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Title:
A PREPARATION FOR THE FERMENTATION OF A PRODUCT
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2021/144734
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A preparation (1) used for the fermentation of a food product mixed with water or containing water comprises: a substance (11), derived from the fruit of the baobab tree and dehydrated, and an additive (12), based on carbohydrates.

Inventors:
OTTAVIANI PASCAL (SN)
PASOTTO GASTONE (IT)
Application Number:
PCT/IB2021/050257
Publication Date:
July 22, 2021
Filing Date:
January 14, 2021
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
OTTAVIANI PASCAL (SN)
International Classes:
A23L33/105; A21D10/00; C12G3/02; C12G3/055
Domestic Patent References:
WO2018087305A12018-05-17
Foreign References:
US20130266709A12013-10-10
US20080193599A12008-08-14
EP0903082A11999-03-24
KR20140052576A2014-05-07
Other References:
MAKAWI ABUBAKER B ET AL: "Quality attributes of Kisra prepared from sorghum flour fermented with baobab fruit pulp flour as starter", JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SPRINGER (INDIA) PRIVATE LTD, INDIA, vol. 56, no. 8, 11 June 2019 (2019-06-11), pages 3754 - 3763, XP036850898, ISSN: 0022-1155, [retrieved on 20190611], DOI: 10.1007/S13197-019-03848-W
ANONYMOUS: "Commission decision of 27-06-2008", INTERNET CITATION, 11 July 2008 (2008-07-11), pages 1 - 2, XP002617473, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20110113]
KUPL K: "TECHNOLOGY OF BREW SYSTEMS IN BREAD PRODUCTION", BAKER'S DIGEST, SIEBEL PUBLISHING CO. PONTIAC, ILLINOIS, US, vol. 57, no. 6, 1 November 1983 (1983-11-01), XP002056691, ISSN: 0191-6114
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
CONTI, Marco (IT)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A preparation (1) used for the fermentation of a food product mixed with water or containing water, the preparation comprising:

- a substance (11), derived from the fruit of the baobab tree and dehydrated; - an additive (12), based on carbohydrates.

2. The preparation (1) according to claim 1 , wherein the substance (11) includes a first portion, derived from baobab fruit pulp.

3. The preparation (1) according to claim 2, wherein the substance (11) includes a second portion, derived from baobab fruit funicle. 4. The preparation (1) according to claim 3, wherein:

- the first portion is variable between 10 and 90% of the preparation (1);

- the second, funicle portion is variable between 1 and 10% of the preparation (1);

- the additive (12) is variable between 10 and 50% of the preparation (1). 5. The preparation (1) according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein at least one part of the substance (11) is pasteurized.

6. The preparation (1) according to claim 5, wherein the at least one part of the substance is variable between 1 and 10% of the preparation (1).

7. The preparation (1) according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the additive (12) comprises dry malt extract.

8. The preparation (1) according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the additive (12) comprises monosaccharide and/or disaccharide and/or trisaccharide and/or oligosaccharide and/or polysaccharide sugars, and wherein the additive (12) is dehydrated. 9. The preparation (1) according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the substance (11) includes a portion, derived from baobab fruit funicle, treated with a cryogenic micronization process at temperatures below - 80°C.

10. A watery mixture for the fermentation of a product, comprising: - water;

- the preparation (1) according to any one of the preceding claims.

11. The watery mixture according to claim 10, wherein the ratio between the quantity of preparation (1) and the quantity of water is variable in a range between a value of 2/100 and a value of 10/100.

12. A package comprising:

- a sealed container, defining an internal space;

- a predetermined quantity of preparation (1) according to any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the predetermined quantity of preparation is contained inside the internal space.

13. Use of the preparation (1) according to any one of claims 1 to 9 for the production of the following products:

- alcoholic drinks;

- bakery products;

- dairy products.

14. A method for making a preparation (1) used for the fermentation of a product mixed with water or containing water, comprising the following steps:

- (F1.1) preparing a substance (11), derived from the fruit of the baobab tree and dehydrated;

- (F1.2) preparing an additive (12), including a substance based on carbohydrates;

- (F1.3) mixing the substance (11 ) and the additive (12).

15. The method according to claim 14, wherein the step (F1.1) of preparing the substance (11) comprises a step of preparing a first portion, including baobab fruit pulp, and a second portion, including baobab fruit funicle, which are subsequently mixed with the additive (12).

16. The method according to claim 14 or 15, comprising a step of extracting, in which at least one part of the substance (11) is extracted from the baobab fruit, and a step of pasteurizing, in which the at least one part of the substance (11 ) is pasteurized. 17. The method according to claim 14 or 15,, wherein at least part of the substance (11) is derived from baobab fruit funicle, treated with a cryogenic micronization process at temperatures below -80°C.

18. A method for making a watery mixture, comprising the following steps: - making a preparation used for fermentation according to any one of claims 1 to 9;

- preparing water;

- (F2.1) mixing the preparation with water (A) to make a watery mixture (AM); - (F.2.2) holding the watery mixture (AM) at a controlled temperature for a predetermined length of time.

19. The method according to any one of claims 14 to 16, comprising a step (F1.4) of packaging, in which the preparation (1) is packed in packages of predetermined capacity. 20. The method according to any one of claims 14 to 16, comprising a step of production, in which the preparation is used for the production of one or more of the following products:

- (F2.3) alcoholic drinks;

- (F2.4) bakery products; - (F3.1 , F3,2) dairy products.

Description:
DESCRIPTION

A PREPARATION FOR THE FERMENTATION OF A PRODUCT Technical field

This invention relates to a preparation used for the fermentation of a product mixed with water and a method for making the fermentation preparation. Background art

In the sector of fermentation preparations, the use of living organisms, such as saccharomyces cerevisiae, for example, is well known to trigger the fermentation process which is necessary, for example, for bread making. The fermentation process is also used in processes for making alcoholic drinks and dairy products such as yogurt and cheese.

Known in the prior art are fermentation processes that use yeasts or selected strains of lactobacillus: the latter are used in the production of dairy products.

Also known are solutions that use a product derived from the baobab fruit in the preparation of a particular type of bread. This solution is described in the document “Quality attributes of Kisra prepared from sorghum flour fermented with baobab fruit pulp flour as starte , authored by Abubaker B.Makawi, Abdelmoniem I. Mustafa, Oladipupo Q. Adiamo, Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed. This document describes the use of the fermented pulp of the baobab fruit as an additive in the making of Kisra, a type of unleavened bread. As stated in the document, the baobab pulp is left to ferment in water at a certain temperature and, at the same time, sorghum flour is left to ferment in water by itself. The Kisra is made using a mixture of fermented baobab pulp and fermented sorghum flour or fermented sorghum flour alone and the results are then compared. The results, however, regard nutritional aspects, in particular, the advantages of using the baobab, in terms of nutrition.

This solution, however, does not take into consideration the actual efficacy of the fermentation obtained using the baobab fruit (and even describes the case where the bread can be made even without using the baobab fruit). Thus, although it shows that use of the baobab fruit can ensure significant improvements in the nutritional values, it does not solve the problem of how to obtain efficient fermentation and/or leavening using the fruit of the baobab tree, which is comparable to that obtainable using the yeasts or other substances mentioned above. Moreover, the example described refers specifically to the use for a specific type of bread which is unleavened. The preparation described does not therefore have the flexibility required to make it useful in other sectors involving a fermentation process.

Disclosure of the invention

The aim of this invention is to provide a product fermentation preparation and a method for making the preparation to overcome the above mentioned disadvantages of the prior art.

This aim is fully achieved by the product fermentation preparation and the method for making the preparation of this disclosure as characterized in the appended claims.

According to one aspect of it, this disclosure provides a preparation for the fermentation of a product mixed with water or including water. In other words, the preparation addressed herein, once mixed with water and a product, quickens fermentation to make a food product which can be baked or ingested immediately after fermentation.

The preparation comprises a substance. In an embodiment, the substance is a fermentative product. The term “fermentative” is used to mean that the substance is intended to undergo fermentation when subjected to certain conditions.

Hereinafter in this disclosure, the terms “substance” and “fermentative product” are used without distinction to refer to the same part of the preparation.

The fermentative product (the substance) is dehydrated. The fermentative product (the substance) is derived from the fruit of the baobab tree. The preparation comprises an additive. The additive may be dehydrated. The additive is based on carbohydrates; that is to say, the additive comprises a substance (one or more substances) based on glucose. For example, the additive might comprise, alternatively or in combination, monosaccharide, oligosaccharide and polysaccharide sugars.

The numerous experiments conducted by the Applicant have led to a surprising result, heretofore unknown in experiments conducted on vegetative mycelia.

The preparation composed in this way allows the vegetative mycelium of the baobab fruit to be fed, during the subsequent fermentation in water, by the sugars present in the additive. This considerably increases the fermentation process and allows the vegetative mycelium to develop fermentative and leavening properties which are generally typical of organisms such as yeasts or enzymes.

In an embodiment, the fermentative product comprises different portions, each made with a specific substance. More specifically, in a preferred embodiment, the fermentative product comprises a first portion (hereinafter denoted by the term “pulp portion”) derived from the pulp of the baobab fruit. The pulp of the baobab fruit comprises vegetable fibres. The pulp is obtained through a mechanical process by which it is separated from the seed of the baobab fruit. The pulp of the baobab fruit is obtained from baobab fruit which has been dehydrated, including a percentage of water not greater than 12%, preferably 4%.

In an embodiment, the fibres of the baobab fruit make up 50% of the total weight of the fruit. The fibres of the baobab fruit are partly soluble and partly insoluble: preferably, a first half of the fibres is soluble, while the second half is insoluble. The pulp of the baobab fruit comprises antioxidants. This allows inhibiting oxidation processes. The pulp of the baobab fruit comprises a certain quantity of sugars, which may contribute to feeding the bacteria produced during fermentation. Although they contribute to this fermentation, however, the contribution of the glucose-based additive is important for efficient fermentation.

The pulp of the baobab fruit comprises vitamins of the B group. These vitamins allow accelerating fermentation by boosting the reproduction of bacteria.

In an embodiment, the fermentative product comprises a second portion (hereinafter denoted by the term “funicle portion”. The funicle portion is derived from the baobab fruit funicle. The baobab fruit funicle is the part of the fruit that holds the seeds together inside the fruit.

The funicle portion may be obtained by a cryogenic micronization process. The funicle portion is usually red in colour.

The funicle portion comprises polyphenols which inhibit oxidation processes and allow increasing the life of the preparation.

In an embodiment, the fermentative product includes at least one extracted part (hereinafter denoted by the term “extract portion”), which is preferably pasteurized. The extract portion is derived from the baobab fruit. The extract portion is subjected to a pasteurization, or sanitization process, by which it is possible to remove unwanted bacteria from the extract portion, which could lead to the formation of moulds or other unwanted organisms.

The extract portion has excellent prebiotic properties.

Generally speaking, the baobab fruit includes the pulp and the funicle. According to this disclosure, pulp and funicle are separated and subjected to different treatments. More specifically, the pulp is subjected to an atomization process (spray drying technology) to obtain a powder. The funicle is subjected to a cryogenic micronization process at a temperature less than -80°C, preferably less than -100°C, and still more preferably less than or equal to -120°C. The cryogenic micronization process produces a powder from the funicle.

In an example embodiment of the preparation of this disclosure, both the pulp and the funicle are used.

The use of the powder obtained from the funicle by cryogenic micronization is useful because it makes the product particularly rich in probiotic substances.

In an embodiment, the (dehydrated) additive comprises (dry) malt extract. In an embodiment, the preparation is characterized by the following percentage ranges:

- the pulp portion is variable between 10% and 99% of the preparation, preferably between 50% and 90% of the preparation;

- the funicle portion is variable between 1 and 10% of the preparation;

- the dehydrated additive is variable between 10% and 99% of the preparation, preferably between 50% and 90% of the preparation;

- the extract portion is variable between 1 and 10% of the preparation.

It should be noted that this disclosure also intends protecting a preparation including one or more of the substances listed below:

- pure pasteurized (pulp) extract portion;

- pure pasteurized funicle extract portion, obtained from the funicle of the baobab fruit;

- pure pulp portion;

- pulp portion, funicle extract portion, pasteurized extract portion and glucose-based additive (or dry malt);

- pulp portion, funicle extract portion and glucose-based additive (or dry malt);

- funicle extract portion, pasteurized extract portion and glucose-based additive (or dry malt);

- pulp portion and glucose-based additive (or dry malt);

- funicle extract portion and glucose-based additive (or dry malt);

- pasteurized pulp extract portion and glucose-based additive (or dry malt); - pulp portion and funicle extract portion;

- pulp portion and pasteurized extract portion;

- pasteurized pulp extract portion and funicle extract portion;

- pulp portion and glucose-based additive (or dry malt).

According to one aspect of it, this disclosure provides a watery mixture for the fermentation of a product.

The watery mixture comprises water. The watery mixture comprises the preparation according to one or more of the features described in this disclosure.

In an embodiment, the watery mixture is configured to remain at a controlled temperature, preferably between 28°C and 36°C for a predetermined length of time, between 10 hours and 48 hours.

In an embodiment, the ratio between the preparation and the water is variable in a range between a value of 1/100 and a value of 10/100. Preferably, the ratio is variable in a range between a value of 2.5/100 and a value of 3.5/100. Preferably, the ratio is 3/100.

According to one aspect of it, this disclosure provides a package of preparation. The package comprises a predetermined quantity of the preparation according to one or more of the features described in this disclosure.

According to one aspect of it, this disclosure provides a use of a preparation according to one or more of the features described in this disclosure for making bakery products. According to one aspect of it, this disclosure provides a use of a preparation according to one or more of the features described in this disclosure for making alcoholic products. According to one aspect of it, this disclosure provides a use of a preparation according to one or more of the features described in this disclosure for making dairy products.

This disclosure provides a method for making the preparation intended for the fermentation of a product which includes water or which is mixed with water. The method comprises a step of preparing a dehydrated fermentative product derived from the fruit of the baobab tree. The method comprises a step of preparing a dehydrated additive including a glucose- based substance. The method comprises a step of mixing the dehydrated fermentative product and the dehydrated additive.

The step of preparing the dehydrated fermentative product comprises a step of preparing a baobab fruit funicle portion. The step of preparing the dehydrated fermentative product comprises a step of preparing a baobab fruit pulp portion. The funicle portion and the pulp portion are then mixed with the dehydrated additive.

The method comprises a step of extracting, in which an extract portion is extracted from the baobab fruit. The extract portion may be baobab fruit pulp or funicle. The method comprises a step of pasteurizing, in which the extract portion is pasteurized to make a pasteurized extract portion forming part of the dehydrated fermentative product and then mixed with the dehydrated glucose-based additive.

According to one aspect of it, this disclosure provides a method for making a watery mixture.

The method firstly comprises a step of making a fermentation preparation according to the method for making the preparation described in this disclosure.

The method comprises a step of preparing water.

The method comprises a step of mixing the preparation with the water to make a watery mixture.

The method comprises a step of holding the watery mixture at a controlled temperature. The temperature at which the watery mixture is kept is between 28°C and 37°C, preferably between 32°C and 35°C. The step of holding (starting) has a predetermined duration. The hold (starting) time is between 20 hours and 48 hours, preferably the hold time is 24 hours.

The method comprises a step of packaging, in which the preparation is packed in packages of predetermined capacity. In an embodiment, in the step of packaging, the watery mixture is bottled so it can be sold in containers of a given capacity.

Brief description of the drawings

This and other features will become more apparent from the following description of a preferred embodiment, illustrated by way of non-limiting example in the accompanying drawings, in which:

- Figure 1 schematically illustrates a method for making a preparation used for the fermentation of a product;

- Figure 2 schematically illustrates a method for packaging a package containing the preparation of the method of Figure 1 ;

- Figure 3 schematically illustrates a method for making bakery products, alcoholic drinks and dairy products using the preparation of the method of Figure 1.

Detailed description of preferred embodiments of the invention

With reference to the accompanying drawings, M1 denotes a method for making a preparation 1 for the fermentation of a product in water.

The method comprises a step F1.1 of preparing a fermentative product 11. The fermentative product 11 is derived from the baobab fruit; for example, the fermentative product includes baobab pulp, baobab funicle, baobab extract or other products derived from the baobab fruit. The method comprises a step of dehydrating the baobab fruit (for example, until obtaining a water content of 4% of the total weight) before processing the fruit so it can be used for preparing the fermentative product 11.

The method comprises a step F1.2 of preparing an additive 12. The additive 12 is based on sugar. More specifically, the additive 12 may comprise one or more sugars. Thus, the additive 12 comprises monosaccharide and/or oligosaccharide (disaccharide and trisaccharide) and/or polysaccharide sugars. For example, the additive 12 may comprise glucose or fructose. In an embodiment, the additive 12 is dry malt. The method may comprise a step of dehydrating the additive (to dry it).

The method comprises a step F1.3 of mixing the fermentative product and the additive to form a uniformly blended preparation. It should be noted that in the preferred embodiment, the fermentative product and the additive are in the solid, granular (floury) state having uniformly distributed percentages of fermentative product and additive.

With reference to the accompanying drawings, M2 denotes a method for using the preparation 1 according to different possible embodiments.

In an embodiment, the method comprises a step F2.1 of mixing the preparation 1 with water A. Obtained from the step F2.1 of mixing is a watery mixture AM, which includes a certain percentage of preparation 1 per quantity of water A.

The method comprises a step F2.2 of fermenting (or step F2.2 of holding or step F2.2 of starting). In the step F2.2 of fermenting, the watery mixture AM is left to rest for a predetermined length of time, preferably in an atmosphere having a controlled temperature in an optimum fermentation range. At the end of the step F2.2 of fermenting, the watery mixture AM is fermented and has been activated. Therefore, to distinguish the watery mixture before and after the step F2.2 of fermenting, the mixture after fermentation will be referred to as mother water AMF (activated watery mixture having properties enabling it to start the fermentation of certain food products). The mother water AMF can be stored at a temperature below 5°C for approximately 15 days after being activated.

According to an aspect of this disclosure, the preparation 1 of this disclosure can be used to make alcoholic drinks. More specifically, in a non-limiting example embodiment described below, the method can be used to prepare a fermented tea-based drink, commonly known as “kombucha”. Thus, this disclosure also provides a method for making an alcoholic drink.

The alcoholic drink can be made using the mother water AMF or, alternatively, the preparation 1 directly.

In an example embodiment, the method comprises a step F2.3 of using the mother water AMF for the production of alcoholic drinks. The step F2.3 of using the mother water AMF for the production of alcoholic drinks, in the specific example of kombucha, includes the following steps:

- making the preparation 1 according to one or more of the steps described in this disclosure;

- mixing 60 g of preparation 1 and 2000 g of water A at a temperature of 45°C;

- holding at a controlled temperature of 32-35°C for 24 hours to activate the watery mixture to make mother water AMF;

- making a concentrated tea by brewing 300 g of tea leaves in 5000 g of boiling water;

- holding the brew until it cools down to a temperature below 40°C;

- preparing a sugar solution by mixing 2000 g of sugar in 2000 g of water until all the sugar dissolves in the water;

- mixing the mother water AMF, the cooled brew and the sugar solution in a suitable container;

- holding the mixture at an ambient temperature for a preparation time which is a function of the ambient temperature.

The kombucha thus obtained has an alcohol content of around 4.6%.

In another example embodiment of an alcoholic drink (kombucha in the specific example), the method comprises a step of mixing the preparation 1 directly with the ingredients used to make the drink; for example, 27 g of preparation 1 are mixed with 5000 g of concentrated tea and 4000 g of sugar solution (for example, 2000 g of water and 2000 g of sugar).

In this second example (preparation 1 mixed directly, instead of in the form of mother water AMF), making the alcoholic drink requires more time; for example, 24 hours more are necessary to arrive at the finished product. The kombucha thus obtained has an alcohol content of around 4.6%. According to an aspect of this disclosure, the preparation 1 of this disclosure (directly or in the form of mother water AMF) can be used to make doughs (for example, to make bread).

Thus, this disclosure also provides a method for making doughs - that is to say, bakery products.

In an example embodiment, the method comprises a step F2.4 of using the mother water AMF for the production of bakery products. More specifically, in a non-limiting example embodiment described below, the method can be used to prepare bread. The step F2.4 of using the mother water AMF for the production of bakery products, in the specific example of bread, includes the following steps:

- making the preparation 1 according to one or more of the steps described in this disclosure;

- mixing 30 g of preparation 1 and 1000 g of water A at a temperature of 45°C;

- holding at a controlled temperature of 32-35°C for 24 hours to activate the watery mixture to make mother water AMF;

- preparing a pre-dough, including the following steps:

- mixing 2000 g of strong flour W 350-400 Type “00” in 900 g of mother water AMF, using a kneading machine or by hand;

- leavening the pre-dough for 16 to 24 hours at a temperature in a range of 24°C to 26°C;

- preparing the final dough, comprising the following steps:

- kneading the pre-dough with a further 2000 g of flour and 1520 g of water until obtaining a smooth dough;

- progressively adding salt, oil and the remaining quantity of water (approximately 380 g);

- resting the dough so it rises to double its volume in approximately two hours;

- baking the final dough.

In another example embodiment for making bakery products, the method involves the following.

Firstly, the pre-dough is made. Making the pre-dough involves mixing the preparation 1 directly with flour (preferably strong flour) and water. For example, 30 g of the preparation 1 is mixed with 1000 g of strong flour (for example “350W”) and 450 g of water.

The pre-dough is then left to rest to let it mature. For example, the pre dough might be left to mature for 20 to 24 hours at 25°C.

The pre-dough can then be used to obtain the (final) dough, for example according to the method described above.

In another example embodiment, the preparation 1 might be used directly to make the (final) dough, without first preparing a pre-dough.

For example, the preparation 1 could be mixed directly with flour (for example, medium strength flour “260W”), water and salt (and possibly olive oil). For example, 60 g of the preparation 1 could be mixed directly with 1000 g of medium strength flour (W 260), 700 g of water, 30 g of salt and 30 g of olive oil. Preferably, place 80% of the water, the preparation 1 and the flour in a kneading machine and knead the dough until smooth and elastic; then add the oil, the salt and the rest of the water a little at a time.

The dough thus obtained is then left to rise for a predetermined length of time, for example, 20 to 24 hours at 22°C. Next, the loaves are formed and baked.

According to another aspect of this disclosure, the preparation 1 is used for making dairy products, such as yogurt and cheese, for example. Thus, this disclosure also provides a method for making dairy products.

The method comprises a step F3.1 of mixing the preparation 1 with milk L to make a milky mixture ML. The method comprises a step F3.2 of fermenting the milky mixture ML to allow the milk L to ferment.

More specifically, the step F3.2 of fermenting may be carried out at a controlled temperature or at ambient temperature.

In an embodiment, the step F3.2 of fermenting is a step F3.2.1 of long- duration fermentation. The step F3.2.1 of long-duration fermentation has a duration greater than 30 hours, during which the milky mixture is left to ferment to make cheese F.

In an embodiment, the step F3.2 of fermenting is a step F3.2.2 of short- duration fermentation. The step F3.2.2 of short-duration fermentation has a duration of 4 to 8 hours, during which the milky mixture is left to ferment to make yogurt Y.

Described below is an example embodiment of a method of fermenting dairy products and, by way of non-limiting example, comprising the following steps:

- mixing 40 g of preparation 1 in 1000 g of milk in a mixer to obtain a well- blended milky mixture ML;

- holding and fermenting the milky mixture ML for 6 to 8 hours, depending on seasonal temperatures, to make a product very similar to a yogurt.

- holding and fermenting the milky mixture ML for 24 to 36 hours, depending on seasonal temperatures, to make a product very similar to an unaged, primo sale cheese.