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Title:
PYRIDO[3,2-D]PYRIMIDINE COMPOUNDS AS IMMUNOMODULATORS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2021/067217
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present disclosure is directed to compounds of Formula (I): which modulate PD-1/PD-L1 protein/protein interaction, compositions, and methods of treating various diseases, including infectious diseases and cancer.

Inventors:
LI JINGWEI (US)
WU LIANGXING (US)
YAO WENQING (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2020/053190
Publication Date:
April 08, 2021
Filing Date:
September 29, 2020
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
INCYTE CORP (US)
International Classes:
A61P31/00; A61K31/519; A61P35/00; C07D471/04; C07D519/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2018119286A12018-06-28
WO2018119266A12018-06-28
WO2018119224A12018-06-28
WO2002000196A22002-01-03
Foreign References:
US201962908317P2019-09-30
US20180179202A12018-06-28
US20180177870A12018-06-28
US20180179197A12018-06-28
Other References:
POSTOW ET AL., J. CLINICAL ONCOLOGY, 2015, pages 1 - 9
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JENS ATZRODTVOLKER DERDAUTHORSTEN FEYJOCHEN ZIMMERMANN: "The Renaissance of H/D Exchange", ANGEW. CHEM. INT. ED., 2007, pages 7744 - 7765, XP055192405, DOI: 10.1002/anie.200700039
ROBERTSON: "Protecting Group Chemistry", 2000, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
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WUTS ET AL.: "Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis", 2006, WILEY
ALAN F. THOMAS: "Deuterium Labeling in Organic Chemistry", 1971, APPLETON-CENTURY-CROFTS
A. KEREKES ET AL., J. MED. CHEM., vol. 54, 2011, pages 201 - 210
R. XU ET AL., J. LABEL COMPD. RADIOPHARM., vol. 58, 2015, pages 308 - 312
BLOM ET AL.: "Optimizing Preparative LC-MS Configurations and Methods for Parallel Synthesis Purification", J. COMBI. CHEM., vol. 5, 2003, pages 670 - 83
BLOM ET AL.: "Preparative LC-MS Purification: Improved Compound Specific Method Optimization", J. COMBI. CHEM., vol. 6, 2004, pages 874 - 883
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BOYLE, Craig D. et al. (US)
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Claims:
What is claimed is: 1. A compound of Formula (I): or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof; wherein: R1 is CH3 or Cl; R3 is H or CH3; R4 is H or CH3; and R5 is H or CH3. 2. The compound of claim 1, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein: R1 is CH3 or Cl; when R1 is CH3, then . 3. The compound of claim 2, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R1 is

4. The compound of claim 2, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R1 is 5. The compound of claim 2, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R1 is 6. The compound of claim 2, wherein the compound is (R)-4-(2-(2-((2-chloro-3'-((2- (difluoromethyl)-7-((3-hydroxypyrrolidin-1-yl)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2'- methyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin- 5-yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylic acid, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. 7. The compound of claim 2, wherein the compound is (R)-4-(2-(2-((2-chloro-3'-((2- (difluoromethyl)-7-((3-hydroxy-3-methylpyrrolidin-1-yl)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4- yl)amino)-2'-methyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H- imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-5-yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylic acid, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. 8. The compound of claim 2, wherein the compound is (S)-4-(2-(2-((2-chloro-3'-((2- (difluoromethyl)-7-((3-hydroxypyrrolidin-1-yl)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2'- methyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin- 5-yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylic acid, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. 9. The compound of claim 2, wherein the compound is (S)-4-(2-(2-((2-chloro-3'-((2- (difluoromethyl)-7-((3-hydroxy-3-methylpyrrolidin-1-yl)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4- yl)amino)-2'-methyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H- imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-5-yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylic acid, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. 10. The compound of claim 2, wherein the compound is (R)-4-(2-(2-((3'-((2- (difluoromethyl)-7-((3-hydroxypyrrolidin-1-yl)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2,2'- dimethyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5- c]pyridin-5-yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylic acid, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. 11. The compound of claim 2, wherein the compound is (R)-4-(2-(2-((3'-((2- (difluoromethyl)-7-((3-hydroxy-3-methylpyrrolidin-1-yl)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4- yl)amino)-2,2'-dimethyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H- imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-5-yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylic acid, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. 12. The compound of claim 2, wherein the compound is 4-(2-(2-((2-chloro-3'-((2- (difluoromethyl)-7-(pyrrolidin-1-ylmethyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2'-methyl-[1,1'- biphenyl]-3-yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-5- yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylic acid, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. 13. The compound of claim 2, wherein the compound is 4-(2-(2-((2-chloro-3'-((2- (difluoromethyl)-7-((((1R,2S)-2-hydroxycyclopentyl)amino)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4- yl)amino)-2'-methyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H- imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-5-yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylic acid, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. 14. The compound of claim 2, wherein the compound is 4-(2-(2-((2-chloro-3'-((2- (difluoromethyl)-7-((3-hydroxy-3-methylazetidin-1-yl)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4- yl)amino)-2'-methyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H- imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-5-yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylic acid, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. 15. A pharmaceutical composition comprising the compound of any one of claims 1-14, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient or carrier. 16. A method of inhibiting PD-1/PD-L1 interaction, said method comprising administering to a patient the compound of any one of claims 1-14, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

17. A method of treating a disease or disorder associated with inhibition of PD-1/PD-L1 interaction, said method comprising administering to a patient in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of the compound of any one of claims 1-14, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. 18. The method of claim 17, wherein the disease or disorder is an infection disease, inflammation, autoimmune disease, cancer, or neurodegenerative disorder. 19. The method of claim 18, wherein the disease or disorder is cancer. 20. The method of claim 19, wherein the cancer is selected from bone cancer, pancreatic cancer, skin cancer, cancer of the head or neck, intraocular malignant melanoma, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, rectal cancer, cancer of the anal region, stomach cancer, testicular cancer, carcinoma of the fallopian tubes, carcinoma of the endometrium, endometrial cancer, carcinoma of the cervix, carcinoma of the vagina, carcinoma of the vulva, Hodgkin's Disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, cancer of the esophagus, cancer of the small intestine, cancer of the endocrine system, cancer of the thyroid gland, cancer of the parathyroid gland, cancer of the adrenal gland, sarcoma of soft tissue, cancer of the urethra, cancer of the penis, chronic leukemia, acute leukemia, solid tumors of childhood, lymphocytic lymphoma, cancer of the bladder, carcinoma of the renal pelvis, neoplasm of the central nervous system (CNS), primary CNS lymphoma, tumor angiogenesis, spinal axis tumor, brain stem glioma, pituitary adenoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, epidermoid cancer, squamous cell cancer, T-cell lymphoma, environmentally induced cancers including those induced by asbestos, melanoma, metastatic malignant melanoma, cutaneous melanoma, renal cancer, prostate cancer, hormone refractory prostate adenocarcinoma, breast cancer, breast invasive carcinoma, colon cancer, lung cancer, squamous cell head and neck cancer, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, urothelial cancer, nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), cancers with high microsatellite instability solid tumors, hepatic cancer, gastric cancer, thyroid cancer, glioblastoma, sarcoma, hematological cancers, lymphoma, leukemia, relapsed non- Hodgkin lymphoma, refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma, recurrent follicular lymphoma, cholangiocarcinoma, bile duct cancer, biliary tract cancer, rhabdomyosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, brain tumor, astrocytoma, neuroblastoma, neurofibroma, basal cell carcinoma, chondrosarcoma, epithelioid sarcoma, eye cancer, Fallopian tube cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, hairy cell leukemia, intestinal cancer, islet cell cancer, oral cancer, mouth cancer, throat cancer, laryngeal cancer, lip cancer, mesothelioma, nasal cavity cancer, ocular cancer, ocular melanoma, pelvic cancer, renal cell carcinoma, salivary gland cancer, sinus cancer, spinal cancer, tongue cancer, tubular carcinoma, ureteral cancer, genitourinary tract cancers, liver cancers, nervous system cancers, gynecological cancers, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), mantle cell lymphoma, myeloproliferative diseases, primary myelofibrosis (PMF), polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocytosis (ET), myelodysplasia syndrome (MDS), T-cell acute lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-ALL), multiple myeloma (MM), osteosarcoma, angiosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, liposarcoma, myxoma, rhabdomyoma, rhabdosarcoma, fibroma, lipoma, hamartoma, teratoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), squamous cell NSCLC, small cell lung cancer, bronchogenic carcinoma, undifferentiated small cell bronchogenic carcinoma, undifferentiated large cell bronchogenic carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, alveolar (bronchiolar) carcinoma, bronchial adenoma, chondromatous hamartoma, squamous cell carcinoma, carcinoma, ductal adenocarcinoma, insulinoma, glucagonoma, gastrinoma, carcinoid tumors, vipoma, cancer of the small bowel, leiomyoma, hemangioma, cancer of the large bowel, tubular adenoma, villous adenoma, colorectal cancer, colorectal adenocarcinoma, cancer of the kidney, Wilm's tumor [nephroblastoma], transitional cell carcinoma, cancer of the testis, seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, teratocarcinoma, choriocarcinoma, interstitial cell carcinoma, fibroadenoma, adenomatoid tumors, urological cancer, papillary kidney carcinoma, testicular germ cell cancer, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, clear cell renal carcinoma, prostate adenocarcinoma, hepatoma, hepatoblastoma, hepatocellular adenoma, osteogenic sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, malignant lymphoma, reticulum cell sarcoma, malignant giant cell tumor chordoma, osteochronfroma, osteocartilaginous exostoses, benign chondroma, chondroblastoma, chondromyxofibroma, osteoid osteoma, giant cell tumors, cancer of the skull, osteoma, granuloma, xanthoma, osteitis deformans, cancer of the meninges, meningioma, meningiosarcoma, gliomatosis, cancer of the brain, meduoblastoma, glioma, ependymoma, germinoma, pinealoma, glioblastoma multiform, oligodendroglioma, schwannoma, retinoblastoma, congenital tumors, cancer of the spinal cord, Lhermitte-Duclos disease, cancer of the uterus, endometrial carcinoma, cancer of the cervix, pre-tumor cervical dysplasia, ovarian carcinoma, serous cystadenocarcinoma, serous adenocarcinoma, mucinous cystadenocarcinoma, unclassified carcinoma, granulosa-thecal cell tumors, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, dysgerminoma, malignant teratoma, cancer of the vulva, intraepithelial carcinoma, cancer of the vagina, clear cell carcinoma, botryoid sarcoma, embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, moles dysplastic nevi, angioma, dermatofibroma, keloids, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), myelodysplastic syndromes, and urothelial carcinoma. 21. The method of claim 19, wherein the cancer is a metastatic cancer that expresses PD- L1. 22. A method of enhancing, stimulating and/or increasing the immune response in a patient, said method comprising administering to the patient in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of the compound of any one of claims 1-14, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

Description:
PYRIDO[3,2-D]PYRIMIDINE COMPOUNDS AS IMMUNOMODULATORS CLAIM OF PRIORITY This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No.62/908,317, filed on September 30, 2019, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present application is directed to pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidine compounds which modulate PD-1/PD-L1 protein/protein interaction and are useful in the treatment of various diseases including infectious diseases and cancer. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The immune system plays an important role in controlling and eradicating diseases such as cancer. However, cancer cells often develop strategies to evade or to suppress the immune system in order to favor their growth. One such mechanism is altering the expression of co- stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules expressed on immune cells (Postow et al., J. Clinical Oncology 2015, 1-9). Blocking the signaling of an inhibitory immune checkpoint, such as PD-1, has proven to be a promising and effective treatment modality. Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), also known as CD279, is a cell surface receptor expressed on activated T cells, natural killer T cells, B cells, and macrophages (Greenwald et al., Annu. Rev. Immunol.2005, 23:515–548; Okazaki and Honjo, Trends Immunol 2006, (4):195- 201). It functions as an intrinsic negative feedback sysxem to prevent the activation of T-cells, which in turn reduces autoimmunity and promotes self-tolerance. In addition, PD-1 is also known to play a critical role in the suppression of antigen-specific T cell response in diseases like cancer and viral infection (Sharpe et al., Nat. Immunol.20078, 239–245; Postow et al., J. Clinical Oncol.2015, 1-9). The structure of PD-1 consists of an extracellular immunoglobulin variable-like domain followed by a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain (Parry et al., Mol. Cell Biol. 2005, 9543–9553). The intracellular domain contains two phosphorylation sites located in an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif and an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif, which suggests that PD-1 negatively regulates T cell receptor-mediated signals. PD-1 has two ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2 (Parry et al., Mol. Cell Biol.2005, 9543–9553; Latchman et al., Nat. Immunol.2001, 2, 261–268), and they differ in their expression patterns. PD-L1 protein is upregulated on macrophages and dendritic cells in response to lipopolysaccharide and GM-CSF treatment, and on T cells and B cells upon T cell receptor and B cell receptor signaling. PD-L1 is also highly expressed on almost all tumor cells, and the expression is further increased after IFN- γ treatment (Iwai et al., PNAS 2002, 99(19):12293-7; Blank et al., Cancer Res.2004, 64(3):1140-5). In fact, tumor PD-L1 expression status has been shown to be prognostic in multiple tumor types (Wang et al., Eur. J. Surg. Oncol.2015; Huang et al., Oncol. Rep.2015; Sabatier et al., Oncotarget 2015, 6(7): 5449–5464). PD-L2 expression, in contrast, is more restricted and is expressed mainly by dendritic cells (Nakae et al., J. Immunol.2006, 177:566- 73). Ligation of PD-1 with its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 on T cells delivers a signal that inhibits IL-2 and IFN-γ production, as well as cell proliferation induced upon T cell receptor activation (Carter et al., Eur. J. Immunol.2002, 32(3):634-43; Freeman et al., J. Exp. Med.2000, 192(7):1027-34). The mechanism involves recruitment of SHP-2 or SHP-1 phosphatases to inhibit T cell receptor signaling such as Syk and Lck phosphorylation (Sharpe et al., Nat. Immunol.2007, 8, 239–245). Activation of the PD-1 signaling axis also attenuates PKC-θ activation loop phosphorylation, which is necessary for the activation of NF- κB and AP1 pathways, and for cytokine production such as IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF (Sharpe et al., Nat. Immunol.2007, 8, 239–245; Carter et al., Eur. J. Immunol.2002, 32(3):634-43; Freeman et al., J. Exp. Med.2000, 192(7):1027-34). Several lines of evidence from preclinical animal studies indicate that PD-1 and its ligands negatively regulate immune responses. PD-1-deficient mice have been shown to develop lupus-like glomerulonephritis and dilated cardiomyopathy (Nishimura et al., Immunity 1999, 11:141–151; Nishimura et al., Science 2001, 291:319–322). Using an LCMV model of chronic infection, it has been shown that PD-1/PD-L1 interaction inhibits activation, expansion and acquisition of effector functions of virus-specific CD8 T cells (Barber et al., Nature 2006, 439, 682-7). Together, these data support the development of a therapeutic approach to block the PD- 1-mediated inhibitory signaling cascade in order to augment or “rescue” T cell response. Accordingly, there is a need for new compounds that block PD-1/PD-L1 protein/protein interaction. SUMMARY The present disclosure provides compounds of Formula (I): or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof; wherein: R 1 is CH 3 or Cl; R 3 is H or CH 3 ; R 4 is H or CH 3 ; and R 5 is H or CH 3 . The present disclosure further provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound described herein, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipient or carrier. The present disclosure further provides methods of inhibiting PD-1/PD-L1 interaction, said method comprising administering to a patient a compound described herein, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present disclosure further provides methods of treating a disease or disorder associated with inhibition of PD-1/PD-L1 interaction, said method comprising administering to a patient in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of described herein, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present disclosure further provides methods of enhancing, stimulating and/or increasing the immune response in a patient, said method comprising administering to the patient in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of a compound described herein, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present disclosure provides a compound described herein, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use in any of the methods described herein. The present disclosure provides use of a compound described herein, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for preparation of a medicament for use in any of the methods described herein. DETAILED DESCRIPTION I. Compounds In some embodiments, the present disclosure provides, inter alia, a compound of Formula (I): or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof; wherein: R 1 is CH 3 or Cl; R 3 is H or CH 3 ; R 4 is H or CH 3 ; and R 5 is H or CH 3 . In some embodiments, R 1 is CH 3 . In some embodiments, R 1 is Cl. In some embodiments, . In some embodiments of the preceding embodiment, R 3 is H. Alternatively, in some embodiments, R 3 is CH 3 . In some embodiments, . In some embodiments, . In some embodiments, . In some embodiments of the preceding embodiment, R 4 is H. Alternatively, in some embodiments, R 4 is CH 3 . In some embodiments of the preceding embodiment, R 2 is . In some embodiments of the preceding embodiment, R 5 is H. Alternatively, in some embodiments, R 5 is CH 3 . , , or . In some embodiments: R 1 is CH 3 or Cl; when R 1 is CH 3 , then . In some embodiments, In some embodiments, . In some embodiments, the compound is a compound selected from the compounds of Examples 1-16, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. It is further appreciated that certain features of the disclosure, which are, for clarity, described in the context of separate embodiments, can also be provided in combination in a single embodiment (while the embodiments are intended to be combined as if written in multiply dependent form). Conversely, various features of the disclosure which are, for brevity, described in the context of a single embodiment, can also be provided separately or in any suitable subcombination. Thus, it is contemplated as features described as embodiments of the compounds of Formula (I) can be combined in any suitable combination. At various places in the present specification, certain features of the compounds are disclosed in groups or in ranges. It is specifically intended that such a disclosure include each and every individual subcombination of the members of such groups and ranges. The compounds described herein can be asymmetric (e.g., having one or more stereocenters). All stereoisomers, such as enantiomers and diastereomers, are intended unless otherwise indicated. Compounds of the present invention that contain asymmetrically substituted carbon atoms can be isolated in optically active or racemic forms. Methods on how to prepare optically active forms from optically inactive starting materials are known in the art, such as by resolution of racemic mixtures or by stereoselective synthesis. Many geometric isomers of olefins, C=N double bonds and the like can also be present in the compounds described herein, and all such stable isomers are contemplated in the present invention. Cis and trans geometric isomers of the compounds of the present invention are described and may be isolated as a mixture of isomers or as separated isomeric forms. Resolution of racemic mixtures of compounds can be carried out by any of numerous methods known in the art. One method includes fractional recrystallization using a chiral resolving acid which is an optically active, salt-forming organic acid. Suitable resolving agents for fractional recrystallization methods are, e.g., optically active acids, such as the D and L forms of tartaric acid, diacetyltartaric acid, dibenzoyltartaric acid, mandelic acid, malic acid, lactic acid or the various optically active camphorsulfonic acids such as ^-camphorsulfonic acid. Other resolving agents suitable for fractional crystallization methods include stereoisomerically pure forms of ^-methylbenzylamine (e.g., S and R forms, or diastereomerically pure forms), 2- phenylglycinol, norephedrine, ephedrine, N-methylephedrine, cyclohexylethylamine, 1,2- diaminocyclohexane and the like. Resolution of racemic mixtures can also be carried out by elution on a column packed with an optically active resolving agent (e.g., dinitrobenzoylphenylglycine). Suitable elution solvent composition can be determined by one skilled in the art. In some embodiments, the compounds of the invention have the (R)-configuration. In other embodiments, the compounds have the (S)-configuration. In compounds with more than one chiral centers, each of the chiral centers in the compound may be independently (R) or (S), unless otherwise indicated. Compounds of the disclosure also include tautomeric forms. Tautomeric forms result from the swapping of a single bond with an adjacent double bond together with the concomitant migration of a proton. Tautomeric forms include prototropic tautomers which are isomeric protonation states having the same empirical formula and total charge. Example prototropic tautomers include ketone – enol pairs, amide - imidic acid pairs, lactam – lactim pairs, enamine – imine pairs, and annular forms where a proton can occupy two or more positions of a heterocyclic system, e.g., 1H- and 3H-imidazole, 1H-, 2H- and 4H- 1,2,4- triazole, 1H- and 2H- isoindole and 1H- and 2H-pyrazole. Tautomeric forms can be in equilibrium or sterically locked into one form by appropriate substitution. In some embodiments, a compound described herein has one or more hydrogen atoms that are replaced by deuterium, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. Compounds of the disclosure can also include all isotopes of atoms occurring in the intermediates or final compounds. Isotopes include those atoms having the same atomic number but different mass numbers. For example, isotopes of hydrogen include tritium and deuterium. One or more constituent atoms of the compounds of the disclosure can be replaced or substituted with isotopes of the atoms in natural or non-natural abundance. In some embodiments, the compound includes at least one deuterium atom. For example, one or more hydrogen atoms in a compound of the present disclosure can be replaced or substituted by deuterium. In some embodiments, the compound includes two or more deuterium atoms. In some embodiments, the compound includes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12 deuterium atoms. Synthetic methods for including isotopes into organic compounds are known in the art. The term, "compound," as used herein is meant to include all tautomers and isotopes of the structures depicted. The term is also meant to refer to compounds of the disclosure, regardless of how they are prepared, e.g., synthetically, through biological process (e.g., metabolism or enzyme conversion), or a combination thereof. All compounds, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, can be found together with other substances such as water and solvents (e.g., hydrates and solvates) or can be isolated. When in the solid state, the compounds described herein and salts thereof may occur in various forms and may, e.g., take the form of solvates, including hydrates. The compounds may be in any solid state form, such as a polymorph or solvate, so unless clearly indicated otherwise, reference in the specification to compounds and salts thereof should be understood as encompassing any solid state form of the compound. In some embodiments, the compounds of the disclosure, or salts thereof, are substantially isolated. By "substantially isolated" is meant that the compound is at least partially or substantially separated from the environment in which it was formed or detected. Partial separation can include, e.g., a composition enriched in the compounds of the disclosure. Substantial separation can include compositions containing at least about 50%, at least about 60%, at least about 70%, at least about 80%, at least about 90%, at least about 95%, at least about 97%, or at least about 99% by weight of the compounds of the disclosure, or salt thereof. In some embodiments, the term “about” means ±10%. In some embodiments, the term “about” means ±5%. The phrase "pharmaceutically acceptable" is employed herein to refer to those compounds, materials, compositions and/or dosage forms which are, within the scope of sound medical judgment, suitable for use in contact with the tissues of human beings and animals without excessive toxicity, irritation, allergic response, or other problem or complication, commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio. The expressions, "ambient temperature" and "room temperature," as used herein, are understood in the art, and refer generally to a temperature, e.g., a reaction temperature, that is about the temperature of the room in which the reaction is carried out, e.g., a temperature from about 20 ºC to about 30 ºC. The present disclosure also includes pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the compounds described herein. The term "pharmaceutically acceptable salts" refers to derivatives of the disclosed compounds wherein the parent compound is modified by converting an existing acid or base moiety to its salt form. Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable salts include, but are not limited to, mineral or organic acid salts of basic residues such as amines; alkali or organic salts of acidic residues such as carboxylic acids; and the like. The pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the present disclosure include the non-toxic salts of the parent compound formed, e.g., from non- toxic inorganic or organic acids. The pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the present disclosure can be synthesized from the parent compound which contains a basic or acidic moiety by conventional chemical methods. Generally, such salts can be prepared by reacting the free acid or base forms of these compounds with a stoichiometric amount of the appropriate base or acid in water or in an organic solvent, or in a mixture of the two; generally, non-aqueous media like ether, ethyl acetate, alcohols (e.g., methanol, ethanol, iso-propanol or butanol) or acetonitrile (MeCN) are preferred. Lists of suitable salts are found in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 17 th Ed., (Mack Publishing Company, Easton, 1985), p.1418, Berge et al., J. Pharm. Sci., 1977, 66(1), 1-19 and in Stahl et al., Handbook of Pharmaceutical Salts: Properties, Selection, and Use, (Wiley, 2002). In some embodiments, the compounds described herein include the N-oxide forms. II. Synthesis Compounds of the present disclosure, including salts thereof, can be prepared by the synthetic routes disclosed in Examples 1-16 infra. The reactions for preparing compounds of the disclosure can be carried out in suitable solvents which can be readily selected by one of skill in the art of organic synthesis. Suitable solvents can be substantially non-reactive with the starting materials (reactants), the intermediates or products at the temperatures at which the reactions are carried out, e.g., temperatures which can range from the solvent's freezing temperature to the solvent's boiling temperature. A given reaction can be carried out in one solvent or a mixture of more than one solvent. Depending on the particular reaction step, suitable solvents for a particular reaction step can be selected by the skilled artisan. Preparation of compounds of the disclosure can involve the protection and deprotection of various chemical groups. The need for protection and deprotection, and the selection of appropriate protecting groups, can be readily determined by one skilled in the art. The chemistry of protecting groups is described, e.g., in Kocienski, Protecting Groups, (Thieme, 2007); Robertson, Protecting Group Chemistry, (Oxford University Press, 2000); Smith et al., March's Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions, Mechanisms, and Structure, 6 th Ed. (Wiley, 2007); Peturssion et al., "Protecting Groups in Carbohydrate Chemistry," J. Chem. Educ., 1997, 74(11), 1297; and Wuts et al., Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, 4th Ed., (Wiley, 2006). Reactions can be monitored according to any suitable method known in the art. For example, product formation can be monitored by spectroscopic means, such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (e.g., 1 H or 13 C), infrared spectroscopy, spectrophotometry (e.g., UV- visible), mass spectrometry or by chromatographic methods such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or thin layer chromatography (TLC). III. Uses of the Compounds Compounds of the present disclosure, or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, can inhibit the activity of PD-1/PD-L1 protein/protein interaction and, thus, are useful in treating diseases and disorders associated with activity of PD-1 and the diseases and disorders associated with PD-L1 including its interaction with other proteins such as PD-1 and B7-1 (CD80). In certain embodiments, the compounds of the present disclosure, or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, are useful for therapeutic administration to enhance, stimulate and/or increase immunity in cancer, chronic infection or sepsis, including enhancement of response to vaccination. In some embodiments, the present disclosure provides a method for inhibiting the PD-1/PD-L1 protein/protein interaction. The method includes administering to an individual or a patient a compound described herein, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The compounds of the present disclosure can be used alone, in combination with other agents or therapies or as an adjuvant or neoadjuvant for the treatment of diseases or disorders, including cancer or infection diseases. For the uses described herein, any of the compounds of the disclosure, including any of the embodiments thereof, may be used. The compounds of the present disclosure inhibit the PD-1/PD-L1 protein/protein interaction, resulting in a PD-1 pathway blockade. The blockade of PD-1 can enhance the immune response to cancerous cells and infectious diseases in mammals, including humans. In some embodiments, the present disclosure provides treatment of an individual or a patient in vivo using a compound described herein or a salt thereof such that growth of cancerous tumors is inhibited. A compound described herein, or a salt thereof, can be used to inhibit the growth of cancerous tumors. Alternatively, a compound described herein, or a salt thereof, can be used in conjunction with other agents or standard cancer treatments, as described below. In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method for inhibiting growth of tumor cells in vitro. The method includes contacting the tumor cells in vitro with a compound described herein, or of a salt thereof. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method for inhibiting growth of tumor cells in an individual or a patient. The method includes administering to the individual or patient in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of a compound described herein, or a salt thereof. In some embodiments, provided herein is a method for treating cancer. The method includes administering to a patient in need thereof, a therapeutically effective amount of a compound described herein, or a salt thereof. Examples of cancers include those whose growth may be inhibited using compounds of the disclosure and cancers typically responsive to immunotherapy. In some embodiments, the present disclosure provides a method of enhancing, stimulating and/or increasing the immune response in a patient. The method includes administering to the patient in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of a compound described herein, or a salt thereof. Examples of cancers include, but are not limited to, bone cancer, pancreatic cancer, skin cancer, cancer of the head or neck, cutaneous or intraocular malignant melanoma, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, rectal cancer, cancer of the anal region, stomach cancer, testicular cancer, uterine cancer, carcinoma of the fallopian tubes, carcinoma of the endometrium, endometrial cancer, carcinoma of the cervix, carcinoma of the vagina, carcinoma of the vulva, Hodgkin's Disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, cancer of the esophagus, cancer of the small intestine, cancer of the endocrine system, cancer of the thyroid gland, cancer of the parathyroid gland, cancer of the adrenal gland, sarcoma of soft tissue, cancer of the urethra, cancer of the penis, chronic or acute leukemias including acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, solid tumors of childhood, lymphocytic lymphoma, cancer of the bladder, cancer of the kidney or urethra, carcinoma of the renal pelvis, neoplasm of the central nervous system (CNS), primary CNS lymphoma, tumor angiogenesis, spinal axis tumor, brain stem glioma, pituitary adenoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, epidermoid cancer, squamous cell cancer, T-cell lymphoma, environmentally induced cancers including those induced by asbestos, and combinations of said cancers. The compounds of the present disclosure are also useful for the treatment of metastatic cancers, especially metastatic cancers that express PD-Ll. In some embodiments, cancers include melanoma (e.g., metastatic malignant melanoma, cutaneous melanoma), renal cancer (e.g., clear cell carcinoma), prostate cancer (e.g., hormone refractory prostate adenocarcinoma), breast cancer (e.g., breast invasive carcinoma), colon cancer, lung cancer (e.g., non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer), squamous cell head and neck cancer (e.g., squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck), urothelial cancer (e.g., bladder cancer, nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC)) and cancers with high microsatellite instability (MSI high ). Additionally, the disclosure includes refractory or recurrent malignancies whose growth may be inhibited using the compounds of the disclosure. In some embodiments, cancers include, but are not limited to, solid tumors (e.g., prostate cancer, colon cancer, esophageal cancer, endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, renal cancer, hepatic cancer, pancreatic cancer, gastric cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, cancers of the head and neck, thyroid cancer, glioblastoma, sarcoma, bladder cancer, etc.), hematological cancers (e.g., lymphoma, leukemia such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), DLBCL, mantle cell lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (including relapsed or refractory NHL and recurrent follicular), Hodgkin lymphoma or multiple myeloma) and combinations of said cancers. In some embodiments, cancers include, but are not limited to, cholangiocarcinoma, bile duct cancer, biliary tract cancer, triple negative breast cancer, rhabdomyosarcoma, small cell lung cancer, leiomyosarcoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, brain cancer, brain tumor, astrocytoma, neuroblastoma, neurofibroma, basal cell carcinoma, chondrosarcoma, epithelioid sarcoma, eye cancer, Fallopian tube cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, hairy cell leukemia, intestinal cancer, islet cell cancer, oral cancer, mouth cancer, throat cancer, laryngeal cancer, lip cancer, mesothelioma, neck cancer, nasal cavity cancer, ocular cancer, ocular melanoma, pelvic cancer, rectal cancer, renal cell carcinoma, salivary gland cancer, sinus cancer, spinal cancer, tongue cancer, tubular carcinoma, urethral cancer, and ureteral cancer. In some embodiments, the compounds of the present disclosure can be used to treat sickle cell disease and sickle cell anemia. In some embodiments, diseases and indications that are treatable using the compounds of the present disclosure include, but are not limited to hematological cancers, sarcomas, lung cancers, gastrointestinal cancers, genitourinary tract cancers, liver cancers, bone cancers, nervous system cancers, gynecological cancers, and skin cancers. Exemplary hematological cancers include lymphomas and leukemias such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), mantle cell lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (including relapsed or refractory NHL and recurrent follicular), Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloproliferative diseases (e.g., primary myelofibrosis (PMF), polycythemia vera (PV), and essential thrombocytosis (ET)), myelodysplasia syndrome (MDS), T-cell acute lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-ALL) and multiple myeloma (MM). Exemplary sarcomas include chondrosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, angiosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, liposarcoma, myxoma, rhabdomyoma, rhabdosarcoma, fibroma, lipoma, hamartoma, and teratoma. Exemplary lung cancers include non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (e.g., squamous cell NSCLC), small cell lung cancer, bronchogenic carcinoma (squamous cell, undifferentiated small cell, undifferentiated large cell, adenocarcinoma), alveolar (bronchiolar) carcinoma, bronchial adenoma, chondromatous hamartoma, and mesothelioma. Exemplary gastrointestinal cancers include cancers of the esophagus (carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, leiomyosarcoma, lymphoma), stomach (carcinoma, lymphoma, leiomyosarcoma, adenocarcinoma), pancreas (ductal adenocarcinoma, insulinoma, glucagonoma, gastrinoma, carcinoid tumors, vipoma), small bowel (adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, carcinoid tumors, Kaposi's sarcoma, leiomyoma, hemangioma, lipoma, neurofibroma, fibroma), large bowel (adenocarcinoma, tubular adenoma, villous adenoma, hamartoma, leiomyoma), and colorectal cancer (e.g., colorectal adenocarcinoma). Exemplary genitourinary tract cancers include cancers of the kidney (adenocarcinoma, Wilm's tumor [nephroblastoma]), bladder and urethra (squamous cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma), prostate (adenocarcinoma, sarcoma), and testis (seminoma, teratoma, embryonal carcinoma, teratocarcinoma, choriocarcinoma, sarcoma, interstitial cell carcinoma, fibroma, fibroadenoma, adenomatoid tumors, lipoma). In some embodiments, the cancer is a urological cancer (e.g., papillary kidney carcinoma, testicular germ cell cancer, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, clear cell renal carcinoma, or prostate adenocarcinoma). Exemplary liver cancers include hepatoma (hepatocellular carcinoma), cholangiocarcinoma, hepatoblastoma, angiosarcoma, hepatocellular adenoma, and hemangioma. Exemplary bone cancers include, for example, osteogenic sarcoma (osteosarcoma), fibrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, malignant lymphoma (reticulum cell sarcoma), multiple myeloma, malignant giant cell tumor chordoma, osteochronfroma (osteocartilaginous exostoses), benign chondroma, chondroblastoma, chondromyxofibroma, osteoid osteoma, and giant cell tumors. Exemplary nervous system cancers include cancers of the skull (osteoma, hemangioma, granuloma, xanthoma, osteitis deformans), meninges (meningioma, meningiosarcoma, gliomatosis), brain (astrocytoma, meduoblastoma, glioma, ependymoma, germinoma (pinealoma), glioblastoma, glioblastoma multiform, oligodendroglioma, schwannoma, retinoblastoma, congenital tumors), and spinal cord (neurofibroma, meningioma, glioma, sarcoma), as well as neuroblastoma and Lhermitte-Duclos disease. Exemplary gynecological cancers include cancers of the uterus (endometrial carcinoma), cervix (cervical carcinoma, pre -tumor cervical dysplasia), ovaries (ovarian carcinoma (serous cystadenocarcinoma, serous adenocarcinoma, mucinous cystadenocarcinoma, unclassified carcinoma), granulosa-thecal cell tumors, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, dysgerminoma, malignant teratoma), vulva (squamous cell carcinoma, intraepithelial carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, fibrosarcoma, melanoma), vagina (clear cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, botryoid sarcoma (embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma), and fallopian tubes (carcinoma). Exemplary skin cancers include melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma (e.g., cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma), Kaposi's sarcoma, moles dysplastic nevi, lipoma, angioma, dermatofibroma, and keloids. In some embodiments, diseases and indications that are treatable using the compounds of the present disclosure include, but are not limited to, sickle cell disease (e.g., sickle cell anemia), triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), myelodysplastic syndromes, testicular cancer, bile duct cancer, esophageal cancer, and urothelial carcinoma. PD-1 pathway blockade with compounds of the present disclosure can also be used for treating infections such as viral, bacteria, fungus and parasite infections. The present disclosure provides a method for treating infections such as viral infections. The method includes administering to a patient in need thereof, a therapeutically effective amount of a compound described herein, or a salt thereof. Examples of viruses causing infections treatable by methods of the present disclosure include, but are not limited to, human immunodeficiency virus, human papillomavirus, influenza, hepatitis A, B, C or D viruses, adenovirus, poxvirus, herpes simplex viruses, human cytomegalovirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome virus, ebola virus, and measles virus. In some embodiments, viruses causing infections treatable by methods of the present disclosure include, but are not limited to, hepatitis (A, B, or C), herpes virus (e.g., VZV, HSV-1, HAV-6, HSV-II, and CMV, Epstein Barr virus), adenovirus, influenza virus, flaviviruses, echovirus, rhinovirus, coxsackie virus, coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, mumps virus, rotavirus, measles virus, rubella virus, parvovirus, vaccinia virus, HTLV virus, dengue virus, papillomavirus, molluscum virus, poliovirus, rabies virus, JC virus, tuberculosis and arboviral encephalitis virus. The present disclosure provides a method for treating bacterial infections. The method includes administering to a patient in need thereof, a therapeutically effective amount of a compound described herein, or a salt thereof. Non-limiting examples of pathogenic bacteria causing infections treatable by methods of the disclosure include chlamydia, rickettsial bacteria, mycobacteria, staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci, meningococci and conococci, klebsiella, proteus, serratia, pseudomonas, legionella, diphtheria, salmonella, bacilli, cholera, tetanus, botulism, anthrax, plague, leptospirosis, and Lyme's disease bacteria. The present disclosure provides a method for treating fungus infections. The method includes administering to a patient in need thereof, a therapeutically effective amount of a compound described herein, or a salt thereof. Non-limiting examples of pathogenic fungi causing infections treatable by methods of the disclosure include Candida (albicans, krusei, glabrata, tropicalis, etc.), Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus (fumigatus, niger, etc.), Genus Mucorales (mucor, absidia, rhizophus), Sporothrix schenkii, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Coccidioides immitis and Histoplasma capsulatum. The present disclosure provides a method for treating parasite infections. The method includes administering to a patient in need thereof, a therapeutically effective amount of a compound described herein, or a salt thereof. Non-limiting examples of pathogenic parasites causing infections treatable by methods of the disclosure include Entamoeba histolytica, Balantidium coli, Naegleriafowleri, Acanthamoeba sp., Giardia lambia, Cryptosporidium sp., Pneumocystis carinii, Plasmodium vivax, Babesia microti, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani, Toxoplasma gondi, and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. The present disclosure provides a method for treating neurodegenerative diseases or disorders. The method includes administering to a patient in need thereof, a therapeutically effective amount of a compound described herein, or a salt thereof. Non-limiting examples of neurodegenerative diseases or disorders include Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, prion disease, Motor neurone diseases, Spinocerebellar ataxia and Spinal muscular atrophy. It is believed that compounds described herein, may possess satisfactory pharmacological profile and promising biopharmaceutical properties, such as toxicological profile, metabolism and pharmacokinetic properties, solubility, and permeability. It will be understood that determination of appropriate biopharmaceutical properties is within the knowledge of a person skilled in the art, e.g., determination of cytotoxicity in cells or inhibition of certain targets or channels to determine potential toxicity. The terms "individual" or "patient," used interchangeably, refer to any animal, including mammals, preferably mice, rats, other rodents, rabbits, dogs, cats, swine, cattle, sheep, horses, or primates, and most preferably humans. The phrase "therapeutically effective amount" refers to the amount of active compound or pharmaceutical agent that elicits the biological or medicinal response in a tissue, system, animal, individual or human that is being sought by a researcher, veterinarian, medical doctor or other clinician. As used herein, the term "treating" or "treatment" refers to one or more of (1) inhibiting the disease; e.g., inhibiting a disease, condition or disorder in an individual who is experiencing or displaying the pathology or symptomatology of the disease, condition or disorder (i.e., arresting further development of the pathology and/or symptomatology); and (2) ameliorating the disease; e.g., ameliorating a disease, condition or disorder in an individual who is experiencing or displaying the pathology or symptomatology of the disease, condition or disorder (i.e., reversing the pathology and/or symptomatology) such as decreasing the severity of disease. In some embodiments, the compounds of the disclosure are useful in preventing or reducing the risk of developing any of the diseases referred to herein; e.g., preventing or reducing the risk of developing a disease, condition or disorder in an individual who may be predisposed to the disease, condition or disorder but does not yet experience or display the pathology or symptomatology of the disease. Combination Therapies Immune-checkpoint therapies Compounds of the present disclosure, or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, can be used in combination with one or more immune checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of diseases, such as cancer or infections. Exemplary immune checkpoint inhibitors include inhibitors against immune checkpoint molecules such as CBL-B, CD20, CD122, CD96, CD73, CD47, CSF1R, JAK, PI3K delta, PI3K gamma, TAM, arginase, HPK1, A2AR, B7-H3, B7-H4, BTLA, CTLA-4, LAG3, TIM3, TIGIT, CD112R, VISTA, PD-1, PD-L1 and PD-L2. In some embodiments, the immune checkpoint molecule is a stimulatory checkpoint molecule selected from CD27, CD28, CD40, ICOS, OX40, GITR and CD137 (4-1BB). In some embodiments, the immune checkpoint molecule is an inhibitory checkpoint molecule selected from A2AR, B7-H3, B7-H4, BTLA, CTLA-4, IDO, KIR, LAG3, PD-1, TIM3, TIGIT, and VISTA. In some embodiments, the compounds provided herein can be used in combination with one or more agents selected from KIR inhibitors, TIGIT inhibitors, LAIR1 inhibitors, CD160 inhibitors, 2B4 inhibitors and TGF beta inhibitors. In some embodiments, the compounds provided herein can be used in combination with one or more agonists of immune checkpoint molecules, e.g., OX40, CD27, GITR, and CD137 (also known as 4-1BB). In some embodiments, the agonist of an immune checkpoint molecule is an agonist of OX40, CD27, CD28, GITR, ICOS, CD40, TLR7/8, and CD137 (also known as 4-1BB). In some embodiments, the agonist of CD137 is urelumab. In some embodiments, the agonist of CD137 is utomilumab. In some embodiments, the agonist of an immune checkpoint molecule is an agonist of CD40. In some embodiments, the agonist of CD40 is CP-870893, ADC-1013, CDX-1140, SEA-CD40, RO7009789, JNJ-64457107, APX-005M, or Chi Lob 7/4. In some embodiments, the agonist of an immune checkpoint molecule is an agonist of ICOS. In some embodiments, the agonist of ICOS is GSK-3359609, JTX-2011, or MEDI- 570. In some embodiments, the agonist of an immune checkpoint molecule is an agonist of CD28. In some embodiments, the agonist of CD28 is theralizumab. In some embodiments, the agonist of an immune checkpoint molecule is an agonist of CD27. In some embodiments, the agonist of CD27 is varlilumab. In some embodiments, the agonist of an immune checkpoint molecule is an agonist of TLR7/8. In some embodiments, the agonist of TLR7/8 is MEDI9197. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of an immune checkpoint molecule is anti-PD1 antibody, anti-PD-L1 antibody, or anti-CTLA-4 antibody. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of an immune checkpoint molecule is an inhibitor of PD-1, e.g., an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody. In some embodiments, the anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody is nivolumab, pembrolizumab (also known as MK-3475), pidilizumab, cemiplimab, spartalizumab, camrelizumab, cetrelimab, toripalimab, sintilimab, SHR-1210, PDR001, MGA012, PDR001, AB122, AMP-224, JTX-4014, BGB-108, BCD-100, BAT1306, LZM009, AK105, HLX10, or TSR-042. In some embodiments, the anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody is nivolumab or pembrolizumab. In some embodiments, the anti-PD1 antibody is pembrolizumab. In some embodiments, the anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody is MGA012. In some embodiments, the anti-PD1 antibody is SHR-1210. Other anti-cancer agent(s) include antibody therapeutics such as 4-1BB (e.g., urelumab, utomilumab). In some embodiments, the inhibitor of an immune checkpoint molecule is an inhibitor of PD-L1, e.g., an anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody. In some embodiments, the anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody is BMS-935559, MEDI4736, MPDL3280A (also known as RG7446), durvalumab (Imfinzi®), atezolizumab (Tecentriq®), Avelumab (Bavencio®),MSB0010718C, tislelizumab, FAZ053, KN035, CS1001, SHR-1316, CBT-502, A167, STI-A101, CK-301, BGB-A333, MSB-2311, HLX20, or LY3300054. In some embodiments, the anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody is MPDL3280A or MEDI4736. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of an immune checkpoint molecule is an inhibitor of PD-1 and PD-L1, e.g., an anti-PD-1/PD-L1 bispecific antibody. In some embodiments, the anti-PD-1/PD-L1 bispecific antibody is MCLA-136. In some embodiments, the inhibitor is MCLA-145. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of an immune checkpoint molecule is an inhibitor of CTLA-4, e.g., an anti-CTLA-4 antibody. In some embodiments, the anti-CTLA-4 antibody is ipilimumab, tremelimumab, AGEN1884, or CP-675,206. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of an immune checkpoint molecule is an inhibitor of PD-1 and CTLA-4, e.g., an anti-PD-1/CTLA-4 bispecific antibody. In some embodiments, the anti-PD-1/CTLA-4 antibody is AK104. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of an immune checkpoint molecule is an inhibitor of LAG3, e.g., an anti-LAG3 antibody. In some embodiments, the anti-LAG3 antibody is BMS- 986016, LAG525, INCAGN2385, or eftilagimod alpha (IMP321). In some embodiments, the inhibitor of an immune checkpoint molecule is an inhibitor of CD73. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of CD73 is oleclumab. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of CD73 is MEDI9447. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of an immune checkpoint molecule is an inhibitor of TIGIT. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of TIGIT is OMP-31M32. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of an immune checkpoint molecule is an inhibitor of VISTA. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of VISTA is JNJ-61610588 or CA-170. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of an immune checkpoint molecule is an inhibitor of B7-H3. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of B7-H3 is enoblituzumab, MGD009, or 8H9. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of an immune checkpoint molecule is an inhibitor of KIR. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of KIR is lirilumab or IPH4102. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of an immune checkpoint molecule is an inhibitor of A2aR. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of A2aR is CPI-444. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of an immune checkpoint molecule is an inhibitor of TGF-beta. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of TGF-beta is trabedersen, galusertinib, or M7824. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of an immune checkpoint molecule is an inhibitor of PI3K-gamma. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of PI3K-gamma is IPI-549. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of an immune checkpoint molecule is an inhibitor of CD47. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of CD47 is Hu5F9-G4 or TTI-621. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of an immune checkpoint molecule is an inhibitor of CD70. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of CD70 is cusatuzumab or BMS-936561. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of an immune checkpoint molecule is an inhibitor of TIM3, e.g., an anti-TIM3 antibody. In some embodiments, the anti-TIM3 antibody is INCAGN2390, MBG453, or TSR-022. In some embodiments, the agonist of an immune checkpoint molecule is an agonist of GITR, e.g., an anti-GITR antibody. In some embodiments, the agonist is TRX518, MK-4166, INCAGN1876, MK-1248, AMG228, BMS-986156, GWN323, MEDI1873, or MEDI6469. In some embodiments, the agonist of an immune checkpoint molecule is an agonist of OX40, e.g., OX40 agonist antibody or OX40L fusion protein. In some embodiments, the anti- OX40 antibody is MEDI0562, MOXR-0916, PF-04518600, GSK3174998, BMS-986178, or 9B12. In some embodiments, the OX40L fusion protein is MEDI6383. In some embodiments, the inhibitor of an immune checkpoint molecule is an inhibitor of CD20, e.g., an anti-CD20 antibody. In some embodiments, the anti-CD20 antibody is obinutuzumab or rituximab. The compounds of the present disclosure can be used in combination with bispecific antibodies. In some embodiments, one of the domains of the bispecific antibody targets PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA-4, GITR, OX40, TIM3, LAG3, CD137, ICOS, CD3 or TGFβ receptor. In some embodiments, the bispecific antibody binds to PD-1 and PD-L1. In some embodiments, the bispecific antibody that binds to PD-1 and PD-L1 is MCLA-136. In some embodiments, the bispecific antibody binds to PD-L1 and CTLA-4. In some embodiments, the bispecific antibody that binds to PD-L1 and CTLA-4 is AK104. In some embodiments, the compounds of the disclosure can be used in combination with one or more metabolic enzyme inhibitors. In some embodiments, the metabolic enzyme inhibitor is an inhibitor of IDO1, TDO, or arginase. Examples of IDO1 inhibitors include epacadostat, NLG919, BMS-986205, PF-06840003, IOM2983, RG-70099 and LY338196. As provided throughout, the additional compounds, inhibitors, agents, etc. can be combined with the present compound in a single or continuous dosage form, or they can be administered simultaneously or sequentially as separate dosage forms. Cancer therapies Cancer cell growth and survival can be impacted by dysfunction in multiple biological pathways. Thus, it may be useful to combine inhibitors of different mechanisms, such as enzyme inhibitors, signal transduction inhibitors, inhibitors of chromatin dynamics or modulators of immune responses, to treat such conditions. Targeting more than one signaling pathway (or more than one biological molecule involved in a given signaling pathway) may reduce the likelihood of drug-resistance arising in a cell population, or reduce the toxicity of treatment. The compounds of the present disclosure can be used in combination with one or more other therapies for the treatment of diseases, such as cancer or infections. Examples of diseases and indications treatable with combination therapies include those as described herein. Examples of cancers include solid tumors and non-solid tumors, such as liquid tumors, blood cancers. Examples of infections include viral infections, bacterial infections, fungus infections or parasite infections. For example, the compounds of the present disclosure can be combined with one or more inhibitors of the following kinases for the treatment of cancer: Akt1, Akt2, Akt3, BCL2, CDK, TGF- βR, PKA, PKG, PKC, CaM-kinase, phosphorylase kinase, MEKK, ERK, MAPK, mTOR, EGFR, HER2, HER3, HER4, INS-R, IDH2, IGF-1R, IR-R, PDGF αR, PDGF βR, PI3K (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and multiple or selective), CSF1R, KIT, FLK-II, KDR/FLK-1, FLK-4, flt-1, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, FGFR4, c-Met, PARP, Ron, Sea, TRKA, TRKB, TRKC, TAM kinases (Axl, Mer, Tyro3), FLT3, VEGFR/Flt2, Flt4, EphA1, EphA2, EphA3, EphB2, EphB4, Tie2, Src, Fyn, Lck, Fgr, Btk, Fak, SYK, FRK, JAK, ABL, ALK and B- Raf. In some embodiments, the compounds of the present disclosure can be combined with one or more of the following inhibitors for the treatment of cancer or infections. Non-limiting examples of inhibitors that can be combined with the compounds of the present disclosure for treatment of cancer and infections include an FGFR inhibitor (FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 or FGFR4, e.g., pemigatinib (INCY54828), INCB62079), an EGFR (also known as ErB-1 or HER- 1) inhibitor (e.g., erlotinib, gefitinib, vandetanib, orsimertinib, cetuximab, necitumumab, or panitumumab), a VEGFR inhibitor or pathway blocker (e.g., bevacizumab, pazopanib, sunitinib, sorafenib, axitinib, regorafenib, ponatinib, cabozantinib, vandetanib, ramucirumab, lenvatinib, ziv-aflibercept), a PARP inhibitor (e.g., olaparib, rucaparib, veliparib or niraparib), a JAK inhibitor (JAK1 and/or JAK2, e.g., ruxolitinib, baricitinib or itacitinib (INCB39110)), an IDO inhibitor (e.g., epacadostat, NLG919, or BMS-986205, MK7162), an LSD1 inhibitor (e.g., INCB59872 and INCB60003), a TDO inhibitor, a PI3K-delta inhibitor (e.g., Parsaclisib (INCB50465) and INCB50797), a PI3K-gamma inhibitor such as PI3K-gamma selective inhibitor, a Pim inhibitor (e.g., INCB53914), an EGFR inhibitor (also known as ErB-1 or HER- 1; e.g., erlotinib, gefitinib, vandetanib, orsimertinib, cetuximab, necitumumab, or panitumumab), a VEGFR inhibitor or pathway blocker (e.g., bevacizumab, pazopanib, sunitinib, sorafenib, axitinib, regorafenib, ponatinib, cabozantinib, vandetanib, ramucirumab, lenvatinib, ziv- aflibercept), a PARP inhibitor (e.g., olaparib, rucaparib, veliparib, talazoparib, or niraparib), a CSF1R inhibitor, a TAM receptor tyrosine kinase (Tyro-3, Axl, and Mer), an adenosine receptor antagonist (e.g., A2a/A2b receptor antagonist), an HPK1 inhibitor, a chemokine receptor inhibitor (e.g., CCR2 or CCR5 inhibitor), a SHP1/2 phosphatase inhibitor, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDAC) such as an HDAC8 inhibitor, an angiogenesis inhibitor, an interleukin receptor inhibitor, bromo and extra terminal family members inhibitors (for example, bromodomain inhibitors or BET inhibitors such as INCB54329 and INCB57643), an arginase inhibitor (INCB001158), a PARP inhibitor (such as rucaparib or olaparib), sitravatinib, a B-Raf inhibitor-MEK inhibitor combination (such as encorafenib plus binimetinib, dabrafenib plus trametinib, or cobimetinib plus vemurafenib), and an adenosine receptor antagonist or combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the compounds of the present disclosure can be combined with a TLR7 agonist (e.g., imiquimod). The compounds of the present disclosure can further be used in combination with other methods of treating cancers, for example by chemotherapy, irradiation therapy, tumor-targeted therapy, adjuvant therapy, immunotherapy or surgery. Examples of immunotherapy include cytokine treatment (e.g., interferons, GM-CSF, G-CSF, IL-2), CRS-207 immunotherapy, cancer vaccine, monoclonal antibody, bispecific or multi-specific antibody, antibody drug conjugate, adoptive T cell transfer, Toll receptor agonists, STING agonists, RIG-I agonists, oncolytic virotherapy and immunomodulating small molecules, including thalidomide or JAK1/2 inhibitor, PI3Kδ inhibitor and the like. The compounds can be administered in combination with one or more anti-cancer drugs, such as a chemotherapeutic agent. Examples of chemotherapeutics include any of: abarelix, aldesleukin, alemtuzumab, alitretinoin, allopurinol, altretamine, anastrozole, arsenic trioxide, asparaginase, azacitidine, bevacizumab, bexarotene, baricitinib, bleomycin, bortezomib, busulfan intravenous, busulfan oral, calusterone, capecitabine, carboplatin, carmustine, cetuximab, chlorambucil, cisplatin, cladribine, clofarabine, cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, dacarbazine, dactinomycin, dalteparin sodium, dasatinib, daunorubicin, decitabine, denileukin, denileukin diftitox, dexrazoxane, docetaxel, doxorubicin, dromostanolone propionate, eculizumab, epirubicin, erlotinib, estramustine, etoposide phosphate, etoposide, exemestane, fentanyl citrate, filgrastim, floxuridine, fludarabine, fluorouracil, fulvestrant, gefitinib, gemcitabine, gemtuzumab ozogamicin, goserelin acetate, histrelin acetate, ibritumomab tiuxetan, idarubicin, ifosfamide, imatinib mesylate, interferon alfa 2a, irinotecan, lapatinib ditosylate, lenalidomide, letrozole, leucovorin, leuprolide acetate, levamisole, lomustine, meclorethamine, megestrol acetate, melphalan, mercaptopurine, methotrexate, methoxsalen, mitomycin C, mitotane, mitoxantrone, nandrolone phenpropionate, nelarabine, nofetumomab, oxaliplatin, paclitaxel, pamidronate, panitumumab, pegaspargase, pegfilgrastim, pemetrexed disodium, pentostatin, pipobroman, plicamycin, procarbazine, quinacrine, rasburicase, rituximab, ruxolitinib, sorafenib, streptozocin, sunitinib, sunitinib maleate, tamoxifen, temozolomide, teniposide, testolactone, thalidomide, thioguanine, thiotepa, topotecan, toremifene, tositumomab, trastuzumab, tretinoin, uracil mustard, valrubicin, vinblastine, vincristine, vinorelbine, vorinostat and zoledronate. Other anti-cancer agent(s) include antibody therapeutics such as trastuzumab (Herceptin), antibodies to costimulatory molecules such as CTLA-4 (e.g., ipilimumab), 4-1BB (e.g., urelumab, utomilumab), antibodies to PD-1 and PD-L1, or antibodies to cytokines (IL-10, TGF- β, etc.). Examples of antibodies to PD-1 and/or PD-L1 that can be combined with compounds of the present disclosure for the treatment of cancer or infections such as viral, bacteria, fungus and parasite infections include, but are not limited to nivolumab, pembrolizumab, atezolizumab, durvalumab, avelumab and SHR-1210. The compounds of the present disclosure can further be used in combination with one or more anti-inflammatory agents, steroids, immunosuppressants or therapeutic antibodies. The compounds described herein, or salts thereof can be combined with another immunogenic agent, such as cancerous cells, purified tumor antigens (including recombinant proteins, peptides, and carbohydrate molecules), cells, and cells transfected with genes encoding immune stimulating cytokines. Non-limiting examples of tumor vaccines that can be used include peptides of melanoma antigens, such as peptides of gp100, MAGE antigens, Trp-2, MARTI and/or tyrosinase, or tumor cells transfected to express the cytokine GM-CSF. The compounds described herein, or salts thereof can be used in combination with a vaccination protocol for the treatment of cancer. In some embodiments, the tumor cells are transduced to express GM-CSF. In some embodiments, tumor vaccines include the proteins from viruses implicated in human cancers such as Human Papilloma Viruses (HPV), Hepatitis Viruses (HBV and HCV) and Kaposi's Herpes Sarcoma Virus (KHSV). In some embodiments, the compounds of the present disclosure can be used in combination with tumor specific antigen such as heat shock proteins isolated from tumor tissue itself. In some embodiments, the compounds described herein, or salts thereof can be combined with dendritic cells immunization to activate potent anti-tumor responses. The compounds of the present disclosure can be used in combination with bispecific macrocyclic peptides that target Fe alpha or Fe gamma receptor-expressing effectors cells to tumor cells. The compounds of the present disclosure can also be combined with macrocyclic peptides that activate host immune responsiveness. The compounds of the present disclosure can be used in combination with bone marrow transplant for the treatment of a variety of tumors of hematopoietic origin. The compounds described herein, or salts thereof can be used in combination with vaccines, to stimulate the immune response to pathogens, toxins, and self antigens. Examples of pathogens for which this therapeutic approach may be particularly useful, include pathogens for which there is currently no effective vaccine, or pathogens for which conventional vaccines are less than completely effective. These include, but are not limited to, HIV, Hepatitis (A, B, & C), Influenza, Herpes, Giardia, Malaria, Leishmania, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa. Viruses causing infections treatable by methods of the present disclosure include, but are not limit to human papillomavirus, influenza, hepatitis A, B, C or D viruses, adenovirus, poxvirus, herpes simplex viruses, human cytomegalovirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome virus, ebola virus, measles virus, herpes virus (e.g., VZV, HSV-1, HAV-6, HSV-II, and CMV, Epstein Barr virus), flaviviruses, echovirus, rhinovirus, coxsackie virus, coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, mumpsvirus, rotavirus, measles virus, rubella virus, parvovirus, vaccinia virus, HTLV virus, dengue virus, papillomavirus, molluscum virus, poliovirus, rabies virus, JC virus and arboviral encephalitis virus. Pathogenic bacteria causing infections treatable by methods of the disclosure include, but are not limited to, chlamydia, rickettsial bacteria, mycobacteria, staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci, meningococci and conococci, klebsiella, proteus, serratia, pseudomonas, legionella, diphtheria, salmonella, bacilli, cholera, tetanus, botulism, anthrax, plague, leptospirosis, and Lyme's disease bacteria. Pathogenic fungi causing infections treatable by methods of the disclosure include, but are not limited to, Candida (albicans, krusei, glabrata, tropicalis, etc.), Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus (fumigatus, niger, etc.), Genus Mucorales (mucor, absidia, rhizophus), Sporothrix schenkii, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Coccidioides immitis and Histoplasma capsulatum. Pathogenic parasites causing infections treatable by methods of the disclosure include, but are not limited to, Entamoeba histolytica, Balantidium coli, Naegleriafowleri, Acanthamoeba sp., Giardia lambia, Cryptosporidium sp., Pneumocystis carinii, Plasmodium vivax, Babesia microti, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani, Toxoplasma gondi, and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. When more than one pharmaceutical agent is administered to a patient, they can be administered simultaneously, separately, sequentially, or in combination (e.g., for more than two agents). IV. Formulation, Dosage Forms and Administration When employed as pharmaceuticals, the compounds of the present disclosure can be administered in the form of pharmaceutical compositions. Thus the present disclosure provides a composition comprising a compound described herein, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or any of the embodiments thereof, and at least one pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or excipient. These compositions can be prepared in a manner well known in the pharmaceutical art, and can be administered by a variety of routes, depending upon whether local or systemic treatment is indicated and upon the area to be treated. Administration may be topical (including transdermal, epidermal, ophthalmic and to mucous membranes including intranasal, vaginal and rectal delivery), pulmonary (e.g., by inhalation or insufflation of powders or aerosols, including by nebulizer; intratracheal or intranasal), oral or parenteral. Parenteral administration includes intravenous, intraarterial, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal intramuscular or injection or infusion; or intracranial, e.g., intrathecal or intraventricular, administration. Parenteral administration can be in the form of a single bolus dose, or may be, e.g., by a continuous perfusion pump. Pharmaceutical compositions and formulations for topical administration may include transdermal patches, ointments, lotions, creams, gels, drops, suppositories, sprays, liquids and powders. Conventional pharmaceutical carriers, aqueous, powder or oily bases, thickeners and the like may be necessary or desirable. This disclosure also includes pharmaceutical compositions which contain, as the active ingredient, the compound of the present disclosure or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, in combination with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers or excipients. In some embodiments, the composition is suitable for topical administration. In making the compositions of the disclosure, the active ingredient is typically mixed with an excipient, diluted by an excipient or enclosed within such a carrier in the form of, e.g., a capsule, sachet, paper, or other container. When the excipient serves as a diluent, it can be a solid, semi-solid, or liquid material, which acts as a vehicle, carrier or medium for the active ingredient. Thus, the compositions can be in the form of tablets, pills, powders, lozenges, sachets, cachets, elixirs, suspensions, emulsions, solutions, syrups, aerosols (as a solid or in a liquid medium), ointments containing, e.g., up to 10% by weight of the active compound, soft and hard gelatin capsules, suppositories, sterile injectable solutions and sterile packaged powders. In preparing a formulation, the active compound can be milled to provide the appropriate particle size prior to combining with the other ingredients. If the active compound is substantially insoluble, it can be milled to a particle size of less than 200 mesh. If the active compound is substantially water soluble, the particle size can be adjusted by milling to provide a substantially uniform distribution in the formulation, e.g., about 40 mesh. The compounds of the disclosure may be milled using known milling procedures such as wet milling to obtain a particle size appropriate for tablet formation and for other formulation types. Finely divided (nanoparticulate) preparations of the compounds of the disclosure can be prepared by processes known in the art see, e.g., WO 2002/000196. Some examples of suitable excipients include lactose, dextrose, sucrose, sorbitol, mannitol, starches, gum acacia, calcium phosphate, alginates, tragacanth, gelatin, calcium silicate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone, cellulose, water, syrup and methyl cellulose. The formulations can additionally include: lubricating agents such as talc, magnesium stearate and mineral oil; wetting agents; emulsifying and suspending agents; preserving agents such as methyl- and propylhydroxy-benzoates; sweetening agents; and flavoring agents. The compositions of the disclosure can be formulated so as to provide quick, sustained or delayed release of the active ingredient after administration to the patient by employing procedures known in the art. In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition comprises silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC) and at least one compound described herein, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In some embodiments, the silicified microcrystalline cellulose comprises about 98% microcrystalline cellulose and about 2% silicon dioxide w/w. In some embodiments, the composition is a sustained release composition comprising at least one compound described herein, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and at least one pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or excipient. In some embodiments, the composition comprises at least one compound described herein, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and at least one component selected from microcrystalline cellulose, lactose monohydrate, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and polyethylene oxide. In some embodiments, the composition comprises at least one compound described herein, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and microcrystalline cellulose, lactose monohydrate and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. In some embodiments, the composition comprises at least one compound described herein, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and microcrystalline cellulose, lactose monohydrate and polyethylene oxide. In some embodiments, the composition further comprises magnesium stearate or silicon dioxide. In some embodiments, the microcrystalline cellulose is Avicel PH102™. In some embodiments, the lactose monohydrate is Fast-flo 316™. In some embodiments, the hydroxypropyl methylcellulose is hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 2208 K4M (e.g., Methocel K4 M Premier™) and/or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 2208 K100LV (e.g., Methocel K00LV™). In some embodiments, the polyethylene oxide is polyethylene oxide WSR 1105 (e.g., Polyox WSR 1105™). In some embodiments, a wet granulation process is used to produce the composition. In some embodiments, a dry granulation process is used to produce the composition. The compositions can be formulated in a unit dosage form, each dosage containing from about 5 to about 1,000 mg (1 g), more usually about 100 mg to about 500 mg, of the active ingredient. In some embodiments, each dosage contains about 10 mg of the active ingredient. In some embodiments, each dosage contains about 50 mg of the active ingredient. In some embodiments, each dosage contains about 25 mg of the active ingredient. The term "unit dosage forms" refers to physically discrete units suitable as unitary dosages for human subjects and other mammals, each unit containing a predetermined quantity of active material calculated to produce the desired therapeutic effect, in association with a suitable pharmaceutical excipient. The components used to formulate the pharmaceutical compositions are of high purity and are substantially free of potentially harmful contaminants (e.g., at least National Food grade, generally at least analytical grade, and more typically at least pharmaceutical grade). Particularly for human consumption, the composition is preferably manufactured or formulated under Good Manufacturing Practice standards as defined in the applicable regulations of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. For example, suitable formulations may be sterile and/or substantially isotonic and/or in full compliance with all Good Manufacturing Practice regulations of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The active compound may be effective over a wide dosage range and is generally administered in a therapeutically effective amount. It will be understood, however, that the amount of the compound actually administered will usually be determined by a physician, according to the relevant circumstances, including the condition to be treated, the chosen route of administration, the actual compound administered, the age, weight, and response of the individual patient, the severity of the patient's symptoms and the like. The therapeutic dosage of a compound of the present disclosure can vary according to, e.g., the particular use for which the treatment is made, the manner of administration of the compound, the health and condition of the patient, and the judgment of the prescribing physician. The proportion or concentration of a compound of the disclosure in a pharmaceutical composition can vary depending upon a number of factors including dosage, chemical characteristics (e.g., hydrophobicity), and the route of administration. For example, the compounds of the disclosure can be provided in an aqueous physiological buffer solution containing about 0.1 to about 10% w/v of the compound for parenteral administration. Some typical dose ranges are from about 1 ^g/kg to about 1 g/kg of body weight per day. In some embodiments, the dose range is from about 0.01 mg/kg to about 100 mg/kg of body weight per day. The dosage is likely to depend on such variables as the type and extent of progression of the disease or disorder, the overall health status of the particular patient, the relative biological efficacy of the compound selected, formulation of the excipient, and its route of administration. Effective doses can be extrapolated from dose-response curves derived from in vitro or animal model test systems. For preparing solid compositions such as tablets, the principal active ingredient is mixed with a pharmaceutical excipient to form a solid preformulation composition containing a homogeneous mixture of a compound of the present disclosure. When referring to these preformulation compositions as homogeneous, the active ingredient is typically dispersed evenly throughout the composition so that the composition can be readily subdivided into equally effective unit dosage forms such as tablets, pills and capsules. This solid preformulation is then subdivided into unit dosage forms of the type described above containing from, e.g., about 0.1 to about 1000 mg of the active ingredient of the present disclosure. The tablets or pills of the present disclosure can be coated or otherwise compounded to provide a dosage form affording the advantage of prolonged action. For example, the tablet or pill can comprise an inner dosage and an outer dosage component, the latter being in the form of an envelope over the former. The two components can be separated by an enteric layer which serves to resist disintegration in the stomach and permit the inner component to pass intact into the duodenum or to be delayed in release. A variety of materials can be used for such enteric layers or coatings, such materials including a number of polymeric acids and mixtures of polymeric acids with such materials as shellac, cetyl alcohol and cellulose acetate. The liquid forms in which the compounds and compositions of the present disclosure can be incorporated for administration orally or by injection include aqueous solutions, suitably flavored syrups, aqueous or oil suspensions, and flavored emulsions with edible oils such as cottonseed oil, sesame oil, coconut oil, or peanut oil, as well as elixirs and similar pharmaceutical vehicles. Compositions for inhalation or insufflation include solutions and suspensions in pharmaceutically acceptable, aqueous or organic solvents, or mixtures thereof, and powders. The liquid or solid compositions may contain suitable pharmaceutically acceptable excipients as described supra. In some embodiments, the compositions are administered by the oral or nasal respiratory route for local or systemic effect. Compositions can be nebulized by use of inert gases. Nebulized solutions may be breathed directly from the nebulizing device or the nebulizing device can be attached to a face mask, tent, or intermittent positive pressure breathing machine. Solution, suspension, or powder compositions can be administered orally or nasally from devices which deliver the formulation in an appropriate manner. Topical formulations can contain one or more conventional carriers. In some embodiments, ointments can contain water and one or more hydrophobic carriers selected from, e.g., liquid paraffin, polyoxyethylene alkyl ether, propylene glycol, white Vaseline, and the like. Carrier compositions of creams can be based on water in combination with glycerol and one or more other components, e.g., glycerinemonostearate, PEG-glycerinemonostearate and cetylstearyl alcohol. Gels can be formulated using isopropyl alcohol and water, suitably in combination with other components such as, e.g., glycerol, hydroxyethyl cellulose, and the like. In some embodiments, topical formulations contain at least about 0.1, at least about 0.25, at least about 0.5, at least about 1, at least about 2 or at least about 5 wt. % of the compound of the disclosure. The topical formulations can be suitably packaged in tubes of, e.g., 100 g which are optionally associated with instructions for the treatment of the select indication, e.g., psoriasis or other skin condition. The amount of compound or composition administered to a patient will vary depending upon what is being administered, the purpose of the administration, such as prophylaxis or therapy, the state of the patient, the manner of administration and the like. In therapeutic applications, compositions can be administered to a patient already suffering from a disease in an amount sufficient to cure or at least partially arrest the symptoms of the disease and its complications. Effective doses will depend on the disease condition being treated as well as by the judgment of the attending clinician depending upon factors such as the severity of the disease, the age, weight and general condition of the patient and the like. The compositions administered to a patient can be in the form of pharmaceutical compositions described above. These compositions can be sterilized by conventional sterilization techniques, or may be sterile filtered. Aqueous solutions can be packaged for use as is, or lyophilized, the lyophilized preparation being combined with a sterile aqueous carrier prior to administration. The pH of the compound preparations typically will be between 3 and 11, more preferably from 5 to 9 and most preferably from 7 to 8. It will be understood that use of certain of the foregoing excipients, carriers or stabilizers will result in the formation of pharmaceutical salts. The therapeutic dosage of a compound of the present disclosure can vary according to, e.g., the particular use for which the treatment is made, the manner of administration of the compound, the health and condition of the patient, and the judgment of the prescribing physician. The proportion or concentration of a compound of the disclosure in a pharmaceutical composition can vary depending upon a number of factors including dosage, chemical characteristics (e.g., hydrophobicity), and the route of administration. For example, the compounds of the disclosure can be provided in an aqueous physiological buffer solution containing about 0.1 to about 10% w/v of the compound for parenteral administration. Some typical dose ranges are from about 1 µg/kg to about 1 g/kg of body weight per day. In some embodiments, the dose range is from about 0.01 mg/kg to about 100 mg/kg of body weight per day. The dosage is likely to depend on such variables as the type and extent of progression of the disease or disorder, the overall health status of the particular patient, the relative biological efficacy of the compound selected, formulation of the excipient, and its route of administration. Effective doses can be extrapolated from dose-response curves derived from in vitro or animal model test systems. V. Labeled Compounds and Assay Methods The compounds of the present disclosure can further be useful in investigations of biological processes in normal and abnormal tissues. Thus, another aspect of the present disclosure relates to labeled compounds of the disclosure (radio-labeled, fluorescent-labeled, etc.) that would be useful not only in imaging techniques but also in assays, both in vitro and in vivo, for localizing and quantitating PD-1 or PD-L1 protein in tissue samples, including human, and for identifying PD-L1 ligands by inhibition binding of a labeled compound. Accordingly, the present disclosure includes PD-1/PD-L1 binding assays that contain such labeled compounds. The present disclosure further includes isotopically-labeled compounds of the disclosure. An "isotopically" or “radio-labeled” compound is a compound of the disclosure where one or more atoms are replaced or substituted by an atom having an atomic mass or mass number different from the atomic mass or mass number typically found in nature (i.e., naturally occurring). Suitable radionuclides that may be incorporated in compounds of the present disclosure include but are not limited to 3 H (also written as T for tritium), 11 C, 13 C, 14 C, 13 N, 15 N, 15 O, 17 O, 18 O, 18 F, 35 S, 36 Cl, 82 Br, 75 Br, 76 Br, 77 Br, 123 I, 124 I, 125 I and 131 I. For example, one or more hydrogen atoms in a compound of the present disclosure can be replaced by deuterium atoms. One or more constituent atoms of the compounds presented herein can be replaced or substituted with isotopes of the atoms in natural or non-natural abundance. In some embodiments, the compound includes at least one deuterium atom. In some embodiments, the compound includes two or more deuterium atoms. In some embodiments, the compound includes 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, or 1-6 deuterium atoms. In some embodiments, all of the hydrogen atoms in a compound can be replaced or substituted by deuterium atoms. Synthetic methods for including isotopes into organic compounds are known in the art (Deuterium Labeling in Organic Chemistry by Alan F. Thomas (New York, N.Y., Appleton- Century-Crofts, 1971; The Renaissance of H/D Exchange by Jens Atzrodt, Volker Derdau, Thorsten Fey and Jochen Zimmermann, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.2007, 7744-7765; The Organic Chemistry of Isotopic Labelling by James R. Hanson, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2011). Isotopically labeled compounds can be used in various studies such as NMR spectroscopy, metabolism experiments, and/or assays. Substitution with heavier isotopes, such as deuterium, may afford certain therapeutic advantages resulting from greater metabolic stability, for example, increased in vivo half-life or reduced dosage requirements, and hence may be preferred in some circumstances. (see e.g., A. Kerekes et al. J. Med. Chem.2011, 54, 201-210; R. Xu et al. J. Label Compd. Radiopharm.2015, 58, 308-312). In particular, substitution at one or more metabolism sites may afford one or more of the therapeutic advantages. The radionuclide that is incorporated in the instant radio-labeled compounds will depend on the specific application of that radio-labeled compound. For example, for in vitro PD-L1 protein labeling and competition assays, compounds that incorporate 3 H, 14 C, 82 Br, 125 I, 131 I, 35 S or will generally be most useful. For radio-imaging applications 11 C, 18 F, 125 I, 123 I, 124 I, 131 I, 75 Br, 76 Br or 77 Br can be useful. It is understood that a “radio-labeled” or “labeled compound” is a compound that has incorporated at least one radionuclide. In some embodiments, the radionuclide is selected from the group consisting of 3 H, 14 C, 125 I, 35 S and 82 Br. The present disclosure can further include synthetic methods for incorporating radio- isotopes into compounds of the disclosure. Synthetic methods for incorporating radio-isotopes into organic compounds are well known in the art, and an ordinary skill in the art will readily recognize the methods applicable for the compounds of disclosure. A labeled compound of the disclosure can be used in a screening assay to identify and/or evaluate compounds. For example, a newly synthesized or identified compound (i.e., test compound) which is labeled can be evaluated for its ability to bind a PD-L1 protein by monitoring its concentration variation when contacting with the PD-L1 protein, through tracking of the labeling. For example, a test compound (labeled) can be evaluated for its ability to reduce binding of another compound which is known to bind to a PD-L1 protein (i.e., standard compound). Accordingly, the ability of a test compound to compete with the standard compound for binding to the PD-L1 protein directly correlates to its binding affinity. Conversely, in some other screening assays, the standard compound is labeled and test compounds are unlabeled. Accordingly, the concentration of the labeled standard compound is monitored in order to evaluate the competition between the standard compound and the test compound, and the relative binding affinity of the test compound is thus ascertained. VI. Kits The present disclosure also includes pharmaceutical kits useful, e.g., in the treatment or prevention of diseases or disorders associated with the activity of PD-L1 including its interaction with other proteins such as PD-1 and B7-1 (CD80), such as cancer or infections, which include one or more containers containing a pharmaceutical composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of a compound described herein. Such kits can further include one or more of various conventional pharmaceutical kit components, such as, e.g., containers with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, additional containers, etc., as will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art. Instructions, either as inserts or as labels, indicating quantities of the components to be administered, guidelines for administration, and/or guidelines for mixing the components, can also be included in the kit. The following abbreviations may be used herein: aq. (aqueous); br (broad); d (doublet); dd (doublet of doublets); DCM (dichloromethane); DMF (N, N- dimethylformamide); DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide); Et (ethyl); EtOAc (ethyl acetate); g (gram(s)); h (hour(s)); HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography); Hz (hertz); J (coupling constant); LCMS (liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry); m (multiplet); M (molar); MS (Mass spectrometry); Me (methyl); MeCN (acetonitrile); MeOH (methanol); mg (milligram(s)); min. (minutes(s)); mL (milliliter(s)); mmol (millimole(s)); nM (nanomolar); NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy); Ph (phenyl); r.t. (room temperature), s (singlet); t (triplet or tertiary); TBS (tert-butyldimethylsilyl); tert (tertiary); tt (triplet of triplets); TFA (trifluoroacetic acid); THF (tetrahydrofuran); µg (microgram(s)); µL (microliter(s)); µM (micromolar); wt. % (weight percent). The invention will be described in greater detail by way of specific examples. The following examples are offered for illustrative purposes, and are not intended to limit the invention in any manner. Those of skill in the art will readily recognize a variety of non-critical parameters which can be changed or modified to yield essentially the same results. The compounds of the Examples have been found to inhibit the activity of PD-1/PD-L1 protein/protein interaction according to at least one assay described herein. EXAMPLES Experimental procedures for compounds of the invention are provided below. Open Access Preparative LCMS Purification of some of the compounds prepared was performed on Waters mass directed fractionation systems. The basic equipment setup, protocols and control software for the operation of these systems have been described in detail in literature. See, e.g., Blom, "Two-Pump At Column Dilution Configuration for Preparative LC-MS", K. Blom, J. Combi. Chem., 2002, 4, 295-301; Blom et al., "Optimizing Preparative LC-MS Configurations and Methods for Parallel Synthesis Purification", J. Combi. Chem., 2003, 5, 670-83; and Blom et al., "Preparative LC-MS Purification: Improved Compound Specific Method Optimization", J. Combi. Chem., 2004, 6, 874-883. Intermediate 1. 4-((3-bromo-2-methylphenyl)amino)-2-(difluoromethyl)pyrido[3 ,2- d]pyrimidine-7-carbaldehyde Step 1: 3-amino-5-bromopicolinamide To a reactor was charged sequentially 5-bromo-3-nitropicolinonitrile (3.0 kg, 13.2 mol), methanol (15.0 L), and FeCl 3 .6H 2 O (356 g, 1.3 mol). Hydrazine monohydrate (2.0 kg, 39.6 mol) was then added dropwise to the reactor. The reaction was heated at 70 ℃ for 3 hrs. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of diatomaceous earth and rinsed with methanol (1.0 L). The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to afford a black oil, which was redissovled in ethyl acetate (2.0 L) and water (2.0 L) and stirred at room temperature overnight. The mixture was separated and the organic phase was dried and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated to give a black solid (1.8 kg, 63% yield), which was used directly in Step 2 without further purification. Step 2: 5-bromo-3-(2,2-difluoroacetamido)picolinamide To reactor 1 was charged sequentially 3-amino-5-bromopicolinamide (2.0 kg, 9.3 mol), DCM (8.0 L), and triethylamine (2.8 kg, 27.8 mol). The mixture in reactor 1 was cooled to 5-10 o C. Then to reactor 2 was charged sequentially difluroacetic acid (2.1 kg, 21.4 mol), DCM (2.0 L), and DMF (50 mL). The mixture in reactor 1 was slowly added to reactor 2. The reaction temperature was controlled to below 15 o C during the addition. After addition, the reaction was stirred at 15-20 o C for 4 hrs. Then the reaction mixture was poured into iced water (5.0 L). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 hr. The organic layer was separated, washed with brine (2.0 L) and then concentrated in vacuo to afford a brown solid (2.0 kg, 75% yield), which was used directly in Step 3 without further purification. Step 3: 7-bromo-2-(difluoromethyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-ol To a reactor was charged sequentially 5-bromo-3-(2,2- difluoroacetamido)picolinamide (870 g, 3.0 mol), ethanol (2.0 L), water (0.5 L), and sodium hydroxide (118 g, 3.0 mol). The reaction was stirred at 50-60 ℃ for 4 hrs. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was poured into iced water (2.0 L). After stirring at room temperature for 2 hrs, the suspension was filtered to give a brown solid (500 g, 60% yield), which was dried under air and used directly in Step 4 without further purification. Step 4: 2-(difluoromethyl)-7-vinylpyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-ol To a reactor was charged sequentially 7-bromo-2-(difluoromethyl)pyrido[3,2- d]pyrimidin-4-ol (1.3 kg, 4.7 mol), ethanol (6.0 L), water (6.0 L), potassium carbonate (1.9 kg, 14.1 mol), [1,1'-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene]palladium(II) dichloride (130 g, 10 wt. %), and vinylboronic acid pinacol ester (0.9 kg, 6.1 mol). The mixture was stirred at 80-85 o C for 60-70 hrs. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of diatomaceous earth and rinsed with ethyl acetate (0.5 L). Then the filtrate was adjusted by conc. HCl solution to pH 2-3 before extracted with ethyl acetate three times (3x10.0 L). The organic layers were combined and washed with brine (4.0 L), and concentrated to afford a crude residue. To the residue was added petroleum ether (2.0 L). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 hrs. Then the suspension was filtered and the solid was collected as a yellow solid (500 g, 50% yield). Step 5: 4-chloro-2-(difluoromethyl)-7-vinylpyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidine To a reactor was charged sequentially toluene (1.0 L), 2-(difluoromethyl)-7- vinylpyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-ol (200 g, 0.9 mol), and then phosphoryl chloride (206 g, 1.35 mol) slowly. Then N,N-dimethylaniline (190 g, 1.35 mol) was added dropwise to the reactor. Then the mixture was stirred at 130 o C for 2 hrs. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was poured into iced water (1.0 L). The mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate three times (1.0 L, 0.5 L, 0.5 L). The organic layers were combined, then washed with brine (0.5 L) and concentrated to afford a crude residue. The residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography to give a yellow solid (170 g, 80% yield). Step 6: N-(3-bromo-2-methylphenyl)-2-(difluoromethyl)-7-vinylpyrido[ 3,2-d]pyrimidin-4- amine To a reactor was charged sequentially tert-butanol (2.5 L), 4-chloro-2- (difluoromethyl)-7-vinylpyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidine (250 g, 1.04 mol) and 3-bromo-2- methylaniline (188 g, 1.25 mol). The mixture was stirred at 50 o C overnight. Then the reaction was cooled to room temperature. The suspension was filtered and the solid was collected (375 g, 92% yield) and used without further purification. Step 7: 4-((3-bromo-2-methylphenyl)amino)-2-(difluoromethyl)pyrido[3 ,2-d]pyrimidine-7- carbaldehyde To a reactor was charged sequentially THF (7.0 L) and water (2.0 L) at room temperature, followed by sodium periodate (620 g, 2.8 mol), 2,6-dimethylpyridine (205 g, 1.9 mol) at 5-10 o C, osmium tetraoxide (2.0 g, 0.09 mol) at 5-10 o C and N-(3-bromo-2- methylphenyl)-2-(difluoromethyl)-7-vinylpyrido[3,2-d]pyrimid in-4-amine (370 g, 0.96 mol) at 5-10 o C. The mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. Then the mixture was concentrated before adding water (2.0 L) to the residue. After filtration, the solid was collected and redissovled in ethyl acetate (1.5 L). The mixture was stirred at reflux for 3 hrs. After cooling to room temperature, the suspension was filtered and the solid was collected and dried under air (325 g, 85% yield). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 10.75 (s, 1H), 10.34 (s, 1H), 9.35 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 8.78 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.57 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 7.24 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.74 (m, J = 54.0 Hz, 1H), 2.30 (s, 3H). 13 C NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 192.5 (s), 159.7 (s), 158.2 (t, J = 96 Hz), 149.0 (s), 144.5 (s), 139.2 (s), 137.9 (s), 135.2 (s), 134.6 (s), 134.3 (s), 131.0 (s), 128.0 (s), 126.9 (s), 125.2 (s), 112.8 (t, J = 960 Hz), 19.0 (s). Example 1. (R)-4-(2-(2-((2-chloro-3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7-((3-hydroxy pyrrolidin-1- yl)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2'-methyl-[1,1' -biphenyl]-3- yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]p yridin-5- yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylic acid Step 1: (R)-1-((4-((3-bromo-2-methylphenyl)amino)-2-(difluoromethyl) pyrido[3,2- d]pyrimidin-7-yl)methyl)pyrrolidin-3-ol A mixture of 4-((3-bromo-2-methylphenyl)amino)-2-(difluoromethyl)pyrido[3 ,2- d]pyrimidine-7-carbaldehyde (Intermediate 1: 1027 mg), (R)-pyrrolidin-3-ol (273 mg) and acetic acid (220 µL) in DCM (7 mL) was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. Then sodium triacetoxyborohydride (830 mg) was added. The mixture was further stirred at room temperature for 1 h. The reaction was quenched with NH 3 H 2 O aqueous solution, extracted by DCM. The organic phase was combined and dried over MgSO 4 . After filtration, the DCM solution was concentrated to a residue, which was purified by flash chromatography (0-12% MeOH/DCM). LC-MS calculated for C 20 H 21 BrF 2 N 5 O (M+H) + : m/z = 464.1, 466.1; found 464.0, 466.0. Step 2: tert-butyl 1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine-5-carb oxylate A solution of 1-methyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine (Accela, cat#SY032476: 2.0 g), (Boc) 2 O (3.38 mL) in dichloromethane (60 mL) was stirred at room temperature for 1 h. The reaction was quenched with saturated aqueous NaHCO 3 solution, and extracted with ethyl acetate. The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4 and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was used in Step 3 without further purification. LCMS calculated for C 12 H 20 N 3 O 2 (M+H) + : m/z = 238.2; found 238.2. Step 3: 5-(tert-butyl) 2-methyl 1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine-2,5- dicarboxylate n-Butyllithium in hexanes (2.5 M, 7.00 mL) was added to a cold (-78 °C) solution of the crude product tert-butyl 1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine-5- carboxylate from Step 2 (3.46 g) in tetrahydrofuran (60.0 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred at -78 °C for 10 min prior to the addition of methyl chloroformate (1.69 mL). After being stirred at -78 °C for 30 min, the reaction was then quenched with saturated aqueous NaHCO3 solution, and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phase was dried over Na2SO4 and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash chromatography on a silica gel column eluting with 0 to 80% ethyl acetate in hexanes to afford the desired product. LCMS calculated for C14H22N3O4 (M+H) + : m/z = 296.2; found 296.3. Step 4: tert-butyl 2-((2-chloro-3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2- yl)phenyl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[ 4,5-c]pyridine-5-carboxylate Potassium tert-butoxide solution (1.0 M in THF, 16.1 mL) was added to a solution of 5-(tert-butyl) 2-methyl 1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine-2,5- dicarboxylate (2.38 g) and 2-chloro-3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)anil ine (Ambeed, cat#A719321: 2.04 g) in THF (53.7 mL). After being stirred at room temperature for 0.5 h, the reaction mixture was quenched with water, and extracted with ethyl acetate. The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash chromatography on a silica gel column with ethyl acetate in hexanes (0-50%) to afford the product. LC-MS calculated for C25H35BClN4O5 (M+H) + : m/z = 517.2; found 517.2. Step 5: tert-butyl (R)-2-((2-chloro-3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7-((3-hydroxypyrrol idin-1- yl)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2'-methyl-[1,1' -biphenyl]-3-yl)carbamoyl)-1- methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine-5-carbox ylate A mixture of (R)-1-((4-((3-bromo-2-methylphenyl)amino)-2- (difluoromethyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-7-yl)methyl)pyrrolidi n-3-ol (48 mg), tert-butyl 2-((2- chloro-3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)phenyl )carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7- tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine-5-carboxylate (51.3 mg), potassium phosphate (54.9 mg) and chloro(2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2′,4′,6′-triisopropyl-1 ,1′-biphenyl)[2-(2′-amino- 1,1′-biphenyl)] palladium(II) (8.1 mg) in a mixture of water (0.09 mL) and 1,4-dioxane (0.43 mL), was purged with N2 and then stirred at 100 °C for 2 h. The reaction was cooled to room temperature. The reaction mixture was diluted with dichloromethane and then washed with H2O and brine solution. The organic layer was dried over MgSO4, filtered and the filtrate was concentrated to give a crude residue, which was purified by flash chromatography on a silica gel column. LC-MS calculated for C39H43ClF2N9O4 (M+H) + : m/z = 774.3; found 774.4. Step 6: methyl (R)-4-(2-(2-((2-chloro-3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7-((3-hydroxy pyrrolidin-1- yl)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2'-methyl-[1,1' -biphenyl]-3-yl)carbamoyl)-1- methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-5-yl)ethy l)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1- carboxylate To a solution of tert-butyl (R)-2-((2-chloro-3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7-((3- hydroxypyrrolidin-1-yl)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)am ino)-2'-methyl-[1,1'- biphenyl]-3-yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imi dazo[4,5-c]pyridine-5- carboxylate (15 mg) in DCM (130 µL) was added trifluoroacetic acid (130 µL). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 0.5 h. Then the volatile was evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was redissovled in DCM and neutralized with saturated NaHCO3 solution. The aqueous layer was extracted with DCM three times. The combined DCM layers were dried over MgSO4 and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated to give tetrahydro-5H- imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine crude product. To the above crude material in DCM (130 µL) was added methyl 4-(2-oxoethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylate (PharmaBlock, cat#PB96551: 7.60 mg) followed by sodium triacetoxyborohydride (10.3 mg). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 0.5 h. The reaction was then diluted with DCM and quenched by adding ammonium hydroxide aqueous solution. The DCM layer was concentrated to give a crude product, which was used directly in Step 7. LC-MS calculated for C45H51ClF2N9O4 (M+H) + : m/z = 854.4; found 854.5. Step 7: (R)-4-(2-(2-((2-chloro-3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7-((3-hydroxy pyrrolidin-1- yl)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2'-methyl-[1,1' -biphenyl]-3-yl)carbamoyl)-1- methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-5-yl)ethy l)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1- carboxylic acid To a solution of methyl (R)-4-(2-(2-((2-chloro-3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7-((3- hydroxypyrrolidin-1-yl)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)am ino)-2'-methyl-[1,1'- biphenyl]-3-yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imi dazo[4,5-c]pyridin-5- yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1] heptane-1-carboxylate (16 mg) in a mixed solvent of THF (150 µL), water (150 µL) and MeOH (75 µL) was added LiOH (2.2 mg). The mixture was stirred at 40 o C for 6 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with MeOH and then purified by prep-HPLC (pH = 2, acetonitrile/water+TFA) to give the desired product as a TFA salt. LC-MS calculated for C 44 H 49 ClF 2 N 9 O 4 (M+H) + : m/z = 840.4; found 840.4. 1 H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 10.54 (s, 1H), 9.93 (s, 1H), 9.11 (s, 1H), 8.51 (s, 1H), 8.27 (dd, J = 8.2, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 7.66 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 7.49 (t, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 7.38 (t, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.16 – 7.14 (m, 2H), 7.13 – 7.12 (m, 1H), 6.87 – 6.62 (m, 1H), 4.84 – 4.63 (m, 2H), 4.57 – 4.39 (m, 3H), 4.32 – 4.20 (m, 1H), 3.95 (s, 3H), 3.89 – 3.79 (m, 1H), 3.73 – 3.64 (m, 1H), 3.62 – 3.52 (m, 1H), 3.50 – 3.39 (m, 1H), 3.37 – 3.21 (m, 3H), 3.19 – 3.10 (m, 1H), 3.10 – 2.93 (m, 2H), 2.39 – 2.27 (m, 1H), 2.05 – 1.92 (m, 6H), 1.92 – 1.82 (m, 2H), 1.61 – 1.49 (m, 4H), 1.46 (s, 2H), 1.37 (s, 2H). Example 2. (R)-4-(2-(2-((2-chloro-3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7-((3-hydroxy -3- methylpyrrolidin-1-yl)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)ami no)-2'-methyl-[1,1'- biphenyl]-3-yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imi dazo[4,5-c]pyridin-5- yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylic acid This compound was prepared using similar procedures as described for Example 1 with (R)-3-methylpyrrolidin-3-ol replacing (R)-pyrrolidin-3-ol (Step 1). The reaction mixture in the last step was diluted with MeOH and then purified by prep-HPLC (pH = 2, acetonitrile/water +TFA) to give the desired product as a TFA salt. LC-MS calculated for C 45 H 51 ClF 2 N 9 O 4 (M+H) + : m/z = 854.4; found 854.4. 1 H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 10.54 (s, 1H), 10.23 (s, 1H), 9.94 (s, 1H), 9.11 (s, 1H), 8.52 (s, 1H), 8.28 (dd, J = 8.2, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.66 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.50 (t, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 7.39 (t, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.17 – 7.14 (m, 1H), 7.14 – 7.12 (m, 1H), 6.88 – 6.62 (m, 1H), 4.81 – 4.60 (m, 2H), 4.57 – 4.46 (m, 1H), 4.32 – 4.19 (m, 1H), 3.96 (s, 3H), 3.90 – 3.78 (m, 1H), 3.73 – 3.59 (m, 1H), 3.54 – 3.37 (m, 2H), 3.35 – 3.14 (m, 4H), 3.11 – 2.94 (m, 2H), 2.19 – 2.07 (m, 1H), 2.03 – 1.94 (m, 6H), 1.93 – 1.84 (m, 2H), 1.61 – 1.49 (m, 4H), 1.47 (s, 3H), 1.41 – 1.37 (m, 2H), 1.35 (s, 3H). Example 3. (S)-4-(2-(2-((2-chloro-3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7-((3-hydroxy pyrrolidin-1- yl)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2'-methyl-[1,1' -biphenyl]-3- yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]p yridin-5- yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylic acid Step 1: (4-((3-bromo-2-methylphenyl)amino)-2-(difluoromethyl)pyrido[ 3,2-d]pyrimidin-7- yl)methanol To a mixture of 4-((3-bromo-2-methylphenyl)amino)-2-(difluoromethyl)pyrido[3 ,2- d]pyrimidine-7-carbaldehyde (Intermediate 1: 1513 mg) in MeOH (19 mL) and CH2Cl2 (19 mL) was added sodium borohydride (146 mg). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h. Then the reaction was quenched by 1N HCl aqueous solution, and extracted with DCM three times. The organic phase was combined and dried over MgSO4. After filtration, the filtrate was concentrated to give a light yellow product, which was used directly without further purification. LC-MS calculated for C16H14BrF2N4O (M+H) + : m/z = 395.0, 397.0; found 395.1, 397.1. Step 2: tert-butyl 2-((2-chloro-3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7-(hydroxymethyl)pyrido [3,2- d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2'-methyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)carba moyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7- tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine-5-carboxylate A mixture of (4-((3-bromo-2-methylphenyl)amino)-2-(difluoromethyl)pyrido[ 3,2- d]pyrimidin-7-yl)methanol (767 mg), tert-butyl 2-((2-chloro-3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2- dioxaborolan-2-yl)phenyl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahy dro-5H-imidazo[4,5- c]pyridine-5-carboxylate (1053 mg), potassium carbonate (671 mg) and chloro(2- dicyclohexylphosphino-2′,4′,6′-triisopropyl-1,1′-bip henyl)[2-(2′-amino-1,1′- biphenyl)]palladium(II) (153 mg) in a mixed solvent of water (3.2 mL) and 1,4-dioxane (16.2 mL) was purged with N 2 and then stirred at 110 °C for 3 h. The reaction was cooled to room temperature. The reaction mixture was diluted with dichloromethane and then washed with H 2 O and saturated NaCl aqueous solution. The organic layer was dried over MgSO 4 , filtered and concentrated to give a crude residue, which was purified by flash chromatography on a silica gel column. LC-MS calculated for C 35 H 36 ClF 2 N 8 O 4 (M+H) + : m/z = 705.2; found 705.2. Step 3: methyl 4-(2-(2-((2-chloro-3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7-(hydroxymethyl) pyrido[3,2- d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2'-methyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)carba moyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7- tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-5-yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1 ]heptane-1-carboxylate To a solution of tert-butyl 2-((2-chloro-3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7- (hydroxymethyl)pyrido [3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2'-methyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3- yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]p yridine-5-carboxylate (701 mg) in DCM (5 mL) was added trifluoroacetic acid (7 mL). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. The mixture was then evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was redissovled in DCM and neutralized with saturated NaHCO 3 solution. The aqueous layer was extracted with DCM three times. The combined DCM layers were dried over MgSO 4 and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated to give crude amine product, which was used directly. A mixture of the above crude amine and methyl 4-(2- oxoethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylate (PharmaBlock, cat#PB96551: 217 mg) in DCM (10 mL) was stirred at room temperature for 1 h. Then sodium triacetoxyborohydride (421 mg) was added. The mixture was further stirred at room temperature for 1 h. The reaction was diluted in DCM and quenched by NH 4 OH. The aqueous phase was washed by DCM and the organic phase was combined and dried over MgSO 4 . After filtration, the filtrate was concentrated and the corresponding residue was purified by column chromatography (0- 16% MeOH in DCM). LC-MS calculated for C 41 H 44 ClF 2 N 8 O 4 (M+H) + : m/z = 785.3; found 785.3. Step 4: methyl 4-(2-(2-((2-chloro-3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7-formylpyrido[3, 2-d]pyrimidin-4- yl)amino)-2'-methyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl -1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H- imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-5-yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-car boxylate To a solution of methyl 4-(2-(2-((2-chloro-3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7- (hydroxymethyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2'-methyl- [1,1'-biphenyl]-3- yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]p yridin-5- yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylate (210 mg) in DCM (2.7 mL) was added manganese dioxide (930 mg). The mixture was stirred at 40 °C for 2 h. The reaction was then filtered through a pad of Celite to remove solids. The filtrate was evaporated and the residue was used directly in Step 5. LC-MS calculated for C 41 H 42 ClF 2 N 8 O 4 (M+H) + : m/z = 783.3; found 783.4. Step 5: (S)-4-(2-(2-((2-chloro-3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7-((3-hydroxy pyrrolidin-1- yl)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2'-methyl-[1,1' -biphenyl]-3-yl)carbamoyl)-1- methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-5-yl)ethy l)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1- carboxylic acid To a solution of methyl 4-(2-(2-((2-chloro-3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7- formylpyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2'-methyl-[1,1'-bip henyl]-3-yl)carbamoyl)-1- methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-5-yl)ethy l)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1- carboxylate (15 mg) and (S)-pyrrolidin-3-ol (3.4 mg) in CH 2 Cl 2 (0.2 mL) was added acetic acid (2.2 µL). After the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min, sodium triacetoxyborohydride (8.1 mg) was added to the reaction and the reaction was continued to stir for 1 h. Then the reaction mixture was evaporated. The residue was used directly. To a solution of the above residue in a mixed solvent (150 µL, THF/ water/ MeOH = 2/2/1) was added LiOH (3 mg). The mixture was stirred at 40 °C for 6 h. After completion, the reaction mixture was diluted with MeOH and then purified by prep-HPLC (pH = 2, acetonitrile/water +TFA) to give the desired product as a TFA salt. LC-MS calculated for C 44 H 49 ClF 2 N 9 O 4 (M+H) + : m/z = 840.4; found 840.3. Example 4. (S)-4-(2-(2-((2-chloro-3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7-((3-hydroxy -3- methylpyrrolidin-1-yl)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)ami no)-2'-methyl-[1,1'- biphenyl]-3-yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imi dazo[4,5-c]pyridin-5- yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylic acid This compound was prepared using similar procedures as described for Example 3 with (S)-3-methylpyrrolidin-3-ol replacing (S)-pyrrolidin-3-ol (Step 5). The reaction mixture in the last step was diluted with MeOH and then purified by prep-HPLC (pH = 2, acetonitrile/water +TFA) to give the desired product as a TFA salt. LC-MS calculated for C 45 H 51 ClF 2 N 9 O 4 (M+H) + : m/z = 854.4; found 854.3. Example 5. (R)-4-(2-(2-((3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7-((3-hydroxypyrrolidi n-1- yl)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2,2'-dimethyl-[ 1,1'-biphenyl]-3- yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]p yridin-5- yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylic acid This compound was prepared using similar procedures as described for Example 1 with 2-methyl-3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)anil ine (Combi-Blocks, cat#PN-9127) replacing 2-chloro-3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)anil ine (Step 4). The reaction mixture in the last step was diluted with MeOH and then purified by prep-HPLC (pH = 2, acetonitrile/water +TFA) to give the desired product as a TFA salt. LC- MS calculated for C 45 H 52 F 2 N 9 O 4 (M+H) + : m/z = 820.4; found 820.4. 1 H NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 10.59 (s, 1H), 10.37 (s, b, 1H), 9.86 (s, 1H), 9.11 (s, 1H), 8.50 (s, 2H), 7.61 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 7.57 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.35 (t, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.30 (t, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.08 (d, J = 7.3 Hz, 1H), 7.03 (d, J = 7.3 Hz, 1H), 6.87 – 6.57 (m, 1H), 4.80 – 4.62 (m, 2H), 4.52 – 4.45 (m, 1H), 4.47 – 4.14 (m, 2H), 3.91 (s, 3H), 3.87 – 3.80 (m, 1H), 3.71 – 3.64 (m, 1H), 3.63 – 3.50 (m, 1H), 3.49 – 3.38 (m, 1H), 3.36 – 3.23 (m, 3H), 3.17 – 3.10 (m, 1H), 3.08 – 2.93 (m, 2H), 2.37 – 1.91 (m, 2H), 2.00 (s, 3H), 1.99 – 1.94 (m, 2H), 1.92 (s, 3H), 1.90 – 1.85 (m, 2H), 1.59 – 1.49 (m, 4H), 1.46 (s, 2H), 1.42 – 1.34 (m, 2H). Example 6. (R)-4-(2-(2-((3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7-((3-hydroxy-3-methyl pyrrolidin-1- yl)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2,2'-dimethyl-[ 1,1'-biphenyl]-3- yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]p yridin-5- yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylic acid This compound was prepared using similar procedures as described for Example 1 with 2-methyl-3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)anil ine (Combi-Blocks, cat#PN-9127) replacing 2-chloro-3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)anil ine (Step 4) and (R)-3-methylpyrrolidin-3-ol replacing (R)-pyrrolidin-3-ol (Step 1). The reaction mixture in the last step was diluted with MeOH and then purified by prep-HPLC (pH = 2, acetonitrile/water +TFA) to give the desired product as a TFA salt. LC-MS calculated for C46H54F2N9O4 (M+H) + : m/z = 834.4; found 834.4. 1 H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 10.57 (s, 1H), 10.16 (s, 1H), 9.84 (s, 1H), 9.10 (s, 1H), 8.50 (s, 1H), 7.62 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 7.57 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 7.36 (t, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.30 (t, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.08 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 7.03 (d, J = 7.4 Hz, 1H), 6.86 – 6.58 (m, 1H), 4.79 – 4.60 (m, 2H), 4.53 – 4.41 (m, 1H), 4.32 – 4.16 (m, 1H), 3.91 (s, 3H), 3.87 – 3.79 (m, 1H), 3.69 – 3.60 (m, 1H), 3.53 – 3.35 (m, 2H), 3.33 – 3.25 (m, 2H), 3.25 – 3.12 (m, 2H), 3.09 – 2.91 (m, 2H), 2.17 – 2.08 (m, 2H), 2.03 – 1.94 (m, 7H), 1.92 (s, 3H), 1.90 – 1.83 (m, 2H), 1.61 – 1.49 (m, 4H), 1.47 (s, 2H), 1.41 – 1.36 (m, 2H), 1.35 (s, 3H). Example 7. 4-(2-(2-((2-chloro-3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7-(pyrrolidin-1- ylmethyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2'-methyl-[1,1'- biphenyl]-3- yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]p yridin-5- yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylic acid This compound was prepared using similar procedures as described for Example 3 with pyrrolidine replacing (S)-pyrrolidin-3-ol (Step 5). The reaction mixture in the last step was diluted with MeOH and then purified by prep-HPLC (pH = 2, acetonitrile/water +TFA) to give the desired product as a TFA salt. LC-MS calculated for C 44 H 49 ClF 2 N 9 O 3 (M+H) + : m/z = 824.4; found 824.3. Example 8. (R)-4-(2-(2-((2-chloro-3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7-((2-methylp yrrolidin-1- yl)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2'-methyl-[1,1' -biphenyl]-3- yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]p yridin-5- yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylic acid This compound was prepared using similar procedures as described for Example 3 with pyrrolidine replacing (S)-pyrrolidin-3-ol (Step 5). The reaction mixture in the last step was diluted with MeOH and then purified by prep-HPLC (pH = 2, acetonitrile/water +TFA) to give the desired product as a TFA salt. LC-MS calculated for C 45 H 51 ClF 2 N 9 O 3 (M+H) + : m/z = 838.4; found 838.3. Example 9.4-(2-(2-((2-chloro-3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7-((((1R,2S)-2- hydroxycyclopentyl)amino)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl) amino)-2'-methyl-[1,1'- biphenyl]-3-yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imi dazo[4,5-c]pyridin-5- yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylic acid This compound was prepared using similar procedures as described for Example 3 with (1S,2R)-2-aminocyclopentan-1-ol replacing (S)-pyrrolidin-3-ol (Step 5). The reaction mixture in the last step was diluted with MeOH and then purified by prep-HPLC (pH = 2, acetonitrile/water +TFA) to give the desired product as a TFA salt. LC-MS calculated for C 45 H 51 ClF 2 N 9 O 4 (M+H) + : m/z = 854.4; found 854.5. Example 10. 4-(2-(2-((2-chloro-3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7-(((2S,4R)-4-hyd roxy-2- methylpyrrolidin-1-yl)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)ami no)-2'-methyl-[1,1'- biphenyl]-3-yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imi dazo[4,5-c]pyridin-5- yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylic acid This compound was prepared using similar procedures as described for Example 3 with (3R,5S)-5-methylpyrrolidin-3-ol replacing (S)-pyrrolidin-3-ol (Step 5). The reaction mixture in the last step was diluted with MeOH and then purified by prep-HPLC (pH = 2, acetonitrile/water +TFA) to give the desired product as a TFA salt. LC-MS calculated for C 45 H 51 ClF 2 N 9 O 4 (M+H) + : m/z = 854.4; found 854.3. Example 11. 4-(2-(2-((2-chloro-3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7-(((2R,4R)-4-hyd roxy-2- methylpyrrolidin-1-yl)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)ami no)-2'-methyl-[1,1'- biphenyl]-3-yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imi dazo[4,5-c]pyridin-5- yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylic acid This compound was prepared using similar procedures as described for Example 3 with (3R,5R)-5-methylpyrrolidin-3-ol replacing (S)-pyrrolidin-3-ol (Step 5). The reaction mixture in the last step was diluted with MeOH and then purified by prep-HPLC (pH = 2, acetonitrile/water +TFA) to give the desired product as a TFA salt. LC-MS calculated for C 45 H 51 ClF 2 N 9 O 4 (M+H) + : m/z = 854.4; found 854.3. Example 12. 4-(2-(2-((2-chloro-3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7-(((2R,4S)-4-hyd roxy-2- methylpyrrolidin-1-yl)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)ami no)-2'-methyl-[1,1'- biphenyl]-3-yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imi dazo[4,5-c]pyridin-5- yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylic acid This compound was prepared using similar procedures as described for Example 3 with (3S,5R)-5-methylpyrrolidin-3-ol replacing (S)-pyrrolidin-3-ol (Step 5). The reaction mixture in the last step was diluted with MeOH and then purified by prep-HPLC (pH = 2, acetonitrile/water +TFA) to give the desired product as a TFA salt. LC-MS calculated for C45H51ClF2N9O4 (M+H) + : m/z = 854.4; found 854.3. Example 13. 4-(2-(2-((2-chloro-3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7-((3-hydroxyazet idin-1- yl)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2'-methyl-[1,1' -biphenyl]-3- yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]p yridin-5- yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylic acid This compound was prepared using similar procedures as described for Example 3 with azetidin-3-ol replacing (S)-pyrrolidin-3-ol (Step 5). The reaction mixture in the last step was diluted with MeOH and then purified by prep-HPLC (pH = 2, acetonitrile/water +TFA) to give the desired product as a TFA salt. LC-MS calculated for C 43 H 47 ClF 2 N 9 O 4 (M+H) + : m/z = 826.3; found 826.4. Example 14. 4-(2-(2-((2-chloro-3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7-((3-hydroxy-3-m ethylazetidin- 1-yl)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2'-methyl-[1, 1'-biphenyl]-3- yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]p yridin-5- yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylic acid This compound was prepared using similar procedures as described for Example 3 with 3-methylazetidin-3-ol replacing (S)-pyrrolidin-3-ol (Step 5). The reaction mixture in the last step was diluted with MeOH and then purified by prep-HPLC (pH = 2, acetonitrile/water +TFA) to give the desired product as a TFA salt. LC-MS calculated for C 44 H 49 ClF 2 N 9 O 4 (M+H) + : m/z = 840.4; found 840.3. Example 15. (S)-4-(2-(2-((3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7-((3-hydroxypyrrolidi n-1- yl)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2,2'-dimethyl-[ 1,1'-biphenyl]-3- yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]p yridin-5- yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylic acid This compound was prepared using similar procedures as described for Example 1 with 2-methyl-3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)anil ine (Combi-Blocks, cat#PN-9127) replacing 2-chloro-3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)anil ine (Step 4) and (S)-pyrrolidin-3-ol replacing (R)-pyrrolidin-3-ol (Step 1). The reaction mixture in the last step was diluted with MeOH and then purified by prep-HPLC (pH = 2, acetonitrile/water +TFA) to give the desired product as a TFA salt. LC-MS calculated for C 45 H 52 F 2 N 9 O 4 (M+H) + : m/z = 820.4; found 820.4. Example 16. (S)-4-(2-(2-((3'-((2-(difluoromethyl)-7-((3-hydroxy-3-methyl pyrrolidin-1- yl)methyl)pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2,2'-dimethyl-[ 1,1'-biphenyl]-3- yl)carbamoyl)-1-methyl-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]p yridin-5- yl)ethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carboxylic acid This compound was prepared using similar procedures as described for Example 1 with 2-methyl-3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)anil ine (Combi-Blocks, cat#PN-9127) replacing 2-chloro-3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)anil ine (Step 4) and (S)-3-methylpyrrolidin-3-ol replacing (R)-pyrrolidin-3-ol (Step 1). The reaction mixture in the last step was diluted with MeOH and then purified by prep-HPLC (pH = 2, acetonitrile/water +TFA) to give the desired product as a TFA salt. LC-MS calculated for C46H54F2N9O4 (M+H) + : m/z = 834.4; found 834.4. Example A. Homogeneous Time-Resolved Fluorescence (HTRF) PD-1/PD-L1 Binding Assay The assays were conducted in a standard black 384-well polystyrene plate with a final volume of 20 μL. Inhibitors were first serially diluted in DMSO and then added to the plate wells before the addition of other reaction components. The final concentration of DMSO in the assay was 1%. The assays were carried out at 25° C in the PBS buffer (pH 7.4) with 0.05% Tween-20 and 0.1% BSA. Recombinant human PD-L1 protein (19-238) with a His- tag at the C-terminus was purchased from AcroBiosystems (PD1-H5229). Recombinant human PD-1 protein (25-167) with Fc tag at the C-terminus was also purchased from AcroBiosystems (PD1-H5257). PD-L1 and PD-1 proteins were diluted in the assay buffer and 10 μL was added to the plate well. Plates were centrifuged and proteins were preincubated with inhibitors for 40 minutes. The incubation was followed by the addition of 10 μL of HTRF detection buffer supplemented with Europium cryptate-labeled anti-human IgG (PerkinElmer-AD0212) specific for Fc and anti-His antibody conjugated to SureLight®- Allophycocyanin (APC, PerkinElmer-AD0059H). After centrifugation, the plate was incubated at 25° C for 60 min. before reading on a PHERAstar FS plate reader (665nm/620nm ratio). Final concentrations in the assay were - 3 nM PD1, 10 nM PD-L1, 1 nM europium anti-human IgG and 20 nM anti-His-Allophycocyanin. IC50 determination was performed by fitting the curve of percent control activity versus the log of the inhibitor concentration using the GraphPad Prism 5.0 software. Example B. Src Homology region 2 Domain-containing Phosphatase (SHP) Assay U2OS/PD-L1 cells (DiscoveRx Corporation) were maintained in McCoy’s 5A medium with addition of 10% FBS, 0.25 μg/mL Puromycin. After removing the culture media, the cell medium was replaced with assay medium (RPMI1640 medium with 1% FBS). The U2OS/PD-L1 cells were then added in 384-well black clear bottom assay plate (CELLCOAT® Tissue Culture Plates, Greiner Bio-One) at 5000 cells per well in 20 μL assay medium. Test compounds were prepared by serial dilution in DMSO and 125 nL compound were first transferred to the 384 REMP plate well (Thermofisher) by ECHO liquid handler (Labcyte) followed with addition of 27.5 μL assay medium.5 μL/well compounds in the assay medium were transferred to the cell plate with 0.05% DMSO in the final assay at 0.25 μM. Jurkat-PD-1-SHP cells (DiscoveRx Corporation) were cultured in RPMI1640 medium supplemented with 10% FBS, 250 μg/mL Hygromycin B, 500 μg/mL G418. After the replacement of culture media with assay medium, 5,000 Jurkat-PD-1-SHP cells in 20 μL were dispensed into each well. The assay plate was incubated at 37 ℃, 5% CO 2 for 2 hours before 2.5 μL PathHunter reagent 1 (DiscoveRx Corporation) were added to each well. The assay plate was shaken for 1 min at 350 rpm in the dark followed with addition of 10 μL PathHunter reagent 2 (DiscoveRx Corporation). Chemiluminescent signal was recorded with TopCount reader (Perkin Elmer) after incubation at room temperature for 1 hour. Wells with DMSO were served as the positive controls and wells containing no cells were used as negative controls. IC 50 determination was performed by fitting the curve of percentage of control activity versus the log of the compound concentration using the GraphPad Prism 6.0 software. Example C. Nuclear Factor of Activated T-cells (NFAT) Assay PD-L1 aAPC/CHO-K1cells (Promega) were maintained in F-12 medium with addition of 10% FBS, 200 μg/mL Hygromycin B, 250 μg/mL Geneticin (G418). Jurkat-PD-1- NFAT effector cells (Promega) were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% FBS, 100 μg/mL Hygromycin B, 500 μg/mL G418. The culture media of PD-L1 aAPC/CHO-K1 cells were first replaced with assay medium (RPMI1640 medium with 1% FBS). The PD-L1 aAPC/CHO-K1cells were then added in a white 384-well white clear bottom assay plate (CELLCOAT® Tissue Culture Plates, Greiner Bio-One) at 8000 per well in 10 μL assay medium. Test compounds were prepared by serial dilution in DMSO and 0.8 μL test compounds in DMSO were first transferred to the 384 REMP plate well (Thermofisher) by PlateMate Plus (Thermofisher) followed with addition of 50 μL plating medium.5 μL compounds in the assay medium were transferred to the cells with 0.4% DMSO in the final assay at 2 μM. After removing the culture media, 10,000 Jurkat-PD-1- NFAT effector cells in 5μL assay medium was dispensed into each well. The assay plate was incubated at 37 ℃, 5% CO 2 for 24 hours. After the assay plate was equilibrated to room temp for 15 minutes, 20μL/well of Bio-Glo™ reagent (Promega) were added. After 8 minutes incubation at room temperature, luminescence was read at with Pherastar microplate reader (BMG Labtech). The fold of induction (FOI) was calculated based on the ratio of luminescence normalized to the DMSO wells within each assay plate. The maximum percentage of induction was reported based on the ratio between the highest FOI of each compound and the maximum FOI of control compound within each assay plate. Wells with DMSO were served as the negative controls and wells containing control compound with the highest FOI were used as positive controls. EC50 determination was performed by fitting the curve of percent control activity versus the log of the compound concentration using the GraphPad Prism 6.0 software. Example D. PD-L1 Whole Blood Internalization Assay To determine PD-L1 internalization in human whole blood, normal human blood (Biological Specialty Corp, Colmar. PA) was incubated in the presence or absence of a concentration range of test compounds and 1 ng/mL human interferon γ (R&D Systems Inc. Minn. MN) in a 96 well “2mL Assay Block” (Corning, Corning NY) for 18-20 hours at 37 0 C. Blood was then stained with PD-L1 (MIH1, eBioscience; or BD Biosciences San Jose, CA), CD14 (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA) for 30 minutes in the dark at room temperature. Whole Blood/red cells were lysed/fixed (lysis buffer BD Biosciences) for 5 minutes at 37 0 C in the dark and then centrifuged at 1600 RPM for 5 minutes. Cells were resuspended in Stain Buffer (BD Bioscience, San Jose, CA) and transferred into 96 well round bottom plates (Corning). Cells were gated on CD14+ (BD Biosciences) and PD-L1 expression determined by mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) (BD LSRFortessa™ X-20). IC50 determination was performed by fitting the curve of compound percent inhibition versus the log of the compound concentration using the GraphPad Prism 7.0 software. Example E. In Vivo Pharmacokinetics in Rats and Monkeys For in vivo pharmacokinetic experiments, test compounds were administered to male Sprague Dawley rats or male and female Cynomolgus monkeys intravenously or via oral gavage. For intravenous (IV) dosing, test compounds were dosed at 0.5 to 1 mg/kg using a formulation of 10% dimethylacetamide (DMAC) in acidified saline via IV bolus for rat and 5 min or 10 min IV infusion for monkey. For oral (PO) dosing, test compounds were dosed at 1.0 to 3.0 mg/kg using 5% DMAC in 0.5% methylcellulose in citrate buffer (pH 3.5). Blood samples were collected at predose and various time points up to 24 hours postdose. All blood samples were collected using EDTA as the anticoagulant and centrifuged to obtain plasma samples. The plasma concentrations of test compounds were determined by LC-MS methods. The measured plasma concentrations were used to calculate PK parameters by standard noncompartmental methods using Phoenix ® WinNonlin software program (version 7.0, Pharsight Corporation). In rats and monkeys, cassette dosing of test compounds were conducted to obtain preliminary PK parameters. In vivo pharmacokinetic experiments with male beagle dogs may be performed under the conditions described above. Results from Examples A-E for Compounds of the Examples Compounds of the Examples were assessed in each of the HTRF PD-1/PD-L1 binding assay (Example A), SHP assay (Example B), NFAT assay (Example C), and whole blood internalization assay, 24 hour (Example D). Results for the compounds of Examples 1, 2, and 9 are shown in Table 1. Results for the compounds of Examples 3, 4, 7, and 14 are shown in Table 2. Results for the compounds of Examples 5 and 6 are shown in Table 3. Results for the compounds of Examples 8, 10, 11, and 13 are shown in Table 4. Results for the compounds of Examples 12, 15, and 16 are shown in Table 5. “nt” is not tested. Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Certain compounds of the Examples were also assessed for pharmacokinetics in rat or monkey under conditions shown in Example E (see Tables 6 and 7). Tables 6 and 7 show the apparent volume of distribution at steady state (V ss ), apparent total body clearance of the drug from plasma (Cl), elimination half-life (t 1/2 ), maximum (peak) plasma concentration (C max ), area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC 0-inf ), and bioavailability (F). In Table 6 and Table 7, results are from cassette dosing studies: Vss, Cl, and t 1/2 are based on 1.0 mg/kg IV and C max , AUC 0-inf , and F are based on 3.0 mg/kg PO. Table 6: Rat In Vivo Pharmacokinetic Results Table 7: Cynomolgus Monkey In Vivo Pharmacokinetic Results Compounds from U.S. Patent Publ. No.20180179202 (‘202) were also tested in the assays of Examples A, B, C, and D (see Table A1; Example numbers refer to the ‘202 disclosure). Certain of the compounds were also assessed for pharmacokinetics in rat (PO at 3.0 mg/kg) under conditions shown in Example E (see Table A2). In Table A2, results are from cassette dosing studies: Vss, Cl, and t1/2 are based on 1.0 mg/kg IV and Cmax, AUC0-inf, and F are based on 3.0 mg/kg PO. Compounds from U.S. Patent Publ. No.20180177870 (‘870) were also tested in the assays of Examples A, B, C, and D (see Table A3; Example numbers refer to the ‘870 disclosure). Certain of the compounds were also assessed for pharmacokinetics in rat (PO at 3.0 mg/kg) under conditions shown in Example E (see Table A4). In Table A4, results are from cassette dosing studies: Vss, Cl, and t1/2 are based on 1.0 mg/kg IV and Cmax, AUC0-inf, and F are based on 3.0 mg/kg PO. Compounds from U.S. Patent Publ. No.20180179197 (‘197) were also tested in the assays of Examples A, B, C, and D (see Table A5; Example numbers refer to the ‘197 disclosure). Certain of the compounds were also assessed for pharmacokinetics in rat (PO at 3.0 mg/kg) under conditions shown in Example E (see Table A6). In Table A6, results are from cassette dosing studies: Vss, Cl, and t1/2 are based on 1.0 mg/kg IV and Cmax, AUC0-inf, and F are based on 3.0 mg/kg PO. The disclosures of U.S. Patent Publ. Nos.20180179202, 20180177870, and 20180179197 are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties. Table A1 Table A2 Table A3 Table A4 Table A5 Table A6 Various modifications of the invention, in addition to those described herein, will be apparent to those skilled in the art from the foregoing description. Such modifications are also intended to fall within the scope of the appended claims. Each reference, including without limitation all patent, patent applications, and publications, cited in the present application is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.



 
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