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Title:
POWER ELECTRONIC TAP CHANGER MODULE FOR TRANSFORMER
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/077460
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The subject of the invention is a power electronic tap changer module (1') for transformer (4) using power electronic elements connected to sections of a primary winding (3) of the transformer. The power electronic tap changer module (V) is equipped with valves (V1'...VN') having a pair of a thyristor or transistors connected with a controller (7) and the valves (V1'...VN') are connected in series with the fuses (F1... FN), respectively. The module (1 ') is equipped with an additional oversized tap line (LX) having an oversized valve (VX) rated for short circuit current, which valve is connected with an overvoltage triggering circuit (11). The oversized valve (VX) is equipped with a pair of thyristor or transistors connected with a thermally protected voltage suppressing device (13).

Inventors:
ALOSZKO PAWEL (PL)
GRECKI FILIP (PL)
JEZ JAROSLAW (PL)
OBREBSKI KRZYSZTOF (PL)
CZOPEK MARCIN (PL)
OSTROGORSKA MAGDALENA (PL)
Application Number:
PCT/EP2017/001172
Publication Date:
May 03, 2018
Filing Date:
October 04, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
ABB SCHWEIZ AG (CH)
International Classes:
G05F1/67
Foreign References:
CN204030967U2014-12-17
US3786337A1974-01-15
JPS61123912A1986-06-11
JPS6074928A1985-04-27
US5604423A1997-02-18
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
CHOCHOROWSKA-WINIARSKA, Krystyna (PL)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1. A power electronic tap changer module (1 ') for transformer (4), connected to the section (31-3N) of the primary winding (3) of a transformer (4) through tap lines (L1'„. LN') respectively, where each of the tap line is equipped with valves (V1'...VN'); each valve (VV...VN') has a pair of a thyristors or transistors (SCR1) connected with a controller (7) through a triggering circuit (8,8') and a control signal receiver (9,9') connected in parallel; the pair of the thyristors (SCR1) is connected in antiparallel to each other and in parallel with a transient voltage suppressor device (10) for basic short-term overvoltage protection, characterized in that the valves (V1 '...VN') of the lines (Ι_1 '... Ι_Ν') are connected in series with the fuses (F1...FN), respectively; the module (1') is equipped with an additional oversized tap line (LX) having an oversized valve (VX) rated for short circuit current, which valve is equipped with an overvoltage triggering circuit (11); the valve (VX) is equipped with a pair of thyristors or transistors (SCRX) connected in antiparallel to each other and (SCRX) is connected in parallel with a thermally protected voltage suppressing device (13).

2. A power electronic tap changer module (1') according to claim 1 ,

characterized in that the overvoltage triggering circuit (11) has a MOV device (12) or TVS diodes and a pair of diodes with reverse polarity.

3. A power electronic tap changer module (1 ') according to claims 1 -2,

characterized in that the voltage suppressor device (13) is a thermally protected MOV device or TVS diodes.

4. A power electronic tap changer module (1 ') according to claims 1-4,

characterized in that the oversized valve (VX) is connected directly to the primary winding (3).

5. A power electronic tap changer module (1 ') according to claims 1-5,

characterized in that the valves (V1'-VN') and the valve (VX) are connected directly to voltage source (2).

6. A power electronic tap changer module (V) according to claims 1-5, characterized in that the valves (V1 '-VN') and the valve (VX) are connected through part of winding (3) to voltage source (2).

7. A power electronic tap changer module (1 ') according to any previous claims, characterized in that the oversized valve (VX) is rated for short- circuit current whereas the valves (V1'-VN') are rated for nominal current.

8. A power electronic tap changer module (1 ') according to any previous claims, characterized in that the valves (VV-VN') are equipped with thermally protected transient suppressing device (10).

Description:
Power electronic tap changer module for transformer

The subject of the invention is a power electronic tap changer module for transformer using power electronic elements connected to sections of a primary winding of the transformer.

The power electronic switching elements connected to the transformer winding should conduct a nominal current, withstand a short circuit and overcurrent conditions and also withstand overvoltage or open circuit conditions with sustained power flow.

For the short circuit or overcurrent conditions the valves of the tap changer module very often are designed with oversized power electronic components, such as thyristors, IGBTs, MOSFETs, in order to withstand the short circuit or overcurrent for specified period of time. In some cases the short circuit or overcurrent duration may be of several seconds. For economic aspects it is not reasonable to apply oversized valves to all taps, especially as each tap changer module valve may consist of several elements in series, due to voltage requirements.

For protection of power electronic valves from over-voltages, standard transient voltage suppressors are used like: MOV (Metal Oxide Varistor) device or TVS diodes (Transient, Voltage Suppressor diodes), or spark-gaps, or gas discharge tubes. Such suppressors are able to prevent the rise of voltage across power electronic valve above rated level. The standard transient voltage suppressors are however designed to mitigate only short-time over-voltages due to their thermal limits. They are usually rated for 1.2/50us pulse. In case of long-term over-voltages there is no possibility to protect the circuit with standard transient voltage suppressors. The standard mean of dealing with long-term overvoltage is activation of fuse, circuit breaker or current bypass.

In specific applications such as power electronic tap changer there is a need to avoid long term over-voltages or open circuit conditions, and at the same time maintain undisturbed power flow in the circuit, even if some components are malfunctioning. It is not allowed to leave the open circuit as it may lead to internal arc-fault in the transformer winding. The limitation of transient voltage suppressors is a significant decrease of their parameters and lifetime after each action/triggering in case of MOV device and spark gaps, or very limited power rating in case of TVS diodes.

From US patent number US5604423 there is known a tap changing system for operation with a transformer and featuring a special group of gate-controlled electronic devices that operate as a circuit breaker and recloser such that, after half-cycle of short-circuit current or overcurrent, said special group is transferred to the OFF-state, using external control signal, whereby the tap changer winding is open circuited. The advantages being that only the special group of devices need be rated to sustain short circuit conditions. The short circuit current or overcurrent conditions are handled by the invention described in US patent number US5604423 by specific valve triggering using external controller running specified algorithms, based on measurements. The presented technique utilizes power-electronic components in order to change the circuit topology in short time, at least single half-cycle, after the short circuit is detected. The presented solution does not maintain the undisturbed power flow in case of open circuit conditions, which is desired in tap changer applications. Therefore presented invention solves short circuit or overcurrent conditions issue only.

The essence of a power electronic tap changer module according to the invention, equipped with valves VV...VN' having a pair of a thyristors or transistors connected with a controller and with a transient voltage

suppressor device for basic short-term overvoltage protection is that the valves V1 '...VN' are connected in series with the fuses F1... FN, respectively and the module is equipped with an additional oversized tap line having an oversized valve rated for short circuit current, which valve is equipped with an overvoltage triggering circuit. The oversized valve is equipped with a pair of thyristors or transistors connected in antiparallel to each other and the pair of thyristors or transistors is connected in parallel with a thermally protected voltage suppressing device. Preferably the overvoltage triggering circuit has a MOV device or TVS diodes and a pair of diodes with reverse polarity.

Preferably the voltage suppressor device is a thermally protected MOV device or TVS diodes.

Preferably the oversized valve is connected directly to the primary winding of the transformer.

Preferably the valves VV-VN' and the oversized valve are connected directly to voltage source.

Alternatively the valves V1 '-VN' and the oversized valve are connected through part of winding to voltage source.

Preferably the oversized valve is rated for short-circuit current whereas the valves VT-VN' are rated for nominal current.

Preferably the valves (V1 '-VN') are equipped with thermally protected transient suppressing device.

The technique described in the present invention, is based only on hardware design of tap changer module featuring overvoltage triggering circuit and overcurrent protection means, and is independent of controller unit. Moreover the need for external measurements is eliminated. The short circuit current or overcurrent conditions, or open circuit conditions automatically result in triggering of nominal tap, rated for short circuit current. The present invention features also protection in case of open circuit or long-term overvoltage conditions. This is done automatically by immediate triggering of the tap changer nominal valve to reduce the voltage across tap changer module to the safe level. The solution maintains the undisturbed power flow through the module. The presented invention eliminates need for additional current measurement and triggering control means for power electronic tap changer module. The design of module and particular power electronic valves increase reliability of protection, as it does not rely on software application. Regarding the economy of the design only said tap changer nominal valve needs to be rated for short circuit current. Also no additional power electronic components need to be added to the circuit. The very same design enables also open circuit or long- term overvoltage protection which is strongly desired to maintain the power flow, and enable to reduce the required withstand voltage ratings for power electronic elements. The limited requirements for current ratings of power electronic elements result also in significant size and footprint reduction.

The invention is presented schematically on the drawing in exemplary embodiments for one phase, where fig. 1 shows tap changer system known in the prior art, fig.2 - a power electronic tap changer valve from fig.1 with main components rated for nominal current, fig. 3 - a tap changer system according to the invention with the additional valve, fig.4 - a power electronic additional valve from fig.3 with main short circuit current rated valve with additional overvoltage triggering circuit.

The power electronic tap changer has a tap changer module 1 having multiple tap lines L1 , L2, L3 ....LN (N is a natural number) connected electrically through terminals a1 aN, connected with a voltage source 2 from a supplied side directly or through primary winding 3 of transformer 4 , and connected one by one through terminals b1....bN with sections 31 , 32, 33, ..3N to the primary winding 3 of the transformer 4. The secondary winding 5 of the transformer 4 is connected with a load 6. It is not a disturb to the invention that the winding of the transformer 4 have reverse names of secondary or primary windings. The each of the tap lines L1 , L2, L3 ....LN has an electronic valves V1 VN connected with a controller 7 for selective triggering purpose. The valves V1...VN has a pair of thyristors or transistors SCR1 connected with the controller 7 through a triggering circuit 8 and a control signal receiver 9 from one side. From the other side the thyristors or transistors SCR1 are connected with transient voltage suppressor device 10 for basic short-term overvoltage protection. The presented electronic tap changer and its module are known from a standard solutions.

The tap changer module V according to the invention has multiple tap lines L1 ', L2', L3' ....LN' (NT is a natural number) connected electrically through terminals a1 ' aN', connected directly or through primary winding 3 of transformer 4 with a voltage source 2 from a supplied side, and connected one by one through terminals b1 '....bN' with sections 31 , 32, 33, ..3N to the primary winding 3 of the transformer 4 through overcurrent protection devices in the form of fuses F1... FN, respectively. The transformer 4 can be one or three phase

transformer. The module 1 ' has an additional tap line LX connected to the one section of the winding 3, through terminal bX which is also connected directly or through the primary winding 3 of transformer 4 with a voltage source 2, through terminal aX. This additional tap line LX is equipped with short-circuit current rated valve VX only, without any of the overcurrent protection device in the form of the fuse connected in series. The VX valve is directly connected to the primary winding 3 through terminal bX. The oversized nominal valve VX is designed with thyristors or transistors which are able to handle the short circuit current for required period of time, given in transformer 4 specification. Other valves V1 ...VN are designed for withstanding the nominal current continuously.

The VX valve has a pair of thyristors or transistors SCRX connected from the one side with the controller 7 through an overvoltage triggering circuit 1 1 , the triggering circuit 8' and through the control signal receiver 9', where triggering circuit 8' and overvoltage triggering circuit 1 1 are connected in parallel. The overvoltage triggering circuit 1 1 has a transient voltage suppressor MOV device 12 connected in parallel to the triggering circuit 8'. The MOV device 12 can also have a form of a set of diodes or transistors, what is not presented in the drawing. The MOV device 12 is connected with the primary winding section 33 of the transformer 4 through two diodes in reverse polarity, connected to the terminals aX and bX. From the other side the thyristor SCRX is connected in parallel with a thermally protected voltage suppressing device 13 in the form of a thermally protected MOV. The voltage suppressing device 13 can also have a form of a set of diodes or transistors, what is not presented in the drawing. The operation of the tap changer according to the invention is presented in two scenarios.

The first scenario, takes place in case of short circuit or overcurrent conditions. If by the time of short circuit the tap changer module 1 ' conducts the current via one of standard valves V1 ...VN, excluding VX, the situation leads to triggering of the corresponding overcurrent protection element - fuse F1 ....FN. This creates open circuit conditions in tap changer module 1 ', which are for limited time handled by overvoltage protection means, in this case the voltage suppressing device 13 on valve VX. The voltage suppressing device 13 is thermally protected MOV, which means that it is automatically disconnected after significant temperature rise. After MOV device disconnection, the overvoltage triggering circuit 1 1 present on nominal oversized valve VX immediately detects the overvoltage conditions and triggers the valve SCRX, which result in reduction of the voltage in first place, but also in change of the short circuit current path to pass the nominal oversized valve VX only, as it is the only one rated for the mentioned conditions. If short circuit current or overcurrent occurs by the time tap changer V conducts current through the valve VX, no action is taken as oversized valve VX is rated for this condition.

The second scenario of operation takes place in case of long term overvoltage or open circuit conditions. The solution presented in invention behave in similar way to described above. Situation of long-lasting overvoltage or open circuit conditions result in overheating of standard transient overvoltage protection means i.e.MOV device 13, leading to the temperature protection triggering, which disables the MOV device 13. After MOV device deactivation the overvoltage triggering circuit 11 present in nominal oversized valve VX triggers the nominal valve immediately thus reduces the voltage across power electronic tap changer module 1 ' to safe level and maintains the power flow through the module V.