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Title:
PROCESSES FOR THE PREPARATION OF GALNAC ACID DERIVATIVES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/021385
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The invention comprises a new process for the preparation of GalNAc derivatives of the formula I wherein n is an integer between 0 and 10 and its salts, corresponding enantiomers and/ or optical isomers thereof. The GalNAc acid derivative of formula I can be used for the preparation of therapeutically valuable GalNAc oligonucleotide conjugates.

Inventors:
LILL JOERG (CH)
TRUSSARDI RENÉ (CH)
Application Number:
PCT/EP2016/068361
Publication Date:
February 09, 2017
Filing Date:
August 02, 2016
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
F HOFFMANN-LA ROCHE AG (CH)
HOFFMANN-LA ROCHE INC (US)
International Classes:
C07H1/00; C07C229/02; C07H15/08; C07H21/02
Domestic Patent References:
WO2012083046A22012-06-21
WO2015071388A12015-05-21
WO2010108125A22010-09-23
Foreign References:
US20110207799A12011-08-25
Other References:
DE NITECKI ET AL: "The synthesis of the pentapeptide related to the Gm(a) antigen of human gamma G-globulin", AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY: AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR CHEMICAL SCIENCE, vol. 22, no. 4, 1 January 1969 (1969-01-01), AU, pages 871, XP055300664, ISSN: 0004-9425, DOI: 10.1071/CH9690871
B. ISELIN: "Derivate von L-Methionin-sulfoxyd und ihre Verwendung für Peptidsynthesen", HELVETICA CHIMICA ACTA, vol. 44, no. 1, 24 October 1961 (1961-10-24), CH, pages 61 - 78, XP055300673, ISSN: 0018-019X, DOI: 10.1002/hlca.19610440109
W. KESSLER AND B. ISELIN: "Selektive Spaltung substituierter Phenylsulfenyl-Schutzgruppen bei Peptidsynthesen", HELVETICA CHIMICA ACTA, vol. 49, no. 4, 150, 1 January 1966 (1966-01-01), pages 1330 - 1344, XP055300682
STEFAN SCHIESSER ET AL: "Synthesis and DNA-Damaging Properties of Cisplatin- N -Mustard Conjugates", EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, vol. 2015, no. 12, 13 April 2015 (2015-04-13), DE, pages 2654 - 2660, XP055300694, ISSN: 1434-193X, DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201500144
CHAKRAVARTY PRASUN K ET AL: "Plasmin-activated prodrugs for cancer chemotherapy. 2. Synthesis and biological activity of peptidyl derivatives of doxorubicin", JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, US, vol. 26, no. 5, 1 January 1983 (1983-01-01), pages 638 - 644, XP002168690, ISSN: 0022-2623, DOI: 10.1021/JM00359A004
ZHAO J ET AL: "N-[2-Chloro-9H-purin-6-yl]-N-cyclopropylglycylamino acids and derivatives: Synthesis, evaluation as a class of novel analgesics, and 3D QSAR analysis", BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, PERGAMON, GB, vol. 17, no. 17, 1 September 2009 (2009-09-01), pages 6305 - 6310, XP026471109, ISSN: 0968-0896, [retrieved on 20090723], DOI: 10.1016/J.BMC.2009.07.035
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
RAUBER, Beat (4070 Basel, CH)
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Claims:
Claims:

1. Process for the preparation of GalNAc acid derivatives of the formula I

wherein n is an integer between 0 and 10 and its salts, corresponding enantiomers and/ or optical isomers thereof, comprising a) the coupling of a triamine salt of formula II

wherein R1 is an ester protecting group and X is an anion of an acid with a tetrahydropyran acid of formula III

wherein R is a hydroxy protecting group and n is as above in the presence of a peptide coupling agent, an amine base and an organic solvent to form the GalNAc ester of formula IV

O /

wherein R 1 and R 2 and n are as above; b) the removal of the ester protecting group R 1 and of the hydroxy protecting groups R 2 in the presence of a mineral base to form the GalNAc acid salt of formula V

wherein n is as above and M is a metal kation; and c) optionally to transform GalNAc acid salt of formula V into the GalNAc acid derivative of formula I.

2. Process of claim 1, wherein n is an integer between 0 and 5 and the ester protecting group R1 is Ci-7_alkyl or phenyl-Ci_7_alkyl, wherein the phenyl group is optionally substituted with halogen or Ci_7_alkyl, the hydroxy protecting group R is acetyl and X is selected from the anion of a sulfonic acid.

3. Process of any one of claims 1 or 2, wherein the peptide coupling agent is n- propylphosphonic acid anhydride and the amine base is a tertiary amine. 4. Process of any one of claim 1 to 3, wherein the coupling in step a) takes place in an organic solvent is a polar aprotic solvent at a reaction temperature from 20°C to 70°C.

5. Process of any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the mineral base for the removal of the ester protecting group R1 in step b) is an alkali hydroxide.

6. Process of any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the step a) and b) are combined and performed in one step without isolating the GalNAc ester of formula V.

7. Process of any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein the optional transformation of the GalNAc acid salt of formula V into the GalNAc acid derivative of formula I is performed via kation exchange or via treatment with an acid.

8. Process of any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the GalNAc acid derivative of formula I is an enantiomer of the formula la

AND Enantiomer

wherein n is as above or a salt, a corresponding enantiomer and/ or optical isomer

9. Process of claim 1 wherein the process for producing the triamine of formula II comprises the steps al) transforming the carboxylic acid of formula X

wherein R3 and R4 are different and independent of each other are amino protecting groups into an ester of formula XI wherein R1 is an ester protecting group and R3 and R4 are as above; bl) removing the amino protecting group R4 and subsequent forming an amine salt of formula XII

wherein R 1 and R3' are as above and X" is an acid anion; cl) coupling the amine salt of formula XII with a hexanoic acid derivative of formula XIII

3 ' ' 3 ' ' '

wherein R and R are amino protecting groups to form the protected triamine of formula XIV

3' 3 ' 3 ' ' ' 1

wherein R , R , R and R are as above; dl) converting the protected triamine of formula XIV with an acid into the triamine salt of formula II.

3' 3 ' 3 ' ' '

10. Process of claim 9, wherein R , R and R are the same and protecting groups which are cleavable under acidic conditions and R4 is a protecting group which is cleavable under basic conditions or by way of hydrogenolysis.

3' 3 ' 3 ' ' ' 4

11. Process of claim 10, wherein R , R and R are Boc and R" is FMOC.

12. Process of any one of claims 9 to 11, wherein the transformation in step al) takes place with benzyl alcohol in the presence of an activating agent, an amine catalyst and an aprotic organic solvent at a reaction temperature of 20°C to 50°C.

13. Process of any one of claims 9 to 11, wherein the amino protecting group R4 is FMOC and its removal in step bl) is performed with a secondary aliphatic amine in a polar aprotic solvent at a reaction temperature of 20°C to 50°C. 14. Process of any one of claims 9 to 11, wherein the subsequent formation of the amine salt of formula XII in step bl) is effected with a sulfonic acid.

15. Process of any one of claims 9 to 11, wherein the coupling in step cl) is performed with n-propylphosphonic acid anhydride as coupling agent in the presence of a tertiary amine and a polar aprotic solvent at a reaction temperature from 20°C to 50°C. 16. Process of any one of claims 9 to 11, wherein in step dl) the triamine salt of formula II is formed with a sulfonic acid in a polar aprotic solvent at a reaction temperature of 20°C to 80°C.

17. Process of claim 16, wherein a polar aprotic solvent is selected which prevents the triamine salt of formula II to crystallize.

18. Process of claim 1, wherein the process for producing the tetrahydropyran acid of formula III comprises a2) the transformation of the diol of formula XX

wherein n is as above into the alcohol ester of formula XXI

wherein n is as above and R5 is an ester protecting group; b2) the coupling of the alcohol ester of formula XXI with a tetrahydropyran derivative of formula XXII

wherein R2 and R6 independent of each other are hydroxy protecting groups to form tetrahydropyran ester of formula XXIII

wherein n, R 2 and R 5 are as above ; c2) the removal of the ester group to form the tetrahydropyran acid of formula III. 19. Process of claim 18, wherein the hydroxy protecting group R is acetyl, the ester protecting group R5 is benzyl and the hydroxy protecting group R6 is acetyl.

20. Process of claims 18 or 19, wherein in a first step of step a2) the diol of formula XX is deprotonated with an alkali metal alcoholate in the presence of a polar protic or polar aprotic solvent at a reaction temperature from 50°C to 120°C. 21. Process of claims 18 or 19, wherein in a second step of step a2) an acetic acid moiety is introduced with a halogen acetic acid or with a salt thereof in the presence of a polar protic or polar aprotic solvent at a reaction temperature from 50°C to 120°C.

22. Process of claims 18 or 19, wherein in a third step of step a2) the alcohol ester of formula XXI wherein R5 is benzyl is formed with a benzyl halogenide or a benzyl sulfonylester in a polar aprotic solvent at a reaction temperature from 20°C to 120°C.

23. Process of claim 18 or 19, wherein in step b2) the alcohol ester of formula XXI is coupled with the tetrahydropyran derivative of formula XXII in the presence of a halogenated sulfonic acid in the presence of a polar aprotic solvent at a reaction temperature from 0°C to 140°C. 24. Process of claiml8 or 19, wherein in step c2) the benzylester group is removed by a catalytic hydrogenation with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst.

25. Process of claim 18, wherein the formation of the alcohol ester of formula XXI comprises a3) the diazotization of an 2-amino acetate of formula XXV

O

XXV

R wherein R5 is as above and X is a halogen atom with a nitrite salt to form the 2-diazo compound of formula XXVI

wherein R is as above; and b3) the transformation of the 2-diazo compound of formula XXVI with the diol of formula

XX.

26. Process of claim 25, wherein the diazotization in step a3) is performed with an alkali nitrite in the presence of a solvent mixture of water and a non-polar aprotic solvent at a reaction temperature of -10°C to 10°C.

27. Process of claim 25 or 26, wherein the transformation of the 2-diazo compound with the diol of formula XX in step b3) is performed in the presence of a Lewis acid and a non-polar aprotic solvent at a reaction temperature of -10°C to 10°C.

28. Amine salt of formula XII

wherein R 1 and R3' are amine protecting groups and X" is anion of an acid.

29. Amine salt of claim 28, wherein R 1 is benzyl, R 3 ' is Boc and X is the anion of methanesulfonic acid.

30. Use of the process of claims 1 to 27 in a process for the preparation of GalNAc oligonucleotide conjugates.

31. Process for the preparation of GalNAc oligonucleotide conjugates comprising the steps a3) preparing the GalNAc acid derivative of formula I or the GalNAc acid salt of formula V according to any one of claims 1 to 27 and b3) conjugating the GalNAc acid derivative of formula I or the GalNAc acid salt of formula V under peptide coupling conditions with an oligonucleotide.

32. Process of claim 31, wherein the GalNAc acid salt of formula V is used.

Description:
PROCESSES FOR THE PREPARATION OF GALNAC ACID DERIVATIVES

wherein n is an integer between 0 and 10 and its salts, corresponding enantiomers and/ optical isomers thereof.

RAU / 14.07.2016 GalNAc derivatives of formula I are usually the targeting moiety of conjugates comprising the GalNAc moiety and certain oligonucleotides. The GalNAc moiety due to its affinity to the asialoglycoprotein receptor which is located on the liver cell enables functional delivery of oligonucleotide conjugates to the liver cell. Such GalNAc cluster antisense conjugates have the potential to act as pharmacokinetic modulators and are e.g. described in the PCT Publication WO 2012/083046 or in the US Patent Application Publication US 2011/0207799. While these publications also disclose processes for the preparation of the GalNAc derivatives it was found that these processes do not meet the standard for a technical scale synthesis.

Object of the invention therefore is to provide an improved method for the preparation of the GalNAc derivatives of formula I which meets the requirements of an industrial scale process.

Further object of the invention is the use of the GalNAc acid derivative of formula I for the preparation of therapeutically valuable GalNAc oligonucleotide conjugates and of a process for the preparation of such conjugates.

The object could be achieved with the process of the present invention which comprises a) the coupling of a triamine salt of formula II

wherein R is an ester protecting group and X is an anion of an acid with a tetrahydropyran acid of formula III

wherein n is as above and R is a hydroxy protecting group in the presence of a peptide coupling agent, an amine base and an organic solvent to form the GalNAc ester of formula IV

wherein n, R 1 and R 2 are as above; b) the removal of the ester protecting group R 1 and of the hydroxy protecting groups

R in the presence of a mineral base to form the GalNAc acid salt of formula V wherein n is as above and M is a metal kation; and c) optionally the transformation of the GalNAc acid salt of formula V into the GalNAc acid derivative of formula I.

The following definitions are set forth to illustrate and define the meaning and scope of the various terms used to describe the invention herein.

Whenever a chiral carbon is present in a chemical structure, it is intended that all stereoisomers associated with that chiral carbon are encompassed by the structure as pure stereoisomers as well as mixtures thereof.

The term "C 1-7 alkyl" denotes a monovalent linear or branched saturated hydrocarbon group of 1 to 7 carbon atoms, and in more particular embodiments 1 to 4 carbon atoms. Examples of alkyl include methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, iso-butyl, sec -butyl, or tert-butyl. The term phenyl-Ci_7_alkyl denotes a phenyl group which is attached to a Ci_ 7 alkyl group as defined above. A particular example is the benzyl group.

The phenyl group can optionally be substituted with halogen such as chlorine, bromine or iodine or with a Ci_ 7 _alkyl group as defined above. The term "amino-protecting group" denotes groups intended to protect an amino group and includes benzyl, benzyloxycarbonyl, carbobenzyloxy (CBZ or Z), 9-Fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (FMOC), p-methoxybenzyloxycarbonyl, p-nitrobenzyloxycarbonyl, tert-butoxycarbonyl (BOC), and trifluoroacetyl. Further examples of these groups are found in T. W. Greene and P. G. M.

Wuts, "Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis", 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 1991, chapter 7; E. Haslam, "Protective Groups in Organic Chemistry", J. G. W. McOmie, Ed., Plenum Press, New York, NY, 1973, Chapter 5, and T.W. Greene, "Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis", John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, 1981. Preferred amino protecting groups are FMOC and BOC.

The term "hydroxy-protecting group" and the term "ester protecting group" denote groups which intended to protect a hydroxy group and include ester- and ether-forming groups, in particular tetrahydropyranyl, benzoyl, acetyl, carbamoyl, benzyl and silylethers (e.g. TBS, TBDPS) groups. Further examples of these groups are found in T. W. Greene and P. G. M. Wuts,

"Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis", 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 1991, chapters 2-3; E. Haslam, "Protective Groups in Organic Chemistry", J. G. W. McOmie, Ed., Plenum Press, New York, NY, 1973, Chapter 5, and T.W. Greene, "Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis", John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, 1981.

In a preferred embodiment the GalNAc derivative has the formula la wherein n is as above.

AND Enantiomer

Likewise in accordance with formula la the intermediates II, III, IV, X, XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XX, XXI and XXII share the same stereochemistry at its chiral centers.

Synthesis of the triamine salt of formula II (Building Block A):

The process comprises al) transforming the carboxylic acid of formula X

wherein R 3 and R 4 are different and independent of each other are an amino protecting group into an ester of formula XI wherein R 1 is an ester protecting group and R 3 and R 4 are as above; bl) removing the amino protecting group R 4 and subsequent forming of an amine salt of formula XII

wherein R 1 and R3' are as above and X " is an acid anion; coupling the amine salt of formula XII with a hexanoic acid derivative of formula XIII

3 ' ' 3 ' ' '

wherein R and R are amino protecting groups to form the protected triamine of formula XIV

3' 3 ' ' 3 ' ' ' 1

wherein R , R , R and R are as above; dl) converting the protected triamine of formula XIV with an acid into the triamine salt of formula II. Step al) comprises the transformation of the carboxylic acid of formula X with an alcohol

R^H in the presence of an activating agent, an amine catalyst and an organic solvent into the respective ester of formula XL

Since the ester protecting group should be cleavable under basic conditions suitable alcohols R^H are those wherein R 1 is Ci_ 7 alkyl or phenyl-Ci_ 7 alkyl, wherein the phenyl group is optionally substituted with halogen or Ci_ 7 alkyl. Particularly suitable are the Ci_ 4 aliphatic alcohols such as methanol or ethanol or benzylalcohol. Preferred alcohol is the benzylalcohol.

It is important that the amino protecting groups R 3' , R 3" and R 3 " ' are different from R 4 with regard to the conditions for their removal. Suitably an amino protecting group which is

3 ' 3" 3 " ' cleavable under acidic conditions such as the preferred Boc group is selected for R , R and R . For R 4 amino protecting groups which are cleavable under basic conditions or by way of hydrogenolysis such as FMOC (basic conditions) or Z (hydrogenolysis) are preferably selected. FMOC is the preferred amino protecting group for R 4 .

Suitable activating agents can be selected from the classical carbodiimides known to the skilled in the art such as Ν,Ν' -dicyclohexyl carbodiimide (DCC), Ν,Ν' -diisopropyl carbodiimide (DIC) or l-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC), but preferably DCC is used.

The presence of an amine catalyst, preferably 4-(dimethylamino) pyridine is advantageous for the esterification.

The esterification is as a rule performed at a temperature from 20°C to 50°C in an aprotic organic solvent such as halogenated hydrocarbons like dichloromethane. Step bl) in a first step involves the removal of the amino protecting group R 4 , preferably Fmoc with an aliphatic amine in the presence of an organic solvent.

Expediently the aliphatic amine is a secondary aliphatic amine such as dimethylamine, diethylamine, morpholine or piperazine. Preferably diethyl amine is applied. The reaction is as a rule performed in a suitable organic solvent such as in polar aprotic solvents like tetrahydrofuran at reaction temperatures between 20°C and 50°C.

Excess amine can suitably be removed by aceotropic distillation with a suitable solvent such for instance with acetonitrile.

In a second step of step bl) the free amine is transformed into an amine salt of formula XII with a suitable acid.

Suitable acids are mineral acids like hydrochloric acid or phosphoric acid or sulfonic acids. Preferably sulfonic acids such as methanesulfonic acid or p-toulenesulfonic acid and more preferably methanesulfonic acid can be used.

X accordingly stands for the anion of the acid applied. Since the free amine is as a rule not isolated the reaction can take place in the acetonitrile used in step bl) usually at room temperature.

The formed amine salt of formula XII can as a rule be isolated by filtration.

The amine salt of formula XII

wherein R 1 and R3' are amine protecting groups and X " is an anion of an acid are compounds not known in the art and therefore constitute are a further embodiment of the present invention. In a further preferred embodiment in the amine salt of formula XII R 1 is benzyl, R 3 ' is Boc and X is the anion of methanesulfonic acid.

Step cl) involves the coupling of the amine salt of formula XII wherein R 1 , R 3' and X are as above, but preferably wherein R 1 is benzyl, R 3 ' is Boc and X is the anion of methanesulfonic

3 " 3" '

acid with the hexanoic acid derivative of formula XIII wherein R and R are as above, but preferably are Boc with a coupling agent in the presence of an amine base and an organic solvent and the formation of the protected triamine of formula XIV.

The coupling can follow the classical methods known to the skilled in the art using a carbodiimide coupling agent like DCC (Ν,Ν'-Dicyclohexyl carbodiimide), EDC (N-(3- dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide) or EDC ' HCl (N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N - ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride and an additive like HOBt (1-hydroxybenztriazole), HOSu (N- hydroxysuccinimide), TBTU (N,N,N',N'-Tetramethyl-0-(benzotriazol- l-yl)uronium

tetrafluoroborate, HBTU (2-( lH-benzotriazol- 1-yl)- 1 , 1 ,3,3-tetramethyluronium

hexafluorophosphate) or HOAt (l-Hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole and common combinations thereof such as TBTU/HOBt or HBTU/HOAt.

In a preferred embodiment n-propylphosphonic acid anhydride (T3P) is selected as coupling agent together with a tertiary amine base, like triethylamine or N-ethyldiisopropylamine but preferably with N-ethyldiisopropylamine.

The hexanoic acid derivatives of formula XIII, particularly the Boc protected derivative are compounds which are commercially available.

The coupling reaction usually takes place in a polar aprotic solvent like acetonitrile or tetrahydrofuran or mixtures thereof at reaction temperatures in the range of 0°C and 50°C.

The isolation of the crude protected triamine of formula XIV can happen by removing the solvents. Subsequent crystallization for instance with acetonitrile leads to a product with high purity which can readily be used for the next step dl).

In a preferred embodiment in the protected triamine of formula XIV R 1 is benzyl and R 3 ' , R 3" and R 3 " are Boc.

Step dl) involves the conversion of the protected triamine of formula XIV wherein R 1 , R 3 ' ,

3" 3 " ' 1 3' 3 " 3" '

R J and R J are as above, preferably wherein R is benzyl and R , R and R are Boc with an acid in the presence of an organic solvent into the triamine salt of formula II. Suitable acids are mineral acids like hydrochloric acid or phosphoric acid, trifluoroacetic acid or sulfonic acids. Preferably sulfonic acids such as methanesulfonic acid or p-toulenesulfonic acid and more preferably methanesulfonic acid can be used.

Preferably an excess of 4 eq to 10 eq of the respective acid is used. The reaction is usually performed in a suitable polar aprotic solvent at a reaction temperature from 20°C to 80°C.

In a preferred embodiment of the present invention the conversion is performed in a polar aprotic solvent which prevents the resulting triamine salt of formula II to crystallize. Particularly preferred solvent is acetonitrile which leaves the resulting triamine salt of formula II in the form of an emulsion which can readily be used for the subsequent coupling with the tetrahydropyran acid of formula II in step a).

Synthesis of the tetrahydropyran acid of formula III (Building Block B):

The process for producing the tetrahydropyran acid of formula III comprises a2) the transformation of a diol of formula XX

XX wherein n is an integer between 0 and 10 into the alcohol ester of formula XXI

wherein n is as above and R 5 is an ester protecting group; b2) the coupling of the alcohol ester of formula XXI with a tetrahydropyran derivative of formula XXII wherein R 2 and R 6 independent of each other are hydroxy protecting groups to form a tetrahydropyran ester of formula XXIII

wherein R 2 and R 5 are as above ; c2) the removal of the ester group R 5 to form the tetrahydropyran acid of formula

III. Step a2) requires the transformation of the diol of formula XX into the alcohol ester of formula XXI.

The diol of formula XX is characterized by n repeating -(CH 2 -)-0- units. The integer n is as a rule selected between 0 and 10, but preferably between 0 and 5, more preferably between 0 and 2. Preferred diol is the commercially available 2-[2-(2-hydroxyethoxy) ethoxy]ethanol (n=l). In a first step of step a2) the diol of formula XX is deprotonated with an alkali metal alcoholate. Suitable alkali metal alcoholates are sodium- or potassium- tertiary alcoholates such as sodium- or potassium t-butylate or sodium- or potassium amylate.

For the deprotonation a polar protic or polar aprotic solvent such as N,N- dimethylformamide or tertiary alcohols like t-butanol or 2-methyl-2-butanol may be present and the reaction can take place at 50°C to 120°C.

In a second step of step a2) the acetic acid moiety is introduced with a halogen acetic acid or with a suitable salt thereof.

Suitable halogen acetic acid is bromo- or chloro-acetic acid or the alkali metal salts thereof. In a preferred embodiment a salt of the halogen acetic acid is employed, more preferably sodium chloroacetate is used.

The reaction can take place in a polar protic or polar aprotic solvent, usually in the same solvent as in the previous step.

The reaction temperature depends on the solvent but as a rule is selected between 50°C and

120°C. In the third step of step a2) the intermediary ester salt is without its isolation transformed into the alcohol ester of formula XXI.

The formation of the alcohol ester means the introduction of the ester protection group R 5 .

While the art knows many possibilities to protect an ester the benzyl group was found to be most suitable. Its introduction can happen with a benzyl halogenide or a benzyl sulfonyl ester but preferably with benzyl bromide.

The esterification can take place in a polar aprotic solvent, usually in the same solvent as in the previous step at a reaction temperature of 20°C to 120°C.

The isolation of the alcohol ester from the reaction mixture can happen by way of extraction with a suitable solvent such as with methyl t-butyl ether and removing of the solvent. Step b2) requires the reaction of the alcohol ester of formula XXI with the tetrahydropyran derivative of formula XXII in the presence of an acid and an organic solvent to form the

tetrahydropyran ester of formula XXIII.

While the art knows many hydroxy protecting groups R 2 and R 6 are preferably acetyl. The tetrahydropyran derivative of formula XXII, particularly the acetyl derivatives are compounds which are commercially available.

Suitable acids are halogenated sulfonic acids such as the preferred

trifluoromethanesulfonic acid. The reaction is usually performed in the presence of polar aprotic solvent like dichloromethane at reaction temperatures of 0°C to 40°C.

In a preferred embodiment the generated acetic acid is continuously distilled off in the course of the reaction.

After neutralization of the reaction mixture the tetrahydropyran ester of formula XXIII can be isolated by removing the solvents. The crude product can be purified by silica chromatography with N-heptane/acetone or preferably tert.butyl methyl ether/acetone as mobile phase.

In a preferred embodiment in the tetrahydropyran ester of formula XXIII R is acetyl and R 6 is benzyl.

Step c2) refers to the removal of the ester group R 6 . The removal of an ester groups is in principle known to the skilled in the art and well described in literature.

As a preferred embodiment step c2) involves a catalytic hydrogenation with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst to remove the benzyl group and the formation of the tetrahydropyran acid of formula III. Typical hydrogenation catalyst for the removal of the benzyl group is palladium on carbon

(Pd/C).

The reaction is usually performed in the presence of polar aprotic solvent like tetrahydrofuran at reaction temperatures between 10°C and 30°C and at a hydrogen pressure of 1 bar to 5 bar. The tetrahydropyran acid of formula III can, after filtering off the catalyst, directly be used in solution for the subsequent coupling in step a) of the process of the present invention.

In the preferred tetrahydropyran acid of formula III R is acetyl. In an another embodiment the alcohol ester of formula XXI can be prepared with comprising the steps a3) the diazotization of an 2-amino acetate of formula XXV

wherein R 5 is as above and X is a halogen atom with a nitrite salt to form the 2-diazo compound of formula XXVI

wherein R 5 is as above; and b3) the transformation of the 2-diazo compound of formula XXVI with the diol of formula XX into the desired alcohol ester of formula XXI.

Step a3) requires the diazotization amino of the 2-amino acetate of formula XXV and the formation of the 2-diazo compound of formula XXVI.

The amino acetate of formula XXV is a commercially available compound which is suitably applied as hydrochloride (X = CI). The diazotization is as a rule performed with an alkali nitrite, preferably with sodium nitrite in the presence of a solvent mixture of water and a non-polar aprotic solvent at a reaction temperature of -10°C to 10°C, preferably 0°C to 5°C.

Suitable non-polar aprotic solvents can be selected from methyl tert. butyl ether, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran, cyclopentyl methyl ether, dichloromethane and toluene. Preferably toluene is used in a 1 : 1 v/v mixture with water. The 2-diazo compound of formula XXVI obtained is kept dissolved in the organic phase for the subsequent transformation in step b3).

Step b3) requires the transformation of the 2-diazo compound of formula XXVI with the diol of formula XX. As outlined above the diol of formula XX is characterized by n repeating -(CH 2 -)-0- units.

The integer n is as a rule selected between 0 and 10, but preferably between 0 and 5, more preferably between 0 and 2. Preferred diol is the commercially available 2-[2-(2-hydroxyethoxy) ethoxy] ethanol (n=l).

The reaction can be performed in the presence of a Lewis acid and a non-polar aprotic solvent at -10°C to 10°C, preferably 0°C to 5°C.

The non-polar aprotic solvent is as a rule the same as used in step a3).

Typical Lewis acids can be selected from boron trihalogenides, such as boron trifluoride and its commercially available adducts like boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, or rhodium (II) acetate or copper (II) trifluoromethanesulfonate. Preferably boron trifluoride in the form of the diethyl etherate is applied.

The alcohol ester of formula XXI can be isolated from the reaction mixture by common work up procedures involving separating the organic layer, removing the solvent by evaporation and optionally further purifying the crude via chromatography.

The alcohol ester of formula XXI can then readily be used for the subsequent step b2). Assembly of Building Block A and B

Step a) requires the coupling of the a triamine salt of formula II with the tetrahydropyran acid of formula III in the presence of a peptide coupling agent, an amine base and an organic solvent to form the GalNAc ester of formula IV.

As described above both the triamine salt of formula II and the tetrahydropyran acid of formula III can preferably be used without isolation from the reaction mixture resulting from their synthesis.

As outlined above in the preferred tetrahydropyran acid of formula III R is acetyl and in the preferred triamine salt of formula II R 1 is benzyl and X is the anion of methanesulfonic acid. The coupling can follow the classical methods known to the skilled in the art using a carbodiimide coupling agent like DCC and an additive like HOBt (1-hydroxybenztriazole), HOSu (N-hydroxysuccinimide), TBTU (N,N,N',N'-Tetramethyl-0-(benzotriazol-l-yl)uronium

tetrafluoroborate, HBTU (2-( lH-benzotriazol- 1 -yl)- 1 , 1 ,3,3-tetramethyluronium

hexafluorophosphate) or HOAt (l-Hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole and common combination thereof such as TBTU/HOBt or HBTU/HOAt.

In a preferred embodiment n-propylphosphonic acid anhydride (T3P) is selected as coupling agent together with a tertiary amine base like triethylamine or N-ethyldiisopropylamine, but preferably N-ethyldiisopropylamine. The coupling reaction usually takes place in a polar aprotic solvent like acetonitrile or tetrahydrofuran or mixtures thereof at reaction temperatures in the range of 20°C and 70°C.

The formed methanesulfonic acid and the excess amine base and coupling agent can after completion of the coupling reaction be removed by precipitating the crude product in a suitable organic solvent such as in 2-propanol. In an alternative and preferred embodiment steps a) and b) can be combined and performed in one step without isolating the GalNAc ester of formula IV. Accordingly the reaction mixture from step a) can directly be treated with the mineral base as outlined in step b) below.

In the preferred GalNAc ester of formula IV R 1 is benzyl and R 2 is acetyl.

Step b) requires the removal of the ester protecting group R 1 and of the hydroxy protecting groups R in the presence of a mineral base to form the GalNAc acid salt of formula V.

As a rule the GalNAc ester of formula IV is dissolved in polar organic solvent, particularly in an alcohol like methanol.

M represents a metal kation, usually an alkali or earth metal kation such as lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, calcium or magnesium, but preferably sodium, potassium or calcium, more preferably sodium.

A suitable mineral base accordingly is an alkali or earth alkali metal hydroxide selected from sodium-, potassium- or calcium-hydroxide, typically applied in the form of an aqueous solution. Preferably aqueous sodium hydroxide is used in an excess of 11 eq to 25 eq.

The reaction can be performed at a temperature of 0°C to 40°C. The crude product can be isolated by evaporation of the solvent. Further purification of the product can be achieved by preparative reversed phase chromatography using a polar stationary phase and a polar mobile phase.

A preferred polar mobile phase was found to be mixtures of aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate and acetonitrile which were applied with changing gradients.

Concentration of the selected fractions from the chromatography provides a pure GalNAc acid salt of formula V.

In the preferred GalNAc acid salt of formula V R 1 is benzyl, R 2 is acetyl and M is sodium.

No concentration is necessary in case the GalNAc salt of formula V is subjected to the optional step c) which comprises the transformation of the GalNAc acid salt of formula V into the GalNAc acid derivative of formula I.

The transformation can be performed by ion exchange with a suitable kation exchanger or alternatively by neutralization with a suitable acid, for instance phosphoric acid or sulfonic acids like methane sulfonic acid. In case the desired GalNAc acid derivative of formula I is isolated the transformation can preferably take place in a methanolic solution. Removal of the solvent renders the desired product in high purity and yield.

Alternatively, in case the GalNAc acid derivative of formula I is directly subjected to the conjugation with oligonucleotides the transformation is suitably performed in a polar aprotic solvent like N,N'-dimethylformamide.

As a further alternative the GalNAc acid derivative of formula I can be transformed back into a GalNAc salt of formula V in the presence of a suitable mineral base, as outlined above. This alternative would in principle allow changing the metal cation.

The term "salt" in the context of the GalNAc acid derivative of formula I accordingly means an alkali or earth metal salt with a kation selected from lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, calcium or magnesium, but preferably sodium, potassium or calcium, more preferably sodium. Conjugation to oligonucleotides

The GalNAc acid derivative of formula I or the GalNAc acid salt of formula V can be used as initially described for the preparation of therapeutically valuable GalNAc oligonucleotide conjugates. The term oligonucleotide as used herein is defined as it is generally understood by the skilled person as a molecule comprising two or more covalently linked nucleosides. For use as an therapeutically valuable oligonucleotide, oligonucleotides are typically synthesized as 7 - 30 nucleotides in length.

The oligonucleotides may consist of DNA, RNA, modified RNA or LNA nucleoside monomers or combinations thereof. The LNA nucleoside monomers are modified nucleosides which comprise a linker group (referred to as a biradicle or a bridge) between C2' and C4' of the ribose sugar ring of a nucleotide. These nucleosides are also termed bridged nucleic acid or bicyclic nucleic acid (BNA) in the literature.

The oligonucleotides may also contain amino linkers at the 5 'end of the oligonucleotide such as for instance a C-6-amino linker.

The preparation of GalNAc polynucleotide conjugates comprise the steps a3) preparing the GalNAc acid derivative of formula I or the GalNAc acid salt of formula V according to the present invention as described above and b3) conjugating the GalNAc acid derivative of formula I or the GalNAc acid salt of formula V under peptide coupling conditions with a polynucleotide.

The conjugation with the GalNAc acid salt of formula V is preferred.

The peptide coupling conditions are classical methods known to the skilled in the art using a carbodiimide coupling agent like DCC (Ν,Ν'-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide), EDC (N-(3- dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide) or EDC ' HCl (N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N - ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride and an additive like HOBt (1-hydroxybenztriazole), HOSu (N- hydroxysuccinimide), TBTU (N,N,N',N'-Tetramethyl-0-(benzotriazol- l-yl)uronium

tetrafluoroborate, HBTU (2-( lH-benzotriazol- 1-yl)- 1 , 1 ,3,3-tetramethyluronium

hexafluorophosphate) or HOAt (l-Hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole and common combinations thereof such as TBTU/HOBt or HBTU/HOAt. By way of example the US Patent Application Publication 20 1 1 /0207799 can be cited for reference of a conjugation of GalNAc derivatives to oligonucleotides.

Examples

Abbreviations

AcOH acetic acid

DMAP 4-(dimethylamino)-pyridine

DMF N, N'-dimethylformamide

EtOH ethanol

MeOH methanol

rt room temperature

THF tetrahydrofuran

TBME tert. -butyl methyl ether

Building Block A:

Example 1

Benzyl (2S)-6-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)-2-(9H-fluoren-9-ylmethoxyc arbonylamino)hexanoate

234.0 g (500.0 mmol) (2S)-6-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)-2-(9H-fluoren-9- ylmethoxycarbonylamino)hexanoic acid was suspended in 500 ml dichloromethane, 62.0 ml (600 mmol, 1.2eq) benzyl alcohol and 3.05 g DMAP (25.0 mmol, 0.05 eq) were added. The solution was cooled to 0-5°C in the course of 40 min, a solution of 108.0 g (525.0 mmol, 1.05 eq) Ν,Ν'- dicyclohexyl carbodiimide in 500 ml dichloromethane, was added dropwise. The white suspension was stirred for lh at 0-5°C and then for 15h at room temperature. The suspension was filtered over a G3 glass filter, the white filter cake was washed portion-wise with total 250 ml dichloromethane. The filtrate was evaporated at 650-10mbar/lh to obtain a yellow oil, which was in dissolved in 2.0 L ethyl acetate, extracted with 2.0 L 0.5M hydrochloric acid, 2.0 L 1M NaHC0 3 and 1.0 L brine, the organic layer was evaporated to dryness at 40°C/150-10mbar/5h to obtain 291.1 g crude benzyl (2S)-6-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)-2-(9H-fluoren-9-ylmethoxyc arbonylamino) hexanoate as white solid in 104% yield and 96.4% purity (HPLC area-%; contains ca. 5% benzyl alcohol). The material was used in the next step without further purification. MS: m/z = 459.22735 (M- boc+H) + .

Example 2

Benzyl (2S)-2-amino-6-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)hexanoate methanesulfonic acid salt

291.1 g Benzyl (500.0 mmol) (2S)-6-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)-2-(9H-fluoren-9- ylmethoxycarbonylamino) hexanoate (HPLC purity; 95.8%; contains ca. 5% benzyl alcohol) were dissolved in 1.4 L THF at room temperature. Within 10 min, 1.04 L diethylamine (10.0 mol, 20eq) were added , the light yellow solution was stirred for 2h at room temperature and then evaporated at 40°C/200-10mbar, 200 ml acetonitrile was added and evaporated again to efficiently remove diethylamine at 40°C/100-10mbar/lh . Finally, 268.1 g of a yellow oil was obtained, which was dissolved in 2.5 L acetonitrile, stirred for 10 min at room temperature. Insoluble particles were filtered over a glass fiber filter and washed with 500 ml acetonitrile. The filtrate was treated dropwise in the course of 10 min with 34.0 ml methanesulfonic acid at 20°C-25°C. The formed white suspension was stirred for 17h at room temperature and filtered over a G3 glass filter. The filter cake was washed portion-wise with 500 ml acetonitrile. The white crystals were dried at 40°C/15mbar/4h to obtain 195.8 g benzyl (2S)-2-amino-6-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)hexanoate methanesulfonic acid salt as white crystals in 91% yield (2 steps) and 99.3% purity (HPLC area- %). MS: m/z = 337.2149 (M+H) + .

Example 3

Benzyl (2S)-2-[[(2S)-2,6-bis(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)hexanoyl]amin o]-6-(tert- butoxycarbonylamino)hexanoate

190.0 g (439.0mmol) Benzyl (2S)-2-amino-6-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)hexanoate methanesulfonic acid salt were suspended in 1.9 L THF at room temperature. 335 ml (1.98 mol, 4.5 eq) N-ethyldiisopropylamine were added whereby the temperature slightly decreased to 15°C. Next, 213 g (615 mmol, 1.4 eq) (S)-2,6-bis((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)hexanoic acid were added and the white suspension was stirred at room temperature for 20 min. 390 ml n-propylphosphonic acid anhydride (T3P as cyclic trimer 50% in ethyl acetate, 659 mmol, 1.5 eq) were added dropwise in the course of 20 min at 20-25 °C (cooled in a cool water bath). The resulting light yellow, cloudy solution was stirred at room temperature for 1.5h, transferred to a separating funnel, diluted with 1.9 L TBME and extracted with 1.9 L water, 1.9 L 0.5M hydrochloric acid, 1.9 L0.5M NaOH, 1.9 L water and 1.9 L brine. The separated, still cloudy organic layer was filtered over a glass fiber filter, the filter was washed with 100 ml TBME and the combined filtrates were evaporated at 40°C/100mbar/lh, 1.0 L TBME (to aceotropic remove water) were added again and evaporated at 40°C/250-10mbar/lh to obtain crude 296.4 g as white solid residue.

The crude solid was treated with 500 ml acetonitrile and the cloudy solution was heated to 60-65°C for 10 min. The mixture was cooled to 20-25°C, stirred for 10 min, filtered over a glass fiber filter and washed with 50 ml acetonitrile. The light yellow solution was evaporated at 40°C/100-10mbar/4h to obtain 295 g benzyl (2S)-2-[[(2S)-2,6-bis(tert- butoxycarbonylamino)hexanoyl]amino]-6-(tert-butoxycarbonylam ino)hexanoate as off-white solid in a yield of 101% (HPLC purity: 100%, diastereomer purity (SS) 98.6%) which was used without further purification in the next step. MS: m/z = 565.3741 (M-boc+H) + .

Example 4

Benzyl (2S)-6-amino-2-[[(2S)-2,6-diaminohexanoyl]amino]hexanoate tri-methanesulfonic acid salt

124.0 g (187 mmol) benzyl (2S)-2-[[(2S)-2,6-bis(tert- butoxycarbonylamino)hexanoyl]amino]-6-(tert-butoxycarbonylam ino)hexanoate was suspended in 1.25 L acetonitrile. 61.0 ml (935.0 mmol, 5.0eq) methanesulfonic acid was added at 20-25°C in the course of 10 min (gas evolution). The resulting orange suspension was heated in 40 min to 55- 60°C and stirred for another lh at 55-60°C. The orange-red emulsion was cooled to room temperature (debocation was controlled by 1H-NMR) and used without further purification in the A+B assembly step, example 8. MS: m/z = 365.2558 (M+H) + .

Building Block B:

Example 5a

Benzyl 2-[2-[2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy]

30.0 g (200.0 mmol), 2-[2-(2-Hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethanol were dissolved in 50 ml DMF, at 20-25°C, then, 46.0 ml sodium methoxide 25% (200.0 mmol, 1.0 eq) in methanol were added. The formed solution was evaporated at 40°C/50mbar/0.5h (remove of 40 ml solvent), 50 ml DMF was added again and evaporated at 40°C/20mbar/0.5h (remove of 15 ml solvent), To the slightly jellylike suspension a solution of 13.9 g bromoacetic acid (100 mmol, 0.5 eq) in 50 ml DMF was added at 20-25°C and the mixture was stirred for 6h. 11.9 ml benzyl bromide (100 mmol, 0.5 eq) was added and the mixture stirred for another 16h at 20-25°C. The reaction mixture was then treated with 200 ml brine and extracted with 200 ml TBME. The separated TBME layer was extracted with 200 ml brine, the separated TBME layer was then dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and evaporated at 40°C/300-10mbar/lh to obtain crude 23.9 g benzyl 2- [2- [2- (2-hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy] ethoxy] acetate .

After chromatography (600 g silica 60 (0.063-0.2 mm), mobile phase: ethyl acetate) a total of 7.85 g benzyl 2-[2-[2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy]acetate as colorless oil was isolated in 13% yield and 99.0% purity (HPLC area-%). MS: m/z = 299.1517 (M+H) + .

Example 5b

Benzyl 2-[2-[2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy]acetate

11.2 g potassium tert.-butylate (100.0 mmol, 0.5eq) was suspended in 70 ml 2-methyl-2- butanol (light exothermic 35°C), then 30.0 g (200.0 mmol) 2-[2-(2-Hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethanol were added drop wise in the course of 5 min. the dropping funnel were rinsed with 10 ml 2-methyl- 2-butanol (temp, increase to 45°C), the solution was heated to 60-65°C, 11.6 g (100 mmol, 0.5eq) sodium chloroacetate were added and stirred for 16h at 60-65°C, then 11.9 ml benzyl bromide (100 mmol, 0.5 eq) were added and the mixture stirred for another 16h at 60-65°C. The reaction mixture was cooled to rt, then treated with 50 ml water and extracted with 80 ml TBME and 40 ml TBME. The combined TBME layer was washed with 50 ml half saturated brine, the organic layer were evaporated at 40°C/300-10mbar/lh to obtain crude 27.0 g benzyl 2-[2-[2-(2- hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy] ethoxy] acetate.

After chromatography ( 270 g silica 60 (0.063-0.2 mm), mobile phase: start with ethyl acetate/n-heptane 1/1, when pure product are visible, mobile phase were changed to 100% ethyl acetate, total 11.4 g benzyl 2-[2-[2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy]acetate as nearby colorless oil was isolated in 19% yield (38% from sodium chloroacetate) and 99.0% purity (HPLC area-%) Example 5c

Benzyl 2-[2-[2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy]acetate

- . so ut on n to uene HO 40.3 g (200.0 mmol) Benzyl 2-aminoacetate hydrochloride was dissolved in 340 ml water and 340 ml toluene cooled to 0-5°C, in the course of 60 min a solution of 16.5 g (240 mmol, 1.2 eq) sodium nitrite in 50 ml water was added dropwise at 0-5°C under vigorous stirring. The reaction mixture was stirred for 3 hour at 0-5°C. The yellow toluene-layer was separated and washed with 340 ml 1M NaHC0 3 and 340 ml brine, the separated toluene layer was treated with 60 g sodium sulfate and stirred for 1 hour at 20-25°C. The yellow suspension was filtered and washed with 50 ml toluene. The clear yellow toluene solution contain in maximum 200.0 mmol benzyl 2- diazoacetate (-8.5% in toluene). This solution was added dropwise in the course of 60 min to a cooled 0-5°C and well stirred mixture of 60.0 g (400 mmol) triethylen glycol and 465 μΐ (3.67 mmol, 0.02 eq) boron trifluoride diethyl etherate in 170 ml toluene under evolving of nitrogen gas. The yellow reaction mixture was stirred for 90 min at 20-25°C at which a colorless solution was formed. The solution was extracted with 250 ml brine, the separated organic layer was dried with 60 g sodium sulfate, filtered, washed with 100 ml toluene and evaporated at 40°C/40-10mbar/lh to obtain crude 49.9 g benzyl 2-[2-[2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy]acetate. Chromatography was performed with a Teledyne Isco CombiFlash ( 330 g silica 60 (0.035-0.070 mm Teledyne Isco Cat.No. 69-2203-330), mobile phase: gradient with 15% acetone 85%n-heptane in 45 min to 30% and 70%, fraction size 20 ml. The combined fraction gave 33.88 g benzyl 2-[2-[2-(2- hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy] acetate as colorless oil and with an overall yield of 57% and 99.0% purity (HPLC area-%).

Example 6

Benzyl 2-[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-diacetoxy-6- (acetoxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2-yl]oxyethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy] acetate

268.0 g Benzyl 2-(2-(2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)acetate (900 mol) were dissolved in 2.4 L dichloromethane. 385.0 g (2S,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-6-(acetoxymethyl)tetrahydro- 2H-pyran-2,4,5-triyl triacetate (990 mmol, 1.1 eq) and 12.0 ml trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (135 mmol, 0.15 eq)were added. The suspension was heated to reflux with a dean-stark separator (50 ml, to remove AcOH). After lh, 4.50 ml trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (50.7 mmol, 0.05 eq) and 50 ml dichloromethane were added to the orange suspension, the solvent (50 ml) from the dean- stark separator was discharged. Every half hour this procedure was repeated, total 6 times (3h). After a total of 4.5h, the red solution was cooled to 10-15°C and added within 30 min at 20-25°C to a solution of 1.8 L 1M sodium hydrogen carbonate (1.8 mol, 2.0 eq) (C0 2 evolution, pH 7-8). The yellow organic layer was separated and evaporated at 40°C/600-10mbar/3h to obtain 585.4 g of crude benzyl 2-[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-diacetoxy-6- (acetoxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2-yl]oxyethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy] acetate as yellow oil (HPLC purity: 87%). The crude product was dissolved in 700 ml acetone and charged to a preloaded silica column (3.0 kg silica 60; 0.063-0.2 mm). The chromatography was conducted using n- heptane/acetone as mobile phase (gradient from 5: 1 to 1:2). , The combined collected fractions were evaporated at 40°C/600-10mbar and dried at 20-25°C/0.3mbar/3h to obtain 465.0 g benzyl 2- [2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-diacetoxy-6-(acet oxymethyl)tetrahydro-pyran-2- yl]oxyethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy] acetate as yellow oil in 83% yield and 100% purity (HPLC area-%). MS: m/z = 628.2627 (M+H) + .

Example 7

2-[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-diacetoxy-6-(ac etoxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2- yl] oxyethoxy] ethoxy] ethoxy] acetic acid

solution in TH F

Under argon atmosphere, 456.0 g Benzyl 2-[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5- diacetoxy-6-(acetoxymethyl)tetrahydro-pyran-2-yl]oxyethoxy]e thoxy]ethoxy] acetate (727 mmol) were dissolved in 1.4 L THF. 4.56 g Pd/C 10% were added and the argon atmosphere was replaced with hydrogen (1 bar). The black suspension was hydrogenated at 20-25°C for 2h. The hydrogen atmosphere was replaced with argon, the black suspension was filtered and the filter cake was washed portion- wise with total of 400 ml THF. The colorless filtrate (HPLC purity: 71% and 27% toluene) was used without any purification in the A+B assembly step, example 8. MS: m/z = 538.2191 (M+H) + .

Assembly of Building Block A and B

Example 8a

Benzyl (2S)-6-[[2-[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-diacet oxy-6- (acetoxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2-yl]oxyethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy] acetyl]amino]-2-[[(2S)-2,6-bis[[2- [2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-diacetoxy-6-(acet oxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2- yl] oxyethoxy] ethoxy] ethoxy] acetyl] amino]hexanoyl] amino]hexanoate

The red-orange solution (-1.4 L) of benzyl (2S)-6-amino-2-[[(2S)-2,6- diaminohexanoyl]amino]hexanoate tri-methanesulfonate (180.0 mmol) from Example 4 was diluted with 3.60 L acetonitrile. At 20-25°C, 365.0 ml N-ethyldiisopropylamine (2.16 mol, 12.0 eq) were added within 5 min. To the formed sticky slurry, a solution (-2.25 L) of 2-[2-[2-[2- [(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-diacetoxy-6-(acetoxymethyl )tetrahydropyran-2- yl] oxyethoxy] ethoxy] ethoxy] acetic acid (720 mmol, 4.0 eq) from Example 7 was added at 20- 25°C in within 10 min, whereby the temperature slightly increased to 40°C. At 45-50°C, a solution of 425 ml n-propylphosphonic acid anhydride (T3P, trimer 50% in ethyl acetate, 720 mmol, 4.0 eq) was added within 10 min. The reaction solution was stirred for lh at 45-50°C. The light yellow solution was cooled to 20-25°C and evaporated at 40°C/10mbar/6h to obtain crude 1.06 kg benzyl (2S)-6-[[2-[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-diacet oxy-6- (acetoxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2-yl]oxyethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy] acetyl]amino]-2-[[(2S)-2,6-bis[[2- [2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-diacetoxy-6-(acet oxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2- yl]oxyethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]acetyl]amino]hexanoyl]amino]hexan oate (HPLC purity: 24.1%). The crude product was precipitated in three portions to remove methansulfonic acid N- ethyldiisopropylamine and residual T3P. 353 g crude product was dissolved in 7.0 L 2-propanol, cooled in lh to -25°C, stirred for lh at -25°C, filtered over a precooled (-25°C) G3-glass-filter (no rinse), a part from the precipitated product deposited on the glass-wall from the reactor. All precipitates were dissolved portion- wise from the filter and glass-wall with a total of 1.0 L THF. The combined solutions were evaporated at 40°C/20mbar/6h to obtain 390.0 g benzyl (2S)-6-[[2- [2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-diacetoxy-6-(acet oxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2- yl]oxyethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]acetyl]amino]-2-[[(2S)-2,6-bis[[2 -[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3- acetamido-4,5-diacetoxy-6-(acetoxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2- yl]oxyethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]acetyl]amino]hexanoyl]amino]hexan oate (HPLC purity: 71.9%), which was used without further purification in the next step. MS: m/z = 1923.8438 (M+H) +

Example 8b

Sodium;(2S)-6-[[2-[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5 -dihydroxy-6- (hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2-yl] oxyethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy] acetyl] amino] -2- [[(2S)-2,6- bis[[2-[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-dihydroxy- 6-(hydroxymethyl)

tetrahydropyran-2-yl]oxyethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]acetyl]amino ] hexanoyl]amino]hexanoate

The red-orange solution (-95 ml) of benzyl (2S)-6-amino-2-[[(2S)-2,6- diaminohexanoyl]amino]hexanoate tri-methanesulfonate (12.2 mmol) was diluted with 240 ml acetonitrile. At 20-25°C, 30.0 ml N-ethyldiisopropylamine (2.16 mol, 14.5 eq) were added within 5 min. To the formed sticky slurry, a solution (-150 ml) of 2-[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3- acetamido-4,5-diacetoxy-6-(acetoxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2-y l]oxyethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy] acetic acid (48.8 mmol, 4.0 eq) was added at 20-25°C in within 10 min, whereby the temperature slightly increased to 40°C. At 45-50°C, a solution of 28.8 ml n-propylphosphonic acid anhydride (T3P, trimer 50% in ethyl acetate, 48.8 mmol, 4.0 eq) was added within 10 min. The reaction solution was stirred for lh at 45-50°C. The light yellow solution was cooled to 20-25°C and evaporated at 40°C/10mbar/6h to obtain crude 73.6 g benzyl (2S)-6-[[2-[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3- acetamido-4,5-diacetoxy-6-(acetoxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2- yl]oxyethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]acetyl]amino]-2-[[(2S)-2,6-bis[[2 -[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3- acetamido-4,5-diacetoxy-6-(acetoxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2- yl]oxyethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]acetyl]amino]hexanoyl]amino]hexan oate (HPLC purity: 32 area).

68.0 g (11.0 mmol) of the crude product was dissolved in 340 ml methanol 20.0 ml (220 mmol, 20eq) NaOH 10.8M was added to the light yellow solution, the temperature increased to 32°C, the reaction mixture was stirred for 2.5h at rt, whereby a suspension was formed (pH 12.0). The suspension was filtered and the filter cake was washed with 100.0 ml methanol , the filtrate was evaporated at 40°C/250-10mbar/2h to obtain 41.5 g sodium (2S)-6-[[2-[2-[2-[2- [(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl )tetrahydropyran-2- yl]oxyethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]acetyl]amino]-2-[[(2S)-2,6-bis[[2 -[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3- acetamido-4,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2- yl]oxyethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]acetyl]amino]hexanoyl]amino]hexan oate, which was then purified by preparative reversed phase chromatography, conditions see experiment 9.

Example 9

Sodium;(2S)-6-[[2-[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5 -dihydroxy-6- (hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2-yl] oxyethoxy] ethoxy] ethoxy] acetyl] amino] -2- [[(2S)-2,6- bis[[2-[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-dihydroxy- 6- (hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2- yl] oxyethoxy] ethoxy] ethoxy] acetyl] amino]hexanoyl] amino]hexanoate

378.0 g (197.0 mmol, crude) Benzyl (2S)-6-[[2-[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-

4,5-diacetoxy-6-(acetoxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2-yl] oxyethoxy] ethoxy] ethoxy] acetyl] amino] -2- [[(2S)-2,6-bis[[2-[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5 -diacetoxy-6- (acetoxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2-yl]oxyethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy] acetyl] amino]hexanoyl] amino] hexanoate was dissolved in 1.9 L methanol. Within 10 min, 200.0 mL 10.8 M sodium hydroxide solution (2.16 mol, l l.Oeq) were added at 20-25°C. Thereby the temperature increased to 31°C. The light yellow solution was stirred for 2h at 20-25°C (pH 13.4), then 80.0 mL 5M ammonium chloride solution were added (pH 10.7). The light yellow solution was then evaporated at 20- 25°C/100-20mbar/5h and dried at 20-0.5mbar/lh to obtain crude 543 g sodium (2S)-6-[[2-[2-[2- [2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymet hyl)tetrahydropyran-2- yl]oxyethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]acetyl]amino]-2-[[(2S)-2,6-bis[[2 -[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3- acetamido-4,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2- yl]oxyethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]acetyl]amino]hexanoyl]amino]hexan oate (HPLC purity: 40.1%), which was then purified by preparative reversed phase chromatography .

Column: Triart C18-120 26x15cm; lOum;

Mobile phase: A: 2mM NaHC0 3 / B: Acetonitrile;

Gradient:

Thermostatization: room temperature

Detection: 220 nm

Solution: 543 g dissolved in 4500 ml 2mM NaHC0 3 and filtered (GF5)( = 5000 ml (109 mg/ml) Sample solution / Injection: Per run 200 ml sample = 21.8 g (25 runs)

Concentration: The combined fractions (46 L) were diluted with 110 L water, this solution were pumped in 3 portions to a RP CI 8 column and washed with water/MeOH 98/2, then with MeOH eluted and concentrated on a rotary evaporator to obtain 1.18 kg methanolic solution. A quarter of the 1.18 kg methanolic solution of the preparative HPLC purification step, i.e. 295 g were evaporated at 40°C/20mbar/lh and then at 20-25°C/0.35mbar/14h to dryness to obtain 43.5 g sodium;(2S)-6-[[2-[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5 -dihydroxy-6- (hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2-yl] oxyethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy] acetyl] amino] -2- [[(2S)-2,6- bis[[2-[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-dihydroxy- 6-

(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2-yl]oxyethoxy]ethoxy]etho xy]acetyl]amino]hexanoyl] amino]hexanoate as amorphous white powder, 99.88% HPLC purity. The remaining three- quarters of the above solution (885 g) were used in the next step. MS: m/z = 1452.684 (M-H) ~ .

Example 10

(2S)-6-[[2-[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-dihydr oxy-6- (hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2-yl] oxyethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy] acetyl] amino] -2- [[(2S)-2,6- bis[[2-[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-dihydroxy- 6- (hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2- yl] oxyethoxy] ethoxy] ethoxy] acetyl] amino]hexanoyl] amino]hexanoic acid

The methanol solution (885 g) from Example 9 was treated at 20-25°C with 47.9 g Dowex (50x8 kation-exchanger; H 3 0 + cone. 2.57 mmol/g) stirred for lh (pH 3.1), filtered and washed with 200 mL methanol. The filtrate was evaporated at 20-25°C/15-50mbar and dried at 20- 25°C/0.01mbar/2h to obtain 128.0 g (2S)-6-[[2-[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5- dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2-yl]oxyethoxy]et hoxy]ethoxy]acetyl]amino]-2- [[(2S)-2,6-bis[[2-[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5 -dihydroxy-6- (hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2- yl]oxyethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]acetyl]amino]hexanoyl]amino]hexan oic acid as a white amorphous powder, 99.77% HPLC purity. MS: m/z = 1452.684 (M-H) ~ .

Example 11

Calcium; (2S)-6-[[2-[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-dihydr oxy-6- (hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2-yl] oxyethoxy] ethoxy] ethoxy] acetyl] amino] -2- [[(2S)-2,6- bis[[2-[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-dihydroxy- 6- (hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2- yl] oxyethoxy] ethoxy] ethoxy] acetyl] amino]hexanoyl] amino]hexanoate

0.10 g (0.068 mmol), (2S)-6-[[2-[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-dihydr oxy- 6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2-yl]oxyethoxy]ethoxy]ethox y]acetyl]amino]-2-[[(2S)-2,6- bis[[2-[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-dihydroxy- 6-

(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2-yl]oxyethoxy]ethoxy]etho xy]acetyl] amino]hexanoyl] amino]hexanoic acid, was dissolved in 3.0 ml methanol and 0.30 ml water, 2.60 mg (0.034 mmol, 0.5eq) calcium hydroxide was added and the mixture was stirred for lh at room temperature. The light cloudy solution was evaporated at 40°C/200-10mbar/lh to obtain 0.11 g as white solid.

99.60% HPLC purity. MS: m/z = 1452.684 (M-H) ~ .

Conjugation to oligonucleotide Example 11 (in accordance with example 15 of US Patent Application Publication 201 1 /0207799)

(20 mg, 0.014 mmol ) (2S)-6-[[2-[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-dihydr oxy- 6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2-yl]oxyethoxy]ethoxy]ethox y]acetyl]amino]-2-[[(2S)-2,6- bis[[2-[2-[2-[2-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-dihydroxy- 6- (hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2-yl]oxyethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy] acetyl]amino]hexanoyl] amino]hexanoic acid (GalNAc acid) was co-evaporated with pyridine and dichloromethane. The residue was dissolved in dry DMF (0.9 ml) and a solution of N-Hydroxysuccinimide (HOSu) in DMF (1.6 mg, 0.014 mmol ) was added while stirring under an argon atmosphere. At 0° C a solution of N . N '- D i eye I ohex y lcarbod i i m ide (DCC) in DMF (3.2 mg, 0.016 mmol ) was slowly added. The reaction was allowed to warm to room temperature and stirred overnight. The formed GalNAc N-hydroxysuecinimid ester was used without further purification for conjugation to RNA. Th e RNA used was an ami no- modified RNA having the sequence:

5'-(NH 2 C6)GGAAUCuuAuAuuuGAUCcAsA-3' (SEQ ID 1) wherein u and c are the respective 2'-0-methyl nucleotides of the corresponding bases and s means phosphorothioate.

The RNA (2.54 μηιοΐ) equipped w ith a C-6 amino linker at the '-end was lyophilized and dissolved in 2 0 μΕ sodium borate buffer (0.1 mol/L sodium borate, pH 8.5. 0.3 mol/L C1) and 1 . 1 niL D SO. After addition of 8 μΐ. Ν,Ν-Diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA), a solution of the GalNAc N - h y d ro x y s u c c i n i m i d ester ( theoretically 0.014 mmol ) in DMF was slowly added under continuous stirring to the RNA solution. The reaction mi ture was agitated at 35° C. overnight. The reaction was monitored using RP-HPLC ( Resource RPC 3 ml. buffer: A: 100 mM

Triethylammonium acetate (TEAA, 2.0 M, pH 7.0) in water, B: 100 mM TEA A in 95% acetonitrile, gradient: 5% B to 22% B in 20 CV ). After precipitation of RNA using sodium acetate (3 M) in EtOH at -20° C, the RNA conjugate was purified using the conditions described above. The pu e fractions were pooled, and the desired conjugate was precipitated using sodium acetate/EtOH to give the pure RNA conjugate. The conjugate has been isolated in 59% yield (1.50 μηιοΐ). The purity of conjugate was analyzed by anion exchange H LC ( purity: 85.5%) and identity was confirmed by ES1-MS ([M+H] 1+ calculated : 8374.4; [M+H] 1+ me asured: 8376.0.