example, Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) polishing applications. In a typical CMP application, a surface of a substrate, e.g. a semiconductor wafer, is brought into contact with a surface of a polishing pad, often in the presence of a working liquid. The substrate is moved relative to the pad under a designated force or pressure, causing removal of material from the substrate surface. The polishing pad often has multiple layers including a polishing layer, i.e. the layer of the pad that contacts the substrate, and a subpad. The design of the polishing layer is critical to the polishing performance. Some polishing layers may include a working surface (the surface of the polishing layer that contacts the substrate being polished) having specific polishing features, e.g. asperities and/or pores, that facilitate the polishing process. The height of the asperities and/or depth of the pores are critical parameters relative to the pads polishing performance. In the case of asperities, it is generally desired to have the height of the tallest asperities to be uniform, creating a planar surface of asperity tips. This allows the substrate surface to make uniform contact across the set of asperities. Additionally, the overall thickness of the polishing layer is also a critical parameter relative to the polishing performance. Generally, it is desired to have the polishing layer be of a uniform thickness to allow the polishing layer working surface to be planar. Thickness variations may cause non-planarity of the polishing layer surface and affect the polishing performance, as the substrate may make contact with thicker regions of the polishing layer but may not make contact with thinner regions spanning the region therebetween. Additionally, non-uniform thickness may lead to non-uniform polishing pressure across the substrate surface, which may also adversely affect polishing results, e.g. low or non-uniform substrate removal rates. The dimensional uniformity of the polishing layer thickness and/or polishing features is critical to the polish process. The required dimensional uniformity may create demanding tolerance requirements, as the polishing layer is often in a film format having a thickness of less than 1000 microns and the corresponding polishing features may have dimensions, including height and/or depth, of between 20 to 100 microns.

In addition to these dimensional requirements, the working fluids, e.g. polishing solutions, used in a polishing process may be corrosive, e.g. acidic or basic, and or highly oxidizing, thus the polishing layer should provide good chemical resistance. It is also desired for the polishing layer to last a length of time that meets the polishing life requirements of a given polishing process, i.e. the polishing layer should provide good abrasion resistance. From a manufacturing perspective, an efficient, low cost manufacturing process for the polishing layer is desired, to enable sufficient economic benefit for the pad producer. This process may need to provide uniform polishing layer thickness and it may also need to provide an efficient means for creating the desired polishing features at the desired tolerances on the working surface of the polishing layer.

One approach to creating the polishing features on the working surface of the polishing layer is through the use of a molding or embossing process. In this approach, a polishing layer may be prepared from a thermoplastic that is melt processed, via an extruder for example, and cast onto an embossing roll that includes the negative image of the desired polishing layer features. The thermoplastic is then cooled on the embossing roll to cause solidification followed by removal of the thermoplastic film with embossed features from the roll. With respect to melt processing, the thermoplastic may be synthesized, pelletized and then processed into film, at a later time. However, greater efficiency can be achieved by making the thermoplastic in-situ, in an extruder through reactive extrusion. The polyurethane produced can then be formed into a film. In either case, stable fluid flow is required during the casting/embossing process to insure uniform film thickness and uniform feature sizes. Stable fluid flow may correlate to stable extruder melt viscosity of the thermoplastic at the melt process temperature, for example. Overall, due to their chemical resistance, abrasion resistance and processing characteristics, polyurethanes appear to be well suited for the fabrication of thin films, used for example as polishing layers in CMP applications. However, during melt processing, their viscosity characteristics may change due to degradation at the process temperatures employed or due to the chemical composition used to prepare the polyurethanes, if fabricated in-situ, for example. Thus, there is a need for a polyurethane with improved viscosity characteristics, e.g. improved stability with time, to provide for films of uniform thickness and/or uniform feature dimension, should features be present. Applicants have found that certain reactive, tertiary amine compounds utilized during the synthesis of polyurethanes improve the viscosity stability of the polyurethanes formed therefrom and provide benefit in the preparation of thin films formed from said polyurethanes.

Unless otherwise indicated, all numbers expressing feature sizes, amounts, and physical properties used in the specification and claims are to be understood as being modified in all instances by the term “about.” Accordingly, unless indicated to the contrary, the numbers set forth are approximations that can vary depending upon the desired properties using the teachings disclosed herein.

The terms “a”, “an”, and “the” are used interchangeably with “at least one” to mean one or more of the elements being described.

The term “substituted” (in reference to an alkyl group or moiety) means that at least one carbon bonded hydrogen atom is replaced by one or more non-hydrogen atoms. Examples of substituents or functional groups that can be substituted, include, but are not limited to, alcohol, primary amine and secondary amine.

The terms “aliphatic” and “cycloaliphatic” as used herein refer to compounds with hydrocarbon groups that are alkanes, alkenes or alkynes. The hydrocarbons may include substitution.

The term “alkyl” refers to a monovalent group that is a radical of an alkane. An “unsubstituted alkyl” refers to a saturated hydrocarbon. A “substituted alkyl” means that at least one carbon-bonded hydrogen atom is replaced by a functional group, e.g. alcohol, primary amine and secondary amine or a halogen atom. The alkyl can be linear, branched, cyclic, or combinations thereof. The alkyl may contain from 1 to 16 carbon atoms, i.e. a C1-C16 alkyl.

The term “alkylene” refers to a divalent group that is a radical of an alkane. The alkylene can be straight-chained, branched, cyclic, or combinations thereof. The alkylene may contain from 1 to 16 carbon atoms, i.e. a C1-C16 alkylene. In some embodiments, the alkylene contains 1 to 14, 1 to 12, 1 to 10, 1 to 8, 1 to 6, or 1 to 4 carbon atoms. The radical centers of the alkylene can be on the same carbon atom (i.e., an alkylidene) or on different carbon atoms.

The term “alkenyl” as used herein refers to straight and branched chain and cyclic alkyl groups as defined herein, except that at least one double bond exists between two carbon atoms. Thus, alkenyl groups may have from 2 to 40 carbon atoms, 2 to about 20 carbon atoms, 2 to about 16 carbon atoms. 2 to 12 carbon atoms or, in some embodiments, from 2 to 8 carbon atoms. Examples include, but are not limited to vinyl, -CH=CH(CH 3 ), -CH=C(CH 3 ) 2 , -C(CH 3 )=CH 2 , -C(CH 3 )=CH(CH 3 ), -C(CH 2 CH 3 )=CH 2 , cyclohexenyl, cyclopentenyl, cyclohexadienyl, butadienyl, pentadienyl, and hexadienyl among others. The term “acyl” as used herein refers to a group containing a carbonyl moiety wherein the group is bonded via the carbonyl carbon atom. The carbonyl carbon atom is bonded to a hydrogen forming a “formyl” group or is bonded to another carbon atom, which can be part of an alkyl, aryl, aralkyl cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heterocyclyl, heterocyclylalkyl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl group or the like. An acyl group can include 0 to about 8, 0 to about 12, 0 to about 16, 0 to about 20, or 0 to about 40 additional carbon atoms bonded to the carbonyl group. An acyl group can include double or triple bonds within the meaning herein. An acryloyl group is an example of an acyl group. An acyl group can also include heteroatoms within the meaning herein. A nicotinoyl group (pyridyl-3-carbonyl) is an example of an acyl group within the meaning herein. Other examples include acetyl, benzoyl, phenylacetyl, pyridylacetyl, cinnamoyl, and acryloyl groups and the like. When the group containing the carbon atom that is bonded to the carbonyl carbon atom contains a halogen, the group is termed a “haloacyl” group. An example is a trifluoroacetyl group.

The term “cycloalkyl” as used herein refers to cyclic alkyl groups such as, but not limited to, cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl, and cyclooctyl groups. In some embodiments, the cycloalkyl group can have 3 to about 8-12 ring members, whereas in other embodiments the number of ring carbon atoms range from 3 to 4, 5, 6, or 7. Cycloalkyl groups further include polycyclic cycloalkyl groups such as, but not limited to, norbomyl, adamantyl, bornyl, camphenyl, isocamphenyl, and carenyl groups, and fused rings such as, but not limited to, decalinyl, and the like. Cycloalkyl groups also include rings that are substituted with straight or branched chain alkyl groups as defined herein. Representative substituted cycloalkyl groups can be mono-substituted or substituted more than once, such as, but not limited to, 2,2-, 2,3-, 2,4- 2,5- or 2,6-disubstituted cyclohexyl groups or mono-, di- or tri-substituted norbomyl or cycloheptyl groups, which can be substituted with, for example, amino, hydroxy, cyano, carboxy, nitro, thio, alkoxy, and halogen groups. The term “cycloalkenyl” alone or in combination denotes a cyclic alkenyl group.

The term “aryl” as used herein refers to cyclic aromatic hydrocarbon groups that do not contain heteroatoms in the ring. Thus, aryl groups include, but are not limited to, phenyl, azulenyl, heptalenyl, biphenyl, indacenyl, fluorenyl, phenanthrenyl, triphenylenyl, pyrenyl, naphthacenyl, chrysenyl, biphenylenyl, anthracenyl, and naphthyl groups. In some embodiments, aryl groups contain about 6 to about 14 carbons in the ring portions of the groups. Aryl groups can be unsubstituted or substituted, as defined herein. Representative substituted aryl groups can be mono-substituted or substituted more than once, such as, but not limited to, a phenyl group substituted at any one or more of 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or 6- positions of the phenyl ring, or a naphthyl group substituted at any one or more of 2- to 8-positions thereof.

The term “aralkyl” as used herein refers to alkyl groups as defined herein in which a hydrogen or carbon bond of an alkyl group is replaced with a bond to an aryl group as defined herein. Representative aralkyl groups include benzyl and phenylethyl groups and fused (cycloalkylaryl)alkyl groups such as 4- ethyl-indanyl. Aralkenyl groups are alkenyl groups as defined herein in which a hydrogen or carbon bond of an alkyl group is replaced with a bond to an aryl group as defined herein. The term “alkoxy” as used herein refers to an oxygen atom connected to an alkyl group, including a cycloalkyl group, as are defined herein. Examples of linear alkoxy groups include but are not limited to methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, butoxy, pentyloxy, hexyloxy, and the like. Examples of branched alkoxy include but are not limited to isopropoxy, sec-butoxy, tert-butoxy, isopentyloxy, isohexyloxy, and the like. Examples of cyclic alkoxy include but are not limited to cyclopropyloxy, cyclobutyloxy, cyclopentyloxy, cyclohexyloxy, and the like. An alkoxy group can include about 1 to 8, 1 to about 12, 1 to about 16, about 1 to about 20, or about 1 to about 40 carbon atoms bonded to the oxygen atom, and can further include double or triple bonds, and can also include heteroatoms. For example, an allyloxy group or a methoxyethoxy group is also an alkoxy group within the meaning herein, as is a methylenedioxy group in a context where two adjacent atoms of a structure are substituted therewith.

The term “aromatic” as used herein refers to compounds with hydrocarbon groups that are aryl or arylene groups.

The term “non-aromatic” as used herein refers to compounds that do not include aryl or arylene groups.

Throughout this disclosure the term “alcohol” and “hydroxyl” are used interchangeably.

The term “Working surface” refers to the surface of a polishing pad that will be adjacent to and in at least partial contact with the surface of the substrate being polished.

“Pore” refers to a cavity in the working surface of a pad that allows a fluid, e.g. a liquid, to be contained therein. The pore enables at least some fluid to be contained within the pore and not flow out of the pore.

The term “Precisely shaped” refers to a topographical feature, e.g. an asperity or pore, having a molded shape that is the inverse shape of a corresponding mold cavity or mold protrusion, said shape being retained after the topographical feature is removed from the mold. A pore formed through a foaming process or removal of a soluble material (e.g. a water soluble particle) from a polymer matrix, is not a precisely shaped pore.

“Micro-replication” refers to a fabrication technique wherein precisely shaped topographical features are prepared by casting or molding a polymer (or polymer precursor that is later cured to form a polymer) in a production tool, e.g. a mold or embossing tool, wherein the production tool has a plurality of micron sized to millimeter sized topographical features. Upon removing the polymer from the production tool, a series of topographical features are present in the surface of the polymer. The topographical features of the polymer surface have the inverse shape as the features of the original production tool. The micro-replication fabrication techniques disclosed herein inherently result in the formation of a micro-replicated layer, i.e. a polishing layer, which includes micro-replicated asperities, i.e. precisely shaped asperities, when the production tool has cavities, and micro-replicated pores, i.e. precisely shaped pores, when the production tool has protrusions. If the production tool includes cavities and protrusions, the micro-replicated layer (polishing layer) will have both micro-replicated asperities, i.e. precisely shaped asperities, and micro-replicated pores, i.e. precisely shaped pores. The present disclosure is directed towards polyurethanes, e.g. thermoplastic polyurethanes. In some embodiments, the present disclosure is directed to a polyurethane comprising a reaction product of a reactive mixture including a polyester polyol, a diol chain extender, a diisocyanate and a reactive, tertiary amine according to Formula I, having the following structure:

In some embodiments, R1 is a C1-C16 substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, wherein the substituted alkyl includes at least one of an alcohol, primary amine and secondary amine, R2 and R2' are independently one of H and a substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, wherein the substituted alkyl includes at least one of an alcohol, primary amine and secondary amine group, R3 and R3' are independently a substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, wherein the substituted alkyl includes at least one of an alcohol, primary amine and secondary amine group, R4 and R4' are independently a substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, wherein the substituted alkyl includes at least one of an alcohol, primary amine and secondary amine group and wherein a total number of alcohol, primary amine and secondary amine groups in the reactive, tertiary amine is at least one. In some embodiments, R1 is a C1-C16 substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, wherein the substituted alkyl consists of at least one of an alcohol, primary amine and secondary amine, R2 and R2' are independently one of H and a substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, wherein the substituted alkyl consists of at least one of an alcohol, primary amine and secondary amine group, R3 and R3' are independently a substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, wherein the substituted alkyl consists of at least one of an alcohol, primary amine and secondary amine group, R4 and R4' are independently a substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, wherein the substituted alkyl consists at least one of an alcohol, primary amine and secondary amine group and wherein a total number of alcohol, primary amine and secondary amine groups in the reactive, tertiary amine is at least one. In some embodiments, the total number of alcohol, primary amine and secondary amine groups in the reactive, tertiary amine is no greater than six, no greater than four, no greater than three and no greater than two. In another embodiment, the total number of alcohol, primary amine and secondary amine groups in the reactive, tertiary amine is one.

In some embodiments, the reactive, tertiary amine is a hindered, tertiary amine, i.e. at least two of the carbon atoms in a position alpha to the nitrogen of the tertiary amine are secondary or tertiary carbon atoms, or equivalently, they include no more than one bond to a hydrogen atom. In some embodiments, the substituted C1-C16 alkyl of R1 is free of primary amine and secondary amine groups. In some embodiments, at least one, at least two, at least three, at least four at least five or six of the substituted C1- C8 alkyls of R2, R2', R3, R3', R4 and R4' are free of primary amine and secondary amine groups. In another embodiment, the substituted C1-C16 alkyl of R1 and the substituted C1-C8 alkyls of R2, R2', R3, R3', R4 and R4' are free of primary amine and secondary amine groups. The reactive, tertiary amine may include a cyclic structure, for example, in some embodiments, R4 and R4' form a cyclic structure, e.g. a cycloalkyl. In some embodiments, the alkyl group of R1 contains from 1 to 16 (C1-C16 alkyl), 1 to 14 (C1-C14 alkyl), 1 to 12 (C1-C12 alkyl), 1 to 10 (C1-C10 alkyl), 1 to 8 (C1-C8 alkyl), 1 to 6 (C1-C6 alkyl), or 1 to 4 (C1-C14 alkyl) carbon atoms. In some embodiments, the alkyl group of R2, R2', R3, R3', R4 and R4' may each contain from 1 to 8 (C1-C8 alkyl), 1 to 6 (C1-C6 alkyl), or 1 to 4 (C1-C14 alkyl) carbon atoms. Examples of alkyl groups include, but are not limited to, methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, isobutyl, tert-butyl, n-pentyl, n-hexyl, cyclohexyl, n-heptyl, n-octyl, and ethylhexyl.

In some embodiments, R1 includes at least one, at least two or three total alcohol, primary amine or secondary amine substitutions and at least one, at least two, at least three, at least four, at least five or six of the C1-C8 alkyls of R2, R2', R3, R3', R4 and R4' are unsubstituted, optionally, wherein R2 and R2' are both H, and R3, R3', R4 and R4' alkyl groups are all methyl, all ethyl, all propyl or all isopropyl or combinations of methyl, ethyl, propyl and isopropyl. In some embodiments, R1 includes at least one, at least two or three total alcohol, primary amine or secondary amine substitutions, R4 and R4' form a cyclic structure including at least one or two total alcohol, primary amine or secondary amine substitutions, and at least one, at least two, at least three, or four of the C1-C8 alkyls of R2, R2', R3, and R3' are unsubstituted, optionally, wherein R2, R2', R3, and R3' alkyl groups are all one of methyl, ethyl, propyl and isopropyl or combinations thereof. In some embodiments, R1 is a C1-C16 unsubstituted alkyl, R4 and R4' form a cyclic structure including at least one or two total alcohol, primary amine or secondary amine substitutions, and at least one, at least two, at least three, or four of the C 1-C8 alkyls of R2, R2', R3, and R3' are unsubstituted, optionally, wherein R2, R2', R3, and R3' alkyl groups are all one of methyl, ethyl, propyl and isopropyl or combinations thereof.

In some embodiments the reactive, tertiary amine is a monofunctional hydroxyl, reactive tertiary amine. Examples of reactive, tertiary amines includes, but is not limited to, 4-hydroxy-1,2, 2,6,6- pentamethylpiperidine, N,N-diisopropylaminoethanol, 1-hydroxyethyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinol, 4-amino-1,2,2,6,6-pentamethylpiperidine and combinations thereof.

In some embodiments the amount of reactive, tertiary amine in the reactive mixture is between 0.5 wt. % and 10 wt. %, between 1 wt. % and 9 wt. % or between 2 wt. % and 8 wt. %, based on the weight of the reactive mixture. In some embodiments, the amount of reactive, tertiary amine in the reactive mixture is greater than or equal to about 0.5 wt. %, 1 wt. %, 2 wt. %, or 3 wt. % and/or less than or equal to 10 wt. %, 9 wt. %, 8 wt. % or 7 wt. %, based on the weight of the reactive mixture.

The polyester polyol can include any suitable number of hydroxyl groups. For example, the polyester polyol can include four hydroxyl groups or three hydroxyl groups. The polyester polyol can include two hydroxyl groups such that the polyester polyol is a polyester diol. In general, the polyester polyol can be a product of a condensation reaction such as a polycondensation reaction. In examples where polyester polyol is made according to a condensation reaction, the reaction can be between one or more carboxylic acids and one or more polyols. An example of a suitable carboxylic acid includes a carboxylic acid according to Formula II, having the structure:

In Formula II, R5 may be chosen from substituted or unsubstituted C1-C40 alkylene, C2-C40 alkylene, C2-C40 alkenylene, C4-C20 arylene, C4-C20 cycloalkylene and C4-C20 aralkylene. Specific examples of suitable carboxylic acids include, but are not limited to, glycolic acid (2-hydroxyethanoic acid), lactic acid (2-hydroxypropanoic acid), succinic acid (butanedioic acid), 3-hydoxybutanoic acid, 3- hydroxypentanoic acid, terepthalic acid (benzene- 1,4-dicarboxylic acid), naphthalene dicarboxylic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 6-hydroxynaphtalane-2 -carboxylic acid, oxalic acid, malonic acid (propanedioic acid), adipic acid (hexanedioic acid), pimelic acid (heptanedioic acid), ethonic acid, suberic acid (octanedioic acid), azelaic acid (nonanedioic acid), sebacic acid (decanedioic acid), glutaric acid (pentanedioic acid), dedecandioic acid, brassylic acid, thapsic acid, maleic acid ((2Z)-but-2-enedioic acid), fumaric acid ((2E)-but-2-enedioic acid), glutaconic acid (pent-2-enedioic acid), 2-decenedioic acid, traumatic acid ((2E)-dodec-2-enedioic acid), muconic acid ((2E,4E)-hexa-2, 4-dienedioic acid), glutinic acid, citraconic acid((2Z)-2-methylbut-2-enedioic acid), mesaconic acid ((2E)-2-methyl-2 -butenedioic acid), itaconic acid (2 -methylidenebutanedioic acid), malic acid (2 -hydroxybutanedioic acid), aspartic acid (2 -aminobutanedioic acid), glutamic acid (2 -aminopentanedioic acid), tartonic acid, tartaric acid (2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid), diaminopimelic acid ((2R,6S)-2.6-diaminoheptanedioic acid), saccharic acid ((2S,3S,4S,5R)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxyhexanedioic acid), mexooxalic acid, oxaloacetic acid (oxobutanedioic acid), acetonedicarboxylic acid (3 -oxopentanedioic acid), arbinaric acid, phthalic acid (benzene- 1,2-dicarboxylic acid), isophthalic acid, diphenic acid, 2,6-naphtalenedicarboxylic acid, or a mixture thereof.

An example of a suitable polyol for the condensation reaction includes a polyol according to Formula III, having the structure:

In Formula III, R6 may be chosen from substituted or unsubstituted C1-C40 alkylene, C2-C40 alkenylene, C4-C20 arylene, C1-C40 acylene, C4-C20 cycloalkylene, C4-C20 aralkylene, and C1- C40 alkoxyene, and R7 and R7' are independently chosen from -H, -OH, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C40 alkyl, C2-C40 alkenyl, C4-C20 aryl, C1-C20 acyl, C4-C20 cycloalkyl, C4-C20 aralkyl, and C1- C40 alkoxy. Suitable polyols include, but are not limited to ethylene glycol, 1 ,2-propanediol, 1,3-propanediol, 1 ,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 1 ,5-pentane- diol, 1 ,6-hexanedioI, 2, 2- dimethyl- 1,3 -propanediol, 1,4- cyclohexanedimethanoi, deca- methylene glycol, dodecamethylene glycol, glycerol, trimethylolpropane, and mixtures thereof.

In some embodiments, the polyester polyol is made via a ring opening polymerization, e.g. the ring opening polymerization of 8-caprolactone.

Suitable polyester polyols include, but are not limited to, polybutylene adipate, polyethylene adipate, poly(diethylene glycol adipate), polyhexamethylene adipate, poly(neopentyl glycol) adipate, poly(butylene adipate-co-phthalate), polycaprolactone or copolymers thereof. Combinations of different polyester polyols may be used.

The polyester polyol may be present in the reaction mixture in an amount between 30 wt. % to 80 wt. % based on the weight of the reactive mixture. In some embodiments the amount of polyol present in the reactive mixture is greater than or equal to 30 wt. %, 35 wt.%, 40 wt. %, 45 wt. %, 50 wt, % and/or less than or equal to 80 wt. %, 75 wt. %, 70 wt. %, 65 wt. % or 60 wt. % based on the weight of the reactive mixture. The polyester polyol may include at least 70% by wt. of a polyester diol, based on the total wt. of the polyester polyol in the reactive mixture. In some embodiment the polyester polyol includes at least 70 wt. %, at least 75 wt. %, at least 80 wt. %, at least 85 wt, %, at least 90 wt. %, at least 95 wt. %, at. least. 97 wt.%, at least 99 wt.% or 100 wt. % of a polyester diol, based on the weight of the polyester polyol in the reactive mixture. In some embodiments, the polyester polyol has a number average molecular weight between 500 Daltons and 5,000 Daltons or between 500 Daltons and 2,000 Daltons.

The reactive mixture includes a diol chain extender. The diol chain extender may be described by Formula III, where R6 is chosen from substituted or unsubstituted C1-C16 alkylene, C2-C16 alkenylene, C4-C20 arylene, C1-C16 acylene, C4-C16 cycloalkylene, C4-C16 aralkylene, and C1-C16 alkoxyene, and R7 and R7' are independently chosen from -H, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C16 alkyl, C2-C16 alkenyl, C4-C16 aryl, C1-C16 acyl, C4-C16 cycloalkyl, C4-C16 aralkyl, and C1-C16 alkoxy and R7 and R7' are prohibited from being hydroxyl and from having hydroxyl substitution. Suitable diols include, but are not limited to, ethylene glycol, 1 ,2-propanediol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 1,5- pentanediol, 1,6-hexanediol, 2, 2- dimethyl- 1,3 -propanediol, 1,4-cyclohexanediniethanol, decamethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, hydroquinone bis(2-hydroxyethyl) ether, and dodecamethylene glycol. In some embodiments, the diol chain extender includes at least one of a C1-C16 aliphatic diol and C4-C16 cycloaliphatic diol. In some embodiments, the C1-C16 aliphatic diol includes a C1-C16 alkylene and, optionally, the C1-C16 alkylene is a linear, C2-C16 alkylene with hydroxy substitution at the two terminal carbon atoms. The diol chain extender can be in a range of from about 1 wt. % to about 15 wt. % of the reaction mixture or from about 2 wt. % to about 15 wt. % of the reactive mixture. In some embodiments, the amount of diol chain extender present in the reactive mixture is greater than or equal to 1 wt. %, 2 wt. %, 3 wt. %, 4 wt. %, 5 wt. %, 6 wt. % and/or less than or equal to 15 wt. %, 14 wt. %, 13 wt. %, 12 wt. % or less than 1 1 wt. % based on the weight of the reactive mixture. In some embodiments, the diol chain extender has weight-average molecular weight of less than about 250 Daltons. For example, a weight-average molecular weight of the diol chain extender can be in a range of from about 30 Daltons to about 250 Daltons or about 50 Daltons to about 150 Daltons.

The reactive mixture includes a diisocyanate. The diisocyanate is not particularly limited and can be monomeric, oligomeric or polymeric. An example of a suitable diisocyanate includes a diisocyanate according to Formula IV having the structure:

O = C =N - R8 - N= C =O

Formula IV.

In Formula IV, R8 is chosen from substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 40 alkylene, C 2 -C 40 alkenylene, C 4 -C 20 arylene, C 4 -C 20 arylene- C 1 -C 40 alkylene-C 4 -C 20 arylene, C 4 -C 20 cycloalkylene, and C 4 - C 20 aralkylene. In some embodiments, the diisocyanate is chosen from dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'- diisocyanate, isophorone diisocyanate, hexamethylene diisocyanate, 1,4-phenylene diisocyanate, 1,3- phenylene diisocyanate, m-xylylene diisocyanate, tolylene-2,4-diisocyanate, toluene 2,4-diisocyanate, tolylene-2,6-diisocyanate, poly(hexamethylene diisocyanate), 1,4-cyclohexylene diisocyanate, 4-chloro- 6-methyl- 1,3 -phenylene diisocyanate, hexamethylene diisocyanate, 4,4' -diphenylmethane diisocyanate,

1.4-diisocyanatobutane, 1,8-diisocyanatooctane, 2,6-toluene diisocyanate, 2,5-toluene diisocyanate, 2,4- toluene diisocyanate, m-phenylene diisocyanate, p-phenylene diisocyanate, methylene bis(o-chlorophenyl diisocyanate, 4,4'-methylenediphenylene diisocyanate, (4,4'-diisocyanato-3,3',5,5'-tetraethyl) diphenylmethane, 4,4'-diisocyanato-3, 3'-dimethoxybiphenyl (o-dianisidine diisocyanate), 5-chloro-2,4- toluene diisocyanate, 1-chloromethyl -2, 4-diisocyanato benzene, tetramethyl -m-xylylene diisocyanate, 1,6-diisocyanatohexane 1,12-diisocyanatododecane, 2-methyl-1,5-diisocyanatopentane, methylenedicyclohexylene-4,4'-diisocyanate, 3 -isocyanatomethyl-3,5,5-trimethylcyclohexyl isocyanate,

2.2.4-trimethylhexyl diisocyanate, or a mixture thereof.

In some embodiments, the diisocyanate may be a chain extended diisocyanate, i.e. the reaction product of a diisocyanate and a dihydroxyl terminated oligomer or polymer, e.g. a dihydroxyl terminated, linear oligomer or polymer. During the reaction, excess diisocyanate is used to ensure that at least 80% by wt., 90% by wt., 95% by wt., 97% by wt. 98% by wt., 99 wt. % by wt. or 99.5 wt. % of the product of the reaction is also a diisocyanate. The dihydroxyl terminated oligomer or polymer is not particularly limited and may include, for example, dihydroxyl terminated, linear polyesters and dihydroxyl terminated, linear polyethers. Polyester polyols, particularly polyester diols previously discussed with respect to the polyester polyols of the present disclosure may be used to form the chain extended diisocyanate. In some embodiments, the polyester polyol of the chain extended diisocyanate may include the reaction product of one or more C2-C12 diol and one or more C2-C12 diacid. In some embodiments, the diisocyanate includes a diphenylmethane diisocyanate, a reaction product of diphenylmethane diisocyanate and a hydroxyl terminated, linear oligomer or polymer, toluene diisocyanate, a reaction product of toluene diisocyanate and a hydroxyl terminated, linear oligomer or polymer and combinations thereof. One exemplary chain extended diisocyanate is an ethylene-co-butylene adipate polyester terminated with 4,4 '-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) available under the trade designation “RUBINATE 1234”, available from Huntsman Corporation, The Woodlands, TX.

In some embodiments, the amount of diisocyanate in the reaction mixture is between 10 wt. % and 60 wt. % based on the weight of the reactive mixture. In some embodiments, the amount of diisocyanate in the reaction mixture is greater than or equal to 10 wt. %, 15 wt. %, 20 wt. %, 25 wt. % and/or less than or equal to 60 wt. %, 55 wt. %, 50 wt. % or 45 wt. % based on the weight of the reactive mixture.

The reactive mixture may further include a catalyst to facilitate reaction between the polyisocyanate and polyol components. Useful catalysts in the polymerization of polyurethanes include aluminum-, bismuth-, tin-, vanadium-, zinc-, mercury-, and zirconium -based catalysts, amine catalysts, and mixtures thereof. Preferred catalysts include tin based catalysts, such as dibutyl tin compounds. In some embodiments, the catalysts include, but are not limited to, dibutyltin diacetate, dibutyltin dilaurate, dibutyltin di acetyl acetonate, dibutyltin dimercaptide, dibutyltin dioctoate, dibutyltin dimaleate, dibutyltin acetonylacetonate, and dibutyltin oxide. Suitable amounts of the catalyst can be from 0.001% to 1%, from 0.001% to 0.5% or from 0.001% to 0.25%. In some embodiments, the amount of catalyst in the reactive mixture may be greater than or equal to 0.001 wt %, 0.002 wt %, 0.005 wt %, 0.01 wt %, 0.02 wt %, 0.0 wt %, 5, 0.07 wt %,, 0.1 wt % and/or less than or equal to 1 .0 wt.%, 0.7 wt. %, 0.5 wt. % or 0.3 wt. %, based on the weight of the reactive mixture.

In some embodiments, the reaction mixture may contain a polyol having at least three hydroxyl groups and/or a polyisocyanate having at least three corresponding isocyanate groups. In this case, the polyol and or polyisocyante may act as a crosslinking agent. The amount of polyol and/or polyisocynate must be limited, in order to maintain the general thermoplastic characteristics of the resulting polyurethane. However, components of this nature may be used to increase the molecular weight or modify the viscosity characteristic of the polyurethane. In some embodiments, a monofunctional, reactive, tertiary amine, having a single reactive group, e.g. a single hydroxyl group, may be used in conjunction with a polyol having at least three hydroxyl groups. The monofunctional reactive, tertiary amine may act as a chain terminating agent, lowering the molecular weight of the resulting polyurethane, while the polyol having at least three hydroxyl groups may act to increase the molecular weight of the resulting polyurethane. By using the two simultaneously, greater amounts of the reactive tertiary amine may be incorporated into the polyurethane, while maintaining the desired molecular weight of the polyurethane. In some embodiments, the mole ratio of a polyol having at least three hydroxyl groups to that of a monofunctional, reactive, tertiary amine, having a single reactive group may be between 1.5/1 to 1/1.5, 1.3/1 to 1/1.3 or 1.1/1 to 1/1.1 . The single reactive group may be one of hydroxyl, primary amine or secondary amine.

Other additives, may be include in the reactive mixture and polyurethanes of the present disclosure, including but not limited to antioxidants, light/UV light stabilizers, dyes, colorants, filler particles, abrasive particles, reinforcing particles or fibers, viscosity modifiers and the like. Additives that are not soluble in the reactive mixture, e.g, filler particles, abrasive particles, and reinforcing particles or fibers, are not included in the calculation of the weight percent of the components of the reactive mixture, i.e., they are not included in the total weight of the reactive mixture which is used as the basis for the wt. percentage of each component of the reactive mixture.

The polyurethanes of the present disclosure can be used in a variety of applications and are particularly well suited for the formation of thin films. Due to their unique chemical resistance, abrasion resistance and moldability, the polyurethanes of the present disclosure are particularly useful as a polishing layer in, for example, a polishing pad. In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides a polishing pad comprising a polishing layer having a working surface and a second surface opposite the working surface, wherein the polishing layer includes the polyurethane of any one of embodiments of the present disclosure. Optionally, the polishing layer may include at least 90% by weight, at least 95% by weight, at least 99% by weight or 100% by weight of the polyurethane.

In many polishing applications, e. g, CMP applications, it is generally desirable to have the working surface of the polishing layer of a poli shing pad include topography, i.e. be non-planar. The topography may be formed by abrading a substantially planar polishing layer surface with the abrading surface of a pad conditioner. The abrasive particles of the pad conditioner remove regions of the polishing layer surface in a, generally, random fashion and subsequently create topography in the polishing layer surface. Another method to produce topography in the working surface of a polishing layer of a polishing pad is through a micro-replication process, e.g. an embossing process. Such a process provides a working surface of the polishing layer that is precisely designed and engineered to have a plurality of reproducible topographical features, including asperities and/or pores. The asperities and pores are designed to have dimensions ranging from millimeters down to microns, with tolerances being as low as 1 micron or less. Due to the precisely engineered asperity topography of the polishing layer, the polishing pads of the present disclosure may be used without a pad conditioning process, eliminating the need for an abrasive pad conditioner and the corresponding conditioning process. Additionally, the precisely engineered pore topography ensures uniform pores size and distribution across the polishing pad working surface, which leads to improved polishing performance and lower polishing solution usage. Due to their stable flow characteristics, the polyurethanes of the present disclosure are particularly well suited for the fabrication of precisely engineered asperity and pore topography in the working surface of a polishing layer and are capable of meeting the demanding tolerances of said designs. Polishing pads and polishing layers which may employ the polyurethanes of the present disclosure are disclosed in, for example, U.S. Patent No. 10,252,396, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

A schematic cross-sectional diagram of a portion of a polishing layer 10 according to some embodiments of the present disclosure is shown in FIG. 1. Polishing layer 10, having thickness X, includes working surface 12 and second surface 13 opposite working surface 12. Working surface 12 is a precisely engineered surface having precisely engineered topography. The working surface includes at least one of a plurality of precisely shaped pores, precisely shaped asperities and combinations thereof. Working surface 12 includes a plurality of precisely shaped pores 16 having a depth Dp, sidewalls 16a and bases 16b and a plurality of precisely shaped asperities 18 having a height Ha, sidewalls 18a and distal ends 18b, the distal ends having width Wd. The width of the precisely shaped asperities and asperity bases may be the same as the width of their distal ends, Wd. Land region 14 is located in areas between precisely shaped pores 16 and precisely shaped asperities 18 and may be considered part of the working surface. The intersection of a precisely shaped asperity sidewall 18a with the surface of land region 14 adjacent thereto defines the location of the bottom of the asperity and defines a set of precisely shaped asperity bases 18c. The intersection of a precisely shaped pore sidewall 16a with the surface of land region 14 adjacent thereto is considered to be the top of the pore and defines a set of precisely shaped pore openings 16c, having a width Wp. As the bases of the precisely shaped asperities and the openings of adjacent precisely shaped pores are determined by the adjacent land region, the asperity bases are substantially coplanar relative to at least one adjacent pore opening. In some embodiment, a plurality of the asperity bases are substantially coplanar relative to at least one adjacent pore opening. A plurality of asperity bases may include at least about 10%, at least about 30%, at least about 50%, at least about 70%, at least about 80%, at least about 90%, at least about 95%, at least about 97%, at least about 99% or even at least about 100% of the total asperity bases of the polishing layer. The land region provides a distinct area of separation between the precisely shaped features, including separation between adjacent precisely shaped asperities and precisely shaped pores, separation between adjacent precisely shaped pores, and/or separation between adjacent precisely shaped asperities. In some embodiments, the working surface includes a land region and at least one of a plurality of precisely shaped pores and a plurality of precisely shaped asperities.

Land region 14 may be substantially planar and have a substantially uniform thickness, Y, although minor curvature and/or thickness variations consistent with the manufacturing process may be present. As the thickness of the land region, Y, must be greater than the depth of the plurality of precisely shaped pores, the land region may be of greater thickness than other abrasive articles known in the art that may have only asperities. In some embodiments of the present disclosure, when both precisely shaped asperities and precisely shaped pores are both present in the polishing layer, the inclusion of a land region allows one to design the areal density of the plurality of precisely shaped asperities independent of the areal density of the plurality precisely shaped pores, providing greater design flexibility. This is in contrast to conventional pads which may include forming a series of intersecting grooves in a, generally, planar pad surface. The intersecting grooves lead to the formation of a textured working surface, with the grooves (regions where material was removed from the surface) defining the upper regions of the working surface (regions where material was not removed from the surface), i.e. regions that would contact the substrate being abraded or polished. In this known approach, the size, placement and number of grooves define the size, placement and number of upper regions of the working surface, i.e. the areal density of the upper regions of working surface are dependent on the areal density of the grooves. The grooves also may run the length of the pad allowing the polishing solution to flow out of the groove, in contrast to a pore that can contain the polishing solution. Particularly, the inclusion of precisely shaped pores, which can hold and retain the polishing solution proximate to the working surface, may provide enhanced polishing solution delivery for demanding applications, e.g. CMP.

Polishing layer 10 may include at least one macro-channel. FIG. 1 shows macro-channel 19 having width Wm, a depth Dm and base 19a. A secondary land region having a thickness, Z, is defined by macro-channel base 19a. The secondary land region defined by the base of the macro-channel would not be considered part of land region 14, previously described. In some embodiments, one or more secondary pores (not shown) may be included in at least a portion of the base of the at least one macro- channel. The one or more secondary pores have secondary pore openings (not shown), the secondary pore openings being substantially coplanar with base 19a of the macro-channel 19. In some embodiments, the base of the at least one macro-channel is substantially free of secondary pores. In some embodiments, the polishing layer includes a plurality of independent or inter-connected macro-channels.

The shape of precisely shaped pores 16 is not particularly limited and includes, but is not limited to, cylinders, half spheres, cubes, rectangular prism, triangular prism, hexagonal prism, triangular pyramid, 4, 5 and 6-sided pyramids, truncated pyramids, cones, truncated cones and the like. The lowest point of a precisely shaped pore 16, relative to the pore opening, is considered to be the bottom of the pore. The shape of all the precisely shaped pores 16 may all be the same or combinations may be used. In some embodiments, at least about 10%, at least about 30%, at least about 50%, at least about 70%, at least about 90%, at least about 95%, at least about 97%, at least about 99% or even at least about 100% of the precisely shaped pores are designed to have the same shape and dimensions. Due to the precision fabrication processes used to fabricate the precisely shaped pores, the tolerances are, generally, small. For a plurality of precisely shaped pores designed to have the same pore dimensions, the pore dimensions are uniform. In some embodiments, the standard deviation of at least one distance dimension corresponding to the size of the plurality of precisely shaped pores; e.g. height, width of a pore opening, length, and diameter; is less than about 20%, less than about 15%, less than about 10%, less than about 8%, less than about 6% less than about 4%, less than about 3%, less than about 2%, or even less than about 1% of the average of the distance dimension. The standard deviation can be measured by known statistical techniques. The standard deviation may be calculated from a sample size of at least 5 pores, or even at least 10 pores at least 20 pores. The sample size may be no greater than 200 pores, no greater than 100 pores or even no greater than 50 pores. The sample may be selected randomly from a single region on the polishing layer or from multiple regions of the polishing layer.

The longest dimension of the precisely shaped pore openings 16c, e.g. the diameter when the precisely shaped pores 16 are cylindrical in shape, may be less than about 10 mm, less than about 5 mm, less than about 1 mm, less than about 500 microns, less than about 200 microns, less than about 100 microns, less than about 90 microns, less than about 80 microns, less than about 70 microns or even less than about 60 microns. The longest dimension of the precisely shaped pore openings 16c may be greater than about 1 micron, greater than about 5 microns, greater than about 10 microns, greater than about 15 microns or even greater than about 20 microns. The cross-sectional area of the precisely shaped pores 16, e.g. a circle when the precisely shaped pores 16 are cylindrical in shape, may be uniform throughout the depth of the pore, or may decrease, if the precisely shaped pore sidewalls 16a taper inward from opening to base, or may increase, if the precisely shaped pore sidewalls 16a taper outward. The precisely shaped pore openings 16c may all have about the same longest dimensions or the longest dimension may vary between precisely shaped pore openings 16c or between sets of different precisely shaped pore openings 16c, per design. The width, Wp, of the precisely shaped pore openings may be equal to the values give for the longest dimension, described above.

The depth of the plurality of precisely shaped pores, Dp, is not particularly limited. In some embodiments, the depth of the plurality of precisely shaped pores is less than the thickness of the land region adjacent to each precisely shaped pore, i.e. the precisely shaped pores are not through-holes that go through the entire thickness of land region 14. This enables the pores to trap and retain fluid proximate the working surface. Although the depth of the plurality of precisely shaped pores may be limited as indicated above, this does not prevent the inclusion of one or more other through-holes in the pad, e.g. through-holes to provide polishing solution up through the polishing layer to the working surface or a path for airflow through the pad. A through-hole is defined as a hole going through the entire thickness, Y, of the land region 14.

In some embodiments, the polishing layer is free of through-holes. As the pad is often mounted to another substrate, e.g. a sub-pad or platen during use, via an adhesive, e.g. a pressure sensitive adhesive, through-holes may allow the polishing solution to seep through the pad to the pad-adhesive interface. The polishing solution may be corrosive to the adhesive and cause a detrimental loss in the integrity of the bond between the pad and the substrate to which it is attached.

The depth, Dp, of the plurality of precisely shaped pores 16 may be less than about 5 mm, less than about 1 mm, less than about 500 microns, less than about 200 microns, less than about 100 microns, less than about 90 microns, less than about 80 microns, less than about 70 microns or even less than about 60 microns. The depth of the precisely shaped pores 16 may be greater than about 1 micron, greater than about 5 microns, greater than about 10 microns, greater than about 15 microns or even greater than about 20 microns. The depth of the plurality precisely shaped pores may be between about 1 micron and about 5 mm, between about 1 micron and about 1 mm, between about 1 micron and about 500 microns, between about 1 microns and about 200 microns, between about 1 microns and about 100 microns, 5 micron and about 5 mm, between about 5 micron and about 1 mm, between about 5 micron and about 500 microns, between about 5 microns and about 200 microns or even between about 5 microns and about 100 microns The precisely shaped pores 16 may all have the same depth or the depth may vary between precisely shaped pores 16 or between sets of different precisely shaped pores 16.

In some embodiment, the depth of at least about 10%, at least about 30% at least about 50%, at least 70%, at least about 80%, at least about 90%, at least about 95% or even at least about 100% of the plurality precisely shaped pores is between about 1 micron and about 500 microns, between about 1 micron and about 200 microns, between about 1 micron and about 150 microns, between about 1 micron and about 100 micron, between about 1 micron and about 80 microns, between about 1 micron and about 60 microns, between about 5 microns and about 500 microns, between about 5 micron and about 200 microns, between about 5 microns and 150 microns, between about 5 micron and about 100 micron, between about 5 micron and about 80 microns, between about 5 micron and about 60 microns, between about 10 microns and about 200 microns, between about 10 microns and about 150 microns or even between about 10 microns and about 100 microns.

In some embodiments, the depth of at least a portion of, up to and including all, the plurality of precisely shaped pores is less than the depth of at least a portion of the at least one macro-channel. In some embodiments, the depth of at least about 50%, at least about 60%, at least about 70%, at least about 80%, at least about 90%, at least about 95%, at least about 99% or even at least about 100% of the plurality of precisely pores is less than the depth of at least a portion of a macro-channel.

The precisely shaped pores 16 may be uniformly distributed, i.e. have a single areal density, across the surface of polishing layer 10 or may have different areal density across the surface of polishing layer 10. The areal density of the precisely shaped pores 16 may be less than about 1,000,000/mm 2 , less than about 500,000/mm 2 , less than about 100,000/mm 2 , less than about 50,000/mm 2 , less than about 10,000/mm 2 , less than about 5,000/mm 2 , less than about 1,000/mm 2 , less than about 500/mm 2 , less than about 100/mm 2 , less than about 50/mm 2 , less than about 10/mm 2 , or even less than about 5/mm 2 . The areal density of the precisely shaped pores 16 may be greater than about 1/dm 2 , may be greater than about 10/dm 2 , greater than about 100/dm 2 , greater than about 5/cm 2 , greater than about 10/cm 2 , greater than about 100/cm 2 , or even greater than about 500/cm 2 .

The ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the precisely shaped pore openings 16c, to the projected polishing pad surface area may be greater than about 0.5%, greater than about 1%, greater than about 3% greater than about 5%, greater than about 10%, greater than about 20%, greater than about 30%, greater than about 40% or even greater than about 50%. The ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the precisely shaped pore openings 16c, with respect to the projected polishing pad surface area may be less than about 90%, less than about 80%, less than about 70%, less than about 60%, less than about 50% less than about 40%, less than about 30%, less than about 25% or even less than about 20%. The projected polishing pad surface area is the area resulting from projecting the shape of the polishing pad onto a plane. For example, a circular shaped polishing pad having a radius, r, would have a projected surface area of pi times the radius squared, i.e. the area of the projected circle on a plane.

The precisely shaped pores 16 may be arranged randomly across the surface of polishing layer 10 or may be arranged in a pattern, e.g. a repeating pattern, across polishing layer 10. Patterns include, but are not limited to, square arrays, hexagonal arrays and the like. Combination of patterns may be used.

The shape of precisely shaped asperities 18 is not particularly limited and includes, but is not limited to, cylinders, half spheres, cubes, rectangular prism, triangular prism, hexagonal prism, triangular pyramid, 4, 5 and 6-sided pyramids, truncated pyramids, cones, truncated cones and the like. The intersection of a precisely shaped asperity sidewall 18a with the land region 14 is considered to be the base of the asperity. The highest point of a precisely shaped asperity 18, as measured from the asperity base 18c to a distal end 18b, is considered to be the top of the asperity and the distance between the distal end 18b and asperity base 18c is the height of the asperity. The shape of all the precisely shaped asperities 18 may all be the same or combinations may be used. In some embodiments, at least about 10%, at least about 30%, at least about 50%, at least about 70%, at least about 90%, at least about 95%, at least about 97%, at least about 99% or even at least about 100% of the precisely shaped asperities are designed to have the same shape and dimensions. Due to the precision fabrication processes used to fabricate the precisely shaped asperities, the tolerances are, generally, small. For a plurality of precisely shaped asperities designed to have the same asperity dimensions, the asperity dimensions are uniform. In some embodiments, the standard deviation of at least one distance dimension corresponding to the size of a plurality of precisely shaped asperities, e.g. height, width of a distal end, width at the base, length, and diameter, is less than about 20%, less than about 15%, less than about 10%, less than about 8%, less than about 6% less than about 4%, less than about 3%, less than about 2%, or even less than about 1% of the average of the distance dimension. The standard deviation can be measured by known statistical techniques. The standard deviation may be calculated from a sample size of at least 5 asperities at least 10 asperities or even at least 20 asperities or even more. The sample size may be no greater than 200 asperities, no greater than 100 asperities or even no greater than 50 asperities. The sample may be selected randomly from a single region on the polishing layer or from multiple regions of the polishing layer.

In some embodiments, at least about 50%, at least about 70%, at least about 90%, at least about 95%, at least about 97%, at least about 99% and even at least about 100% of the precisely shaped asperities are solid structures. A solid structure is defined as a structure that contains less than about 10%, less than about 5%, less than about 3%, less than about 2%, less than about 1%, less than about 0.5% or even 0% porosity by volume. Porosity may include open cell or closed cell structures, as would be found for example in a foam, or machined holes purposely fabricated in the asperities by known techniques, such as, punching, drilling, die cutting, laser cutting, waterjet cutting and the like. In some embodiments, the precisely shaped asperities are free of machined holes. As a result of the machining process, machined holes may have unwanted material deformation or build-up near the edge of the hole that can cause defects in the surface of the substrates being polished, e.g. semiconductor wafers.

The longest dimension, with respect to the cross-sectional area of the precisely shaped asperities 18, e.g. the diameter when the precisely shaped asperities 18 are cylindrical in shape, may be less than about 10 mm, less than about 5 mm, less than about 1 mm, less than about 500 microns, less than about 200 microns, less than about 100 microns, less than about 90 microns, less than about 80 microns, less than about 70 microns or even less than about 60 microns. The longest dimension of the of the precisely shaped asperities 18 may be greater than about 1 micron, greater than about 5 microns, greater than about 10 microns, greater than about 15 microns or even greater than about 20 microns. The cross-sectional area of the precisely shaped asperities 18, e.g. a circle when the precisely shaped asperities 18 are cylindrical in shape, may be uniform throughout the height of the asperities, or may decrease, if the precisely shaped asperities' sidewalls 18a taper inward from the top of the asperity to the base, or may increase, if the precisely shaped asperities' sidewalls 18a taper outward from the top of the asperity to the bases. The precisely shaped asperities 18 may all have the same longest dimension or the longest dimension may vary between precisely shaped asperities 18 or between sets of different precisely shaped asperities 18, per design. The width, Wd, of the distal ends of the precisely shaped asperity bases may be equal to the values give for the longest dimension, described above. The width of the precisely shaped asperity bases may be equal to the values give for the longest dimension, described above.

The height of the precisely shaped asperities 18 may be less than about 5 mm, less than about 1 mm, less than about 500 microns, less than about 200 microns, less than about 100 microns, less than about 90 microns, less than about 80 microns, less than about 70 microns or even less than about 60 microns. The height of the precisely shaped asperities 18 may be greater than about 1 micron, greater than about 5 microns, greater than about 10 microns, greater than about 15 microns or even greater than about 20 microns. The precisely shaped asperities 18 may all have the same height or the height may vary between precisely shaped asperities 18 or between sets of different precisely shaped asperities 18. In some embodiments, the polishing layer's working surface includes a first set of precisely shaped asperities and at least one second set of precisely shaped asperities wherein the height of the first set of precisely shaped asperities is greater than the height of the seconds set of precisely shaped asperities. Having multiple sets of a plurality of precisely shaped asperities, each set having different heights, may provide different planes of polishing asperities. This may become particularly beneficial, if the asperity surfaces have been modified to be hydrophilic, and, after some degree of polishing the, first set of asperities are worn down (including removal of the hydrophilic surface), allowing the second set of asperities to make contact with the substrate being polished and provide fresh asperities for polishing. The second set of asperities may also have a hydrophilic surface and enhance polishing performance over the worn first set of asperities. The first set of the plurality of precisely shaped asperities may have a height between 3 microns and 50 microns, between 3 microns and 30 microns, between 3 microns and 20 microns, between 5 microns and 50 microns, between 5 microns and 30 microns, between 5 microns and 20 microns, between 10 microns and 50 microns, between 10 microns and 30 microns, or even between 10 microns and 20 microns greater than the height of the at least one second set of the plurality of precisely shaped asperities.

In some embodiment, in order to facilitate the utility of the polishing solution at the polishing layer-polishing substrate interface, the height of at least about 10%, at least about 30% at least about 50%, at least 70%, at least about 80%, at least about 90%, at least about 95% or even at least about 100% of the plurality precisely shaped asperities is between about 1 micron and about 500 microns, between about 1 micron and about 200 microns, between about 1 micron and about 100 micron, between about 1 micron and about 80 microns, between about 1 micron and about 60 microns, between about 5 microns and about 500 microns, between about 5 micron and about 200 microns, between about 5 microns and about 150 microns, between about 5 micron and about 100 micron, between about 5 micron and about 80 microns, between about 5 micron and about 60 microns, between about 10 microns and about 200 microns, between about 10 microns and about 150 microns or even between about 10 microns and about 100 microns. The precisely shaped asperities 18 may be uniformly distributed, i.e. have a single areal density, across the surface of the polishing layer 10 or may have different areal density across the surface of the polishing layer 10. The areal density of the precisely shaped asperities 18 may be less than about 1,000,000/mm 2 , less than about 500,000/mm 2 , less than about 100,000/mm 2 , less than about 50,000/mm 2 , less than about 10,000/mm 2 , less than about 5,000/mm 2 , less than about 1,000/mm 2 , less than about 500/mm 2 , less than about 100/mm 2 , less than about 50/mm 2 , less than about 10/mm 2 , or even less than about 5/mm 2 . The areal density of the precisely shaped asperities 18 may be greater than about 1/dm 2 , may be greater than about 10/dm 2 , greater than about 100/dm 2 , greater than about 5/cm 2 , greater than about 10/cm 2 , greater than about 100/cm 2 , or even greater than about 500/cm 2 . In some embodiments, the areal density of the plurality of precisely shaped asperities is independent of the areal density of the plurality precisely shaped pores.

The precisely shaped asperities 18 may be arranged randomly across the surface of polishing layer 10 or may be arranged in a pattern, e.g. a repeating pattern, across polishing layer 10. Patterns include, but are not limited to, square arrays, hexagonal arrays and the like. Combination of patterns may be used.

The total cross-sectional area of distal ends 18b with respect to the total projected polishing pad surface area may be greater than about 0.01%, greater than about 0.05 %, greater than about 0.1%, greater than about 0.5%, greater than about 1%, greater than about 3% greater than about 5%, greater than about 10%, greater than about 15%, greater than about 20% or even greater than about 30%. The total cross- sectional area of distal ends 18b of precisely shaped asperities 18 with respect to the total projected polishing pad surface area may be less than about 90%, less than about 80%, less than about 70%, less than about 60%, less than about 50% less than about 40%, less than about 30%, less than about 25% or even less than about 20%. The total cross-sectional area of the precisely shaped asperity bases with respect to the total projected polishing pad surface area may be the same as described for the distal ends.

The polishing layer, by itself, may function as a polishing pad. The polishing layer may be in the form of a fdm that is wound on a core and employed in a “roll to roll” format during use. The polishing layer may also be fabricated into individual pads, e.g. a circular shaped pad, as further discussed below. According to some embodiments of the present disclosure, the polishing pad, which includes a polishing layer, may also include a subpad. FIG. 2 shows a polishing pad 50 which includes a polishing layer 10, having a working surface 12 and second surface 13 opposite working surface 12, and a subpad 30 adjacent to second surface 13. Optionally, a foam layer 40 is interposed between the second surface 13 of the polishing layer 10 and the subpad 30. The various layers of the polishing pad can be adhered together by any techniques known in the art, including using adhesives, e.g. pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs), hot melt adhesives and cure in place adhesives. In some embodiments, the polishing pad includes an adhesive layer adjacent to the second surface. Use of a lamination process in conjunction with PSAs, e.g. PSA transfer tapes, is one particular process for adhering the various layers of polishing pad 50. Subpad 30 may be any of those known in the art. Subpad 30 may be a single layer of a relatively stiff material, e.g. polycarbonate, or a single layer of a relatively compressible material, e.g. an elastomeric foam. The subpad 30 may also have two or more layers and may include a substantially rigid layer (e.g. a stiff material or high modulus material like polycarbonate, polyester and the like) and a substantially compressible layer (e.g. an elastomer or an elastomeric foam material). Foam layer 40 may have a durometer from between about 20 Shore D to about 90 Shore D. Foam layer 40 may have a thickness from between about 125 micron and about 5 mm or even between about 125 micron and about a 1000 micron.

In some embodiments of the present disclosure, which include a subpad having one or more opaque layers, a small hole may be cut into the subpad creating a “window”. The hole may be cut through the entire subpad or only through the one or more opaque layers. The cut portion of the supbad or one or more opaque layers is removed from the subpad, allowing light to be transmitted through this region. The hole is pre-positioned to align with the endpoint window of the polishing tool platen and facilitates the use of the wafer endpoint detection system of the polishing tool, by enabling light from the tool's endpoint detection system to travel through the polishing pad and contact the wafer. Light based endpoint polishing detection systems are known in the art and can be found, for example, on MIRRA and REFLEXION LK CMP polishing tools available from Applied Materials, Inc., Santa Clara, California. Polishing pads of the present disclosure can be fabricated to run on such tools and endpoint detection windows which are configured to function with the polishing tool's endpoint detection system can be included in the pad. In one embodiment, a polishing pad including any one of the polishing layers of the present disclosure can be laminated to a subpad. The subpad includes at least one stiff layer, e.g. polycarbonate, and at least one compliant layer, e.g. an elastomeric foam, the elastic modulus of the stiff layer being greater than the elastic modulus of the compliant layer. The compliant layer may be opaque and prevent light transmission required for endpoint detection. The stiff layer of the subpad is laminated to the second surface of the polishing layer, typically through the use of a PSA, e.g. transfer adhesive or tape. Prior to or after lamination, a hole may be die cut, for example, by a standard kiss cutting method or cut by hand, in the opaque compliant layer of the subpad. The cut region of the compliant layer is removed creating a “window” in the polishing pad. If adhesive residue is present in the hole opening, it can be removed, for example, through the use of an appropriate solvent and/or wiping with a cloth or the like. The “window” in the polishing pad is configured such that, when the polishing pad is mounted to the polishing tool platen, the window of the polishing pad aligns with the endpoint detection window of the polishing tool platen. The dimensions of the hole may be, for example, up to 5 cm wide by 20 cm long. The dimensions of the hole are, generally, the same or similar in dimensions as the dimensions of the endpoint detection window of the platen.

The polishing pad thickness is not particularly limited. The polishing pad thickness may coincide with the required thickness to enable polishing on the appropriate polishing tool. The polishing pad thickness may be greater than about 25 microns, greater than about 50 microns, greater than about 100 microns or even greater than 250 microns; less than about 20 mm, less than about 10 mm, less than about 5 mm or even less than about 2.5 mm. The shape of the polishing pad is not particularly limited. The pads may be fabricated such that the pad shape coincides with the shape of the corresponding platen of the polishing tool the pad will be attached to during use. Pad shapes, such as circular, square, hexagonal and the like may be used. A maximum dimension of the pad, e.g. the diameter for a circular shaped pad, is not particularly limited. The maximum dimension of a pad may be greater than about 10 cm, greater than about 20 cm, greater than about 30 cm, greater than about 40 cm, greater than about 50 cm, greater than about 60 cm; less than about 2.0 meter, less than about 1.5 meter or even less than about 1.0 meter. As disused above, the pad, including the polishing layer, the subpad, the optional foam layer and any combination thereof, may include a window, i.e. a region allowing light to pass through, to enable standard endpoint detection techniques used in polishing processes, e.g. wafer endpoint detection.

In some embodiments, the polishing layer may be a unitary sheet. A unitary sheet includes only a single layer of material (i.e. it is not a multi-layer construction, e.g. a laminate) and the single layer of material has a single composition. The composition may include multiple-components, e.g. a polymer blend or a polymer-inorganic composite. Use of a unitary sheet as the polishing layer may provide cost benefits, due to minimization of the number of process steps required to form the polishing layer. A polishing layer that includes a unitary sheet may be fabricated from techniques know in the art, including, but not limited to, molding and embossing. Due to the ability to form a polishing layer having precisely shaped, asperities and/or precisely shaped pores and, optionally, macro-channels in a single step, a unitary sheet is preferred.

The hardness and flexibility of polishing layer 10 is predominately controlled by the polyurethane used to fabricate it. The hardness of polishing layer 10 is not particularly limited. The hardness of polishing layer 10 may be greater than about 20 Shore D, greater than about 30 Shore D or even greater than about 40 Shore D. The hardness of polishing layer 10 may be less than about 90 Shore D, less than about 80 Shore D or even less than about 70 Shore D. The hardness of polishing layer 10 may be greater than about 20 Shore A, greater than about 30 Shore A or even greater than about 40 Shore A. The hardness of polishing layer 10 may be less than about 95 Shore A, less than about 80 Shore A or even less than about 70 Shore A. The polishing layer may be flexible. In some embodiments the polishing layer is capable of being bent back upon itself producing a radius of curvature in the bend region of less than about 10 cm, less than about 5 cm, less than about 3 cm, or even less than about 1 cm; and greater than about 0.1 mm, greater than about, 0.5 mm or even greater than about 1 mm. In some embodiments the polishing layer is capable of being bent back upon itself producing a radius of curvature in the bend region of between about 10 cm and about 0.1 mm, between about 5 cm and bout 0.5 mm or even between about 3 cm and about 1 mm.

To improve the useful life of polishing layer 10, it is desirable to utilize polyurethane having a high degree of toughness. This is particularly important, due to the fact the precisely shaped asperities are small in height yet need to perform for a significantly long time to have a long use life. The use life may be determined by the specific process in which the polishing layer is employed. In some embodiments, the use lifetime is at least about 30 minutes at least 60 minutes, at least 100 minutes, at least 200 minutes, at least 500 minutes or even at least 1000 minutes. The use life may be less than 10000 minutes, less than 5000 minutes or even less than 2000 minutes. The useful life time may be determined by measuring a final parameter with respect to the end use process and/or substrate being polished. For example, use life may be determined by having an average removal rate or having a removal rate consistency (as measure by the standard deviation of the removal rate) of the substrate being polished over a specified time period (as defined above) or producing a consistent surface finish on a substrate over a specified time period. In some embodiments, the polishing layer can provide a standard deviation of the removal rate of a substrate being polished that is between about 0.1% and 20%, between about 0.1% and about 15%, between about 0.1% and about 10%, between about 0.1% and about 5% or even between about 0.1% and about 3% over a time period from of, at least about 30 minutes, at least about 60 minutes, at least about 100 minutes at least about 200 minutes or even at least about 500 minutes. The time period may be less than 10000 minutes. To achieve this, it is desirable to use polymeric materials having a high work to failure (also known as Energy to Break Stress), as demonstrated by having a large integrated area under a stress vs. strain curve, as measured via a typical tensile test, e.g. as outlined by ASTM D638. High work to failure may correlate to lower wear materials. In some embodiments, the work to failure is greater than about 3 Joules, greater than about 5 Joules, greater than about 10 Joules, greater than about 15 Joules greater than about 20 Joules, greater than about 25 Joules or even greater than about 30 Joules. The work to failure may be less than about 100 Joules or even less than about 80 Joules.

The polyurethane used to fabricate polishing layer 10 may be used in substantially pure form. The polyurethane materials used to fabricate polishing layer 10 may include fillers known in the art. In some embodiments, the polishing layer 10 is substantially free of any inorganic abrasive material (e.g. inorganic abrasive particles), i.e. it is an abrasive free polishing pad. By substantially free it is meant that the polishing layer 10 includes less than about 10% by volume, less than about 5% by volume, less than about 3% by volume, less than about 1% by volume or even less than about 0.5% by volume inorganic abrasive particles. In some embodiments, the polishing layer 10 contains substantially no inorganic abrasive particles. An abrasive material may be defined as a material having a Mohs hardness greater than the Mohs hardness of the substrate being abraded or polished. An abrasive material may be defined as having a Mohs hardness greater than about 5.0, greater than about 5.5, greater than about 6.0, greater than about 6.5, greater than about 7.0, greater than about 7.5, greater than about 8.0 or even greater than about 9.0. The maximum Mohs hardness is general accepted to be 10. The polishing layer 10 may be fabricated by any techniques known in the art. Micro-replication techniques are disclosed in U.S. Patent Nos. 6,285,001; 6,372,323; 5,152,917; 5,435,816; 6,852,766; 7,091,255 and U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2010/0188751, all of which are incorporated by reference in their entirety.

In some embodiments, the polishing layer 10 is formed by the following process. First, a sheet of polycarbonate is laser ablated according to the procedures described in U.S. Patent No. 6,285,001, forming the positive master tool, i.e. a tool having about the same surface topography as that required for polishing layer 10. The polycarbonate master is then plated with nickel using conventional techniques forming a negative master tool. The nickel negative master tool may then be used in an embossing process, for example, the process described in U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2010/0188751, to form polishing layer 10. The embossing process may include the extrusion of a polyurethane melt onto the surface of the nickel negative and, with appropriate pressure, the polyurethane melt is forced into the topographical features of the nickel negative. Upon cooling the polyurethane melt, the solid polymer film may be removed from the nickel negative, forming polishing layer 10 with working surface 12 having the desired topographical features, i.e. precisely shaped pores 16 and/or precisely shaped asperities 18 (FIG. 1). If the negative includes the appropriate negative topography that corresponds to a desired pattern of macro-channels, macro-channels may be formed in the polishing layer 10 via the embossing process.

In another embodiment the present disclosure relates to a polishing system, the polishing system includes any one of the previous polishing pads and a polishing solution. The polishing pads may include any of the previous disclosed polishing layers 10. The polishing solutions used are not particularly limited and may be any of those known in the art. The polishing solutions may be aqueous or non- aqueous. An aqueous polishing solution is defined as a polishing solution having a liquid phase (does not include particles, if the polishing solution is a slurry) that is at least 50% by weight water. A non-aqueous solution is defined as a polishing solution having a liquid phase that is less than 50% by weight water. In some embodiments, the polishing solution is a slurry, i.e. a liquid that contains organic or inorganic abrasive particles or combinations thereof. The concentration of organic or inorganic abrasive particles or combination thereof in the polishing solution is not particularly limited. The concentration of organic or inorganic abrasive particles or combinations thereof in the polishing solution may be, greater than about 0.5%, greater than about 1%, greater than about 2%, greater than about 3%, greater than about 4% or even greater than about 5% by weight; may be less than about 30%, less than about 20% less than about 15% or even less than about 10% by weight. In some embodiments, the polishing solution is substantially free of organic or inorganic abrasive particles. By “substantially free of organic or inorganic abrasive particles” it is meant that the polishing solution contains less than about 0.5%, less than about 0.25%, less than about 0. 1% or even less than about 0.05% by weight of organic or inorganic abrasive particles. In one embodiment, the polishing solution may contain no organic or inorganic abrasive particles. The polishing system may include polishing solutions, e.g. slurries, used for silicon oxide CMP, including, but not limited to, shallow trench isolation CMP; polishing solutions, e.g. slurries, used for metal CMP, including, but not limited to, tungsten CMP, copper CMP and aluminum CMP; polishing solutions, e.g. slurries, used for barrier CMP, including but not limited to tantalum and tantalum nitride CMP and polishing solutions, e.g. slurries, used for polishing hard substrates, such as, sapphire. The polishing system may further include a substrate to be polished or abraded.

In some embodiments, the polishing pads of the present disclosure may include at least two polishing layers, i.e. a multi-layered arrangement of polishing layers. The polishing layers of a polishing pad having a multi-layered arrangement of polishing layers may include any of the polishing layer embodiments of the present disclosure.

FIG. 3 schematically illustrates an example of a polishing system 100 for utilizing polishing pads and methods in accordance with some embodiments of the present disclosure. As shown, the system 100 may include a polishing pad 150 and a polishing solution 160. The system may further include one or more of the following: a substrate 110 to be polished or abraded, a platen 140 and a carrier assembly 130. An adhesive layer 170 may be used to attach the polishing pad 150 to platen 140 and may be part of the polishing system. Polishing solution 160 may be a layer of solution disposed about a major surface, e.g. working surface, of the polishing pad 150. Polishing pad 150 may be any of the polishing pad embodiments of the present disclosure and includes at least one polishing layer (not shown), as described herein, and may optionally include a subpad and/or foam layer(s), as described for polishing pad 50 and of FIG. 2. The polishing solution is typically disposed on the working surface of the polishing layer of the polishing pad. The polishing solution may also be at the interface between substrate 110 and polishing pad 150. During operation of the polishing system 100, a drive assembly 145 may rotate (arrow A) the platen 140 to move the polishing pad 150 to carry out a polishing operation. The polishing pad 150 and the polishing solution 160 may separately, or in combination, define a polishing environment that mechanically and/or chemically removes material from or polishes a major surface of a substrate 110. To polish the major surface of the substrate 110 with the polishing system 100, the carrier assembly 130 may urge substrate 110 against a polishing surface of the polishing pad 150 in the presence of the polishing solution 160. The platen 140 (and thus the polishing pad 150) and/or the carrier assembly 130 then move relative to one another to translate the substrate 110 across the polishing surface of the polishing pad 150. The carrier assembly 130 may rotate (arrow B) and optionally transverse laterally (arrow C). As a result, the polishing layer of polishing pad 150 removes material from the surface of the substrate 110. In some embodiments, inorganic abrasive material, e.g. inorganic abrasive particles, may be included in the polishing layer to facilitate material removal from the surface of the substrate. In other embodiments, the polishing layer is substantially free of any inorganic abrasive material and the polishing solution may be substantially free of organic or inorganic abrasive particle or may contain organic or inorganic abrasive particles or combination thereof. It is to be appreciated that the polishing system 100 of FIG. 3 is only one example of a polishing system that may be employed in connection with the polishing pads and methods of the present disclosure, and that other conventional polishing systems may be employed without deviating from the scope of the present disclosure.

In another embodiment, the present disclosure relates to a method of polishing a substrate, the method of polishing including: providing a polishing pad according to any one of the previous polishing pads, wherein the polishing pad may include any of the previously described polishing layers; providing a substrate, contacting the working surface of the polishing pad with the substrate surface, moving the polishing pad and the substrate relative to one another while maintaining contact between the working surface of the polishing pad and the substrate surface, wherein polishing is conducted in the presence of a polishing solution. In some embodiments, the polishing solution is a slurry and may include any of the previously discussed slurries. In another embodiment the present disclosure relates to any of the preceding methods of polishing a substrate, wherein the substrate is a semiconductor wafer. The materials comprising the semiconductor wafer surface to be polished, i.e. in contact with the working surface of the polishing pad, may include, but are not limited to, at least one of a dielectric material, an electrically conductive material, a barrier/adhesion material and a cap material. The dielectric material may include at least one of an inorganic dielectric material, e.g. silicone oxide and other glasses, and an organic dielectric material. The metal material may include, but is not limited to, at least one of copper, tungsten, aluminum, silver and the like. The cap material may include, but is not limited to, at least one of silicon carbide and silicon nitride. The barrier/adhesion material may include, but is not limited to, at least one of tantalum and tantalum nitride. The method of polishing may also include a pad conditioning or cleaning step, which may be conducted in-situ, i.e. during polishing. Pad conditioning may use any pad conditioner or brush known in the art, e.g. 3M CMP PAD CONDITIONER BRUSH PB33A, 4.25 in diameter available from the 3M Company, St. Paul, Minnesota. Cleaning may employ a brush, e.g. 3M CMP PAD CONDITIONER BRUSH PB33A, 4.25 in diameter available from the 3M Company, and/or a water or solvent rinse of the polishing pad.

Examples

Unless otherwise noted or readily apparent from the context, all parts, percentages, ratios, etc. in the Examples and the rest of the specification are by weight. Materials Used in the Examples Test Methods

General Polymerization Method 1

Molten polyol, chain extender, and isocyanate prepolymer were mixed for 30 seconds with a DAC 150 speedmixer (obtained from Flacktek, Inc, Landrum, SC). A portion (15 mL) of this mixture was added to an MC15 Micro Compounder (obtained from Xplore Instruments, Sittard, The Netherlands) at a screw speed of 100 RPM. The tertiary amine was then added to the microcompounder, and the reactive mixture was mixed for ten minutes to allow polymerization to occur. The force produced by the MC15 Micro Compounder during compounding was monitored over time. The force after 3 minutes of reaction time was compared to the force after 10 minutes of reaction time and used to indicate the stability of the melt viscosity.

General Polymerization Method 2

Molten polyol, chain extender, and, if present, catalyst or tertiary amine were mixed for 30 seconds with a DAC 150 speedmixer. The isocyanate prepolymer was then added, and the mixture was mixed for an additional 10 seconds with the speedmixer. A portion (15 mL) of this mixture was added to an MC15 Micro Compounder at a screw speed of 100 RPM. The reactive mixture was mixed for ten minutes to allow polymerization to occur. The force produced by the MC15 Micro Compounder during compounding was monitored over time. The force after 3 minutes of reaction time was compared to the force after 10 minutes of reaction time and used to indicate the stability of the melt viscosity.

300 mm Oxide Wafer Polishing Test Method

Wafers were polished using a CMP polisher available under the trade designation REFLEXION polisher from Applied Materials, Inc. of Santa Clara, CA. The polisher was fitted with a 300 mm CONTOUR head for holding 300 mm diameter wafers. A 30.5 inch (77.5 cm) diameter polishing layer was laminated to a Poron subpad, available as 4701-60-20062004-54T-UR from Rogers Corporation, Chandler, AZ. This pad assembly was laminated to the platen of the polishing tool with a layer of PSA. The pad was broken in using a 12 psi, 2 minute retaining ring break-in. CONTOUR head pressures for both break-in and polishing are shown in Table 1, for both the break-in and polishing. During break-in, the head was rotated at 81 rpm and the platen at 80 rpm. During polishing, the head was rotated at 87 rpm and the platen at 93 rpm. Wafers were polished at approx. 3 PSI for 1 minute. A brush type pad conditioner, available under the trade designation 3M CMP PAD CONDITIONER BRUSH PB33A, 4.25 in diameter available from the 3M Company, St. Paul, Minnesota was mounted on the conditioning arm and used at a speed of 108 rpm with a 3 Ibf downforce. The pad conditioner was swept across the surface of the pad via a sinusoidal sweep at 19 swp/min, with 100% in- situ conditioning.

The polishing solution was a slurry, available under the trade designation iDIEL D9228 from Cabot Microelectronics, Aurora, IL, USA. Prior to use, the iDIEL D9228 slurry was diluted with DI water such that the final volume ratio of iDIEL D9228 /DI water was 1/6.5. TEOS monitor wafers were polished for 1 minute and subsequently measured. 300 mm diameter TEOS monitor wafers were obtained from Advantiv Technologies Inc., Fremont, California. The wafer stack was as follows: 300 mm particle grade Si substrate + PE-TEOS 20KA. Thermal oxide wafers were used as “dummy” wafers between monitor wafer polishing and were polished using the same process conditions as the monitor wafers.

Removal rate was calculated by determining the change in thickness of the oxide layer being polished. This change in thickness was divided by the wafer polishing time to obtain the removal rate for the oxide layer being polished. Thickness measurements for 300 mm diameter wafers were taken with a NovaScan 3090Next 300, available from Nova Measuring Instruments, Rehovot, Israel. Sixty-five point diameter scans with 2 mm edge exclusion were employed. Removal rate data is shown in Table 2.

Table 1. CONTOUR head pressures, for break-in and polish tests.

Examples 1 and Example 2 (Ex, 1 and Ex, 2) and Comparative Examples 3 to 7 (CE-3 to CE-7) Examples 1 and 2 and Comparative Examples 3 to 7 were prepared according to the compositions of Table 2. The General Polymerization Method, polymerization temperature, the force after 3 minutes of reaction time and the force after 10 minutes are also displayed in Table 2.

Table 2, Composition of Reactive Mixtures (values in wt. %) 8

Due to the relatively low boiling point of DIAE, a prepolymer method was employed to produce Example 8. DIEA (1.1 g) was mixed with Rub 1234 (55.0 g) for 60 minutes in a glass jar placed in an oil bath at 60°C. After this prepolymerization, FR 44-160 (15.2 g), BDO (2.4 g), and a portion of the DIEA/Rubl234 mixture (22.4 g) were mixed for 10 seconds with a DAC 150 speedmixer. A portion (15 mb) of that mixture was added to a microcompounder operating at 210 °C and 100 RPM. The sample mixing continued for 10 minutes. The force measured by the microcompounder rose to 2430 N over the first 3 minutes, and it remained stable to reach a force of 2400 N after 10 minutes.

Comparative Example 9 (CE-9) and Example 10

Microreplicated polishing layers for use in CMP pads were prepared by embossing polyurethane- based materials using a process similar to that described in Example 2 of U.S. Pat. No. 10,071,461, which is incorporated herein by reference. The polishing layer of CE-9 was made from material prepared as described in CE-3. The polishing layer of Example 10 was produced using material prepared as described in Example 1. Both polishing layers were prepared using a co-rotating twin screw extruder as generally described in Example 1 of U.S. Pat. No. 8,128,779, which is incorporated herein by reference. The polishing layers were tested according to the previously described 300 mm Oxide Wafer Polishing Test Method. The average oxide removal rate for CE-9 was 1,343 angstrom/min and the average oxide removal rate for Example 10 was 3,151 angstrom/min.