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Title:
PROCESSES FOR PREPARING ¥Â-D-RIBOFURANOSE DERIVATIVES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2003/048157
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Provided are a process for preparing ß-D-ribofuranose derivatives, which are useful as an intermediate for the preparation of ribavirin. The process can be performed under a mild condition, in the presence of a catalyst selected from the group consisting of methanesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid and p-toluenesulfonic acid.

Inventors:
LEE TAI-AU
PARK NAM-JIN
KHOO JA-HEOUK
LEE BYUNG-CHEOL
Application Number:
PCT/KR2002/002254
Publication Date:
June 12, 2003
Filing Date:
November 30, 2002
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
YUHAN CORP (KR)
International Classes:
C07D405/04; C07H1/00; C07H19/056; (IPC1-7): C07D405/04
Domestic Patent References:
WO1998016186A21998-04-23
Other References:
RAMASAMY K.S. ET AL: "Monocyclic L-Nucleosides with Type 1 Cytokine-Inducing Activity.", J. MED. CHEM., vol. 43, no. 5, 2000, pages 1019 - 1028, XP002258899
CRISTESCU C. ET AL: "AS-TRIAZINE DERIVATIVES WITH POTENTIAL THERAPEUTIC ACTION. XXII. A SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF 1,2,4-TRIAZOLE NUCLEOSIDESAND 1,2,4-TRIAZINE-NUCLEOSIDES.", REVUE ROUMAINE DE CHIMIE, vol. 32, no. 3, 1987, pages 329 - 333, XP001034942
ZHOU T.: "IMPROVED PROCESS OF SYNTHESIS OF RIBAVIRIN.", ZHONGGUO YAOWU HUAXUE, vol. 6, no. 2, 1996, pages 133 - 135, XP001155680
See also references of EP 1451178A4
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Lee, Young-pil (1571-18 Seocho-dong Seocho-gu, 137-874 Seoul, KR)
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Claims:
What is claimed is:
1. A process for preparing a 13Dribofuranose derivative of formula (I), which comprises: (a) reacting a compound of formula (II) with a compound of formula (III) at 80°C120°C, in the presence of a catalyst selected from the group consisting of methanesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid and ptoluenesulfonic acid; and (b) crystallizing the resulting compound obtained in the step (a): wherein R'is a protecting group for hydroxyl group; and R2 is a CiC4 alkyl group.
2. The process of claim 1, wherein the reaction temperature of the step (a) is 90100°C.
3. The process of claim 1 or 2, wherein the catalyst is ptoluenesulfonic acid.
4. The process of claim 1 or 2, wherein the amount of the catalyst is 0. 010. 05eq. to 1 eq. of a compound of formula (II).
5. The process of claim 1 or 2, wherein the eq. ratio of the compound of formula (II) : the compound of formula (III) is 1: 1. 01. 2.
6. The process of claim 1 or 2, wherein the reaction time of the step (a) is 36 hours.
7. The process of claim 1 or 2, wherein the reaction of the step (a) is carried out in the absence of a solvent.
8. The process of claim 1 or 2, wherein a solvent for crystallization in the step (b) is an alcohol.
9. The process of claim 8, wherein the solvent for crystallization is selected from the group consisting of methanol, ethanol, butanol, isobutanol, and an aqueous solution thereof.
10. The process of claim 9, wherein the solvent for crystallization is methanol.
Description:
PROCESSES FOR PREPARING ß-D-RIBOFURANOSE DERIVATIVES Technical Field The present invention relates to a process for preparing A-D-ribofuranose derivatives, which are useful as an intermediate for the preparation of ribavirin with an antiviral activity.

Background Art -D-Ribofuranose derivatives are useful as an intermediate for the preparation of ribavirin. Processes for the preparation thereof are disclosed in U. S. Pat. No. 3,798, 209 and J. Med. Chem. , 1972, Vol. 15, No. 11, 1150-1154. The process disclosed in U. S. Pat. No. 3, 798, 209 may be summarized in the following reaction scheme 1: Reaction Scheme 1 BzO 0 N/'-CH3CN \//O N-N 3 days BzO OBz SI (CH3) 3 0 Nain p-N Bz0 N O Bzo/ : INT 0 <N + BzO OBz BzO OBz r)" In the above reaction scheme 1, Bz is a benzoyl group.

However, it takes about 3 days to complete the reaction of the above process. Further, additional isolation processes are necessary

because the compounds of formula (I") are also produced as a by-product. In order to carry out the isolation processes, re-crystallization and/or column chromatography are conventionally performed, which complicates an industrial-scale mass production.

The process disclosed in J. Med. Chem., 1972, Vol. 15, No. 11, 1150-1154 is illustrated in the following reaction scheme 2: Reaction Scheme 2 0 OAc N -o- Rb X N O- + NiN R1O OR1 H O N O- N, O-bis (p-nitrophenyl) ) phosphate , N 1 O 160-165 °C R O R1O OR (1111) In the above reaction scheme 2, Ac is an acetyl group; and R'is a protecting group for hydroxyl group.

The reaction, as shown in the scheme 2, is carried out at a high temperature, such as 160--165°C, which causes a degradation of compounds including reactants and products. Degraded compounds are changed into tar, which makes it difficult to isolate and purify an end product. The yield of the end product through the above process is relatively low, i. e. , about 74-78%. There is needed an additional distillation equipment under a reduced pressure, in order to remove acetic acid that is generated during the reaction.

Further, N, O-bis (p-nitrophenyl) phosphate, used as a catalyst, is very expensive reagent, which is unfavorable for industrial-scale mass production of ß-D-ribofuranose derivatives. Moreover, since the

above process gives the compound of formula (I"') with gray color (i. e., low purity), an additional purification process is required in order to produce a high purity of ribavirin.

Disclosure of the Invention The present invention provides a process for preparing li-D-ribofuranose derivatives in high purity and yield under a mild condition, so as to be favorably applied to a large-scale mass production thereof.

In one aspect of the present invention, there is provided a process for preparing a compound of formula (I), which comprises (a) reacting a compound of formula (II) with a compound of formula (III) at 80°C-120°C, in the presence of a catalyst selected from the group consisting of methanesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid and p-toluenesulfonic acid; and (b) crystallizing the resulting compound obtained in the step (a): wherein, R'is a protecting group for hydroxyl group; and R2 is a C1-C4 alkyl group.

Best mode for carrying out the Invention In one embodiment of the present invention, a compound of formula (II) and a compound of formula (III) are reacted under a mild condition in the presence of a catalyst and a resulting compound is crystallized, in accordance with the following reaction scheme 3 described below : Reaction Scheme 3 0 0 0 RnO L-I" 0 O-ruz + non R1O Ri H (il) o O < iT (a) Catalyst/80-120 °C N 1 O (b) Crystallization R1Oyy R lo OR 1 (I)

In the above reaction scheme 3, R'is a protecting group for hydroxyl group; and R2 is a C1-C4 alkyl group.

The compounds of formula (II) and (III), which are starting materials in the process of the present invention, may be prepared by a method which is known in the art (e. g., J. Med. Chem., 1972, Vol. 15, No. 11, 1150-1154).

The protecting group for hydroxyl group includes any conventional protecting groups which are acceptable for the preparation of antiviral agents, such as acetyl group, benzoyl group and etc.

The eq. ratio of the compound of formula (II) : the compound of formula (III) is preferably 1: 1. 0-1. 2. Where eq. ratio of the compound of formula (III) to the compound of formula (II) is less than 1, the compound of formula (II) may remain un-reacted. Where the compound of formula (III) is used more than 1.2 eq. to 1 eq. of the compound of formula (lI), the color of the product, i. e. , the compound of formula (I), may be changed (yellow). Further, un-reacted compound of formula (III), which could remain in the reaction system, may be converted to 1,2, 4-triazole-3-carboxamide during a subsequent ammonolysis for the preparation of ribavirin, which then remains as one of impurities.

In reacting the compounds of formula (II) and (III), a higher temperature raises the rate of the reaction. However, considering purity and yield of the product, the reaction is preferably performed at 80 °C-120 °C, more preferably 90 °C-100 °C.

The catalyst is selected from the group consisting of methanesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and p-toluenesulfonic acid.

These catalytic compounds are much cheaper than N, O-bis (p-nitrophenyl) phosphate. In addition, the catalyst allows the reaction to be carried out under a milder condition. Thus, a high reaction temperature can be avoided. Among those catalytic compounds, p-toluenesulfonic acid is preferable, in the aspect of the yield of the product.

The catalyst may be added to the reaction mixture preferably at a ratio of 0. 01-0. 05eq. based on 1 eq. of the compound of formula (II), considering the yield of the product.

The reaction of the compounds of formula (II) and (III) does not require a solvent. That is, both compounds of formula (II) and (III) melt

at the reaction temperature {i. e. , 80°C-120°C) and the reaction proceeds by adding the catalyst. The reaction may be completed within preferably 3-6 hours, more preferably 4-5 hours.

In crystallizing the resulting compound, a solvent is used. The solvent for crystallization includes an alcohol, such as methanol, ethanol, butanol, isobutanol, and an aqueous solution thereof. Among them, more preferable solvent for crystallization is methanol, considering a purity of the product, a compound of formula (I).

The compound of formula (I) obtained according to the present invention can be converted to ribavirin in accordance with conventional methods disclosed in, e. g. , U. S. , Pat. No. 3,798, 209 and J. Med. Chem., 1972, Vol. 15, No. 11, 1150-1154. For example, through ammonolysis and re-crystallization, high purity ribavirin of white color can be easily obtained from the compound of formula (I) without any additional purification and/or decolorization.

The present invention is further illustrated and described by the following examples, which should not be taken to limit the scope of the invention.

Example 1.

A mixture of methyl 1,2, 4-triazole-3-carboxylate (26.4 g, 0.21 mole) and 1 (3-D-ribofuranosyl-1, 2,3, 5-tetraacetate (60.2 g, 0.19 mole) was melted and then 1.1 g of p-toluenesulfonic acid was added thereto.

The reaction mixture was reacted for 6 hours, while maintaining the temperature of the reaction mixture at 85t5°C. And then, the reaction mixture was crystallized with 300.8 mt of methanol to give 57.9 g of 1- (2, 3, 5-tri-O-acetyl-li-D-ribofuranosyl)-1, 2, 4-triazole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester (yield : 78.9%).

NMR (CDC13) S (ppm): 2.12 (t, 9H), 3.99 (s, 3H), 4.25 (m, 1H), 4.48 (m, 2H), 5.57 (t, 1 H), 5.76 (q, 1 H), 6.07 (d, 1 H), 8.44 (s, 1 H) Example 2.

A mixture of methyl 1,2, 4-triazole-3-carboxylate (26.4 g, 0.21 mole) and 6-D-ribofuranosyl-1, 2,3, 5-tetraacetate (60.2 g, 0.19 mole) was melted and then 1.1 g of p-toluenesulfonic acid was added thereto.

The reaction mixture was reacted for 5 hours, while maintaining the temperature of the reaction mixture at 95t5°C. And then, the reaction mixture was crystallized with 300.8 M of methanol to give 65.9 g of 1- (2, 3, 5-tri-0-acetyl-ll3-D-ribofuranosyl)-1, 2, 4-triazole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester (yield : 90%).

Example 3.

A mixture of methyl 1,2, 4-triazole-3-carboxylate (26.4 g, 0.21 mole) and, B-D-ribofuranosyl-1, 2, 3,5-tetraacetate (60.2 g, 0.19 mole) was melted and then 1.1 g of p-toluenesulfonic acid was added thereto.

The reaction mixture was reacted for 3 hours, while maintaining the temperature of the reaction mixture at 105i5°C. And then, the reaction mixture was crystallized with 300.8 a of methanol to give 58.6 g of 1- (2, 3, 5-tri-0-acetyl-,3-D-ribofuranosyl)-1, 2, 4-triazole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester (yield : 80%).

Example 4.

A mixture of methyl 1,2, 4-triazole-3-carboxylate (24.0 g, 0.19 mole) and li-D-ribofuranosyl-1, 2,3, 5-tetraacetate (60.2 g, 0.19 mole) was melted and then 1.1 g of p-toluenesulfonic acid was added thereto.

The reaction mixture was reacted for 5 hours, while maintaining the temperature of the reaction mixture at 95t5°C. And then, the reaction

mixture was crystallized with 300.8 mQ of methanol to give 60.0 g of 1- (2, 3, 5-tri-O-acetyi-j'S-D-ribofuranosyt)-1, 2, 4-triazole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester (yield : 82%).

Example 5.

A mixture of methyl 1,2, 4-triazole-3-carboxylate (28. 8 g, 0.22 mole) and A-D-ribofuranosyl-1, 2,3, 5-tetraacetate (60.2 g, 0.19 mole) was melted and then 1.1 g of p-toluenesulfonic acid was added thereto.

The reaction mixture was reacted for 5 hours, while maintaining the temperature of the reaction mixture at 95t5°C. And then, the reaction mixture was crystallized with 300.8 0 of methanol to give 66.7 g of 1- (2, 3, 5-tri-O-acetyl-ß-D-ribofuranosyl)-1, 2, 4-triazole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester (yield : 92%).

Example 6 A mixture of methyl 1,2, 4-triazole-3-carboxylate (26.4 g, 0.21 mole) and A-D-ribofuranosyl-1, 2,3, 5-tetraacetate (60.2 g, 0.19 mole) was melted and then 0.36 g (0.01 eq. ) of p-toluenesulfonic acid was added thereto. The reaction-mixture was reacted for 5 hours, while maintaining the temperature of the reaction mixture at 95t5°C. And then, the reaction mixture was crystallized with 300.8 mg of methanol to give 58.9 g of 1- (2, 3, 5-tri-0-acetyl-1S-D-ribofuranosyl)-1, 2, 4-triazole-3- carboxylic acid methyl ester (yield : 81 %).

Example 7 A mixture of methyl 1,2, 4-triazole-3-carboxylate (26.4 g, 0.21 mole) and li-D-ribofuranosy 235-tetraacetate (60.2 g, 0.19 mole) was melted and then 1.8 g (0.05 eq. ) of p-toluenesulfonic acid was added thereto. The reaction mixture was reacted for 5 hours, while

maintaining the temperature of the reaction mixture at 95~5°C. And then, the reaction mixture was crystallized with 300.8 mt of methanol to give 61.7 g of 1- (2, 3, 5-tri-0-acetyl-p-D-ribofuranosyl)-1, 2, 4-triazole-3- carboxylic acid methyl ester (yield : 85%).

Example 8 A mixture of methyl 1,2, 4-triazole-3-carboxylate (26.4 g, 0.21 mole) and 6-D-ribofuranosyl-1, 2,3, 5-tetraacetate (60.2 g, 0.19 mole) was melted and then 1.1 g of p-toluenesulfonic acid was added thereto.

The reaction mixture was reacted for 5 hours, while maintaining the temperature of the reaction mixture at 95t5°C. And then, the reaction mixture was crystallized with 180.5 a of methanol to give 68.9 g of 1- (2, 3, 5-tri-O-acetyl-13-D-ribofuranosyl)-1, 2, 4-triazole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester (yield : 95%).

Example 9 A mixture of methyl 1,2, 4-triazole-3-carboxylate (26.4 g, 0.21 mole) and jB-D-ribofuranosyl-1, 2,3, 5-tetraacetate (60.2 g, 0.19 mole) was melted and then 1.1 g of p-toluenesulfonic acid was added thereto.

The reaction mixture was reacted for 5 hours, while maintaining the temperature of the reaction mixture at 95t5°C. And then, the reaction mixture was crystallized with 421.1 m. 2 of methanol to give 64 g of 1- (2, 3, 5-tri-O-acetyl-ß-D-ribofuranosyl)-1, 2, 4-triazole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester (yield : 88%).

Example 10 A mixture of methyl 1,2, 4-triazole-3-carboxylate (1.27 g, 0.01 mole) and 1-0-acetyl-2, 3, 5-tri-0-benzoyl-13-D-ribofuranose (5.04 g, 0.01 mole) was melted and then 0.095 g of p-toluenesulfonic acid was added

thereto. The reaction mixture was reacted for 3 hours, while maintaining the temperature of the reaction mixture at 955°C. And then, the reaction mixture was crystallized with 25 me of methanol to give 4.85 g of 1- (2, 3, 5-tri-O-benzoyl-ß-D-ribofuranosyl)-1, 2, 4-triazole-3- carboxylic acid methyl ester (yield : 85%).

NMR (CDC13) 6 (ppm) : 3.96 (d, 3H), 4.67-4. 80 (m, 2H), 4.87 (m, 1H), 6.11 (t, 1H), 6.16 (q, 1H), 6.34 (d, 1H), 7.38-8. 07 (m, 15H), 8.44 (s, 1H) Example 11 A mixture of ethyl 1, 2, 4-triazole-3-carboxylate (1.41 g, 0.01 mole) and p-D-ribofuranosyl-1, 2,3, 5-tetraacetate (3. 18 g, 0.01 mole) was melted and then 0.095 g of p-toluenesulfonic acid was added thereto.

The reaction mixture was reacted for 3 hours, while maintaining the temperature of the reaction mixture at 955°C. And then, the reaction mixture was crystallized with 20 me of methanol to give 3.27 g of 1- (2, 3, 5-tri-O-acetyl-13-D-ribofuranosyl)-1, 2, 4-triazole-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (yield : 82%).

NMR (CDCI3) 6 (ppm) : 1.43 (t, 3H), 2.12 (t, 9H), 4.00 (m, 2H), 4.26 (m, 1H), 4.48 (m, 2H), 5.57 (t, 1H), 5.77 (q, 1H), 6. 10 (d, 1H), 8.50 (s, 1H) Example 12 A mixture of methyl 1,2, 4-triazole-3-carboxylate (1.27 g, 0.01 mole) and ß-D-ribofuranosyl-1, 2,3, 5-tetraacetate (3.18 g, 0.01 mole) was melted and then 0.048 g of methanesulfonic acid was added thereto.

The reaction mixture was reacted for 5 hours, while maintaining the temperature of the reaction mixture at 95t5°C. And then, the reaction

mixture was crystallized with 300.8 me of methanol to give 3.0 g of 1- (2, 3, 5-tri-0-acetyl-1S-D-ribofuranosyl)-1, 2, 4-triazole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester (yield : 79%).

Example 13 A mixture of methyl 1, 2, 4-triazole-3-carboxylate (1.27 g, 0.01 mole) and ß-D-ribofuranosyl-1, 2,3, 5-tetraacetate (3.18 g, 0.01 mole) was melted and then 0.079 g of benzenesulfonic acid was added thereto.

The reaction mixture was reacted for 5 hours, while maintaining the temperature of the reaction mixture at 955°C. And then, the reaction mixture was crystallized with 300.8 0 of methanol to give 3.08 g of 1- (2, 3, 5-tri-O-acetyl-ß-D-ribofuranosyl)-1, 2, 4-triazole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester (yield : 80%).

Example 14 A mixture of methyl 1,2, 4-triazole-3-carboxylate (1.27 g, 0.01 mole) and ß-D-ribofuranosyl-1, 2,3, 5-tetraacetate (3.18 g, 0.01 mole) was melted and then 0.076 g of p-toluenesulfonic acid was added thereto. The reaction mixture was reacted for 3 hours, while maintaining the temperature of the reaction mixture at 95t5°C. And then, the reaction mixture was crystallized with 20 a of ethanol to give 2.92 g of 1- (2, 3, 5-tri-O-acetyl-li-D-ribofuranosyl)-1, 2, 4-triazole-3- carboxylic acid methyl ester (yield : 92%).

Example 15 A mixture of methyl 1,2, 4-triazole-3-carboxylate (1.27 g, 0.01 mole) and 6-D-ribofuranosyl-1, 2,3, 5-tetraacetate (3.18 g, 0.01 mole) was melted and then 0.076 g of p-toluenesulfonic acid was added thereto. The reaction mixture was reacted for 3 hours, while

maintaining the temperature of the reaction mixture at 95t5°C. And then, the reaction mixture was crystallized with 20 mE of butanol to give 2.70 g of 1- (2, 3, 5-tri-O-acetyl-li-D-ribofuranosyl)-1, 2, 4-triazole-3- carboxylic acid methyl ester (yield : 85%).

Example 16 A mixture of methyl 1,2, 4-triazole-3-carboxylate (1.27 g, 0.01 mole) and p-D-ribofuranosyl-1, 2,3, 5-tetraacetate (3.18 g, 0.01 mole) was melted and then 0.076 g of p-toluenesulfonic acid was added thereto. The reaction mixture was reacted for 3 hours, while maintaining the temperature of the reaction mixture at 95t5°C. And then, the reaction mixture was crystallized with 20 nu of isobutanol to give 2.92 g of 1- (2, 3, 5-tri-O-acetyl-ß-D-ribofuranosyl)-1, 2, 4-triazole-3- carboxylic acid methyl ester (yield : 92%).