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Title:
PROTEIN COMPOSITIONS AND CONSUMABLE PRODUCTS THEREOF
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2023/122770
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Provided herein are compositions with enhanced protein content, protein compositions with improved functionality, and methods for the preparation thereof.

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Inventors:
NGUYEN MYHAN (US)
MIYASHIRO ANDREW (US)
ZHONG YING JOY (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2022/082303
Publication Date:
June 29, 2023
Filing Date:
December 22, 2022
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
CLARA FOODS CO (US)
International Classes:
A23L19/00; A23J1/00; A23J3/20; A23L15/00; A23L33/195; C12N1/16; C12N9/10; C12N9/24; C12N15/81; C12R1/84
Domestic Patent References:
WO2021007565A12021-01-14
WO2016077457A12016-05-19
WO2022076615A12022-04-14
WO2022182799A12022-09-01
Foreign References:
US20210169109A12021-06-10
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SHARMA, Swati (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A protein bar composition comprising recombinantly-produced ovomucoid (rOVD), a fat component, a fruit component, a nut component, and at least 2% water w/w.

2. The protein bar composition of claim 1, wherein the rOVD has a glycosylation pattern different from the glycosylation pattern of a native chicken ovomucoid.

3. The protein bar composition of claim 2, wherein the rOVD protein comprises at least one glycosylated asparagine residue and the rOVD is substantially devoid of N-linked mannosylations.

4. The protein bar composition of claim 3, wherein each glycosylated asparagine residue comprises a single N-acetylglucosamine.

5. The protein bar composition of any one of the previous claims, wherein the rOVD comprises at least three glycosylated asparagine residues.

6. The protein bar composition of any one the previous claims, wherein the rOVD provides protein fortification to the protein bar composition and provides an improvement in at least one additional feature selected from the group consisting of flavor, moisture retention, water activity, mouthfeel, texture, hardness, stability to heat treatment, and stability to pH.

7. The protein bar composition of any one of the previous claims, wherein the protein bar composition comprises at least 1% rOVD w/w.

8. The protein bar composition of any one of the previous claims, wherein the protein bar composition comprises at least 5% rOVD w/w.

9. The protein bar composition of any one of the previous claims, wherein the protein bar composition comprises at most 25% rOVD w/w.

10. The protein bar composition of any one of the previous claims, wherein the protein bar composition has sensory properties comparable to or better than those of a control composition, wherein the control composition comprises a plant-derived protein source instead of rOVD.

11. The protein bar composition of any one of the previous claims, wherein the rOVD is produced by a microbial host cell.

12. The protein bar composition of claim 11, wherein the microbial host cell is a yeast, a fungus, or a bacterium.

63 The protein bar composition of claim 11 or claim 12, wherein the microbial host cell is a

Pichia species, a Saccharomyces species, a Trichoderma species, a Pseudomonas species, or an /■/ coll species. The protein bar composition of any one of the previous claims, wherein the protein bar composition does not comprise any egg-white proteins other than rOVD. The protein bar composition of any one of the previous claims, wherein the protein bar composition comprises one or more excipients. The protein bar composition of any one of the previous claims, wherein the protein bar composition comprises one or more solvents. The protein bar composition of any one of the previous claims, wherein rOVD comprises an amino acid sequence of one of SEQ ID No. 1-44 or an amino acid sequence having at least 85% sequence identity to one of SEQ ID No. 1-44. A solid consumable composition comprising at least 1% of a recombinant ovomucoid protein (rOVD) w/w and at least one more consumable ingredient, wherein the rOVD provides binding activity to the solid consumable composition. The solid consumable composition of claim 18, wherein the solid consumable composition comprises at least 5% rOVD w/w. The solid consumable composition of any one of claims 18-19, wherein the solid consumable composition comprises at least 10% rOVD w/w. The solid consumable composition of any one of claims 18-20, wherein the solid consumable composition comprises at least 15% rOVD w/w. The solid consumable composition of any one of claims 18-21, wherein the solid consumable composition comprises at least 20% rOVD w/w. The solid consumable composition of any one of claims 18-22, wherein the solid consumable composition comprises at most 25% rOVD w/w. The solid consumable composition of any one of claims 18-23, wherein the rOVD has a glycosylation pattern different from the glycosylation pattern of a native chicken ovomucoid. The solid consumable composition of claim 24, wherein the rOVD protein comprises at least one glycosylated asparagine residue and the rOVD is substantially devoid of N-linked mannosylations. The solid consumable composition of claim 25, wherein each glycosylated asparagine residue comprises a single N-acetylglucosamine. The solid consumable composition of claim 26, wherein the rOVD comprises at least three glycosylated asparagine residues. The solid consumable composition of any one of claims 18-27, wherein the rOVD provides protein fortification to the protein bar composition and provides an improvement in at least one additional feature selected from the group consisting of flavor, moisture retention, water activity, shelf-life, cohesiveness, mouthfeel, texture, hardness, stability to heat treatment, and stability to pH. The solid consumable composition of any one of claims 18-28, wherein the solid consumable composition has a comparable or higher shelf life than a control product, wherein the control product is substantially identical to the solid consumable composition except the control product does not comprise rOVD or comprises a different protein at the same concentration as the rOVD. The solid consumable composition of any one of claims 18-29, wherein the solid consumable composition has a comparable or lower water activity than a control product, wherein the control product is substantially identical to the solid consumable composition except the control product does not comprise rOVD or comprises a different protein at the same concentration as the rOVD. The solid consumable composition of any one of claims 18-30, wherein the solid consumable composition has a comparable or higher cohesiveness than a control product, wherein the control product is substantially identical to the solid consumable composition except the control product does not comprise rOVD or comprises a different protein at the same concentration as the rOVD. The solid consumable composition of any one of claims 18-31, wherein the solid consumable composition has a comparable or higher moistness than a control product, wherein the control product is substantially identical to the solid consumable composition except the control product does not comprise rOVD or comprises a different protein at the same concentration as the rOVD. The solid consumable composition of any one of claims 18-32, wherein the solid consumable composition has a comparable or improved flavor than a control product, wherein the control product is substantially identical to the solid consumable composition except the control product does not comprise rOVD or comprises a different protein at the same concentration as the rOVD. The solid consumable composition of any one of claims 18-33, wherein the rOVD is produced by a microbial host cell. The solid consumable composition of claim 34, wherein the microbial host cell is a yeast, a fungus, or a bacterium.

65 The solid consumable composition of any one of claims 34-35, wherein the microbial host cell is a Pichia species, a Saccharomyces species, a Trichoderma species, a Pseudomonas species, or an E. coli species. The solid consumable composition of any one of claims 18-36, wherein the solid consumable composition does not comprise any egg-white proteins other than rOVD. The solid consumable composition of any one of claims 18-36, wherein the solid consumable composition comprises one or more egg-white proteins other than rOVD. The solid consumable composition of claim 38, wherein the solid consumable composition comprises ovalbumin. The solid consumable composition of claim 39, wherein the solid consumable composition comprises recombinant ovalbumin. The solid consumable composition of any one of claims 18-40, wherein the solid consumable composition is a protein bar. The solid consumable composition of any one of claims 18-40, wherein the solid consumable composition is selected from the group consisting of protein bars, mealreplacement bars, fruit bars, nut bars, cookies, brownies, fruit squares, and biscuits. The solid consumable composition of any one of claims 18-42, wherein the consumable composition comprises more than one consumable ingredients selected from the group consisting of: fruits, grains, nuts, seeds, sweeteners, thickeners, oils, proteins, fiber, flavoring agents, preservatives, and humectants.

66

Description:
PROTEIN COMPOSITIONS AND CONSUMABLE PRODUCTS THEREOF

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims priority to US Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 63/293,491, filed December 23, 2021. The entire contents of the aforementioned patent application is incorporated herein by reference.

BACKGROUND

[0002] Proteins are important dietary nutrients. They can serve as a fuel source and as a source of amino acids, including the essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the human body. The daily recommended intake of protein for healthy adults is 10% to 35% of a person’s total caloric needs, and currently the majority of protein intake for most humans is from animalbased sources. In addition, athletes and bodybuilders may rely upon increased protein consumption to build muscle mass and improve performance. With the world population growth and the coinciding growth in global food demand, there is a need to provide alternative sustainable, nonanimal-based sources of proteins as useful source of protein for daily diet, dietary supplementation, and sports nutrition.

SUMMARY

[0003] In some aspects, provided herein are consumable compositions such as protein bars. In some embodiments, a protein bar composition may comprise recombinantly-produced ovomucoid (rOVD), a fat component, a fruit component, a nut component, and at least 2% water w/w.

[0004] In some embodiments, the rOVD has a glycosylation pattern different from the glycosylation pattern of a native chicken ovomucoid. In some embodiments, the rOVD protein may comprise at least one glycosylated asparagine residue and the rOVD may be substantially devoid of N-linked mannosylations. In some embodiments, each glycosylated asparagine residue may comprise a single N-acetylglucosamine. In some embodiments, the rOVD may comprise at least three glycosylated asparagine residues.

[0005] In some embodiments, the rOVD provides protein fortification to the protein bar composition and provides an improvement in at least one additional feature selected from the group consisting of flavor, moisture retention, water activity, mouthfeel, texture, hardness, stability to heat treatment, and stability to pH.

[0006] In some embodiments, the protein bar composition may comprise at least 1% rOVD w/w. In some embodiments, the protein bar composition may comprise at least 5% rOVD w/w. In some embodiments, the protein bar composition may comprise at most 25% rOVD w/w. [0007] In some embodiments, the protein bar composition has sensory properties comparable to or better than those of a control composition, wherein the control composition may comprise a plant-derived protein source instead of rOVD.

[0008] In some embodiments, the rOVD may be produced by a microbial host cell. In some embodiments, the microbial host cell may be a yeast, a fungus, or a bacterium. In some embodiments, the microbial host cell may be a Pichia species, a Saccharomyces species, a Trichoderma species, a Pseudomonas species, or an E. coli species.

[0009] In some embodiments, the protein bar composition does not comprise any egg-white proteins other than rOVD.

[0010] In some embodiments, the protein bar composition may comprise one or more excipients. In some embodiments, the protein bar composition may comprise one or more solvents.

[0011] In some embodiments, the rOVD may comprise an amino acid sequence of one of SEQ ID No. 1-44 or an amino acid sequence having at least 85% sequence identity to one of SEQ ID No. 1-44.

[0012] In some aspects, provided herein are solid consumable compositions may comprise at least 1% of a recombinant ovomucoid protein (rOVD) w/w and at least one more consumable ingredient. In some embodiments, the rOVD provides binding activity to the solid consumable composition.

[0013] In some embodiments, the solid consumable composition may comprise at least 5% rOVD w/w. In some embodiments, the solid consumable composition may comprise at least 10% rOVD w/w. In some embodiments, the solid consumable composition may comprise at least 15% rOVD w/w. In some embodiments, the solid consumable composition may comprise at least 20% rOVD w/w. In some embodiments, the solid consumable composition may comprise at most 25% rOVD w/w.

[0014] In some embodiments, the rOVD has a glycosylation pattern different from the glycosylation pattern of a native chicken ovomucoid. In some embodiments, the rOVD protein may comprise at least one glycosylated asparagine residue and the rOVD may be substantially devoid of N-linked mannosylations. In some embodiments, each glycosylated asparagine residue may comprise a single N-acetylglucosamine. In some embodiments, the rOVD may comprise at least three glycosylated asparagine residues.

[0015] In some embodiments, the rOVD provides protein fortification to the protein bar composition and provides an improvement in at least one additional feature selected from the group consisting of flavor, moisture retention, water activity, shelf-life, cohesiveness, mouthfeel, texture, hardness, stability to heat treatment, and stability to pH.

[0016] In some embodiments, the solid consumable composition has a comparable or higher shelf life than a control product, wherein the control product may be substantially identical to the solid consumable composition except the control product does not comprise rOVD or may comprise a different protein at the same concentration as the rOVD.

[0017] In some embodiments, the solid consumable composition has a comparable or lower water activity than a control product, wherein the control product may be substantially identical to the solid consumable composition except the control product does not comprise rOVD or may comprise a different protein at the same concentration as the rOVD.

[0018] In some embodiments, the solid consumable composition has a comparable or higher cohesiveness than a control product, wherein the control product may be substantially identical to the solid consumable composition except the control product does not comprise rOVD or may comprise a different protein at the same concentration as the rOVD.

[0019] In some embodiments, the solid consumable composition has a comparable or higher moistness than a control product, wherein the control product may be substantially identical to the solid consumable composition except the control product does not comprise rOVD or may comprise a different protein at the same concentration as the rOVD.

[0020] In some embodiments, the solid consumable composition has a comparable or improved flavor than a control product, wherein the control product may be substantially identical to the solid consumable composition except the control product does not comprise rOVD or may comprise a different protein at the same concentration as the rOVD.

[0021] In some embodiments, the rOVD may be produced by a microbial host cell. In some embodiments, the microbial host cell may be a yeast, a fungus, or a bacterium. In some embodiments, the microbial host cell may be a Pichia species, a Saccharomyces species, a Trichoderma species, a Pseudomonas species, or an E. coli species.

[0022] In some embodiments, the solid consumable composition does not comprise any egg-white proteins other than rOVD.

[0023] In some embodiments, the solid consumable composition may comprise one or more eggwhite proteins other than rOVD. In some embodiments, the solid consumable composition may comprise ovalbumin. In some embodiments, the solid consumable composition may comprise recombinant ovalbumin.

[0024] In some embodiments, the solid consumable composition may be a protein bar. In some embodiments, the solid consumable composition may be selected from the group consisting of protein bars, meal-replacement bars, fruit bars, nut bars, cookies, brownies, fruit squares, and biscuits.

[0025] In some embodiments, the consumable composition may comprise more than one consumable ingredients selected from the group consisting of: fruits, grains, nuts, seeds, sweeteners, thickeners, oils, proteins, fiber, flavoring agents, preservatives, and humectants. INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

[0026] All publications, patents, and patent applications mentioned in this specification are herein incorporated by reference to the same extent as if each individual publication, patent, or patent application was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference. To the extent publications and patents or patent applications incorporated by reference contradict the disclosure contained in the specification, the specification is intended to supersede and/or take precedence over any such contradictory material.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0027] The novel features of the invention are set forth with particularity in the appended claims. A better understanding of the features and advantages of the present invention will be obtained by reference to the following detailed description that sets forth illustrative embodiments, in which the principles of the invention are utilized, and the accompanying drawings (also “figure” and “FIG.” herein), of which:

[0028] FIG. 1A illustrates a comparison in the glycosylation pattern of native ovomucoid and a recombinant ovomucoid produced in P. pastoris and according to the present disclosure. Shown is a lack of the complex branched glycosylation (including a lack of mannose residues) on the recombinant ovomucoid when produced in a strain of P. pastoris comprising endoglycosidases.

[0029] FIG. IB illustrates the glycosylation patterns of the recombinant OVD produced by P. pastoris without an endoglycosidase treatment. rOVD thus produced have complex branched glycosylation patterns.

[0030] FIG. 1C compares the molecular weight of native OVD, native OVD treated with an endoglycosidase, and recombinant OVD samples.

[0031] FIG. 2 and FIG. 3 illustrate protein bars (unbaked and baked respectively) made using various protein sources.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0032] While various embodiments of the invention have been shown and described herein, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that such embodiments are provided by way of example only. Numerous variations, changes, and substitutions may occur to those skilled in the art without departing from the invention. It should be understood that various alternatives to the embodiments of the invention described herein may be employed.

[0033] Provided herein are compositions and methods of making compositions including nonanimal-based sources of proteins for ingestion by an animal, including a human, such as for daily diet, dietary supplementation, consumer foods, and enhanced nutrition. [0034] Consumable compositions of the present disclosure comprise egg-white proteins such as ovomucoid (OVD). These consumable compositions can be used in a food product, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, or as an ingredient in a final product. Preferably, the OVD in such consumable compositions is made recombinantly, and may be referred to herein as a recombinant OVD (rOVD).

[0035] The rOVD in the consumable compositions herein is provided in concentrations that both increase the protein content of the consumable composition or food ingredient while maintaining one or more additional characteristics such as flavor, moisture retention, water activity, mouthfeel, texture, hardness, stability to heat treatment, and stability to pH.

[0036] The use of rOVD in any of the consumable compositions herein allows for a non-animal- based source of protein, while providing additional features such as solubility, hardness, texture, mouthfeel, compatibility with heat treatment, compatibility with pH ranges, humectant effect, improved water activity and maintaining a consumer-favorable sensory profile. Various embodiments of such compositions, methods of making them, and methods of using them are provided herein. In some embodiments, the rOVD provide one or more functional characteristics, and especially an improvement in the functional characteristic, such as of water activity, gelling, foaming (capacity and stability and time to generate foam), whipping, fluffing, binding, springiness, aeration, coating, film forming, emulsification (including emulsion stability), browning, thickening, texturizing, humectant, clarification, and cohesiveness. In some embodiments, the rOVD provides a humectant effect to a foodstuff. In some examples, OVD may help retain moisture in a consumable composition. The protein combination with such feature(s) can be a food ingredient that provides for production of an egg-less or animal-free food ingredient or consumable food product for animal and/or human ingestion.

[0037] In some embodiments, the compositions and methods for making compositions herein increase the protein content of a consumable, and also provide additional features such as compatibility with other ingredients (such as, for example, compatibility with gluten, vitamins, minerals, and carbonation), coloration, smell, taste and compatibility with food preparation and/or storage conditions.

[0038] Native ovomucoid (nOVD), such as isolated from a chicken or other avian egg, has a highly complex branched form of glycosylation. The glycosylation pattern comprises N-linked glycan structures such as N-acetylglucosamine units and N-linked mannose units. See, e.g., FIG. IB (lefthand column). In some cases, the rOVD for use in a herein-disclosed consumable composition and produced using the methods described herein has a glycosylation pattern which is different than the glycosylation pattern of nOVD. For example, when rOVD is produced in a Pichia sp., the protein may be highly glycosylated. FIG. 1C illustrates the glycosylation patterns of rOVD produced by P. pastoris, showing a complex branched glycosylation pattern. In some embodiments of the compositions and methods herein, rOVD is treated such that the glycosylation pattern is modified from that of nOVD and also modified as compared to rOVD produced by a Pichia sp. without such treatment. In some cases, the rOVD has no glycosylation. In some cases, the rOVD is substantially devoid of glycosylation (for example, as shown in FIG. 1A). In other cases, the rOVD has reduced glycosylation. In some cases, the rOVD is modified by N-acetylglucosamine at one or more asparagine residues of the protein and lacks or is substantially devoid of N-linked mannosylation. See, e.g., FIG. IB (right hand column). The changes in glycosylation described herein may lead to an increase in the solubility of rOVD as compared to proteins such as whey proteins, soy proteins, pea proteins, and nOVD. The modifications in glycosylation of rOVD may lead to a change in the nitrogen to carbon ratio of the protein, such that reducing or removing substantially all of the mannose residues, the nitrogen to carbon ratio is increased (such as compared to nOVD or to rOVD produced without the modification to the glycosylation pattern). The modifications in the glycosylation of rOVD may lead to a comparable solubility as compared to nOVD even with the reduced glycosylation. The modifications in glycosylation of rOVD may lead a greater amino acid content per unit weight of a protein relative to the weight of a glycosylated rOVD or nOVD, each of which has increased weight due to the attached carbohydrate chains.

[0039] In some embodiments, the composition is a consumable food product. In some embodiments, the consumable food product is a finished product.

[0040] In some embodiments, the composition or consumable food product is a protein bar, mealreplacement bar, fruit bar, nut bar, cookie, brownie, fruit square, or biscuit.

[0041] As used herein, the term “consumable food composition” refers to a composition, which comprises an isolated protein and may be consumed by an animal, including but not limited to humans and other mammals. Consumable food compositions include food products, dietary supplements, food additives, and nutraceuticals, as non-limiting examples.

[0042] Consumable food compositions also include compositions as an ingredient of a food or a product ingested as part of an animal’s diet.

[0043] Since the rOVD of the present disclosure is not obtained from an animal source, a consumable composition comprising the rOVD is considered vegetarian and/or vegan; it also can be recognized as Kosher and Halal.

[0044] Provided herein are compositions and methods of making compositions for non-animal- based sources of proteins which provide nutritional as well as functional properties to food ingredients and consumable products for ingestion by an animal, including a human.

[0045] As used herein, a “finished product” refers to a consumable food composition directed to or suitable itself as a food for animal consumption. As used herein, an “ingredient” or “component” in reference to a consumable food composition refers to a composition that is used with other ingredient(s) or component(s) to create a finished product.

[0046] In some cases, a composition described herein contains total protein at a concentration of about or at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30g total protein per 100 g composition.

[0047] A composition described herein may contain total protein at a concentration of about or at least 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 1.2, 1.5, 1.7, 2.0, 2.2, 2.5, 2.7, 3.0, 3.2, 3.5, 3.7, 4.0, 4.2, 4.5, 4.7 or 5g total protein per 100 g composition (e.g., powder).

[0048] In some cases, a composition described herein comprises about or at least 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%, 11%, 12%, 13%, 14%, 15%, 16%, 17%, 18%, 19%, 20%, 21%, 22%, 23%, 24%, 25%, 26%, 27%, 28%, 29%, or 30% total protein w/w to the composition.

[0049] The total protein in a protein mixture may consist essentially of rOVD. In some embodiments, the protein mixture comprises additional proteins other than the combination of rOVD.

[0050] These protein mixtures may be used as an ingredient or component in a consumable food composition and/or a finished product.

Compositions with rOVD

[0051] Provided herein are consumable food compositions and methods of making such compositions that increase the protein content of the consumable food composition through the addition of a recombinant ovomucoid protein (rOVD). In some embodiments, rOVD is added to a consumable food composition to increase the protein content, such as for added nutritional value. [0052] In some embodiments, rOVD is present in the consumable food composition (comprising rOVD ) between about 1% and about 40% on a weight per total weight (w/w) and/or weight per total volume (w/v) of composition basis. For example, in a composition of 100 ml, rOVD is present at 30g and the rOVD is thus at a 30% concentration. In some embodiments, the concentration of rOVD is or is about 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%, 11%, 12%, 13%, 14%, 15%, 16%, 17%, 18%, 19%, 20%, 21%, 22%, 23%, 24%, 25%, 26%, 27%, 28%, 29%, 30%, 31%, 32%, 33%, 34%, 35%, 36%, 37%, 38%, 39% or 40% on a w/w and/or w/v of composition basis. In some embodiments, the rOVD is present at a concentration of or about 1-5%, 5-10%, 10-15%, 15-20%, 20-25%, 25-30% or rOVD is present concentration greater than 5%, 10%, 11%, 12%, 13%, 14%, 15%, 16%, 17%, 18%, 19%, 20%, 21%, 22%, 23%, 24%, 25%, 26%, 27%, 28%, 29%, 30%, 31%, 32%, 33%, 34%, 35%, 36%, 37%, 38%, 39% or 40% w/w and/or w/v.

[0053] In some embodiments, the rOVD in the consumable food compositions (comprising rOVD) and methods for making the same increases the protein content of the consumable food composition and the rOVD is substantially soluble in the consumable food composition. [0054] In some embodiments, the rOVD consumable composition is a solid composition. In such cases, the concentration of rOVD in the solid composition may be between 0.1% to 70% weight per total weight (w/w) and/or weight per total volume (w/v). The concentration of rOVD in the solid composition may be at least 0.1% w/w or w/v. The concentration of rOVD in the solid composition may be at most 70% w/w or w/v. The concentration of rOVD in the solid composition may be 0.1% to 1%, 0.1% to 10%, 0.1% to 20%, 0.1% to 30%, 0.1% to 40%, 0.1% to 50%, 0.1% to 60%, 0.1% to 70%, 1% to 10%, 1% to 20%, 1% to 30%, 10% to 20%, 10% to 30%, 20% to 30%, w/w or w/v. The concentration of rOVD in the solid composition may be 0.1%, 1%, 10%, 20% or 30% w/w or w/v. The concentration of rOVD in the solid composition may be at least 0.1%, 1%, 10%, 20%, 30%w/w or w/v. The concentration of rOVD in the solid composition may be at most 1%, 10%, 20% or 30%.

Other components in consumable compositions

[0055] Consumable compositions described herein comprise one or more additional ingredients. For instance, a protein bar comprising rOVD may comprise one or more additional ingredients. Such ingredients can be any ingredients conventionally used to produce consumable compositions and are safe for human consumption. Examples include but are not limited to sugars, proteins, fats, stabilizers, solvents, and flavoring agents. Compositions formed using the methods described herein may not comprise any components obtained or isolated from animals.

[0056] The consumable food compositions described herein and the methods of making such compositions may including adding or mixing with one or more ingredients. For example, food additives may be added in or mixed with the compositions. Food additives can add volume and/or mass to a composition. A food additive may improve functional performance and/or physical characteristics. An anticaking agent (cellulose, potato starch, corn starch, starch blends) may be added to make a free-flowing composition, e.g., when a dough is unbaked. Carbohydrates can be added to increase resistance to heat damage, e.g., less protein denaturation during drying and improve stability and flowability of dried compositions. Food additives include, but are not limited to, cocoa, starch (e.g., potato, modified potato, corn, rice), food coloring, pH adjuster (e.g. glucono- delta-lactone, sodium hydroxide), natural flavoring (e.g., honey, maple syrup, mozzarella, parmesan, butter, cream, colby, provolone, and asiago), artificial flavoring, flavor enhancer, flavor maskers, batch marker, food acid (e.g., lactic acid, citric acid), filler, anticaking agent (e.g., sodium sili coaluminate), antigreening agent (e.g., citric acid), food stabilizer, foam stabilizer or binding agent, antioxidant, acidity regulatory, bulking agent, color retention agent, whipping agent (e.g., ester-type whipping agent, triethyl citrate, sodium lauryl sulfate), emulsifier (e.g., lecithin, monoglycerides, di glycerides), humectant (e.g., glycerin and honey), thickener, pharmaceutical excipient, solid diluent, nutrient, sweetener (natural, e.g., sugar, honey, maple syrup, molasses, and agave, or artificial sweetner, e.g., Aspartame, sucralose, acesulfame potassium, saccharine, and stevia), glazing agent, preservative (e.g., sorbic acid, nisin), vitamins (e.g. vitamin B, vitamin D, vitamin A), dietary elements, carbohydrates, polyol, gums, starches, flour, oil, and bran.

[0057] In some embodiments, a consumable composition described herein, such as protein bars, meal-replacement bars, fruit bars, nut bars, cookies, brownies, fruit squares, and biscuits, comprises a solvent such as water, juice, syrup, and vinegar. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 2% to 10% solvent w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at least 2% solvent w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at most 10% solvent w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 2% to 3%, 2% to 4%, 2% to 5%, 2% to 6%, 2% to 7%, 2% to 8%, 2% to 9%, 2% to 10%, 3% to 4%, 3% to 5%, 3% to 6%, 3% to 7%, 3% to 8%, 3% to 9%, 3% to 10%, 4% to 5%, 4% to 6%, 4% to 7%, 4% to 8%, 4% to 9%, 4% to 10%, 5% to 6%, 5% to 7%, 5% to 8%, 5% to 9%, 5% to 10%, 6% to 7%, 6% to 8%, 6% to 9%, 6% to 10%, 7% to 8%, 7% to 9%, 7% to 10%, 8% to 9%, 8% to 10%, or 9% to 10% solvent w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises about 2%, about 3%, about 4%, about 5%, about 6%, about 7%, about 8%, about 9%, or about 10% solvent w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at least 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8% or 9% solvent w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at most 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9% or 10% solvent w/w.

[0058] In some embodiments, a consumable composition described herein, such as protein bars, meal-replacement bars, fruit bars, nut bars, cookies, brownies, fruit squares, and biscuits comprises a source of nuts. A consumable composition may comprise more than one source of nuts such as whole or broken nuts, peanuts, almonds, cashews, walnuts, etc. For instance, a consumable composition may comprise cashews, almonds, and other nut sources. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 2% to 50% nuts w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at least 2% nuts w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at most 50% nuts w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 2% to 5%, 2% to 7%, 2% to 10%, 2% to 15%, 2% to 20%, 2% to 30%, 2% to 40%, 2% to 50%, 5% to 7%, 5% to 10%, 5% to 15%, 5% to 20%, 5% to 30%, 5% to 40%, 5% to 50%, 7% to 10%, 7% to 15%, 7% to 20%, 7% to 30%, 7% to 40%, 7% to 50%, 10% to 15%, 10% to 20%, 10% to 30%, 10% to 40%, 10% to 50%, 15% to 20%, 15% to 30%, 15% to 40%, 15% to 50%, 20% to 30%, 20% to 40%, 20% to 50%, 30% to 40%, 30% to 50%, or 40% to 50% nuts w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises about 2%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30%, 40%, or 50% nuts w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at least 2%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30%, 40%nuts w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at most 2%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30%, 40%, or 50% nuts w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises no nut or nut components. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises less than 15% nut or nut components w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises less than 15%, 10%, 5%, or 1% nut or nut components w/w.

[0059] In some embodiments, a consumable composition described herein, such as protein bars, meal-replacement bars, fruit bars, nut bars, cookies, brownies, fruit squares, and biscuits comprises a source of fruits. A consumable composition may comprise more than one source of fruits, such as berries, fig, date, pineapple, etc. For instance, a consumable composition may comprise dates, fruit pastes such as date pastes, dried fruits, fresh fruits, fruit chunks, fruit concentrates, other fruit sources and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 15% to 90% fruit components w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at least 15% fruit components w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at most 90% fruit components w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 15% to 20%, 15% to 30%, 15% to 40%, 15% to 50%, 15% to 60%, 15% to 70%, 15% to 80%,

15% to 90%, 20% to 30%, 20% to 40%, 20% to 50%, 20% to 60%, 20% to 70%, 20% to 80%,

20% to 90%, 30% to 40%, 30% to 50%, 30% to 60%, 30% to 70%, 30% to 80%, 30% to 90%,

40% to 50%, 40% to 60%, 40% to 70%, 40% to 80%, 40% to 90%, 50% to 60%, 50% to 70%,

50% to 80%, 50% to 90%, 60% to 70%, 60% to 80%, 60% to 90%, 70% to 80%, 70% to 90%, or 80% to 90% fruit components w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 15%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, or 90% fruit components w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at least 15%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% or 80% fruit components w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at least 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, or 90% fruit components w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises no fruit or fruit components. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises less than 15% fruit or fruit components w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises less than 15%, 10%, 5%, or 1% fruit or fruit components w/w.

[0060] In some embodiments, a consumable composition described herein, such protein bars, meal-replacement bars, fruit bars, nut bars, cookies, brownies, fruit squares, and biscuits comprises a source of fats. A consumable composition may comprise more than one source of fats. For instance, a consumable composition may comprise saturated fats, oils, hydrogenated fats, saturated fats, unsaturated fats, trans fats, other fat sources and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises fat portion that is added specifically to the consumable composition (e.g., as a liquid oil or solid fat) and also may comprise fat portion that is present in an added ingredient (e.g., a nut or dairy component). Thus, the amounts and ranges of fats disclosed herein may be from only the specifically-added fat or from the combination of the specifically- added fat and the fat portion that is present in an added ingredient. Fats can be added in the form of oils such as saturated (e.g. coconut oil) or unsaturated oil (e.g. canola oil). In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 2% to 20% fats w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at least 2% fats w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at most 20% fats w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 2% to 5%, 2% to 8%, 2% to 10%, 2% to 12%, 2% to 15%, 2% to 18%, 2% to 20%, 5% to 8%, 5% to 10%, 5% to 12%, 5% to 15%, 5% to 18%, 5% to 20%, 8% to 10%, 8% to 12%, 8% to 15%, 8% to 18%, 8% to 20%, 10% to 12%, 10% to 15%, 10% to 18%, 10% to 20%, 12% to 15%, 12% to 18%, 12% to 20%, 15% to 18%, 15% to 20%, or 18% to 20% fats w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises about 2%, 5%, 8%, 10%, 12%, 15%, 18%, or 20% fats w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at least 2%, 5%, 8%, 10%, 12%, 15% or 18% fats w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at most 5%, 8%, 10%, 12%, 15%, 18%, or 20% fats w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises less than about 18% of total fat. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises about 4% fat.

[0061] In some embodiments, a consumable composition described herein, such as protein bars, meal-replacement bars, fruit bars, nut bars, cookies, brownies, fruit squares, and biscuits comprises grains. A consumable composition may comprise more than one type of grains. For instance, a consumable composition may comprise oats, millet, quinoa, brown rice and other grains and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 1% to 50% grains w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at least 1% grains w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at most 50% grains w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 1% to 5%, 1% to 7%, 1% to 10%, 1% to 15%, 1% to 20%, 1% to 30%, 1% to 40%, 1% to 50%, 5% to 7%, 5% to 10%, 5% to 15%, 5% to 20%, 5% to 30%, 5% to 40%, 5% to 50%, 7% to 10%, 7% to 15%, 7% to 20%, 7% to 30%, 7% to 40%, 7% to 50%, 10% to 15%, 10% to 20%, 10% to 30%, 10% to 40%, 10% to 50%, 15% to 20%, 15% to 30%, 15% to 40%, 15% to 50%, 20% to 30%, 20% to 40%, 20% to 50%, 30% to 40%, 30% to 50%, or 40% to 50% grains w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises about 1%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30%, 40%, or 50% grains w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at least 1%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30%, or 40% grains w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at most 1%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30%, 40%, or 50% grains w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises no grain or grain components. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises less than 1% grain or grain components w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises less than 1%, 0.5%, or 0.1% grain or grain components w/w. [0062] In some embodiments, a consumable composition described herein, such as a protein bars, meal-replacement bars, fruit bars, nut bars, cookies, brownies, fruit squares, and biscuits comprises seeds. A consumable composition may comprise more than one type of seeds. For instance, a consumable composition may comprise pumpkin, sunflower, sesame and other seeds and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 1% to 50% seeds w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at least 1% seeds w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at most 50% seeds w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 1% to 5%, 1% to 7%, 1% to 10%, 1% to 15%, 1% to 20%, 1% to 30%, 1% to 40%, 1% to 50%, 5% to 7%, 5% to 10%, 5% to 15%, 5% to 20%, 5% to 30%, 5% to 40%, 5% to 50%, 7% to 10%, 7% to 15%, 7% to 20%, 7% to 30%, 7% to 40%, 7% to 50%, 10% to 15%, 10% to 20%, 10% to 30%, 10% to 40%, 10% to 50%, 15% to 20%, 15% to 30%, 15% to 40%, 15% to 50%, 20% to 30%, 20% to 40%, 20% to 50%, 30% to 40%, 30% to 50%, or 40% to 50% seeds w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises about 1%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30%, 40%, or 50% seeds w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at least 1%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30%, or 40% seeds w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at most 1%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30%, 40%, or 50% seeds w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises no seed or seed components. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises less than 15% seed or seed components w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises less than 15%, 10%, 5%, or 1% seed or seed components w/w. [0063] In some embodiments, a consumable composition described herein, such as protein bars, meal-replacement bars, fruit bars, nut bars, cookies, brownies, fruit squares, and biscuits comprises sweeteners. A consumable composition may comprise more than one type of sweeteners. For instance, a consumable composition may comprise sugar, fructose/glucose syrup, alternative sweetener (e.g. sucralose, stevia, monk fruit) and other sweeteners and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 1% to 30% sweeteners w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at least 1% sweeteners w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at most 30% sweeteners w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 1% to 5%, 1% to 7%, 1% to 10%, 1% to 15%, 1% to 20%, 1% to 30%, 5% to 7%, 5% to 10%, 5% to 15%, 5% to 20%, 5% to 30%, 7% to 10%, 7% to 15%, 7% to 20%, 7% to 30%, 10% to 15%, 10% to 20%, 10% to 30%, 15% to 20%, 15% to 30%, or 20% to 30% sweeteners w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 1%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15%, 20%, or 30% sweeteners w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises no sweeteners. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises less than 15% sweeteners w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises less than 15%, 10%, 5%, or 1% sweeteners w/w.

[0064] In some embodiments, a consumable composition described herein, such as protein bars, meal-replacement bars, fruit bars, nut bars, cookies, brownies, fruit squares, and biscuits comprises fibers. A consumable composition may comprise more than one type of fibers. For instance, a consumable composition may comprise hibiscus fiber, psyllium fiber, oat fiber, cellulose, inulin, pectin, beta glucan, lignin, agave fiber and other fibers and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 1% to 30% fibers w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at least 1% fibers w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at most 30% fibers w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 1% to 5%, 1% to 7%, 1% to 10%, 1% to 15%, 1% to 20%, 1% to 30%, 5% to 7%, 5% to 10%, 5% to 15%, 5% to 20%, 5% to 30%, 7% to 10%, 7% to 15%, 7% to 20%, 7% to 30%, 10% to 15%, 10% to 20%, 10% to 30%, 15% to 20%, 15% to 30%, or 20% to 30% fibers w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises about 1%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15%, 20%, or 30% fibers w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at least 1%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15%, 20%, or 30% fibers w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at most 1%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15%, 20%, or 30% fibers w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises no fibers. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises less than 15% fibers w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises less than 15%, 10%, 5%, or 1% fibers w/w. [0065] In some embodiments, a consumable composition described herein, such as protein bars, meal-replacement bars, fruit bars, nut bars, cookies, brownies, fruit squares, and biscuits comprises thickeners. A consumable composition may comprise more than one type of thickeners. For instance, a consumable composition may comprise hydrocolloid gums, e.g. starch, pectin, xanthan, and other thickeners and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 0.1% to 2% thickeners w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at least 0.1% thickeners w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at most 2% thickeners w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 0.1% to 0.5%, 0.1% to 1%, 0.1% to 1.5%, 0.1% to 2%, 0.5% to 1%, 0.5% to 1.5%, 0.5% to 2%, 1% to 1.5%, 1% to 2%, or 1.5% to 2% thickeners w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, or 2% thickeners w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, or 2% thickeners w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises no thickeners. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises less than 1% thickeners w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises less than 1%, 0.5%, or 0.1% thickeners w/w. [0066] In some embodiments, a consumable composition described herein, such as protein bars, meal-replacement bars, fruit bars, nut bars, cookies, brownies, fruit squares, and biscuits comprises proteins other than the recombinant proteins. A consumable composition may comprise more than one type of proteins. For instance, a consumable composition may comprise soy, pea, whey, egg proteins and other proteins and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 1% to 25% proteins other than the recombinant egg white protein w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at least 1% proteins other than the recombinant egg white protein w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at most 25% proteins other than the recombinant egg white protein w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 1% to 5%, 1% to 7%, 1% to 10%, 1% to 15%, 1% to 20%, 1% to 25%, 5% to 7%, 5% to 10%, 5% to 15%, 5% to 20%, 5% to 25%, 7% to 10%, 7% to 15%, 7% to 20%, 7% to 25%, 10% to 15%, 10% to 20%, 10% to 25%, 15% to 20%, 15% to 25%, or 20% to 25% proteins other than the recombinant egg white protein w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises about 1%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15%, 20%, or 25% proteins other than the recombinant egg white protein w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at least 1%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15%, or 20% proteins other than the recombinant egg white protein w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at most 1%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15%, 20%, or 25% proteins other than the recombinant egg white protein w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises no proteins other than the recombinant egg white protein w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises less than 1% proteins other than the recombinant egg white protein w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises less than 1%, 0.5%, or 0.1% proteins other than the recombinant egg white protein w/w.

[0067] In some embodiments, a consumable composition described herein, such as protein bars, meal-replacement bars, fruit bars, nut bars, cookies, brownies, fruit squares, and biscuits comprises a coating. The sweet coating may be icing or a chocolate coating. The sweet coating may comprise one or more recombinant proteins described herein. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises a sweet coating. The sweet coating may comprise 1% to 30% of the consumable composition w/w. The sweet coating may comprise at least 1% of the consumable composition w/w. The sweet coating may comprise at most 30% of the consumable composition w/w. The sweet coating may comprise 1% to 5%, 1% to 7%, 1% to 10%, 1% to 15%, 1% to 20%, 1% to 25%, 1% to 30%, 5% to 7%, 5% to 10%, 5% to 15%, 5% to 20%, 5% to 25%, 5% to 30%, 7% to 10%, 7% to 15%, 7% to 20%, 7% to 25%, 7% to 30%, 10% to 15%, 10% to 20%, 10% to 25%, 10% to 30%, 15% to 20%, 15% to 25%, 15% to 30%, 20% to 25%, 20% to 30%, or 25% to 30% of the consumable composition w/w. The sweet coating may comprise about 1%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, or 30% of the consumable composition w/w. The sweet coating may comprise at least 1%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15%, 20%, or 25% of the consumable composition w/w. The sweet coating may comprise at most 1%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, or 30% of the consumable composition w/w. In some embodiments, a consumable composition may not comprise any sweet coating.

[0068] In some embodiments, a sweet coating may comprise 0.1% to 25% rOVD w/w. In some embodiments, a sweet coating may comprise at least 0.1% rOVD w/w. In some embodiments, a sweet coating may comprise at most 25% rOVD w/w. In some embodiments, a sweet coating may comprise 0.1% to 0.5%, 0.1% to 1%, 0.1% to 5%, 0.1% to 7%, 0.1% to 10%, 0.1% to 15%, 0.1% to 20%, 0.1% to 25%, 0.5% to 1%, 0.5% to 5%, 0.5% to 7%, 0.5% to 10%, 0.5% to 15%, 0.5% to 20%, 0.5% to 25%, 1% to 5%, 1% to 7%, 1% to 10%, 1% to 15%, 1% to 20%, 1% to 25%, 5% to 7%, 5% to 10%, 5% to 15%, 5% to 20%, 5% to 25%, 7% to 10%, 7% to 15%, 7% to 20%, 7% to 25%, 10% to 15%, 10% to 20%, 10% to 25%, 15% to 20%, 15% to 25%, or 20% to 25% rOVD w/w. In some embodiments, a sweet coating may comprise about 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15%, 20%, or 25% rOVD w/w. In some embodiments, a sweet coating may comprise at least 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15%, or 20% rOVD w/w. In some embodiments, a sweet coating may comprise at most 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15%, 20%, or 25% rOVD w/w. In some embodiments, the sweet coating may not comprise any rOVD.

[0069] In some embodiments, a consumable composition described herein, such as protein bars, meal-replacement bars, fruit bars, nut bars, cookies, brownies, fruit squares, and biscuits comprises flavors or flavoring agents. A consumable composition may comprise more than one type of flavors or flavoring agents. For instance, a consumable composition may comprise natural or synthetic favoring agents and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 0.1% to 3% flavoring agents w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at least 0.1% flavoring agents w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at most 3% flavoring agents w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 0.1% to 0.5%, 0.1% to 1%, 0.1% to 1.5%, 0.1% to 2%, 0.1% to 3%, 0.5% to 1%, 0.5% to 1.5%, 0.5% to 2%, 0.5% to 3%, 1% to 1.5%, 1% to 2%,1% to 3%, 1.5% to 2%, or 1.5% to 3% flavoring agents w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, or 3% flavoring agents w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, or 3% flavoring agents w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises no flavoring agents. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises less than 1% flavoring agents w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises less than 1%, 0.5%, or 0.1% flavoring agents w/w.

[0070] In some embodiments, a consumable composition described herein, such as protein bars, meal-replacement bars, fruit bars, nut bars, cookies, brownies, fruit squares, and biscuits comprises humectants other than the recombinant proteins provided herein. A consumable composition may comprise more than one type of humectants. For instance, a consumable composition may comprise glycerin in addition to rOVD. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 1% to 25% humectants w/w other than the recombinant egg white protein. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at least 1% humectants w/w other than the recombinant egg white protein. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at most 25% humectants w/w other than the recombinant egg white protein. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 1% to 5%, 1% to 7%, 1% to 10%, 1% to 15%, 1% to 20%, 1% to 25%, 5% to 7%, 5% to 10%, 5% to 15%, 5% to 20%, 5% to 25%, 7% to 10%, 7% to 15%, 7% to 20%, 7% to 25%, 10% to 15%, 10% to 20%, 10% to 25%, 15% to 20%, 15% to 25%, or 20% to 25% humectants w/w other than the recombinant egg white protein. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises about 1%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15%, 20%, or 25% humectants w/w other than the recombinant egg white protein. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at least 1%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15%, or 20% humectants w/w other than the recombinant egg white protein. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at most 1%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15%, 20%, or 25% humectants w/w other than the recombinant egg white protein. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises no humectants other than the recombinant egg white protein w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises less than 1% humectants w/w other than the recombinant egg white protein w/w. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises less than 1%, 0.5%, or 0.1% humectants w/w other than the recombinant egg white protein.

[0071] In some embodiments, a consumable composition comprises described herein, such as protein bars, meal-replacement bars, fruit bars, nut bars, cookies, brownies, fruit squares, and biscuits comprises one or more egg-related proteins in addition to rOVD. As used herein, the term “egg-related protein” refers to proteins that are found in an egg. Examples of egg-related proteins include ovalbumin (OVA), lysozyme (OVL), and ovotransferrin (OVT). In some embodiments, the egg-related protein is a native egg protein which has been isolated from a natural egg. In some embodiments, the egg-related protein is a recombinant egg protein which has been isolated from a host cell exogenously producing the recombinant protein. The egg-related protein may be obtained from the egg of a chicken, ostrich, quail, duck, goose, turkey, pheasant, turkey vulture, hummingbird, or another animal. [0072] In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 0.1% to 10% w/w of an egg- related protein other than rOVD. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at least 0.1% w/w of an egg-related protein other than rOVD. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at most 10% w/w of an egg-related protein other than rOVD. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises 0.1% to 0.5%, 0.1% to 1%, 0.1% to 2%, 0.1% to 5%, 0.1% to 7%, 0.1% to 10%, 0.5% to 1%, 0.5% to 2%, 0.5% to 5%, 0.5% to 7%, 0.5% to 10%, 1% to 2%, 1% to 5%, 1% to 7%, 1% to 10%, 2% to 5%, 2% to 7%, 2% to 10%, 5% to 7%, 5% to 10%, or 7% to 10% w/w of an egg-related protein other than rOVD. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises about 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5%, 7%, or 10% w/w of an egg-related protein other than rOVD. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at least 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5%, 7%, or 10% w/w of an egg-related protein other than rOVD. In some embodiments, the consumable composition comprises at most 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5%, or 7% w/w of an egg-related protein other than rOVD. Alternatively, the consumable composition may comprise only rOVD as the egg-related protein. In some embodiments, rOVD may be the only recombinant protein in the consumable composition.

Features and characteristics of compositions and food ingredients and food products containing rOVD

[0073] The rOVD containing compositions herein can provide one or more functional features to food ingredients and food products. In some embodiments, the rOVD provides a nutritional feature such as protein content, protein fortification, and amino acid content to a food ingredient or food product. The nutritional feature provided by rOVD in the composition may be comparable or substantially similar to an egg white, native OVD (nOVD). The nutritional feature provided by rOVD in the composition may be better than that provided by a native whole egg or native egg white. In some cases, rOVD provide the one or more functional features of egg-white in absence of any other egg-white proteins.

[0074] A consumable composition with rOVD may also have a lower water activity as compared to the composition without rOVD or with a different protein present in an equal concentration to the rOVD. Such improved water activity may relate to an inhibition in microbial growth and therefore increase shelf life of a food product.

[0075] A consumable composition with rOVD may also have an improved sensory appeal as compared to the composition without rOVD or with a different protein present in an equal concentration to the rOVD. Such improved sensory appeal may relate to taste and/or smell. Taste and smell can be measured, for example, by a trained sensory panel. In some instances, a sensory panel compares a consumable composition with rOVD to one without it or with a different protein in an equivalent amount. [0076] A consumable composition with rOVD may also have an improved binding activity as compared to the composition without rOVD or with a different protein present in an equal concentration to the rOVD. In some embodiments, rOVD acts as a humectant in a consumable composition. Such improved binding activity may relate to texture differences. Texture can be measured, for example, by a trained sensory panel or a texture measuring instrument. In some instances, a sensory panel compares a consumable composition with rOVD to one without it or with a different protein in an equivalent amount.

[0077] A consumable composition with rOVD may also have an improved moisture retention as compared to the composition without rOVD or with a different protein present in an equal concentration to the rOVD. Such improved moisture retention may relate to texture differences. Texture can be measured, for example, by a trained sensory panel or a texture measuring instrument. In some instances, a sensory panel compares a consumable composition with rOVD to one without it or with a different protein in an equivalent amount.

[0078] A consumable composition with rOVD may also have an improved mouthfeel as compared to the composition without rOVD or with a different protein present in an equal concentration to the rOVD. Such improved mouthfeel may relate to texture differences. Mouthfeel can be measured, for example, by a trained sensory panel. In some instances, a sensory panel compares a consumable composition with rOVD to one without it or with a different protein in an equivalent amount.

[0079] A consumable composition with rOVD may also have an improved hardness as compared to the composition without rOVD or with a different protein present in an equal concentration to the rOVD. Such improved hardness may relate to texture differences. Hardness can be measured, for example, by a trained sensory panel or a texture measuring instrument. In some instances, a sensory panel compares a consumable composition with rOVD to one without it or with a different protein in an equivalent amount.

[0080] A consumable composition with rOVD may also have an improved flavor as compared to the composition without rOVD or with a different protein present in an equal concentration to the rOVD. Such improved flavor can be measured, for example, by a trained sensory panel. In some instances, a sensory panel compares a consumable composition with rOVD to one without it or with a different protein in an equivalent amount.

[0081] rOVD compositions disclosed herein can provide structure, texture or a combination of structure and texture to a consumable composition. In some embodiments, rOVD is added to a food ingredient or food product for baking and the rOVD provides structure, texture or a combination of structure and texture to the baked product. rOVD can be used in such baked products in place of native egg white, native egg, or native egg protein. The addition of rOVD to baked products can also provide protein fortification to improve the nutritional content. The addition of rOVD to baked products can increase moisture retention in the baked product. In some cases, rOVD provides the structure and/or texture of egg-white in absence of any other egg-white proteins.

[0082] rOVD compositions disclosed herein can be compatible with gluten formations, such that the rOVD can be used where gluten formation provides structure, texture and/or form to a food ingredient or food product.

[0083] Consumable compositions such as protein bars described herein using rOVD may have physical properties such as moisture percentage and binding properties which are comparable to a similar type of consumable compositions made using a control protein component. The control protein component may be a native egg white, plant proteins, or other animal-derived proteins, consumable compositions described herein using rOVD may have physical properties such as moisture percentage and binding properties which are comparable to a similar type of consumable compositions made using plant-derived proteins such as pea protein. Consumable compositions described herein using rOVD may have physical properties such as moisture percentage and binding properties which are improved when compared to a similar type of consumable compositions made using a plant-derived analogue lacking animal-derived proteins (i.e., a protein bar made either with plant-derived protein such as pea, chickpea, nut and/or other vegetable protein as the sole/primary protein source such as methylcellulose, or with no protein.

[0084] Consumable compositions described herein using rOVD may have physical properties such as moisture percentage and fat content which are comparable to a similar type of consumable compositions made using a control protein component. The control protein component may be a native egg white, plant proteins, or other animal-derived proteins. Consumable compositions described herein using rOVD may have physical properties such as moisture percentage and fat content which are comparable to a similar type of consumable compositions made using plant- derived proteins such as pea protein. Consumable compositions described herein using rOVD may have physical properties such as moisture percentage and fat content which are improved when compared to a similar type of consumable compositions made using a plant-derived analogue lacking animal-derived proteins (i.e., a protein bar made either with plant-derived protein such as pea, chickpea, nut and/or other vegetable protein as the sole/primary protein source such as methylcellulose, or with no protein.

Recombinant OVD

[0085] In any composition described herein, the protein may be recombinantly expressed in a host cell. The recombinant protein may be OVD, a first non-recombinant protein (e.g., OVD) and a second recombinant protein such as, or OVD and at least one second protein may both be recombinantly produced (for example rOVD). [0086] rOVD can have an amino acid sequence from any species. For example, an rOVD can have an amino acid sequence of OVD native to a bird (avian) or a reptile or platypus. An rOVD having an amino acid sequence from an avian OVD can be selected from the group consisting of: poultry, fowl, waterfowl, game bird, chicken, quail, turkey, turkey vulture, hummingbird, duck, ostrich, goose, gull, guineafowl, pheasant, emu, and any combination thereof. An rOVD can have an amino acid sequence native to a single species, such as Gallus gallus domesticus. Alternatively, an rOVD can have an amino acid sequence native to two or more species, and as such be a hybrid.

[0087] Exemplary OVD amino acid sequences contemplated herein are provided in Table 1 below as SEQ ID NOs: 1-44.

Table 1: Sequences

[0088] An rOVD can include additional sequences. Expression of rOVD in a host cell, for instance a Pi chia species, a Saccharomyces species, a Trichoderma species, a Pseudomonas species may lead to an addition of peptides to the OVD sequence as part of post-transcriptional or post- translational modifications. Such peptides may not be part of the native OVD sequences. For instance, expressing an OVD sequence in a Pichia species, such as Komagataella phaffii and Komagataella pastoris may lead to addition of a peptide at the N-terminus or C-terminus. In some cases, a tetrapeptide EAEA (SEQ ID NO: 130) is added to the N-terminus of the OVD sequence upon expression in a host cell. In some embodiments, rOVD includes the amino acids EAEA at the N-terminus. An OVD protein sequence can include a signal sequence, such as for directing secretion from a host cell. In some cases, the signal sequence may be a native signal sequence. In some cases, a signal sequence may be a heterologous signal sequence. For instance, an alpha mating factor signal sequence can be fused to an OVD sequence for expression and secretion in a yeast cell such as a Pichia sp. In some cases, the signal sequence is removed in whole or in part when the protein, such as an rOVD, is secreted from the host cell.

[0089] An rOVD can be a non-naturally occurring variant of an OVD. Such variant can comprise one or more amino acid insertions, deletions, or substitutions relative to a native OVD sequence. Such an rOVD variant can have at least 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99% sequence identity to SEQ ID NOs: 1-44. In some embodiments, consumable compositions comprise one or more recombinant proteins other than rOVD. Illustrative sequences are provided in Table 1, such as SEQ ID NOs: 46-129. These proteins may be expressed similarly to the rOVD expression mechanisms. Proteins can be non-naturally occurring variant of these proteins and can have at least 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99% sequence identity to SEQ ID NOs: 46-129. The term “sequence identity” as used herein in the context of amino acid sequences is defined as the percentage of amino acid residues in a candidate sequence that are identical with the amino acid residues in a selected sequence, after aligning the sequences and introducing gaps, if necessary, to achieve the maximum percent sequence identity, and not considering any conservative substitutions as part of the sequence identity. Alignment for purposes of determining percent amino acid sequence identity can be achieved in various ways that are within the skill in the art, for instance, using publicly available computer software such as BLAST, BLAST-2, ALIGN, ALIGN-2 or Megalign (DNASTAR) software. Those skilled in the art can determine appropriate parameters for measuring alignment, including any algorithms needed to achieve maximal alignment over the full-length of the sequences being compared.

[0090] In some embodiments, a variant is one that confers additional features, such as reduced allergenicity. For example, an rOVD can include G162M and/or F167A (such as in SEQ ID NO: 3) relative to a wild type OVD sequence SEQ ID NO: 2 and have reduced allergenicity as compared to the wild type OVD sequence.

[0091] Depending on the host organism used to express the rOVD, the rOVD can have a glycosylation, acetylation, or phosphorylation pattern different from wild-type OVD (e.g., native OVD). For example, the rOVD herein may or may not be glycosylated, acetylated, or phosphorylated. An rOVD may have an avian, non-avian, microbial, non-microbial, mammalian, or non-mammalian glycosylation, acetylation, or phosphorylation pattern.

[0092] In some cases, rOVD may be deglycosylated or modified in its glycosylation (e.g., chemically, enzymatically through endoglucanases (such as EndoH), endoglycosidases, mannosidases (such as alpha-1,2 mannosidase), PNGase F, O-Glycosidase, OCH1, Neuraminidase, P, 1 -4 Galactosidase, and P-N-acetylglucosaminidases), deacetylated (e.g., protein deacetylase, histone deacetylase, sirtuin), or dephosphorylated (e.g., acid phosphatase, lambda protein phosphatase, calf intestinal phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase). Deglycosylation, deacetylation or dephosphorylation may produce a protein that is more uniform or is capable of producing a composition with less variation.

[0093] The present disclosure contemplates modifying glycosylation of the rOVD to alter or enhance one or more functional characteristics of the protein and/or its production. A host cell may comprise heterologous enzymes that modify the glycosylation pattern of ovomucoid. In some cases, one or more enzymes may be used for modifying the glycosylation of rOVD protein. The enzymes used modifying glycosylation of rOVD may be an enzyme or a fusion protein comprising an enzyme or active fragment of an enzyme, for example EndoH or a fusion of OCH1 to EndoH (such as to provide for Golgi retention of the EndoH enzyme) may be provided in a host cell.

[0094] Native ovomucoid (nOVD), such as isolated from a chicken or other avian egg, has a highly complex branched form of glycosylation. The glycosylation pattern comprises N-linked glycan structures such as N-acetylglucosamine units and N-linked mannose units. See, e.g., FIG. 1A (left-hand column). In some cases, the rOVD for use in a herein-disclosed consumable composition and produced using the methods described herein has a glycosylation pattern which is different than the glycosylation pattern of nOVD. For example, when rOVD is produced in a Pichia sp., the protein may be highly glycosylated. FIG. IB illustrates the glycosylation patterns of rOVD produced by P. pastoris, showing a complex branched glycosylation pattern. In some embodiments of the compositions and methods herein, rOVD is treated such that the glycosylation pattern is modified from that of nOVD and also modified as compared to rOVD produced by a Pichia sp. without such treatment. In some cases, the rOVD has no glycosylation. In other cases, the rOVD has reduced glycosylation. In some cases, the rOVD is modified by N-acetylglucosamine at one or more asparagine residues of the protein and lacks or is substantially devoid of N-linked mannosylation. See, e.g., FIG. 1A (right hand column). The changes in glycosylation described herein may lead to an increase in the solubility and clarity of rOVD as compared to other forms of protein such as whey proteins, soy proteins, pea proteins, and nOVD.

[0095] In some cases, an enzyme used for modifying glycosylation may be transformed into a host cell. In some cases, the enzyme used for modifying glycosylation may be transformed into the same host cell that produces rOVD. In some cases, the enzyme may be provided transiently to the host cell, such as by an inducible expression system. In some cases, when a host cell expresses an enzyme used for modifying glycosylation, the recombinant protein (e.g., rOVD) is secreted from the host cell in the modified state.

[0096] In one example, a host cell producing OVD comprises a fusion of EndoH and OCH1 enzymes. An exemplary OCHl-EndoH protein sequence is provided as SEQ ID No: 119. In such cases, an rOVD produced from the host cell comprises a glycosylation pattern substantially different from an rOVD which is produced in a cell without such enzymes. The rOVD produced in such cases is also substantially different as compared to a native OVD (e.g., produced by a chicken or other avian egg). FIG. 1A shows a comparison of nOVD (with mannose residues) and rOVD glycosylation patterns wherein the rOVD was treated with EndoH and comprises an N- acetylglucosamine residue at the asparagine but no mannose residues. FIG. IB shows the glycosylation pattern of rOVD produced in a host cell such as P. pastoris and where rOVD was not treated with EndoH and has both N-acetylglucosamine resides as well as the chains of N-linked mannose residues. Modification of the glycosylation of rOVD may provide nutritional benefits to rOVD, such as a higher nitrogen to carbon ratio, and may improve the clarity and solubility of the protein. In some cases, the modification of the glycosylation of rOVD is performed within the host cell that produces rOVD before the rOVD is secreted from the host cell and/or before isolating the rOVD. In some cases, modification of the glycosylation of rOVD is performed after its secretion and/or after isolating rOVD from the host cell.

[0097] The molecular weight or rOVD may be different as compared to nOVD. The molecular weight of the protein may be less than the molecular weight of nOVD or less than rOVD produced by the host cell where the glycosylation of rOVD is not modified. In embodiments, the molecular weight of an rOVD may be between 20kDa and 40kDa. In some cases, an rOVD with modified glycosylation has a different molecular weight, such as compared to a native OVD (as produced by an avian host species) or as compared to a host cell that glycosylates the rOVD, such as where the rOVD includes N-linked mannosylation. In some cases, the molecular weight of rOVD is greater than the molecular weight of the rOVD that is completely devoid of post- translational modifications or an rOVD that lacks all forms of N-linked glycosylation.

[0098] Expression of an rOVD can be provided by an expression vector, a plasmid, a nucleic acid integrated into the host genome or other means. For example, a vector for expression can include: (a) a promoter element, (b) a signal peptide, (c) a heterologous OVD sequence, and (d) a terminator element.

[0099] Expression vectors that can be used for expression of rOVD include those containing an expression cassette with elements (a), (b), (c) and (d). In some embodiments, the signal peptide (c) need not be included in the vector. In general, the expression cassette is designed to mediate the transcription of the transgene when integrated into the genome of a cognate host microorganism.

[0100] To aid in the amplification of the vector prior to transformation into the host microorganism, a replication origin (e) may be contained in the vector (such as PUC ORIC and PUC (DNA2.0)). To aide in the selection of microorganism stably transformed with the expression vector, the vector may also include a selection marker (f) such as URA3 gene and Zeocin resistance gene (ZeoR). The expression vector may also contain a restriction enzyme site (g) that allows for linearization of the expression vector prior to transformation into the host microorganism to facilitate the expression vectors stable integration into the host genome. In some embodiments the expression vector may contain any subset of the elements (b), (e), (f), and (g), including none of elements (b), (e), (f), and (g). Other expression elements and vector element known to one of skill in the art can be used in combination or substituted for the elements described herein. [0101] Exemplary promoter elements (a) may include, but are not limited to, a constitutive promoter, inducible promoter, and hybrid promoter. Promoters include, but are not limited to, acu- 5, adhl+, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1, ADH2, ADH4), AHSB4m, AINV, alcA, a-amylase, alternative oxidase (AOD), alcohol oxidase I (AOX1), alcohol oxidase 2 (AOX2), AXDH, B2, CaMV, cellobiohydrolase I (cbhl), ccg-1, cDNAl, cellular filament polypeptide (cfp), cpc-2, ctr4+, CUP1, dihydroxyacetone synthase (DAS), enolase (ENO, ENO1), formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FLD1), FMD, formate dehydrogenase (FMDH), Gl, G6, GAA, GALI, GAL2, GAL3, GAL4, GAL5, GAL6, GAL7, GAL8, GAL9, GAL10, GCW14, gdhA, gla-1, a- glucoamylase (glaA), glyceraldehyde-3 -phosphate dehydrogenase (gpdA, GAP, GAPDH), phosphoglycerate mutase (GPM1), glycerol kinase (GUT1), HSP82, invl+, isocitrate lyase (ICL1), acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase (ILV5), KAR2, KEX2, P-galactosidase (lac4), LEU2, melO, MET3, methanol oxidase (MOX), nmtl, NSP, pcbC, PET9, peroxin 8 (PEX8), phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK, PGK1), phol, PHO5, PHO89, phosphatidylinositol synthase (PIS1), PYK1, pyruvate kinase (pkil), RPS7, sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), 3 -phosphoserine aminotransferase (SERI), SSA4, SV40, TEF, translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF1), THI11, homoserine kinase (THR1), tpi, TPS1, triose phosphate isomerase (TPI1), XRP2, YPT1, a sequence or subsequence chosen from SEQ ID Nos: 121 to 132, and any combination thereof. Illustrative inducible promoters include methanol-induced promoters, e.g., DAS1 and pPEXl l.

[0102] A signal peptide (b), also known as a signal sequence, targeting signal, localization signal, localization sequence, signal peptide, transit peptide, leader sequence, or leader peptide, may support secretion of a protein or polynucleotide. Extracellular secretion of a recombinant or heterologously expressed protein from a host cell may facilitate protein purification. A signal peptide may be derived from a precursor (e.g., prepropeptide, preprotein) of a protein. Signal peptides can be derived from a precursor of a protein other than the signal peptides in native OVD. [0103] Any nucleic acid sequence that encodes OVD can be used as (c). Preferably such sequence is codon optimized for the species/genus/kingdom of the host cell.

[0104] Exemplary transcriptional terminator elements include, but are not limited to, acu-5, adhl+, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1, ADH2, ADH4), AHSB4m, AINV, alcA, a-amylase, alternative oxidase (AOD), alcohol oxidase I (A0X1), alcohol oxidase 2 (A0X2), AXDH, B2, CaMV, cellobiohydrolase I (cbhl), ccg-1, cDNAl, cellular filament polypeptide (cfp), cpc-2, ctr4+, CUP1, dihydroxyacetone synthase (DAS), enolase (ENO, ENO1), formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FLD1), FMD, formate dehydrogenase (FMDH), Gl, G6, GAA, GALI, GAL2, GAL3, GAL4, GAL5, GAL6, GAL7, GAL8, GAL9, GAL 10, GCW14, gdhA, gla-1, a-glucoamylase (glaA), glyceraldehyde-3 -phosphate dehydrogenase (gpdA, GAP, GAPDH), phosphoglycerate mutase (GPM1), glycerol kinase (GUT1), HSP82, invl+, isocitrate lyase (ICL1), acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase (ILV5), KAR2, KEX2, P-galactosidase (lac4), LEU2, melO, MET3, methanol oxidase (MOX), nmtl, NSP, pcbC, PET9, peroxin 8 (PEX8), phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK, PGK1), phol, PHO5, PHO89, phosphatidylinositol synthase (PIS1), PYK1, pyruvate kinase (pkil), RPS7, sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), 3 -phosphoserine aminotransferase (SERI), SSA4, SV40, TEF, translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF1), THI11, homoserine kinase (THR1), tpi, TPS1, triose phosphate isomerase (TPI1), XRP2, YPT1, and any combination thereof.

[0105] Exemplary selectable markers (f) may include but are not limited to: an antibiotic resistance gene (e.g. zeocin, ampicillin, blasticidin, kanamycin, nurseothricin, chloroamphenicol, tetracycline, triclosan, ganciclovir, and any combination thereof), an auxotrophic marker (e.g. adel, arg4, his4, ura3, met2, and any combination thereof).

[0106] In one example, a vector for expression in Pichia sp. can include an A0X1 promoter operably linked to a signal peptide (alpha mating factor) that is fused in frame with a nucleic acid sequence encoding OVD, and a terminator element (A0X1 terminator) immediately downstream of the nucleic acid sequence encoding OVD.

[0107] In another example, a vector comprising a DAS1 promoter is operably linked to a signal peptide (alpha mating factor) that is fused in frame with a nucleic acid sequence encoding OVD and a terminator element (AOX1 terminator) immediately downstream of OVD.

[0108] A recombinant protein described herein may be secreted from the one or more host cells. In some embodiments, rOVD protein is secreted from the host cell. The secreted rOVD may be isolated and purified by methods such as centrifugation, fractionation, filtration, affinity purification and other methods for separating protein from cells, liquid and solid media components and other cellular products and byproducts. In some embodiments, rOVD is produced in a Pichia Sp. and secreted from the host cells into the culture media. The secreted rOVD is then separated from other media components for further use.

[0109] In some cases, multiple vectors comprising OVD may be transfected into one or more host cells. A host cell may comprise more than one copy of OVD. A single host cell may comprise 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, ,8 ,9 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 or 20 copies of OVD. A single host cell may comprise one or more vectors for the expression of OVD. A single host cell may comprise 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 vectors for OVD expression. Each vector in the host cell may drive the expression of OVD using the same promoter. Alternatively, different promoters may be used in different vectors for OVD expression.

[0110] An rOVD is recombinantly expressed in one or more host cells. As used herein, a “host” or “host cell” denotes here any protein production host selected or genetically modified to produce a desired product. Exemplary hosts include fungi, such as filamentous fungi, as well as bacteria, yeast, plant, insect, and mammalian cells. A host cell may be Arxula spp., Arxula adeninivorans. Kluyveromyces spp., Kluyveromyces lactis, Komagataella phaffri, Pichia spp., Pichia angusta, Pichia pasloris, Saccharomyces spp., Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Schizosaccharomyces spp., Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Yarrowia spp., Yarrowia lipolytica, Agaricus spp., Agaricus bispor s, Aspergillus spp., Aspergillus aw amori, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Bacillus sublHis, Colletotrichum spp., Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes, Endothia spp., Endothia parasitica, Escherichia coli, Fusarium spp., Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium solani, Mucor spp., Mucor miehei, Mucor pusillus, Myceliophthora spp., Myceliophthora thermophila, Neurospora spp., Neurospora crassa, Penicillium spp., Penicillium camemberti, Penicillium canescens, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium (Talaromyces) emersonii, Penicillium funiculo sum, Penicillium purpurogenum, Penicillium roqueforti, Pleurotus spp., Pleurotus ostreatus, Rhizomucor spp., Rhizomucor miehei, Rhizomucor pusillus, Rhizopus spp., Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus oligosporus, Rhizopus oryzae, Trichoderma spp., Trichoderma altroviride, Trichoderma reesei, or Trichoderma vireus. A host cell can be an organism that is approved as generally regarded as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

[OHl] A recombinant protein can be recombinantly expressed in yeast, filamentous fungi or a bacterium. In some embodiments, recombinant protein is recombinantly expressed in a Pichia species (Komagataella phaffii and Komagataella pasloris), a Saccharomyces species, a Trichoderma species, a Trichoderma species, a Pseudomonas species or an A. coli species.

[0112] The consumable products and rOVD compositions herein can be essentially free of any microbial cells or microbial cell contaminants. For instance, rOVD may be isolated from a culture comprising microbial growth.

Treated rOVD

[0113] The rOVD, included in a rOVD containing composition, may be treated chemically or enzymatically before it is purified for use in a consumable composition or protein mixture. Such treatments may be performed to reduce impurities in an rOVD protein composition. Such treatments may be performed to improve the sensory attributes of the rOVD protein composition. Treatments may include but are not limited to purification steps, filtration, chemical treatments, and enzymatic treatments.

[0114] In some cases, rOVD protein and compositions containing rOVD protein, including forms of rOVD with modified glycosylation (e.g., such forms with N-acetylglucosamine but lacking N- linked mannose residues) may be treated with oxidizing agent or an oxygen-generating agent to modify components of the rOVD composition, such as impurities. The oxidizing agent or oxygengenerating agent may comprise hydrogen peroxide, sodium percarbonate, activated chlorine dioxide, bubbled oxygen or ozone. The treatment may improve the solubility and clarity of an rOVD composition. The treatment may reduce the odor of an rOVD composition. The treatment may neutralize the color of an rOVD composition; for instance, the rOVD composition may lose color after a treatment, e.g., to a less intense/lighter coloration. In embodiments, the color may change form greenish to yellowish and/or from yellowish to essentially colorless.

[0115] In some embodiments, an rOVD powder composition comprises less than 5% ash. The term “ash” is an art-known term and represents inorganics such as one or more ions, elements, minerals, and/or compounds. In some cases, the rOVD powder composition comprises less than 5%, 4.5%, 4%, 3.5%, 3%, 2.5%, 2%, 1.5%, 1%, 0.75%, 0.5%, 0.25% or 0.1% ash weight per total weight (w/w) and/or weight per total volume (w/v).

[0116] In some examples, rOVD may be treated with an oxidizing agent or an oxygen-generating agent, e.g., hydrogen peroxide or sodium percarbonate, before it is purified for use in a consumable composition. A culture medium comprising secreted or isolated rOVD may be treated with an oxygen-generating agent, e.g., hydrogen peroxide or sodium percarbonate. Using hydrogen peroxide as an example, a hydrogen peroxide treatment may be followed by one or more wash steps and/or filtration steps to remove hydrogen peroxide from the resulting rOVD compositions. Such steps may be performed following treatments with other oxygen-generating agents, e.g., sodium percarbonate.

[0117] In some cases, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide used for treating rOVD may be from 1% to 20%. The concentration of hydrogen peroxide used for treating rOVD may be at least 1% weight per total weight (w/w) and/or weight per total volume (w/v). The concentration of hydrogen peroxide used for treating rOVD may be at most 20% w/w or w/v. The concentration of hydrogen peroxide used for treating rOVD may be 1% to 2%, 1% to 5%, 1% to 7%, 1% to 10%, 1% to 12%, 1% to 15%, 1% to 17%, 1% to 20%, 2% to 5%, 2% to 7%, 2% to 10%, 2% to 12%, 2% to 15%, 2% to 17%, 2% to 20%, 5% to 7%, 5% to 10%, 5% to 12%, 5% to 15%, 5% to 17%, 5% to 20%, 7% to 10%, 7% to 12%, 7% to 15%, 7% to 17%, 7% to 20%, 10% to 12%, 10% to 15%, 10% to 17%, 10% to 20%, 12% to 15%, 12% to 17%, 12% to 20%, 15% to 17%, 15% to 20%, or 17% to 20% w/w or w/v. The concentration of hydrogen peroxide used for treating rOVD may be about 1%, 2%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 12%, 15%, 17%, or 20% w/w or w/v. The concentration of hydrogen peroxide used for treating rOVD may be at least 1%, 2%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 12%, 15% or 17% w/w or w/v. The concentration of hydrogen peroxide used for treating rOVD may be at most 2%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 12%, 15%, 17%, or 20% w/w or w/v.

[0118] rOVD may be treated with hydrogen peroxide for a limited duration of time. For instance, rOVD may be exposed to hydrogen peroxide for at least 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 5 hours, 7 hours, 10 hours, 12 hours, 15 hours, 17 hours, 20 hours, 22 hours, 24 hours, 26 hours, 28 hours, 30 hours, 34 hours, 36 hours, 40 hours, 44 hours or 48 hours. Hydrogen peroxide may be added to the rOVD culture media throughout the culturing process. [0119] rOVD may be treated with hydrogen peroxide at a pH of about 3 to 6. rOVD may be treated with hydrogen peroxide at a pH of about 3, 3.2, 3.4, 3.6, 3.8, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.4, 4.6, 4.8, 5, 5.2, 5.4, 5.6, 5.8 or 6. rOVD may treated with hydrogen peroxide at a pH of at least 3, 3.2, 3.4, 3.6, 3.8, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.4, 4.6, 4.8, 5, 5.2, 5.4, 5.6 or 5.8. rOVD may treated with hydrogen peroxide at a pH of at most 3.2, 3.4, 3.6, 3.8, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.4, 4.6, 4.8, 5, 5.2, 5.4, 5.6, 5.8 or 6.

[0120] rOVD may be filtered before treatment with an oxygen-generating agent. In some cases, rOVD may be filtered before and after treatment with an oxygen-generating agent.

DEFINITIONS

[0121] The terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular cases only and is not intended to be limiting.

[0122] As used herein, unless otherwise indicated, the terms “a”, “an” and “the” are intended to include the plural forms as well as the single forms, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. [0123] The terms “comprise”, “comprising”, “contain,” “containing,” “including”, “includes”, “having”, “has”, “with”, or variants thereof as used in either the present disclosure and/or in the claims, are intended to be inclusive in a manner similar to the term “comprising.”

[0124] The term “about” or “approximately” means within an acceptable error range for the particular value as determined by one of ordinary skill in the art, which will depend in part on how the value is measured or determined, e.g., the limitations of the measurement system. For example, “about” can mean 10% greater than or less than the stated value. In another example, “about” can mean within 1 or more than 1 standard deviation, per the practice in the given value. Where particular values are described in the application and claims, unless otherwise stated the term “about” should be assumed to mean an acceptable error range for the particular value.

[0125] The term “substantially” is meant to be a significant extent, for the most part; or essentially. In other words, the term substantially may mean nearly exact to the desired attribute or slightly different from the exact attribute. Substantially may be indistinguishable from the desired attribute. Substantially may be distinguishable from the desired attribute but the difference is unimportant or negligible.

[0126] The term “w/w” or “weight/weighf ’ may refer to either the amount of a component relative to the total weight of a composition before the composition is cooked, e.g., the composition in its unbaked dough state, or the amount of a component relative to the total weight of a composition after the composition is cooked, e.g., in its final consumable state. Each recitation of the term “w/w” or “weight/weight” herein covers either condition without explicitly stating the condition. Thus, the phrase “wherein the consumable composition comprises at least 1% rOVD w/w” is understood to mean both: “wherein the consumable composition comprises at least 1% rOVD w/w before cooking”, or the like, and “wherein the consumable composition comprises at least 1% rOVD w/w after cooking”, or the like.

[0127] Any aspect or embodiment described herein can be combined with any other aspect or embodiment as disclosed herein.

EXAMPLES

[0128] The following examples are given for the purpose of illustrating various embodiments of the invention and are not meant to limit the present invention in any fashion. The present examples, along with the methods described herein are presently representative of preferred embodiments, are exemplary, and are not intended as limitations on the scope of the invention. Changes therein and other uses which are encompassed within the spirit of the invention as defined by the scope of the claims will occur to those skilled in the art.

Example 1: Expression Constructs, transformation, protein purification and processing

[0129] Two expression constructs were created for expression of OVD (SEQ ID NO: 1) in Pichia pastoris. The first construct included the Alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. An OVD coding sequenced was fused in-frame with the alpha mating factor signal sequence downstream of the promoter sequence. A transcriptional terminator from the AOX1 gene was placed downstream of the OVD sequence. The expression construct was placed into a Kpas-URA 3 vector.

[0130] A second expression construct was created containing the methanol -inducible DAS1 promoter (ATCC No. 28485) upstream of the alpha mating factor signal sequence fused in frame with a nucleic acid sequence encoding the same OVD protein sequence as in the first expression construct. A transcriptional terminator from the AOX1 gene was placed downstream of the OVD sequence.

[0131] In both expression constructs, the OVD sequence was that of chicken (Gallus gallus) which has the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1.

[0132] Both expression constructs were transformed into Pichia pastoris. Successful integration of the two constructs was confirmed by genomic sequencing.

[0133] Fermentation: Recombinant OVD (rOVD) from each expression construct was produced in a bioreactor at ambient conditions. A seed train for the fermentation process began with the inoculation of shake flasks with liquid growth broth. The inoculated shake flasks were kept in a shaker after which the grown Pichia pastoris cells were transferred to a production scale reactor.

[0134] The culture was grown at 30°C, at a set pH and dissolved oxygen. The culture was fed with a carbon source. [0135] Secreted rOVD was purified by separating cells from the liquid growth broth, performing multiple filtration steps, performing chromatography, and drying the final protein product to produce rOVD powder.

Example 2: Expression Construct, transformation, protein purification, and processing

[0136] Three expression constructs were created for expression of a mature form of OVD (SEQ ID NO: 1) in Pichia pastoris. The first construct included the AOX1 promoter. An OVD coding sequenced was fused in-frame with the alpha mating factor signal sequence downstream of the promoter sequence (SEQ ID NO: 39). A transcriptional terminator from the AOX1 gene was placed downstream of the OVD sequence. The host cells had eleven copies of OVD, ten of which were in the hybrid promoter system, with five driven by a shortened pAOXl . The eleventh copy was driven by a full-sized pAOXl promoter.

[0137] A second expression construct was created containing a nucleic acid encoding the P. pastoris transcription factor HAC1 under the control of a strong methanol-inducible promoter. A transcriptional terminator from the AOX1 gene was placed downstream of the HAC1 sequence.

[0138] A third expression construct was created encoding a fusion protein. The construct comprises a nucleic acid that encodes the first 48 residues of Pichia OCH1 protein fused to a catalytically active version of the Streptomyces coelicoflavus EndoH (SEQ ID NO.: 46) and under a strong methanol-inducible promoter, pPEXl 1. A transcriptional terminator from the AOX1 gene was placed downstream of the EndoH-OCHl fusion protein sequence.

[0139] The P. pastoris strain was modified to remove cytoplasmic killer plasmids and then further modified to have a deletion in the AOX1 gene. This deletion generated a methanol-utilization slow (mutS) phenotype that reduced the strain’s ability to consume methanol. This base strain was transformed with the three expression constructs.

[0140] Linear cassettes of methanol-inducible promoter: ScPrePro (Saccharomyces pre-pro sequence): : ovomucoid: :AOX1 term; linear cassettes of methanol-inducible promoter: :HACl ::AOXlterm; and a linear cassette of methanol-inducible promoter: :EndoH- OCHl::AOXlterm were introduced into the base P. pastoris strain using standard electroporation methods. FIG. 1A illustrates the vector constructs used for the expression of rOVD.

[0141] Fermentation: Recombinant OVD from each expression construct was produced in a bioreactor at ambient conditions. A seed train for the fermentation process began with the inoculation of shake flasks with liquid growth broth. The inoculated shake flasks were kept in a shaker after which the grown P. pastoris cells were transferred to a production-scale reactor. [0142] The culture was grown at 30°C, at a set pH and dissolved oxygen. The culture was fed with a carbon source.

[0143] To expand production, an rOVD P. pastoris seed strain was removed from cryo-storage and thawed to room temperature. Contents of the thawed seed vials were used to inoculate liquid seed culture media in baffled flasks which were grown at 30°C in shaking incubators. These seed flasks were then transferred and grown in a series of larger and larger seed fermenters (number to vary depending on scale) containing a basal salt media, trace metals, and glucose. Temperature in the seed reactors were controlled at 30°C, pH at 5, and dissolved oxygen at 30%. pH was maintained by feeding ammonia hydroxide which also acts as a nitrogen source. Once sufficient cell mass was reached, the grown rOVD P. pastoris was inoculated in a production-scale reactor containing basal salt media, trace metals, and glucose. Like in the seed tanks, the culture was also controlled at 30°C, pH 5 and 30% dissolved oxygen throughout the process. pH was again maintained by feeding ammonia hydroxide. During the initial batch glucose phase, the culture was left to consume all glucose and subsequently-produced ethanol. Once the target cell density was achieved and glucose and ethanol concentrations were confirmed to be zero, the glucose fed-batch growth phase was initiated. In this phase, glucose was fed until the culture reaches a target cell density. Glucose was fed at a limiting rate to prevent ethanol from building up in the presence of non-zero glucose concentrations. In the final induction phase, the culture was co-fed glucose and methanol which induced it to produce rOVD. Glucose was fed at an amount to produce a desired growth rate, while methanol was fed to maintain the methanol concentration at 1% to ensure that expression of the methanol-inducible constructs were consistently induced. Regular samples were taken throughout the fermentation process for analyses of specific process parameters (e.g., cell density, glucose/methanol concentrations, product titer, and quality). After a designated amount of fermentation time, secreted rOVD was collected and transferred for downstream processing.

[0144] The rOVD products were purified by separating cells from the liquid growth broth, performing multiple filtration steps, performing chromatography, and/or drying the final protein product to produce rOVD powder.

[0145] Post-translation modification from the OCHl-EndoH fusion protein resulted in the removal of the alpha factor pre-pro sequence. N-terminal sequencing results showed imprecise cleavage of the N-terminal pro sequence by the Pichia cell’s post-transcription machinery, thereby fusing an additional four amino acid residues (major) or 6 amino acid residues (minor) to the N-terminus of the produced rOVD (SEQ ID NO: 37) or (SEQ ID NO: 38) relative to the amino acid sequence of native chicken OVD (nOVD; SEQ ID NO: 1).

[0146] The molecular weight of rOVD from Pichia was compared to nOVD using SDS-PAGE. The rOVD showed a difference in migration. To ascertain whether the difference in gel migration was due to differential post-translational glycosylation, deglycosylated native ovomucoid was treated with PNGase F, an enzyme that specifically deglycosylates proteins (BioLabs 2020) and was compared to the rOVD sample. The deglycosylated native ovomucoid (nOVD + PNGaseF) displayed the same band patterns and molecular weight as three rOVD samples tested (FIG. 1C). The difference in glycosylation is attributed to the action of the OCHl-EndoH in the Pichia strain, such that rOVD has only the core N-acetylglucosamine unit attached to the Asn residue instead of the complex branched glycosylation (that includes mannose) of nOVD from chicken egg white (FIG. 1A and FIG. IB)

[0147] Mass spectrometry analysis of rOVD expressed in Pichia without EndoH was shown to have eight different N-gly can structures (FIG. IB). The structures include Man9 GlcNAc2, Man9 GlcNAc2 Hex, Man9 GlcNAc2Hex2, Man9 GlcNAc2Hex3, Man9 GlcNAc2Hex4, Man9 GlcNAc2 Hex5, Man9 GlcNAc2Hex6, and Man9 GlcNAc2 Hex7. Table 2 below shows the percentage of N-linked glycans on the rOVD sample produced without endoglycosidase treatment.

Example 3: Comparison of bovine trypsin inhibitory activity

[0148] rOVD as produced in Example 2 was utilized in this Example. The trypsin inhibition activity was compared between native OVD (nOVD) and recombinant OVD (rOVD) in a standard assay (AACC #22-40.01) using bovine trypsin. A comparison of rOVD with nOVD is shown in Table 3. One trypsin unit is arbitrarily defined as an increase of 0.01 absorbance unit at 410nm per 10ml of reaction mixture under the conditions of the assay. Trypsin inhibitor activity is expressed in terms of trypsin inhibitor units (TIU). Three different batches of rOVD (samples 1-3) were compared to nOVD.

Table 3: Comparison of trypsin inhibition activity

Example 4: Comparison of in vitro digestibility

[0149] The in vitro digestibility of rOVD samples was measured using the Protein Digestibility Assay procedure (Megazyme, Medallion Labs). A comparison of rOVD samples with nOVD is shown in Table 4. The data demonstrates equivalent in vitro digestibility between native ovomucoid and rOVD.

Table 4: Comparison in vitro digestibility

Example 5: Ovomucoid specifications

[0150] Based upon the characterization of the produced rOVD compositions and the properties of native chicken ovomucoid, product specifications (Table 5) and quality control specifications (Table 6) were constructed for an rOVD of the present disclosure

[0151] Protein percentages were measured using AO AC 2006. See, Protein (crude) in animal feed, combustion method, 990.03. In: Official methods of analysis of AO AC International. 18th ed. Gaithersburg: ASA-SSA Inc. and AOAC 2006. Proximate Analysis and Calculations Crude Protein Meat and Meat Products Including Pet Foods - item 80. In: Official methods of analysis Association of Analytical Communities, Gaithersburg, MD, 17th edition, Reference data: Method 992.15 (39.1.16); NFNAP; NITR; NT.

[0152] Moisture percentages were measured using Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1995. In Official Methods of Analysis. [0153] Carbohydrate percentages were measured using methods described in J AOAC Int. 2012 Sep-Oct;95(5): 1392-7.

[0154] Fat by acid hydrolysis were measured using AOAC International. 2012. Official Method Fat (crude) or ether extraction in pet food. Gravimetric method, 954.02. In: Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 19th ed., AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD, USA, 2012.

[0155] Standard plate count was measured using AOAC International. 2005. Aerobic plate count in foods, dry rehydratable film, method 990.12. AOAC International, 17th ed. Gaithersburg, MD. Yeast and mold counts were measured using AOAC Official Method 997.02. Yeast and Mold Counts in Foods Dry Rehydratable Film Method (Petrifilm™ Method) First Action 1997 Final Action 2000 Salmonella was measured using AOAC International. 2005. Salmonella in selected foods, BAX automated system, method 2003.09. In Official methods of analysis of AOAC International, 17th ed., AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD. Total coliform was measured using AOAC International. 2005. E. coll count in foods, dry rehydratable film, method 991.14. In: Official methods of analysis of AOAC International, 17th ed. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD.

Table 5: Specification for Ovomucoid produced by P. pastoris DFB-003

* Limit of detection for source organism = 11 CFU/mg sample

** Limit of detection for encoding DNA = 10 femtogram

Table 6: Quality control results for three lots of Ovomucoid produced by P. pastoris DFB-003

Example 6: Absence of Production Organism and DNA in rOVD preparations

[0156] rOVD powder was plated on polyglycolic acid (PGA) plates and if samples yielded colonies, these were re-streaked and analyzed by PCR for the presence of Pichia cells. This procedure was applied to three lots of rOVD powder produced from the recombinant strain. No manufacturing organism was detected in any of the lots (Table 6).

[0157] PCR analysis was used to confirm that no DNA encoding rOVD was present in the rOVD preparation using primers for the rOVD cassette. OVD plasmid DNA was used as a positive control, producing a 570 bp band corresponding the OVD PCR product. This band was absent in all three rOVD powder lots tested.

Example 7: Fermentation and purification of rOVD

[0158] An rOVD P. pastoris seed strain was removed from cryo-storage and thawed to room temperature. Contents of the thawed seed vials were used to inoculate liquid culture media in the primary fermenter and grown at process temperature until target cell density was reached. Then, the grown rOVD P. pastoris cells were transferred to a production-scale reactor. The culture was grown in the production bioreactor at target fermentation conditions and fed a series of substrates. The fermentation was analyzed for culture purity at multiple times during the process.

[0159] The recombinant OVD was purified by separating the cells from the liquid medium by centrifugation, followed by microfiltration. Fermentation broth was first brought to pH 3 and diluted with DI water. Cells were removed using bucket centrifugation. The collected supernatant was brought to pH 7 using sodium hydroxide and a 0.2 pm filtration was performed followed by diafiltration with five volumes of deionized water. The permeates following the 0.2 pm filtration were adjusted to pH 5 and then concentrated via 5 kDa TFF membrane. The 5 kDa retentate was precipitated using 65% saturation ammonium sulfate. After ammonium sulfate addition, the pH was adjusted to pH 4-4.1 with phosphoric acid. The mixture was incubated with agitation at room temperature overnight. The next day, precipitates were spun down using bucket centrifugation. The rOVD precipitates were dissolved in DI water and pH adjusted to 5 using sodium hydroxide. The rOVD solution was then diafiltered and then the retentate was passed through 0.2 pm bottle filters. [0160] A spray dryer was used to dehydrate the rOVD solution into rOVD powder.

Example 8: Hydrogen peroxide treatment during rOVD purification

[0161] Liquid rOVD was concentrated to 50-60 g/L using a 5 kDa TFF membrane. The rOVD solution was passed through a 0.2 pm filter to remove microbes. Hydrogen peroxide, an oxygengenerating agent, in an amount equal to 10% volume of the solution was slowly added to the rOVD solution while stirring. The mixture was incubated with agitation and monitored to ensure color change from a dark green-brown color before treatment to a pale-yellow color after treatment. After 1.5 hours, diafiltration was performed via 5 kDa TFF membrane with 5 volumes of DI water. The rOVD in the 5 kDa diafiltration retentate was precipitated using ammonium sulfate at 65% salt saturation at room temperature. After addition of ammonium sulfate, the pH was adjusted to pH4-4.1 with phosphoric acid. The mixture was incubated with agitation overnight to form precipitates. The next day, the precipitates were spun down using bucket centrifugation. The precipitates were removed, dissolved in deionized water and pH adjusted to 5 using sodium hydroxide. Five kDa TFF membranes were cleaned and diafiltration was performed using volumes of DI water until a retentate conductivity of less than 2.0 mS was achieved. The retentate was passed through 0.2 pm bottle filters. The filtered rOVD solution was then spray dried and stored.

Example 9: Reprocessed rOVD treated with hydrogen peroxide

[0162] OVD powder was dissolved in deionized water to 50-60g/L and filtered through a hollow fiber 0.2 pm tangential flow filter, then through a 0.2 pm bottle filter. Hydrogen peroxide in an amount to provide a 10% solution was slowly stirred into the rOVD solution and incubated for thirty minutes. The treated solution was washed through a 5kDa membrane using 5 volumes of DI water.

[0163] Ammonium sulfate was slowly added to the retentate solution and the pH changed to between 4 to 4.1 using phosphoric acid. After overnight incubation with medium agitation, the solution was centrifuged, and supernatants discarded. Precipitates were collected, dissolved in DI water, and brought to pH 5 using sodium hydroxide. The protein solution was desalted with a 5kDa membrane and filtered through a 0.2 pm bottle filter. Then, the protein solution was spray dried to produce rOVD powder. Example 10: Comparison of protein bars made using various protein sources

[0164] Recombinant chicken ovomucoid (rOVD) was expressed and purified as disclosed in the above examples. Water activity and sensory attributes of unbaked and baked protein bars made with various proteins were tested.

[0165] Protein bars were made using rOVD protein, a mix of rOVD protein and recombinant chicken ovalbumin (rOVA) protein (that was expressed and purified using methods similar to example 1 albeit with cells transformed to express rOVA), egg white powder, and other plantbased proteins (illustrated here by soy and pea proteins) and non plant-based protein (illustrated here by whey).

Method:

1. Almonds were chopped in a food processor.

2. Date paste, almonds, cocoa powder, water, and the protein of interest were mixed until a homogenous mixture was formed.

3. 20g of dough was weighed and pressed into a mold for each bar.

4. Water activity measurements of the unbaked bars was measured.

5. Dough was baked in an oven at 300 °F until an internal temperature of 205-210 °F (8 minutes).

6. Baked bars were allowed to equilibrate for one day in a sealed container.

7. The water activity and dimensions were measured, and a sensory evaluation was performed.

Table 7. Proteins used in the protein bars and their protein content. [0166] Table 8. Protein Bar Formulations (in grams). For each bar, about 16% of the weight comes from the added protein (The amount of protein powder comes from dividing 16g by the protein content of the protein of choice). The cocoa powder and water added is the same for all bars. The remaining ingredients are dates and nuts, which are added in a 7: 1 ratio.

Table 8: Protein bar formulations

[0167] There was no significant difference in water activity (Aw) between the different protein bars. The water activity of the unbaked bars ranged from 0.69 to 0.71, while the water activity of the baked bars ranged from 0.62 to 0.64. Table 9. Water activity (Aw) of the unbaked and baked bars.

[0168] Dough Texture and Workability

[0169] The egg white protein and whey protein isolate protein bars formed a moist, cohesive, and sticky dough. The whey protein dough felt more granular. The rOVD dough and rOVD/rOVA mix dough were also moist, cohesive, and sticky, but had low bulk density and fluffmess with the powder. The soy protein and pea protein doughs were crumbly and required high pressure for the bars to stay intact.

Table 10. Scoring the protein bar dough on a 1-5 scale for ease of forming dough, moistness, cohesiveness, and stickiness. [0170] Baked Bar Sensory Scores

[0171] A trained sensory panel scored Egg white highest in softness, moistness, and cohesiveness, and scored lowest in protein flavor. The rOVD bar was very similar to egg white protein bar texture-wise and flavor-wise. The rOVD/rOVA mix bar scored a little lower for softness, moistness, and cohesiveness, and had a slightly detectable protein flavor.

[0172] After equilibration in a sealed container for one day, the differences in texture between these three bars became less pronounced. Initially, the rOVD/rOVA and egg white protein bars were noticeably drier than the rOVD bar. However, after a day, they both became much softer and moister.

[0173] The soy protein and whey protein bars were hard, dry, and crumbly, and had a strong protein flavor. The whey protein isolate bars scored moderately for all categories.

Table 11. A trained sensory panel scored the baked protein bar on a 1-5 scale for softness, moistness, cohesiveness, and protein flavor after equilibration in a sealed container for one day.

[0174] Bar Dimensions

[0175] The soy, pea, and whey protein bars expanded very little and maintained about the same size after baking when compared to their pre-baked dimensions. The rOVD, rOVD/rOVA mix, and egg white protein bars noticeably expanded upon baking. However, while the rOVD/rOVA mix and egg white bars maintained their heights, the rOVD bars deflated. This resulted in a lower height but greater length and width for the rOVD bars. Protein bar results have been presented in FIG. 2 (unbaked) and in FIG. 3 (baked).

Table 12. Baked protein bar dimensions. For reference, the dimensions of the unbaked protein bars was 5.40 cm x 2.60 x 1.20 cm.

Example 11: Comparison of protein bars made using various protein sources

[0176] Method used to produce protein bars:

1. The oven was preheated to 275 °F.

2. The nuts were chopped into large pieces (almonds quartered and cashews into thirds).

3. Date paste, protein powder, chopped nuts, water, coconut butter, and cocoa powder were added into a mixing bowl, and were mixed on low (speed 1) until the dough was cohesive (this takes about 3 minutes).

4. 20g of dough was weighed and pressed into molds for each bar.

5. Bars were baked in the oven for 9 minutes until the bars reached an internal temperature of 205-210 °F.

6. The bars were cooled to room temperature before storing them in an airtight container or bag.

[0177] Table 13: For each bar, 16% of the weight comes from the added protein (the amount of protein powder comes from dividing 16g by the protein content of the rOVD). The dates and nuts are added in a 2: 1 ratio. Table 13: Protein bar formulations

[0178] 16% added protein to a protein bar results in a very hard texture. In this example, additional water was added to hydrate the protein bar. 5% added water in this example allowed the protein to be sufficiently hydrated, resulting in a moist bar up to 23% added protein.

[0179] Table 14. Added water (as% of formula), moisture content, and water activity of the protein bars. Protein bars made using soy protein bars were used as controls.

Table 14:

[0180] The date-to-nut ratio was changed from 4.6: 1 in Example 10 to 2: 1 in this example as the amount of almonds and cashews increased in the formulation. [0181] Coconut butter was added to help replace some of the lost moisture due to the reduction in amount of date paste (as compared to Example 10) while also adding a coconut aroma that may be desirable in some protein bars.

[0182] Lower temperature and longer bake times were used in this example as compared to Example 10 to produce a protein bar having a more desirable texture.

Example 12: Evaluating Protein Bars at Different rOVD Inclusion Levels

[0183] Procedure:

1. Chop (but don’t powderize) the almonds and cashews in a food processor.

2. Use a mixer on low speed to mix all the ingredients for at least 3 minutes. If the dough is not cohesive enough, continue to mix until it is cohesive enough to work with.

3. Weigh out 17g of dough and press into an oiled mold for each bar.

4. Bake in an oven at 275°F until an internal temperature of 205-210°F (9 minutes).

5. Take the water activity, moisture content, and texture measurements of the unbaked bars. Package and seal the rest.

6. Package and seal the baked bars.

7. Allow the unbaked and baked bars to equilibrate for 2 days in a sealed aluminum bag.

8. Take the water activity, moisture content, and water activity measurements for the baked bars.

9. Perform sensory evaluation on the baked and unbaked bars.

[0184] The amount of protein powder comes from dividing the target protein level by the protein content of the rOVD batch, which is 88%. The amount of water, coconut butter, and powder added is the same for all bars. The remaining ingredients are dates and nuts, which are added in a 2: 1 ratio.

Table 15: Protein Bar Formulations (in grams).

* rOVD protein powder contains 88% rOVD.

[0185] Results from analysis of the protein bars are provided in Tables 16-19. Table 16 illustrates the water activity of the protein bars with different amounts of rOVD. Lower water activity leads to a reduced chance of microbial spoilage. Addition of rOVD to protein bars reduced water activity and therefore increased shelf life by reducing microbial spoilage. Texture profile analysis (not shown here) did not show significant difference in the samples which is potentially caused due to the limitations of the equipment or methodology and the nature of materials. Instead, sensory results are provided in Tables 18-19 for both baked and unbaked bars.

Table 16. Water activity of the unbaked and baked bars across different protein inclusion levels.

Table 17. Moisture content of the unbaked and baked bars across different protein inclusion levels.

Table 18. Average scores for the unbaked protein bar on a 1-10 scale for softness, moistness, cohesiveness, and protein flavor across different protein inclusion levels (n=3).

Table 19. Average scores for the baked protein bar on a 1-10 scale for softness, moistness, cohesiveness, and protein flavor (n=3).