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Title:
RETINOID DERIVATIVES WITH ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/060354
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to compounds of formula (I) and to pharmaceutical compositions containing them, wherein meanings of the substituents are indicated in the description. Such compounds for use in the treatment of cancer and other diseases related to altered angiogenesis, such as arthritic pathology, diabetic retinopathy, psoriasis and chronic inflammatory disease, are also within the scope of the present invention.

Inventors:
PISANO CLAUDIO (IT)
DALLAVALLE SABRINA (IT)
CINCINELLI RAFFAELLA (IT)
MERLINI LUCIO (IT)
Application Number:
PCT/EP2017/074668
Publication Date:
April 05, 2018
Filing Date:
September 28, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
BIOGEM S CA R L (IT)
International Classes:
C07C259/06; A61K31/201; A61P35/00; C07C59/72; C07C239/12; C07C243/28; C07C323/41; C07D215/12; C07D215/18; C07D309/12; C07D487/08; C07D487/18
Domestic Patent References:
WO2010072727A12010-07-01
WO1997003682A11997-02-06
WO1998001132A11998-01-15
WO2015026990A22015-02-26
WO2001056563A12001-08-09
WO2010072727A12010-07-01
WO2007000383A12007-01-04
WO2003048101A12003-06-12
WO2003011808A12003-02-13
WO2010106135A12010-09-23
WO2008077772A22008-07-03
Foreign References:
Other References:
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Attorney, Agent or Firm:
GHIRARDI, Valeria et al. (IT)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A compound having the following formula (I):

Formula (I)

wherein:

A is selected from the group consisting of: alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, COalkylene or is absent,

Ri is selected from the group consisting of: CONHOH, CH2OH, CH2SH, CH2SCOCH3, CH2NHOH, COOH, COO-alkyl, COCF3, CONHOalkyl, CONHO-oxacycloalkyl, CONHNH2, CONH-aryl, wherein said aryl is optionally substituted with OH and/or NH2, CONHalkyl-S-S-alkyl, CONHalkyl-S-S-alkyl-NH2, CONHalkyl-S-S-alkyl-NHCO-C(=NOH)alkylaryl wherein said aryl is optionally substituted with OH and/or halogen, COalkylCONHalkyl-S-S-alkyl- NHCO-C(=NOH)alkylaryl wherein said aryl is optionally substituted with OH and/or halogen,

R2 is selected from the group consisting of: H, alkyi, OH, O-alkyl, O-alkenyl, halogen, CN, CHO, COalkyl, COOH, COOalkyI and CONH2,

R3 is selected from the group consisting of: H, alkyi, alkenyl, oxo-alkenyl, hydroxyiminoalkenyl, OH, alkoxy, cycloalkyloxy, arylalcoxy, heterocycloalcoxy, carboxyalcoxy, CH2R6, COR7, CN, CH=NOH, CH=NOalkylCOOH, CH=NOaryl and CH=NOalkylaryl,

wherein R6 is selected from the group consisting of: OH, alkoxy, NH2, NH-alkyl, N-dialkyl, NHCOOalkyl, NHCOalkyl, aryl, heterocycloalkyl, guanidino optionally substituted with an alkyi or a COOalkyI group, biguanido optionally substituted with an alkyi or an arylalkyi group, and NH-S02-aryl,

and wherein R7 is selected from the group consisting of: H, OH, O-alkyl, NH2, NHOH, NHaryl, NHalkyl optionally terminally substituted with NH2 or CONHOH, R4 is selected from the group consisting of: OH, O-alkyl, NH2, NHaryl, NHalkyl, Ndialkyl, NHOH, NHNH2 and CF3, and

R5 is selected from the group consisting of: H, alkyl, cycloalkyi, azacycloalkyl, oxacycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylamminomethyl, arylakylaminomethyl, heteroarylalkylaminomethyl, wherein each of said groups can be optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of OH, alkyl, Oalkyl, halogen, N02, NH2, NHalkyl, Ndialkyl, pyrrolidine, piperidine and morpholine,

provided that when R5 is H Ri is CONHOH,

R8 and R9 are H or together with the carbon atoms to which they are bound form a fused five- or six-membered aromatic or heteroaromatic ring,

wherein alkyl is a Ci-C20 linear or branched alkyl group,

alkenyl is a C2-C20 linear or branched alkyl group,

cycloalkyi is a saturated or partially unsaturated C3-C10 carbocyclic group comprising one or more condensed rings,

aryl is an aromatic group comprising one or more condensed aromatic rings,

heterocycloalkyi and heteroaryl are said cycloalkyi or aryl rings containing one or more heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of N, O and S,

said cycloalkyi, heterocycloalkyi, aryl, heteroaryl, aromatic or heteroaromatic ring being optionally substituted on any position of the ring with one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halogen, alkyl, linear or branched, O-alkyl, linear or branched, amino, cycloalkyi, heterocycloalkyi, carboxyl, N02, NH2 and OH,

amino is a group NR'R" wherein each of R' and R" can independently be H or alkyl,

the enantiomers, diastereoisomers, and mixtures thereof,

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, hydrate or solvate thereof.

2. The compound according to claim 1 , wherein R5 is a cycloalkyi.

3. The compound according to claim 1 or 2, wherein R5 is an adamantyl group.

4. The compound according to anyone of claims 1 -3, wherein R4 is OH or O-alkyl.

5. The compound according to anyone of the preceding claims, wherein both R2 and R3 are H.

6. The compound according to anyone of the preceding claims wherein R-i is CONHOH.

7. The compound according to claim 6 wherein A is alkylene.

8. The compound according to claim 7 wherein A is Ci-C4-alkylene, preferably methylene.

9. The compound according to anyone of the preceding claims, which is selected from the group consisting of:

3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(3-hydroxycarbamoyl-propoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid (1 ) (RC 1315),

3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(4-hydroxycarbamoyl-butoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid (2) (RC 1375),

3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(7-hydroxycarbamoyl-heptyloxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid (3) (RC 1268),

2- (2-{4-[3-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(2-carboxy-vinyl)-biphenyl-4-yloxy]-butyrylamino}- ethyldisulfanyl)-ethyl-ammonium; trifluoroacetate (4) (RC 1363),

3- {3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-[3-(2-{2-[3-(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-2-hydroxyimino- propionylamino]-ethyldisulfanyl}-ethylcarbamoyl)-propoxy]-biphenyl-4-yl}-acrylic acid (5) (RC 1338),

3-{3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-[3-(2-{2-[3-(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-2-hydroxyimino- propionylamino]-ethyldisulfanyl}-ethylcarbamoyl)-propionyloxy]-biphenyl-4-yl}-acrylic acid (6) (AB 514),

3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(4-carboxy-butoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid (7) (RC 1401 ),

3-(3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-hydroxycarbamoylmethoxybiphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid (MI R002) (8),

3-{3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'[(tetrahydropyran-2-yloxycarbamoyl)-methoxy]-biphenyl-4-yl}-acrylic acid (9) (BIO 49),

3-(3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-carboxymethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid (10) (GEM 66),

3-{3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-[2-(tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxycarbamoyl)-ethoxy]-biphenyl-4-yl}- acrylic acid (1 1 ) (GEM 57),

3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(2-hydroxycarbamoyl-ethoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid (12) (GEM 60),

6-{3-Adamantan-1 -yl-4-[(tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxycarbamoyl)-methoxy]-phenyl}- naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid (13) (GEM 59),

6-(3-Adamantan-1 -yl-4-hydroxycarbamoylmethoxy-phenyl)-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid (14) (GEM 61 ),

3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(hydroxyl-buthoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid (15) (BI04), 3-(3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-hydroxyaminomethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid trifluoroacetate (16) (GEM 95),

3-(3'-adamantan-1 -yl-4'-hydrazinocarbonylmethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid trifluoroacetate (17) (GEM 93),

3-(4'-Hydroxycarbamoylmethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid (18) (GEM 103),

3-[3'-(1 ,5-Diaza-bicyclo[3.3.1]non-9-yl)-4'-(4-hydroxycarbamoyl-butoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]- acrylic acid (19),

3-[4'.(4.Hydroxycarbamoyl-butoxy)-3'-(1 ,3,5,7-tetraaza-tricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]dec-2-yl)- biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid (20),

3-[4'-(4-Hydroxycarbamoyl-butoxy)-3'-(1 -methyl-cyclohexyl)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid (21 ),

3-Phenyl-4'-(4-hydroxycarbamoyl-butoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid (22),

3-(4'-(4-Hydroxycarbamoyl-butoxy)-3'-{[(naphthalen-2-ylmethyl)-amino]-methyl}-biphen yl)-acrylic acid (23),

3-(4'-(4-Hydroxycarbamoyl-butoxy)-3'-{[(quinolin-7-ylmeth^

acrylic acid (24), and

3-(4'-(4-Hydroxycarbamoyl-butoxy)-3'-{[(8-hydroxy-5-nitro-quinolin-7-ylmethyl)-amino]- methyl}-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid (25).

10. The compound of anyone of claims 1 -9 for use as a medicament.

1 1 . The compound of anyone of claims 1 -9 for use in the treatment of a disease related to altered angiogenesis.

12. The compound of anyone of claims 1 -9 for use in the treatment of a disease selected from the group consisting of arthritic pathology, tumour, metastatization, diabetic retinopathy, psoriasis and chronic inflammatory disease.

13. The compound for the use according to claim 12, wherein said tumour is selected from the group consisting of sarcoma, carcinoma, carcinoid, mesothelioma, lymphoma, bone tumour, neuroendocrine tumour, lymphoid leukaemia, myeloid leukaemia, monocytic leukaemia, megakaryocyte leukaemia, acute promyelocytic leukaemia, Hodgkin's disease, lung tumour, hepatoma, mesothelioma, intracranial tumor and glioma.

14. A pharmaceutical composition comprising as active ingredient a compound of anyone of claims 1 -9 and at least one pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle and/or excipient.

15. The pharmaceutical composition according to claim 14 further comprising one or more chemotherapeutic agents.

16. The pharmaceutical composition according to claim 15, wherein said further chemotherapeutic agent is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent.

Description:
RETINOID DERIVATIVES WITH ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to the field of pharmaceutical compounds, in particular retinoid derivatives.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Vitamin A and its biologically active derivatives, retinal and retinoic acid, play an important role in vision, are necessary in the reproductive system, act as morphogenic agents during embryonic growth and regulate the growth and differentiation of a vast range of cell types at the basis of the growth of an organism (M.Sporn, A.Roberts, D.Goodman, The Retinoids, Raven Press, New York 1994). The biological action of retinoic acid and its derivatives is mediated by the interaction with nuclear receptors belonging to two families: the first named RAR (retinoic acid receptor) and the second named RXR (retinoid X receptor) (M.A. Asson-Batres, C. Rochette-Egly, The Biochemistry of Retinoic Acid Receptors I: Structure, Activation, and Function at the Molecular Level, Springer, Dordrecht, 2014).

Each family is divided into 3 subtypes (α, β, γ) coded by three different genes. All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA) binds to RAR and RXR, whilst 9-cis RA binds only to RXR.

Retinoids, whether natural or synthetic vitamin A analogues, exert a great influence over cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis: these properties are amply exploited in the control of tumoral and dermatological pathologies (B.C. Das et al. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 22 (2014) 673-683).

It is well known that the growth of a primary tumour is favoured by good vascularization of the tumour tissue. An adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients promotes rapid growth of the tumour itself.

It has been demonstrated that the extent of angiogenesis can be an extremely negative factor in the prognosis of neoplasms (J.A. van der Zee et al., Eur. J. Cancer, 47 (201 1 ) 2576 -2584).

It is also known, in the neoplastic field, that a fundamental stage in the biology of the tumour cell is the acquisition of metastasising capability.

The tumour cells that metastasis are able to lose adherence to the surrounding structures, invade blood and lymphatic vessels and colonise other tissues at a distance where they can continue to reproduce themselves.

Metastasising is also a critical event in the clinical history of the disease, being the main cause of death due to cancer. It is closely associated with and facilitated by the presence of vascular tissue in the tumour site or adjacent areas. The migration of tumour cells across the surrounding structures enables the cells to reach the intratumoral blood vessels, whether pre-existing or formed by neo-angiogenesis, and thus reach the bloodstream (Ray JM., Stetler-Stevenson WG; Eur. Respir. J., 7(1 1 ):2062-72, 1994; Stetler-Stevenson WG, Liotta LA, Kleiner DE Jr; FASEB J., 7(15): 1434-41 , 1993; Sun Y, Ma, L. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 36, 349-359, 2015).

Retinoids useful for treating cancer are already known. Acute promielocytic leukemia (APL) can be effectively eradicated by retinoid signaling combined with chemotherapy, and therefore forms the prototype for retinoid-based therapies.

Various cancers other than APL are already being treated with retinoid-based therapies, and several are undergoing clinical evaluation. For several neoplastic diseases, more than one retinoid is being evaluated and many clinical studies are underway to assess their efficacy.

In clinical trials, ATRA and other retinoids alone have shown limited therapeutic success (Connolly RM, Nguyen NK, Sukumar S. Cancer Res 2013; 19:1651-9) that may be attributed, in part, to frequent epigenetic silencing of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-3 (Tang X.H. et al. Annu. Rev. Pathol 201 1 ;6:345-645). It has been shown that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors cause re- expression of RAR-β and sensitize the cells to treatment (Sirchia SM, et al. Oncogene 2000; 19:1556-63). Therefore combination of retinoids with HDAC inhibitors has been investigated (Pili R, et al. Br. J. Cancer 2012;106:77-84; Raffoux E. et al. Oncotarget 2010;1 :34-4.)

Recently, much interest has been devoted to atypical retinoids or retinoid-related molecules (RRMs), a name that reflects the fact that they exert their anticancer activities independently of the transactivation of the retinoid receptors (RARs, subtypes α, β, and γ; and RXRs, subtypes α, β, and γ). RARS and RXRs are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand- responsive transcription factors, which mediate the multifarious actions of natural and synthetic retinoids in embryo and throughout life.

However, some compounds of this class, containing the adamantyl group, called adamantyl retinoids (Wanka et al. Chem. Rev. 2013, 1 13, 3516-3604), are known to bind to RARs, such as (6-[(3-adamant-1 -yl)-4-hydroxy-phenyl]-2-naphthoic acid, CD437, also called AHPN), which is a RARy agonist. Other analogs of CD437, such as Adarotene (AH PC), which also binds RARy and is an apoptogenic agent stronger than CD437, 5-CI-AHPN and 3-CI-AHPC, lack RAR transactivation activity while preserving the induction of growth arrest and apoptotic activity in a variety of cancer cell lines (Dawson et al. J. Med. Chem. 2004, 47, 3518). Moreover, 3-CI-AHPC binds the nuclear hormone receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP) and modulates SHP interaction with the Sin3A repressor (Farhana et al., Mol. Cancer Ther. 2009, 8, 1625). While still unclear, the mechanism of RRM-mediated cell death, in particular the apoptosis induced by CD437, appears to be largely dependent on cell type. Evidences for caspase-dependent and independent mechanisms via the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways have been provided for these compounds (Lopez-Hernandez et al., Cell Death Differ. 2004, 1 1 , 154- 164. Inhibition of IGF-1 R and Wnt/3-Catenin pathways are also involved (L. Farhana et al. J. of Oncology, 2012, 796729).

Atypical retinoid compounds to be used as proapoptotic agents have also been disclosed in Cincinelli et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2007, 15, 4863; Cincinelli R. et al. J. Med. Chem. 2005, 48, 4931 -4946; and Zebin et al., Analogues of Orphan Nuclear Receptor Small Heterodimer Partner Ligand and Apoptosis Inducer (E)-4-[3-(1 -Adamantyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]-3-chlorocinnamic Acid. 2. Impact of 3-Chloro Group Replacement on Inhibition of Proliferation and Induction of Apoptosis of Leukemia and Cancer Cell Lines, J. Med. Chem., 2012, 55 (1 ), pp 233-249.

WO9703682 discloses the use of the above mentioned AHPN compound for treating cancer.

WO9801 132, WO2015026990 and WO0156563 disclose adamantyl containing retinoid compounds.

WO2010072727, WO2007000383, WO2003048101 and WO031 1808 disclose retinoid derivatives with cytotoxic and/or antitumoral properties. WO2010106135 discloses retinoid derivatives for the treatment of ovarian carcinoma. WO2008077772 discloses a combination comprising an atypical retinoid and a platinum anticancer agent to inhibit tumor growth and tumor migration.

Despite the progress made in recent years, the pharmacological research concerning the discovery of new drugs for the treatment of tumor diseases is still one of the most active fields.

Indeed, there is still a strong need of new compounds capable of blocking or interfering with the tumour diseases.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It has now been found that new compounds of formula (I), or the pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, can be successfully used in the treatment of cancer and other diseases related to altered angiogenesis.

It is an object of the present invention a compound having the following formula (I):

Formula (I) wherein:

A is selected from the group consisting of: alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, COalkylene or is absent,

Ri is selected from the group consisting of: CONHOH, CH 2 OH, CH 2 SH, CH 2 SCOCH 3 , CH 2 NHOH, COOH, COO-alkyl, COCF 3 , CONHOalkyl, CONHO-oxacycloalkyl, CONHNH 2 , CONH-aryl, wherein said aryl is optionally substituted with OH and/or NH 2 , CONHalkyl- S-S-alkyl, CONHalkyl-S-S-alkyl-NH 2 , CONHalkyl-S-S-alkyl-NHCO-C(=NOH)alkylaryl wherein said aryl is optionally substituted with OH and/or halogen, COalkylCONHalkyl-S-S-alkyl-NHCO- C(=NOH)alkylaryl wherein said aryl is optionally substituted with OH and/or halogen,

R 2 is selected from the group consisting of: H, alkyl, OH, O-alkyl, O-alkenyl, halogen, CN, CHO, COalkyl, COOH, COOalkyl and CONH 2 ,

R 3 is selected from the group consisting of: H, alkyl, alkenyl, oxo-alkenyl, hydroxyiminoalkenyl, OH, alkoxy, cycloalkyloxy, arylalcoxy, heterocycloalcoxy, carboxyalcoxy, CH 2 R 6 , COR 7 , CN, CH=NOH, CH=NOalkylCOOH, CH=NOaryl and CH=NOalkylaryl,

wherein R 6 is selected from the group consisting of: OH, alkoxy, NH 2 , NH-alkyl, N-dialkyl, NHCOOalkyl, NHCOalkyl, aryl, heterocycloalkyl, guanidino optionally substituted with an alkyl or a COOalkyl group, biguanido optionally substituted with an alkyl or an arylalkyl group, and NH-S0 2 -aryl,

and wherein R 7 is selected from the group consisting of: H, OH, O-alkyl, NH 2 , NHOH, NHaryl, NHalkyl optionally terminally substituted with NH 2 or CONHOH,

R 4 is selected from the group consisting of: OH, O-alkyl, NH 2 , NHaryl, NHalkyl, Ndialkyl, NHOH, NHNH 2 and CF 3 , and

R 5 is selected from the group consisting of: H, alkyl, cycloalkyl, azacycloalkyl, oxacycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylamminomethyl, arylalkylaminomethyl, heteroarylalkylaminomethyl, wherein each of said groups can be optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of OH, alkyl, Oalkyl, halogen, N0 2 , NH 2 , NHalkyl, Ndialkyl, pyrrolidine, piperidine and morpholine,

provided that when R 5 is H Ri is CONHOH,

R 8 and R 9 are H or together with the carbon atoms to which they are bound form a fused five- or six-membered aromatic or heteroaromatic ring,

wherein alkyl is a Ci-C 20 linear or branched alkyl group,

alkenyl is a C 2 -C 20 linear or branched alkyl group, cycloalkyl is a saturated or partially unsaturated C3-C1 0 carbocyclic group comprising one or more condensed rings,

aryl is an aromatic group comprising one or more condensed aromatic rings,

heterocycloalkyl and heteroaryl are said cycloalkyl or aryl rings containing one or more heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of N, O and S,

said cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aromatic or heteroaromatic ring being optionally substituted on any position of the ring with one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halogen, alkyl, linear or branched, O-alkyl, linear or branched, amino, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, carboxyl, N0 2 , NH 2 and OH,

amino is a group NR'R" wherein each of R' and R" can independently be H or alkyl,

the enantiomers, diastereoisomers, and mixtures thereof,

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, hydrate or solvate thereof.

It has also been found that the combination of compounds of formula (I) with known chemotherapeutic agents can have a synergistic antitumor effect.

Furthermore, compounds of formula (I) are effective in tumoral cells resistant to other known chemotherapeutic drugs such as, for example, adarotene.

A process for the preparation of the compound of formula (I), as will be better defined below, is also an object of the present invention.

A further object of the invention is a pharmaceutical composition containing as active ingredient a compound of formula (I) and at least one pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle and/or excipient. Such composition can also contain one or more further chemotherapeutic drugs.

It is also an object of the invention the compound of formula (I) for use as a medicament.

A further object of the present invention is a compound of formula (I) for use in the treatment of a disease related to altered angiogenesis. In a preferred embodiment, said disease is selected from the group consisting of arthritic pathology, tumour, metastatization, diabetic retinopathy, psoriasis and chronic inflammatory disease.

Detailed description of the invention

Definitions

The term "alkyl" refers to linear or branched alkyl groups having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms, preferably having 1 to 12 carbon atoms.

The term "alkylene" refers to a divalent alkyl group having two points of attachment within the compound of the invention. Preferably, it comprises 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The term "cycloalkyl" refers to a saturated or partially unsaturated carbocyclic group of 3 to 10 carbon atoms. An aromatic group is not intended. The cycloalkyl group can comprise a single ring or multiple condensed rings. Examples of "C 3 -Cio-cycloalkyl" include cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, norbornyl, adamantyl and the like.

The term "azacycloalkyl" refers to compounds where one or more nitrogen atoms substitute for carbons in the "cycloalkyl" group.

The term "oxacycloalkyi" refers to compounds where one or more oxygen atoms substitute for carbons in the "cycloalkyl" group. A preferred oxacycloalkyi is tetrahydropyran.

The terms "heterocycloalkyl" and "heterocycle" refer to a saturated or partially unsaturated (but not aromatic) cycloalkyl ring, preferably a five-, six- or seven-membered ring, containing one or more nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur atoms; the rings may be substituted with one o more groups selected for example from alkyl, hydroxyl and carboxyl. Preferred heterocycloalkyl include pyrrolidine, piperidine, piperazine, morpholine and tetrahydropyran.

The term "aryl" refers to aromatic rings, for example phenyl, naphthyl, anthracenyl, optionally substituted with halogen, alkyl, linear or branched, O-alkyl, linear or branched, amino, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, carboxyl, N0 2 , NH 2 and/or OH.

The term "heteroaryl" refers to heteroaromatic rings, for example furan, thiophene, pyridine, pyrimidine, quinoline, quinazoline, optionally substituted with halogen, alkyl, linear or branched, O- alkyl, linear or branched, amino, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, carboxyl, N0 2 , NH 2 and/or OH.

The term "amino" refers to a group NRR' wherein each of R and R' can independently be H or alkyl.

The term "aminocarbonylalkyl" refers to an alkyl group substituted by an aminocarbonyl moiety.

The term "aminocarbonyl" refers to a group of formula -NR'R' O- wherein each of R' and R" can independently be H or alkyl.

Figures

Figure 1 . Efficacy of compound 2 (RC1375) in a human glioblastoma orthotopic model. Mice (n = 5) were administered intraperitoneally with the compound or vehicle only.

An alkyl group can be for example methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, i-propyl, n-butyl, t-butyl. It can be linear or branched.

An alkylene group is preferably methylene, ethylene, trimethylene, propylene, tetramethylene or dimethylethylene.

The halogen is selected from the group consisting of: fluorine (F), chlorine (CI), bromine (Br) and iodine (I). Any nitrogen group can be protected. The protective group is preferably selected from tert- butoxycarbonyl, benzyloxycarbonyl and 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl.

In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the compound of formula (I) has a cycloalkyl as R 5 , more preferably it has an adamantyl group as R 5 .

In another preferred embodiment, R 4 is OH or O-alkyl.

In a preferred embodiment, R-i is CONHOH.

In preferred embodiments, R 2 is H.

In preferred embodiments, R 3 is H.

In even more preferred embodiments, both R 2 and R 3 are H.

In a more preferred embodiment, A is alkylene, preferably CrC 4 alkylene, more preferably methylene, and Ri is CONHOH. Even more preferably, in this embodiment R 4 is OH and R 5 is adamantyl.

Preferably, R 3 is selected from the group consisting of: H, alkyl, alkenyl, oxo-alkenyl, hydroxyiminoalkenyl, OH, alkoxy, CH 2 R 6 , COR 7 , CN, CH=NOH, CH=NOalkylCOOH, CH=NOaryl and CH=NOalkylaryl.

Preferably, R 4 is selected from the group consisting of: OH, O-alkyl, NH 2 , NHOH, NHNH 2 and CF 3 .

The pharmaceutical acceptable salts of the compound of formula (I) are included in the scope of the invention.

Pharmaceutical acceptable salts are salts which retain the biological activity of the base and are derived from such known pharmacologically acceptable acids such as, e.g., hydrochloric, hydrobromic, sulfuric, phosphoric, nitric, fumaric, succinic, oxalic, malic, tartaric, maleic, citric, methanesulfonic or benzoic acid and others commonly used in the art. A preferred salt is a salt of the trifluoroacetic acid.

Also, pharmaceutically acceptable hydrates or solvates of the compound of formula (I) are included in the scope of the present invention. In particular, they can be any hydrate or solvate commonly used in the art.

Preferred compounds according to the present invention are:

3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(3-hydroxycarbamoyl-propoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid (1 ) (RC 1315)

3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(4-hydroxycarbamoyl-butoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid (2) (RC 1375)

3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(7-hydroxycarbamoyl-heptyloxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid (3) (RC 1268)

2-(2-{4-[3-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(2-carboxy-vinyl)-biphenyl-4-yloxy]-butyrylamino}-eth yldisulfanyl)- ethyl-ammonium; trifluoroacetate (4) (RC 1363) 3-{3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-[3-(2-{2-[3-(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-2-hydroxyimino -propion ethyldisulfanyl}-ethylcarbamoyl)-propoxy]-biphenyl-4-yl}-acr ylic acid (5) (RC 1338)

3-{3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-[3-(2-{2-[3-(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-2-hydroxyimino -propionylamino]- ethyldisulfanyl}-ethylcarbamoyl)-propionyloxy]-biphenyl-4-yl }-acrylic acid (6) (AB 514)

3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(4-carboxy-butoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid (7) (RC 1401 )

3-(3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-hydroxycarbamoylmethoxybiphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid (8) (MIR002)

3-{3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'[(tetrahydropyran-2-yloxycarbamoyl)-methoxy]-biphenyl- 4-yl}-acrylic acid (9) (BIO 49)

3-(3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-carboxymethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid (10) (GEM 66)

3-{3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-[2-(tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxycarbamoyl)-ethoxy]-biphen yl-4-yl}-acrylic acid (1 1 ) (GEM 57)

3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(2-hydroxycarbamoyl-ethoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid (12) (GEM 60)

6-{3-Adamantan-1 -yl-4-[(tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxycarbamoyl)-methoxy]-phenyl}- naphthalene-2- carboxylic acid (13) (GEM 59)

6-(3-Adamantan-1 -yl-4-hydroxycarbamoylmethoxy-phenyl)-naphthalene-2-carboxyl ic acid (14) (GEM 61 )

3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(hydroxyl-buthoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid (15) (BI04)

3-(3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-hydroxyaminomethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid trifluoroacetate (16) (GEM 95)

3-(3'-adamantan-1 -yl-4'-hydrazinocarbonylmethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid trifluoroacetate (17) (GEM 93)

3-(4'-Hydroxycarbamoylmethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid (18) (GEM 103)

3-[3'-(1 ,5-Diaza-bicyclo[3.3.1]non-9-yl)-4'-(4-hydroxycarbamoyl-buto xy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid (19)

3-[4L(4.Hydroxycarbamoyl-butoxy)-3'-(1 ! 3 ! 5 ! 7-tetraaza-tricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]dec-2-yl)-biphenyl-4-yl ]- acrylic acid (20)

3-[4'-(4-Hydroxycarbamoyl-butoxy)-3'-(1 -methyl-cyclohexyl)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid (21 )

3-Phenyl-4'-(4-hydroxycarbamoyl-butoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-ac rylic acid (22)

3-(4'-(4-Hydroxycarbamoyl-butoxy)-3'-{[(naphthalen-2-ylmethy l)-amino]-methyl}-biphen

acrylic acid (23) 3-(4'-(4-Hydroxycarbamoyl-butoxy)-3'-{[(quinolin-7-ylmethyl) -amino]-methy

acid (24)

3-(4'-(4-Hydroxycarbamoyl-butoxy)-3'-{[(8-hydroxy-5-nitro-qu inolin-7-ylmethyl)-amino]-m biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid (25)

Formulae of the above mentioned com ounds are represented in the following table:

10

11



A process for the preparation of the compound of formula (I) is also within the scope of the present invention.

The compounds of the present invention can be synthesized by many methods available to those skilled in the art of organic chemistry. General synthetic schemes for preparing compounds of the present invention are described below. These schemes are illustrative and are not meant to limit the possible techniques one skilled in the art may use to prepare the compounds disclosed herein. Different methods to prepare the compounds of the present invention will be evident to those skilled in the art. Additionally, the various steps in the synthesis may be performed in an alternate sequence in order to give the desired compound or compounds.

Examples of compounds of the present invention prepared by methods described in the general schemes are given in the intermediates and examples section set out hereinafter. The compounds of the present invention can be prepared in a number of ways known to one skilled in the art of organic synthesis. The compounds of the present invention can be synthesized using the methods described below, together with synthetic methods known in the art of synthetic organic chemistry, or by variations thereon as appreciated by those skilled in the art. Preferred methods include, but are not limited to, those described below. The reactions are performed in a solvent or solvent mixture appropriate to the reagents and materials employed and suitable for the transformations being effected. It will be understood by those skilled in the art of organic synthesis that the functionality present on the molecule should be consistent with the transformations proposed. This will sometimes require a judgment to modify the order of the synthetic steps or to select one particular process scheme over another in order to obtain a desired compound of the invention.

It will also be recognized that another major consideration in the planning of any synthetic route in this field is the judicious choice of the protecting group used for protection of the reactive functional groups present in the compounds described in this invention. An authoritative account describing the many alternatives to the trained practitioner is Greene et al. (Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, 4th Edition, Wiley- Interscience (2006)).

Also, the skilled in the art can easily alter the reagents and reaction conditions exemplified in the schemes below to include any combination of substituents as defined above. Also, the skilled artisan can easily use interchangeable steps for each synthetic process and incorporate isolation and/or purification steps as deemed necessary.

Starting materials useful for the preparing the compounds of the invention and intermediates therefor, are commercially available or can be prepared by well known synthetic methods.

The final products obtained by the synthesis described below may be purified using techniques commonly known to one skilled in the art such as preparatory chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, HPLC, or crystallization.

Exemplary processes for the synthesis of the compounds of the invention are herein described.

Compounds of formula (I) wherein R 5 is 1 -adamantyl can be obtained for example with a Suzuki- Miyaura reaction (Miyaura, N.; Suzuki, A. Chem. Rev. (1995), 95, 2457; Mora, M. et al. Curr. Org. Chemistry (2012),16,1 128-1 150; Heravi, M. et al. Tetrahedron (2012), 68, 9145-9178; Alonso, F. et al. Tetrahedron (2008), 64, 3047-3101 ) between 2-adamantan-1 -yl-4-bromophenol (A) (Charpentier, B. et al. J. Med. Chem. (1995), 38, 4993-5006) or an ether (Tribulovich, V. G. et al., Russian J. Gen. Chem. 80(4), 868-869; 2010) or a silylderivative thereof, with a suitable boronate (B) where R 4 is O-alkyl in presence of Pd-tetrakis(triphenylphosphine) and 2M sodium or potassium carbonate, or dichloro(diphenylphosphinoferrocene)palladium.dichloromethan e and potassium acetate, or a similar Pd catalyst with a similar base, in a solvent such as dimethoxyethane and ethanol, at temperatures from 25°C to 80°C (scheme 1 ).

Esters (B) can be prepared from the corresponding halide and bis(pinacolato)diboron in presence of PdCI 2 (dppf) and KOAc. (Giroux, A. et al. Tetrahedron Letters, (1997), 41 , 3841 -3844).

Alternatively, the corresponding boronic acids can be prepared by metal-halogen exchange of the corresponding halide, quenching with a trialkoxyborate reagent, and aqueous workup to provide the boronic acids (Miyaura, N. et al., Chem. Rev., (1995),95, 2457).

The esters (C) thus obtained can be hydrolyzed for example with LiOH.H 2 0 in THF/H 2 0 to obtain the corresponding acids or reacted with suitable reagents (e.g. NH 2 OH or O-alkylhydroxylamines or amines) to give compounds containing the desired COR 4 group wherein R 4 has the meanings defined above, following well known procedures of organic synthesis.

The protecting group (e.g. tertbutoxycarbonyl), if present, can be eliminated by the common procedures known in the art. For example, it can be eliminated by treatment with trifluoroacetic acid in dichloromethane at T from 0°C to room T.

Scheme 1

The same or similar reaction conditions hold for compounds of structure "A" of scheme 1 where R 5 is alkyl, cycloalkyl, azacycloalkyl, oxacycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl. Compounds of general formula "A" where R 2 is different from H can be obtained for example by alkylation (Cincinelli et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2007, 15, 4863) of compounds D (Cincinelli R. et al. J. Med. Chem. 2005, 48, 4931 -4946), followed by reaction with bis(pinacolato)diboron in presence of PdCI 2 (dppf) and KOAc. (Giroux, A. et al. Tetrahedron Letters, (1997), 41 , 3841 -3844) (scheme 2).

Scheme 2

The same or similar reaction conditions hold for compounds of structure "D" of scheme 2 where R 5 is alkyl, cycloalkyl, azacycloalkyl, oxacycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl.

Compounds having further meanings of R 2 according to the present invention can be easily obtained by the skilled person based on the above exemplary procedures according to the standard methods of organic synthesis and common general knowledge in the field.

Compounds of general formula "B" can be obtained for example by formylation (Bhatt, S. et al. Tetrahedron Letters, 50(42), 5823-5826; 2009) or amidoalkylation (Cincinelli et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2007, 15, 4863) or with other well known methods of organic synthesis, of commercially available p-bromophenol, followed by Heck coupling with a suitable acrylate (Heck, R.F. Organic Reactions, Vol. 27, 1982). The obtained 3-substituted-4-hydroxycinnamic esters can be converted into the corresponding triflates (B) by standard methods (e.g. Cincinelli, R.et al Eur. J. Med. Chem., 79, 251 -259; 2014; Dallavalle, S. et al. J. Med. Chem. (2005), 48, 4931 -4946) (route a, scheme 3).

Alternatively, compounds of general formula "B" where R 3 is for example heterocycloalkyi can be obtained by Mannich reaction of suitable 4-hydroxycinnamates with paraformaldehyde and amines (Nakano, H. J. Med. Chem., (2012), 55, 5151 -5164), followed by conversion into the corresponding triflates (B) by standard methods (route b, scheme 3). Route a

Scheme 3

Compounds of formula (I) where R 3 is a formyl group can be converted into the corresponding oximes or alkyloximes (Cullen, M. et al. J. Med. Chem. (2007), 50, 4854-4867), alcohols (Kostikov, A. P. et al. J. Org. Chem. (2007), 72, 9190-9194), amides (Xu, J. E. J. Org. Chem. (2004), 15, 3244-3253), alkenes according to standard methods of organic synthesis.

Compounds having further meanings of R 3 according to the present invention can be easily obtained by the skilled person based on the above exemplary procedures according to the standard methods of organic synthesis and common general knowledge in the field.

This reaction scheme can be applied not only to esters, but also to other compounds where R 4 is different from O-alkyl.

Compounds of general formula (I) can be converted into other compounds of general formula (I) via suitable transformations.

For example, compounds of formula C where Ri is OH, can be converted into compounds where R-i has the meanings above defined by reactions of alkylation, followed by further transformations according to general methods of organic synthesis.

For example, compounds of formula (I) where Ri is CONHOH, COOH, COO-alkyl, CONHOalkyl, CONHNH 2 , CONH-aryl, R 2 and R 3 are H and R 8 and R 9 are H, can be obtained by conversion of acid F (Cincinelli R. et al. J. Med. Chem. 2005, 48, 4931 -4946) into a suitable ester G (for example, a tert-butyl ester, Giannini, G. et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. (2012), 20(7),2405-2415), followed by alkylation with suitable alkyl bromoalkylcarboxylat.es (Naik, Ravi et al. J. Med. Chem. (2012), 55, 10564-10571 ) to obtain the O-substituted intermediates H. The esters (H) thus obtained can be hydrolyzed with LiOH.H 2 0 in THF/H 2 0 to obtain the corresponding acids. Reaction with suitable reagents (e.g. NH 2 OH or O-alkylhydroxylamines or amines) followed by treatment with TFA gives compounds containing the desired COR 4 group wherein R 4 has the meanings defined above. (Scheme 4).

Compounds of formula (I) where Ri is CONHO-oxacycloalkyl can be obtained following the above described procedure by conversion of acid F into a suitable ester G (for example methyl ester) followed by alkylation with O-oxacycloalkylhydroxylamine to obtain the O-substituted intermediates H. The esters (H) thus obtained can be hydrolyzed with LiOH.H 2 0 in THF/H 2 0 to obtain the desired COR 4 group wherein R 4 has the meanings defined above.

Compounds of formula (I) where Ri is CH 2 OH or COCF 3 , R 2 and R 3 are H and R 8 and R 9 are H, can be obtained by conversion of acid F (Cincinelli R. et al. J. Med. Chem. 2005, 48, 4931 -4946) into a suitable ester G (for example, a methyl ester, Giannini, G. et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. (2012), 20(7), 2405-2415), followed by alkylation with bromoalkylacetates or bromo-1 ,1 , 1 -trifluoroalkyl-2- ones to obtain the O-substituted intermediates H. The esters (H) thus obtained can be hydrolyzed with LiOH.H 2 0 in THF/H 2 0 to obtain compounds containing the desired COR 4 group wherein R 4 has the meanings defined above. (Scheme 4).

Compounds of formula (I) where Ri is CH 2 SCOCH 3 or CH 2 NHOH, R 2 and R 3 are H and R 8 and R 9 are H, can be obtained by conversion of acid F (Cincinelli R. et al. J. Med. Chem. 2005, 48, 4931 - 4946) into a suitable ester G (for example, a tert-buthyl ester, Giannini, G. et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. (2012), 20(7),2405-2415), alkylation with dibromoalkyls, reaction with potassium thioacetate or potassium methanthiolate or N, O-diBochydroxylamine followed by treatment with TFA. (Scheme 4). Compounds of formula (I) where Ri is CH 2 SH can be obtained following the above procedure by final treatment of intermediate H with Ri = CH 2 SCOCH 3 with LiOH.H 2 0 in THF/H 2 0.

Scheme 4

The same or similar reaction conditions hold for compounds of structure "F" of scheme 4 where R 5 is alkyl, cycloalkyl, azacycloalkyl, oxacycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl.

Compounds having further meanings of Ri or A-Ri according to the present invention can be easily obtained by the skilled person based on the above exemplary procedures and according to the standard methods of organic synthesis and common general knowledge in the field.

Compounds of formula (M) where R 2 and R 3 are H and R 5 is alkylaminomethyl, arylakylaminomethyl, heteroarylalkylaminomethyl can be prepared starting from the esters J (Dallavalle S. et al. Eur. J. Med. Chem. (2009), 44(5),1900-1912) via a Mannich reaction with formaldehyde and amines BNH 2 , where B is alkyl, arylakyl, or heteroarylalkyl, optionally substituted with OH, OalkyI, halogen, N0 2 and/or NH 2 depending on the desired R 5 , as described for example by Sosic et al. J. Med. Chem. 2013, 56, 521 -533. (Scheme 5 )

Scheme 5

These esters can be transformed into esters L, then into compounds M following the procedures described in Scheme 4. In these transformations, the NH group of BNHCH 2 may be protected and deprotected according to the current procedures of organic synthesis.

In all the transformations above mentioned, every possibly interfering group can be protected and later deprotected according to standard procedures of organic chemistry, as described e.g. in P.G.M. Wuts and T.W. Greene "Greene's Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis", J. Wiley & Sons, Inc., 4rd Ed., 2006.

All the transformations above described are only exemplary synthetic procedures already known in organic chemistry and well known to the experts in the field.

Any variation or combination of substituents of compounds of formula (I) which is within the scope of the present invention and is not explicitly shown or described in the above processes, can be easily obtained starting from the exemplary processes described above with suitable modifications, for example in the starting compounds or reagents, that are well-known within the knowledge of the skilled person in the field of organic chemistry. Reference can be made, for example, to the handbook "March's Advanced Organic Chemistry, Reactions, Mechanism and structures.", Michael B. Smith, Jerry March, last edition.

It has been found that compounds of formula (I) are endowed with anti-proliferative activity and they are able to reduce tumor mass. Therefore, they can be advantageously used in the treatment of many cancer diseases. It has also been found that the compounds of the invention can have an anti-tumor activity also on tumor resistant to known chemotherapy drugs, such as adarotene.

Furthermore, in many tumors the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (PGP) drastically reduces the possibility, after oral administration, of absorption of several chemotherapeutic agents (i.e. Paclitaxel, doxorubicin etc.). It has been found that the compounds of the invention are not PGP substrates, therefore they can be advantageously administered to the patients via oral route.

A further object of the present invention relates to the use of a compound of formula (I) as a medicament, in particular for the treatment of tumours. When it is used for the treatment of tumors, the antitumoral activity can be of cytotoxic nature and/or apoptotic nature, and/or antiangiogenic nature.

In a preferred embodiment, the tumour is selected from the group consisting of sarcoma, carcinoma, carcinoid, mesothelioma, lymphoma, bone tumour, neuroendocrine tumour, lymphoid leukaemia, myeloid leukaemia, monocytic leukaemia, megakaryocyte leukaemia, acute promyelocytic leukaemia, Hodgkin's disease, lung tumour, hepatoma, mesothelioma and intracranial tumor, such as glioma.

A further object of the present invention is the use of a compound of formula (I) for the prevention and treatment of tumour metastasis.

In a further embodiment of the invention, the compound of formula (I) can be used for the treatment of a disease related to altered angiogenesis.

The skilled in the art, for example a physician, can identify and recognize if a disease is related to altered angiogenesis on the basis of its general knowledge in the field.

In particular, the compound of formula (I) can be used for the treatment of the following diseases: arthritic pathology, diabetic retinopathy, psoriasis and chronic inflammatory disease.

Another object of the present invention is a pharmaceutical composition containing at least one compound of formula (I) as an active ingredient, preferably in an amount such as to produce a significant therapeutic effect, together with pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle and/or excipients.

Such pharmaceutical compositions can be prepared by conventional methods and techniques which are common practice in the pharmaceutical industry, such as, for example, those illustrated in Remington's Pharmaceutical Science Handbook, Mack Pub. N.Y. - last edition.

The compositions according to the present invention contain, along with the active ingredient, at least one pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle or excipient. These may be particularly useful formulation coadjuvants, e.g. solubilising agents, dispersing agents, suspension agents, and emulsifying agents. The pharmaceutical compositions according to the invention can also contain one or more further active ingredients, in particular chemotherapeutic agents. Such agents can be any molecule which is commonly used in the treatment of tumors. The chemotherapeutic agent can be chosen among the known agents according to the general knowledge of the skilled person in the field. For example, said chemotherapeutic agent can be selected from the group consisting of cytotoxic agents, proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, topoisomerase inhibitors, kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, in particular directed towards highly expressed tumor associated antigens. Particularly preferred is a composition comprising a compound of formula (I) and a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent, in particular cisplatin. Indeed, it has been found that such combination has a synergistic anti-tumoral activity.

According to the administration route chosen, the compositions will be in solid or liquid form, suitable for oral, parenteral or topical administration.

Generally, the compounds of this invention are administered in a "therapeutically effective amount". The amount of the compound actually administered will typically be determined by a physician, in the light of the relevant circumstances, including the condition to be treated, the chosen route of administration, the actual compound administered, drug combination, the age, body weight, and response of the individual patient, the severity of the patient's symptoms, and the like. For any compound, the therapeutically effective dose can be estimated initially either in cell culture assays or in animal models, usually mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, dogs, or pigs. The animal model may also be used to determine the appropriate concentration range and route of administration. Such information can then be used to determine useful doses and routes for administration in humans. In calculating the Human Equivalent Dose (HED) it is recommended to use the conversion table provided in Guidance for Industry and Reviewers document (2002, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, Maryland, USA).

Generally, an effective dose will be from 0.01 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg, preferably 0.05 mg/kg to 50 mg/kg. For any compound, the therapeutically effective dose can be estimated initially either in cell culture assays or in animal models, usually mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, dogs, or pigs. The precise effective dose for a human subject will depend upon the severity of the disease state, general health of the subject, age, weight, and gender of the subject, diet, time and frequency of administration, drug combination(s), reaction sensitivities, and tolerance/response to therapy. This amount can be determined by routine experimentation and is within the judgement of the clinician.

Compositions may be administered individually to a patient or may be administered in combination with other agents, drugs or hormones. For example they can be used in combination with further active ingredients, such as for example anticancer drugs.

The medicament may also contain a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, for administration of a therapeutic agent. Such carriers include antibodies and other polypeptides, genes and other therapeutic agents such as liposomes, provided that the carrier does not induce the production of antibodies harmful to the individual receiving the composition, and which may be administered without undue toxicity.

Suitable carriers may be large, slowly metabolised macromolecules such as proteins, polysaccharides, polylactic acids, polyglycolic acids, polymeric amino acids, amino acid copolymers and inactive virus particles.

A thorough discussion of pharmaceutically acceptable carriers is available in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences (Mack Pub. Co., N.J. 1991 ).

Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers in therapeutic compositions may additionally contain liquids such as water, saline, glycerol and ethanol.

Additionally, auxiliary substances, such as wetting or emulsifying agents, pH buffering substances, and the like, may be present in such compositions. Such carriers enable the pharmaceutical compositions to be formulated as tablets, pills, dragees, capsules, liquids, gels, syrups, slurries, suspensions, and the like, for ingestion by the patient.

Once formulated, the compositions of the invention can be administered directly to the subject. The subjects to be treated can be animals; in particular, human subjects can be treated.

The medicament of this invention may be administered by any number of routes including, but not limited to, oral, intravenous, intramuscular, intra-arterial, intramedullary, intrathecal, intraventricular, transdermal or transcutaneous applications, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, intranasal, enteral, topical, sublingual, intravaginal or rectal means.

The compositions for oral administration may take the form of bulk liquid solutions or suspensions, or bulk powders. More commonly, however, the compositions are presented in unit dosage forms to facilitate accurate dosing. The term "unit dosage forms" refers to physically discrete units suitable as unitary dosages for human subjects and other mammals, each unit containing a predetermined quantity of active material calculated to produce the desired therapeutic effect, in association with a suitable pharmaceutical excipient. Typical unit dosage forms include refilled, pre-measured ampoules or syringes of the liquid compositions or pills, tablets, capsules or the like in the case of solid compositions. In such compositions, the compound of the invention is usually a minor component (from about 0.1 to about 50% by weight or preferably from about 1 to about 40% by weight) with the remainder being various vehicles or carriers and processing aids helpful for forming the desired dosing form. Dosage treatment may be a single dose schedule or a multiple dose schedule.

A further object of the invention is a process for the preparation of pharmaceutical compositions characterized by mixing one or more compounds of formula (I) with suitable excipients, stabilizers and/or pharmaceutically acceptable diluents. The following examples further illustrate the invention.

EXAMPLES

EXAMPLE 1

3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(3-hydroxycarbamoyl-propoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid (1 ).

Step 1. 3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(3-ethoxycarbonyl-propoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid tert- butyl ester. A mixture of 3-(3'-adamantan-1 -yl-4'-hydroxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid tert-butyl ester (50 mg, 0.1 15 mmol), ethyl bromobutanoate (36 mg, 0.17 mmol), K 2 C0 3 (48 mg, 0.345 mmol) in 1 .4 ml of DMF was heated at 60-80°C for 2 h, added with 12 mg of ethyl bromobutanoate and heated again for 6 h. Evaporation, taking up with EtOAc, washing with water, dryng, evaporation and chromatography with hexane/EtOAc 9:1 gave 67 mg of the product, m.p. 148°C. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, CHCIs-d): 7.79 - 7.46 (6H, m), 7.41 (1 H, dd, J = 1.8, 8.2 Hz), 6.94 (1 H, d, J = 8.2 Hz), 6.40 (1 H, d, J = 15.9 Hz), 4.28 - 4.01 (4H, m), 2.64 (2H, t, J = 7.6 Hz), 2.30 - 2.03 (1 1 H, m), 1.87 - 1.70 (6H, m), 1 .56 (s, 9H), 1 .30 (3H, t, J = 7.3).

Step 2. 3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(3-carboxy-propoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid tert-butyl ester. The above ester (59 mg, 0.1 1 mmol), was dissolved in 3.4 ml of aq. 50% THF, added with 14 mg (0.32 mmol) of LiOH. H 2 0, and the mixture was left overnight in the dark. Evaporation of the solvent, taking up with EtOAc, washing with 1 N H 2 SO 4 (10 ml), drying and evaporation gave 43 mg (87%) of the product as a white solid, m.p. >280°C. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, CDCI 3 ): 7.37 /1 H, d, J = 16.2 Hz), 7.33 - 7.26 84H, m), 7.24 (1 H, d, J = 2.1 Hz), 7.17 81 H, dd, 2.1 , 8.2 Hz), 6.69 (1 H, d, J = 8.2 Hz), 6.15 (1 H, d J = 16.2 Hz), 3.87 (2H, t, J = 6.1 Hz), 2.47 (2H, t, J = 7.3 Hz), 2.06 - 1 .95 (2H, m), 1 .94-1.83 (9H, m), 1.59 - 1 .49 (6H, m) 1.31 (9H, s).

Step 3. 3-{3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-[3-(tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxycarbamoyl)-propoxy]-biphe nyl-4- yl}-acrylic acid tert-butyl ester. A mixture of the ebove ester (48 mg, 0.093 mmol), HOBt (26 mg, 0,19 mmol), and WSC (37 mg, 0.19 mmol)in 1 ml of dry DMF is left 5 h at room T, then is added with 23 mg (0.19 mmol) of 0-(tetrahydro-pyran-2-yl)-hydroxylamine, and left overnight. Evaporation and chromatography with hexane/EtOAc 6:4 gave 153 mg of the product, that was used for the following step without further purification. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, CDCI 3 ): 7.97 (1 H, brs), 7.38 (1 H, d, J = 16.2 Hz), 7.34 - 7.28 (4H, m), 7.24 (1 H, d, J = 1 .8 Hz), 7.17 (1 H, dd, J = 1 .8, 8.2 Hz), 6.69 (1 H, d, J = 8.24 Hz), 6.14 (1 H, d, J = 16.2 Hz), 4.78 - 4.66 (1 H, m), 3.86 (2H, t, J = 5.8 Hz), 3.73 - 3.60 (1 H, m), 3.43 - 3.30 (1 H, m), 2.27 - 2.12 (2H, m), 2.09 - 1 .97 (2H, m), 1.96 - 1.82 (9H, m), 1 .67- 1 .48 (10H, m), 1.45 - 1 .27 (1 1 H, m)

Step 4. S-IS'-Adamantan-l -yl^'-iS-hydroxycarbamoyl-propoxyJ-biphenyl^-yll-acrylic acid.

Into an ice-cooled solution of the above ester (41 mg, 0.07 mmol) in 1 .4 ml of CH 2 CI 2 was dropped TFA (0.7 ml). The mixture was left 2 h at 0°C, then evaporated, to give 42 mg of a yellow solid, that was chromatographed with CH 2 CI 2 : CH 3 OH:H 2 0 18:2:0.2 to give 14 mg (44%) of the product as a white solid m.p. 242°C (dec). 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ): 10.47 (1 H, s), 8.75 (1 H, brs), 7.76 -

7.54 (5H, m), 7.51 (1 H, dd, J = 1 .8, 8.5 Hz), 7.43 (1 H, d, J = 1 .8 Hz), 7.03 (1 H, d, J = 8.5 Hz), 6.53 (1 H, d, J = 16.2 Hz), 4.03 (2H, t, J = 7.0 Hz), 2.68 - 2.55 (2H, m), 2.29 - 2.17 (2H, m), 2.16 - 1 .95 (9H, m), 1.82 - 1 .66 (6H, m).

EXAMPLE 2

3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(4-hydroxycarbamoyl-butoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid (2).

Step 1. 3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(4-ethoxycarbonyl-butoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid tert- butyl ester. A solution of 3-(3'-adamantan-1 -yl-4'-hydroxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid tert-butyl ester (200 mg, 0.46 mmol) and of ethyl 5-bromovalerate (194 mg, 0.92 mmol) in 8 ml of DMF was added with K 2 C0 3 (257 mg, 1 .86 mmol) and heated 3.5 h at 80°C in the dark. Evaporation and chromatography with hexane/EtOAc 9:1 gave 197 mg (76%) of the product, m.p. 127°C. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, CDCIs) δ: 7.62 (1 H, d, J = 15.8), 7.58 - 7.53 (4H, m), 7.48 (1 H, d, J = 2.2 Hz), 7.41 (1 H, dd, J = 2.2, 8.4 Hz), 6.93 (1 H, d, J = 8.4), 6.38 (1 H, d, J = 15.8 Hz), 4.16 (2H, d, j = 7.2), 4.08 - 4.00 (2H, m), 2.47 - 2.38 (2H, m), 2.24 - 2.06 (9H, m), 1.99 - 1.88 (4H, m), 1.84 - 1.74 (6H, m),

1 .55 (9H, s), 1 .27 (3H, t, J = 7.2 Hz)

Step 2. 3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(4-carboxy-butoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid tert-butyl ester. A solution of the above ester (170 mg, 0.3 mmol) in 9,6 ml of aq. 50% THF was added with 38 mg (0.31 mmol) of LiOH.H 2 0 and left 3 h. Evaporation, taking up with EtOAc, washing with 20ml of 1 N KHSO 4 , extraction with EtOAc, drying the extract with Na 2 S0 4 , filtration and evaporation gave 136 mg (84%) of the product, m.p. 169°C. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-c/ 6 ) δ: 12.06 (1 H, bs), 7.76 - 7.61 84H, m) 7.57 (1 H, d, J = 15.9 Hz), 7.51 (1 H, d, J = 2.3, 8.6 Hz), 7.43 (1 H, d, J = 2.3 Hz), 7.05 (1 H, d, J = 8.6 Hz), 6.53 (1 H, d, J = 15.9 Hz), 4.03 (2H, t, J = 5.9 Hz), 2.32 (2H, t, J = 6.6 Hz), 2.17 - 1 .99 (9H, m), 1.88 - 1 .68 (10H, m), 1.49 (9H, s).

Step 3. 3-{3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-[4-(tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxycarbamoyl)-butoxy]-biphen yl-4- yl}-acrylic acid tert-butyl ester. A mixture of the above ester (130 mg, 0.245 mmol), HOBt (68 mg, 0,49 mmol), and WSC (37 mg, 0.19 mmol) in 1 ml of dry DMF is left 3 h at room T, added again with 1 ml of DMF and 24 mg of WSC, left overnight, then added with 85 mg (1.22 mmol) of 0-(tetrahydro-pyran-2-yl)-hydroxylamine HCI, and 123 (1 .22 mmol) of triethylamine and left 3 h under nitrogen atmosphere and in the dark. Evaporation of the DMF, taking up with 3 ml of water, filtration and chromatography with CH 2 CI 2 : CH 3 OH 195:5, and a second chromatography with CH 2 CI 2 : CH 3 OH 190:10 gave 60 mg (45%) of the product as a white solid. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ: 10.39 (1 H, s), 8.71 (1 H, s), 7.77 - 7.61 (4H, m), 7.58 (1 H, d, J = 16.0 Hz), 7.51 (1 H, dd, J = 2.2, 8.7 Hz), 7.43 (1 H, d, J = 2.2 Hz), 7.05 (1 H, d, J = 8.7 Hz), 6.53 (1 H, d, J = 16.0 Hz), 4.07 - 3.97 (2H, m), 2.18 - 1.98 ()H, m), 1.86 - 1 .66 (10H, m) 1 .49 (9H, s). Step 4. 3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(4-hydroxycarbamoyl-butoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid. Into an ice-cooled solution of the above ester (52 mg, 0.095 mmol) in 1 .9 ml of CH 2 CI 2 was dropped TFA (0.95 ml). The mixture was left 3 h at 0°C, under nitrogen and in the dark, then evaporated, to give 42 mg, 89%) of the product as a white solid m.p. 224°C (dec). 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-c/ 6 ) δ: 13.38 (1 h, bs), 7.78 - 7.55 (5H, m), 7.51 (1 H, dd, J = 2.2, 8.3 Hz), 7.43 (1 H, d, J = 2.2 Hz), 7.05 (1 H, d, J = 8.3 Hz), 6.54 (1 H, d, J = 15.7 Hz), 4.07 - 3.97 (2H, m), 2.22 - 1.98 (1 1 H, m), 1.91 - 1 .62 (10H, m).

EXAMPLE 3

3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(7-hydroxycarbamoyl-heptyloxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid (3)

Step 1 . Tert-butyl 3-{3'-adamantan-1 -yl-4'-[7-(tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxycarbamoyl)- heptyloxy]-biphenyl-4-yl}-acrylate. A mixture of tert-butyl 3-(3'-adamantan-1 -yl-4'-hydroxy- biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylate (150 mg, 0.35 mmol), 8-bromo-octanoic acid (tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxy)- amide (146 mg, 0.45 mmol), and K 2 C0 3 (137 mg, 0.99 mmol) in 6 ml of dry acetonitrile was refluxed 12 hrs, then added with 1 ml of dry DMF and 80 mg of K 2 C0 3 and again refluxed 5 hrs. Evaporation, filtration and drying gave a crude product, that was purified by chromatography with hexane/AcOEt 1 :1 to give 100 mg of a white solid, m.p. 154-156°C, 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, CDCI 3 ) δ: 8.16 (1 H, br s), 7.45-7.67 (6H, m), 7.42, 1 H, dd, J = 8.24 and J = 2.14 Hz), 6.34 (1 H, d, J = 8.24 Hz), 6.33 (1 H, m, J = 16.2 Hz), 4.96 (1 H, br s), 3.89-4.07 (3H, m), 3.60-3.70 (1 H, m), 2.07-2.24 (1 1 H, m), 1 .75-1.96 (12H, m), 1 .51 -1.74 (15H, m), 1 .36-1.48 (4H, m).

Step 2. S-IS'-Adamantan-l -yl^'-i -hydroxycarbamoyl-heptyloxyJ-biphenyl^-yll-acrylic acid (23)

A solution of tert-butyl 3-{3'-adamantan-1 -yl-4'-[7-(tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxycarbamoyl)-heptyloxy]- biphenyl-4-yl}-acrylate (88 mg, 0.13 mmol) in 2.6 ml of CH 2 CI 2 was cooled in an ice bath, treated dropwise with 1 .3 ml of TFA and stirred at room T for 30 min. Evaporation, and taking up with ether gave a white solid, that was washed with hexane to give 70 mg of the product, m.p. 177°C (dec), 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ: 12.3 (1 H, br s), 10.3 (1 H, s), 8.66 (1 H, brs), 7.56-7.77 (5H, m), 7.51 , 1 H, d, J = 8.24 Hz), 7.43 (1 H, s), 7.04 (1 H, d, J = 8.24 Hz), 6.53 (1 H, m, J = 16.2 Hz), 4.02 (2H, t, J = 5.19 Hz), 2.01 -2.18 (9H, m), 1 .94 (2H, t, J = 7.93 Hz), 1.67-1 .87 (8H, m), 1.43- 1 .60 (4h, m), 1 .19-1 .42 (4H, m).

EXAMPLE 4

2-(2-{4-[3-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(2-carboxy-vinyl)-biphenyl-4-yloxy]-butyrylamino}- ethyldisulfanyl)-ethyl-ammonium; trifluoroacetate (4) (RC 1363)

Step 1 . 3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(3-{2-[2-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-ethyldisulfanyl]- ethylcarbamoyl}-propoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid tert-butyl ester. A mixture of 3-[3'-

Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(3-carboxy-propoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid tert-butyl ester (80 mg, 0.155 mmol), HOBt (43 mg, 0.31 mmol), and WSC (61 mg, 0.31 mmol) in 0.84 ml of DMF was stirred for 5 h (a precipitate formed), then added with [2-(2-amino-ethyldisulfanyl)-ethyl]-carbamic acid tert- butyl ester (Biochem. Biophys, Res. Comm. 331 , 1 , 351 -356) (the precipitate dissolves) and left overnight. Evaporation and chromatography with hexane/EtOAc 4:6 gave 99 mg (85%) of the product as a white solid, m.p. 79°C. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, CDCI 3 ): 7.62 (1 H, d, J = 16.0), 7.61 - 7.51 (4H, m), 7.48 (1 H, d, J = 2.3), 7.40 (1 H, dd, J = 2.3, 8.3), 6.93 (1 H, d, J = 8.3), 6.38 (1 H, d, J = 16.0), 6.42 (1 H, bs), 4.94 (1 H, bs), 4.08 (2H, t, J = 6.1 ), 3.65 - 3.55 (2H, m), 3.49 - 3.38 (2H, m), 2.85 (2H, t, J = 6.2), 2.76 (2H, t, J = 6.9), 2.52 (2H, t, J = 7.2), 2.32 - 2.20 (2H, m), 2.18 - 2.06 (9H, m), 1 .85 - 1.74 (6H, m), 1 .61 - 1.52 (9H, s), 1.45 (9H, s).

Step 2. 2-(2-{4-[3-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(2-carboxy-vinyl)-biphenyl-4-yloxy]-butyrylamino}- ethyldisulfanyl)-ethyl-ammonium; trifluoroacetate.

A solution of the above ester (81 mg, 0.1 1 mmol) in 8.2 ml of dichloromethane was cooled with ice, then added with dropwise with 2 ml of TFA, and left at 0°C under nitrogen, for 4 h. Evaporation gave 76 mg (100%) of the product, as a yellow solid, m.p 140°C. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, CH 3 OH-c/ 4 ): 7.77 (6H, m), 7.51 - 7.40 (2H, m), 7.01 (1 H, d J = 8.5), 6.49 (1 H, d, J 0 15.9), 4.09 (2H, t, J = 6.2), 3.54 (2H, t, J = 6.7), 3.28 (2H, t, J = 6.7), 2.97 (2H, t, J = 6.7), 2.87 (2H, t, J = 6.7), 2.51 (2H, t, J = 7.0), 2.26 - 2.14 (9H, m), 2.13 - 2.03 (2H, m), 1.89 - 1 .77 (6H, m).

EXAMPLE 5

3-{3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-[3-(2-{2-[3-(3-bromo-4-hydroxy^henyl)-2-hydroxyimino- propionylamino]-ethyldisulfanyl}-ethylcarbamoyl)-propoxy]-bi phenyl-4-yl}-acrylic acid. (RC 1338)

Step 1 . (2-{2-[3-(3-Bromo-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-2-hydroxyimino-propionyl amino]- ethyldisulfanyl}-ethyl)-carbamic acid tert-butyl ester. A solution of 3-(3-bromo-4-hydroxy- phenyl)-2-hydroxyimino-propionic acid (1.54 g, 5.62 mmol) in 34 ml of DMF

was added with DCC (1 .74 g, 8.43 mmol) and N.hydroxysuccinimide (0.99 g, 8.43 mmol) and left at room T for 3 h, then added with [2-(2-amino-ethyldisulfanyl)-ethyl]-carbamic acid tert-butyl ester, and left overnight at room T. Evaporation, cooling, addition of dichloromethane, filtration, evaporation and chromatography with CH 2 CI 2 : CH 3 OH 95.5 gave 984 mg of the product, which was used without further purification. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, CDCI 3 ): 7.47 (1 H, d, J = 1 .8), 7.22 (1 H, dd, J 0 1.8, 8.5), 6.89 (1 H, d J = 8.5 Hz), 5.10 (1 H, bs), 5.91 (1 H, bs), 3.88 (2H, s), 3.71 - 3.57 (2H, m), 3.50 - 3.35 (2H, m), 2.93 - 2.68 (4H, m), 1.46 (9H, s).

Step 2. 2-{2-[3-(3-Bromo-4-hydroxy^henyl)-2-hydroxyimino-propionylam ino]- ethyldisulfanyl}-ethyl-ammonium; trifluoro-acetate. A solution of the above compound (0.97 g, 1 .9 mmol) in 61 ml of dichloromethane, under nitrogen, was added with 3.7 ml of TFA, and left 2 h at room T. Evaporation and chromatography with CH 2 CI 2 : CH 3 OH 90:10, then with CH 2 CI 2 : CH 3 OH 85:15, gave 938 mg of the product. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ): 8.12 (1 H, t, J = 5.2 Hz), 7.28 (1 H, d, J = 1.8 Hz), 7.01 (1 H, dd, J = 1 .8, 8.2 Hz), 6.83 (1 H, d, J = 8.2 Hz), 3.69 (2H, s), 3.49 - 3.39 (2H, m), 2.97 (2H, t, J = 6.4 Hz), 2.87 - 2.78 (4H, m).

Step 3. 3-{3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-[3-(2-{2-[3-(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-2-hydroxyimino - propionylamino]-ethyldisulfanyl}-ethylcarbamoyl)-propoxy]-bi phenyl-4-yl}-acrylic acid tert- butyl ester. A mixture of 3-[3'-adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(4-carboxy-propoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid tert-butyl ester (65 mg, 0.126 mmol), HOBt (35 mg, 0.25 mmol), and WSC (49 mg, 0.25 mmol) in 1 ml of DMF was stirred for 3 h (a white precipitate formed), added with a solution of 98 mg (0.19 mmol) of 2-{2-[3-(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-2-hydroxyimino-propionyla mino]-ethyldisulfanyl}- ethyl-ammonium; trifluoroacetate in 0.9 ml of dry DMF, and left at room T under nitrogen, for 72 h. Evaporation and chromatography with CH 2 CI 2 : CH 3 OH 20:0.4 gave 71 mg of the product, as a mixture of syn and anti-oxime. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, CDCI 3 ): 9.34 (1 H, brs), 7.61 (1 H, d, J = 16.1 Hz), 7.56-7.51 (4H, m), 7.49 - 7.43 (2H, m), 7.37 (1 H, dd, J = 1 .9, 8.2 Hz), 7.24 - 7.16 (2h, m), 6.90 - 6,84 (2h, m), 6.38 (1 H, d, J = 16.1 ), 6.2 (1 H, t, J = 5.9 Hz), 5.59 (1 H, bs), 4.06 (2H, t, J = 5.9), 3.86 (2H, s), 3.66 - 3.53 (4H, m), 2.87 - 2.76 (4H, m), 2.54 (2H, t, J = 7.3), 2.32 - 2.20 (2H, m), 2.19 - 2.04 (9H, m), 1.86 - 1.70 (6H, m), 1.55 (9H, s).

Step 4. 3-{3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-[3-(2-{2-[3-(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-2-hydroxyimino - propionylamino]-ethyldisulfanyl}-ethylcarbamoyl)-propoxy]-bi phenyl-4-yl}-acrylic acid. A solution of the above ester (61 mg, 0,07 mmol) in 9 ml of dichloromethane was cooled in ice, then added dropwise with 1.5 ml of TFA, and left at room T for 4 h. Evaporation, and crystallization from dichloromethane/ether gave 46 mg of the product, m.p. 169°C (dec). 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO- d 6 ): 12.32 (1 H, bs), 1 1 .84 (1 H, s), 10.02 (1 H, s), 8.15 - 7.99 (1 H, m), 7.77 - 7.55 (5H, m), 7.49 81 H, dd, J = 1 .7, 8.3), 7.42 (1 H, d, J = 1 .7), 7.26 (1 H, s), 7.07 - 6.94 (2H, m), 6.81 (1 H, d, J = 8.3), 6.51 (1 H, d, J = 16.1 ), 4.07 - 3.96 (2H, m), 3.66 (2H, s), 3.52 - 3.37 (4H, m), 2.85 - 2.72 (4H, m), 2.33 (2H, t, J = 7.3), 2.18 - 1 .99 (1 1 H, m), 1.78 - 1 .66 (6H, m).

EXAMPLE 6

3-{3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-[3-(2-{2-[3-(3-bromo-4-hydroxy^henyl)-2-hydroxyimino- propionylamino]-ethyldisulfanyl}-ethylcarbamoyl)-propionylox y]-biphenyl-4-yl}-acrylic acid (6) (AB 514)

Step 1. 3-{3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-[3-(2-{2-[3-(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-2-hydroxyimino - propionylamino]-ethyldisulfanyl}-ethylcarbamoyl)-propionylox y]-biphenyl-4-yl}-acrylic acid tert-butyl ester. (AB513) A solution of succinic acid mono-[3-adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(2-tert- butoxycarbonyl-vinyl)-biphenyl-4-yl] ester (70 mg) in 2 ml of DMF was added with 35 mg of WSC and 22 mg of HOBt, and left overnight at room T under a nitrogen atmosphere. Evaporation and chromatography with CH 2 CI 2 : CH 3 OH 20:1 gave 90 mg of the title product, 1 H NMR (300 MHz,

CDCI 3 ): 7.61 (1 H, d, J = 15.9 Hz), 7.57 - 7.52 (5H, m), 7.44 (1 H, d, J = 2.5 Hz), 7.41 - 7.35 (1 H, m), 7.18 (1 H, dd, J = 2.5, 8.7 Hz), 7.04 (1 H, d, J = 8.3 Hz), 6.86 (1 H, d, J = 8.3 Hz), 6.39 (1 H, d, J = 15.9 Hz), 3.85 (2H, s), 3.63 - 3.48 (4H, m), 3.05 - 2.96 (2H, m), 2.84 - 2.74 (4H, m), 2.72 - 2.60 (2H, m), 2.13 - 1.99 (9H, m), 1.84 - 1 .69 (6H, m), 1 .55 (9H, s).

Step 2. 3-{3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-[3-(2-{2-[3-(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-2-hydroxyimino - propionylamino]-ethyldisulfanyl}-ethylcarbamoyl)-propionylox y]-biphenyl-4-yl}-acrylic acid. (AB514) A solution of 3-{3'-adamantan-1 -yl-4'-[3-(2-{2-[3-(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-2- hydroxyimino-propionylamino]-ethyldisulfanyl}-ethylcarbam

acid tert-butyl ester (75 mg) in 10 ml of dry dichloromethane was cooled at 0°C, added dropwise with 1 .5 ml of TFA and stirred 3 h. Concentration and chromatography with CH 2 CI 2 : CH 3 OH 20:1 , then with CH 2 CI 2 : CH 3 OH 10:1 gave a crude product, that was dissolved in a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol, then added with ethyl ether, to give a precipitate, that was filtered, to give 50 mg of the title product, m.p, 198-199°C (dec),

1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ): 1 1.92 (1 H, bs), 9.63 (1 H, bs), 8.19 (1 H, t, J = 5.8 Hz), 8.10 (1 H, t, J = 5.8 Hz), 7.17 - 7-47 (5H, m), 7.43 - 7.22 (3H, m), 7.08 (1 H, d, J = 8.5 Hz), 7.00 (1 H, d, J = 8.8 Hz), 6.90 - 6.81 (1 H, m), 6.54 - 6.41 (1 H, m), 3.68 (2H, s), 2.91 - 2.70 (6H, m), 2.58 - 2.52 (2H, m), 2.19 - -1.92 (9H, m), 1.82 - 1 .67 86H, m).

EXAMPLE 7

3- [3'-adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(4-carboxy-butoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid (7)

TFA (0.77 mL) was dropped into a solution of 3-[3'-adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(4-carboxy-butoxy)-biphenyl-

4- yl]-acrylic acid ie/f-butyl ester (40 mg, 0.077 mmol) (in CH 2 CI 2 (2.44 mL) at 0 °C (see example 22, step 2). The resulting yellow solution was stirred 3h at 0 °C. Evaporation followed by crystallization from CH 2 CI 2 gave the title compound as a white solid, m.p. 274°C; Yield 95%; R f 0.10 (MeOH, RP). 1 H-NMR (DMSO-d 6 ) δ: 12.05 (1 H, brs); 7.75-7.60 (4H, m); 7.59 ( 1 H d, J= 15.8 Hz); 7.49 (1 H, dd, J= 8.6 Hz, J= 2.1 Hz); 7.41 (1 H, d, J= 2.1 Hz); 7.03 (1 H, d, J= 8.6 Hz); 6.52 (1 H, d, J= 15.8 Hz); 4.01 (2H, t, J= 5.5 Hz), 2.30 (2H, t, J= 6.9 Hz); 2.15-1 .99 (9H, m); 1.87-1 .66 (10H, m).

EXAMPLE 8

3-(3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-hvdroxycarbamoylmethoxybiphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid (MIR002) (8)

Step 1 : 3-(3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-ethoxycarbonylmethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid tert-butyl ester

A solution of 3-(3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-hydroxybiphenyl-4-yl)acrylic acid tert-butyl ester (250 mg, 0.581 mmol) and K 2 C0 3 (321 mg, 2.32 mmol) in anhydrous DMF (10 mL), was added with ethyl bromoacetate (200 mg, 1 .16 mmol). The solution was stirred at 80°C under nitrogen for 2h. Filtration of potassium carbonate, followed by evaporation and purification by flash chromatography with ETP/AcOEt 90 : 10 gave 224 mg of the title compound. Yield 75%. R f 0.31 (ETP/AcOEt 9:1 ). 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, CDCI 3 ) δ: 7.61 (1 H, d, J = 16.1 Hz); 7.57-7.54 (4H, m); 7.50 (1 H, d, J = 2.4 Hz); 7.39 (1 H, dd, J = 2.4, 8.4 Hz); 6.80 (1 H, d, J = 8.4 Hz); 6.38 (1 H, d, J= 16.1 Hz); 4.67 (2H, s); 4.31 (2H, q, J = 7.1 Hz); 2.26-2.05 (9H, m); 1.80 (6H, s); 1 .54(9H, m); 1.32 (3H, t, J = 7.1 Hz).

Step 2: 3-(3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-carboxymethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)acrylic acid tert-butyl ester

A suspension of 3-(3'-adamantan-1 -yl-4'-ethoxycarbonylmethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid tert- butyl ester (191 mg, 0.370 mmol) in THF/H 2 0 1 :1 (1 1 .4 mL) was added with LiOH.H 2 0 (77.6 mg, 1 .85 mmol). The mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. Evaporation, addition of ethyl acetate, washing with KHSO 4 1 N, drying and evaporation gave 181 mg of the title compound. Yield: 100%. R f 0.23 (CH 2 CI 2 : MeOH 19:1 ). 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ: 7.78-7.37 (7H, m); 6.93 (1 H, d, J = 8.6 Hz); 6.50 (1 H, d, J= 16.1 Hz); 4.71 (2H, s); 2.18-1 .95 (9H, m); 1 .73 (6H, s); 1 .48 (9H, m).

Step 3: S-iS'-Adamantan-l -yl^'-hydroxycarbamoylmethoxy-biphenyl^-ylJacrylic acid tert- butyl ester

A solution of 3-(3'-adamantan-1 -yl-4'-carboxymethoxybiphenyl-4-yl)acrylic acid tert-butyl ester (153 mg, 0.313 mmol), WSC (92 mg, 0.470 mmol), N-hydroxysuccinimide (55.2 mg, 0.470 mmol) in anhydrous DMF (3.30 mol) was stirred at room temperature overnight, then hydroxylamine hydrochloride (109 mg, 1 .57 mmol) and TEA (159 mg, 1 .57 mmol) were added. After stirring at room temperature for 12 h, the solvent was evaporated and water (5 mL) was added. Filtration and purification by chromatography (CH 2 CI 2 /MeOH 19 :1 ) gave 84 mg of the title compound. Yield 53%.

R f 0.54 (CH 2 CI 2 : MeOH 19:1 ) 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ: 10.73 (1 H,s); 9.02 (1 H, s); 7.82- 7.37 (7H, m); 6.98 (1 H, d, J = 8.8 Hz); 6.51 (1 H, d, J= 16.1 Hz); 4.47 (2H, s); 2.18-1.95 (9H, m); 1 .73 (6H, s); 1.48 (9H, m)..

Step 4: S-iS'-Adamantan-l -yl^'-hydroxycarbamoylmethoxybiphenyl^-ylJ-acrylic acid

A solution of 3-(3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-hydroxycarbamoylmethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)acrylic acid tert- butyl ester (61 mg, 0.121 mmol) in CH 2 CI 2 dry (3.81 mL) was added with TFA (1 .21 mL) and stirred at 0°C for 2h under nitrogen. The solvent was evaporated, toluene (2 x 3 mL) was added and the solvent was removed by azeotropic distillation. Crystallization from CH 2 CI 2 gave 46 mg of the title compound as a white solid, m.p. 265°C; Yield 85%; R f 0.10 (CH 2 CI 2 : MeOH 18:2). 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ: 12.34 (1 H, s); 10.77 (1 H,s); 9.05 (1 H, s); 7.81 -7.31 (7H, m); 7.06-6.90 (1 H, m); 6.52 (1 H, d, J= 16.5 Hz); 4.45 (2H, s); 2.22-1 .99 (9H, m); 1 .72 (6H, s).

EXAMPLE 9

3-{3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4 (tetrahvdropyran-2-yloxycarbam

acid (9, BIO 49) Step 1 : 3-(3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-tert-butoxycarbonylmethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid methyl ester (GEM 63). A mixture of 3-(3'-adamantan-1 -yl-4'-hydroxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid methyl ester (Cincinelli R. et al. J. Med. Chem. 2003, 46, 909-912) (250 mg, 0.64 mmol), ie/f-butyl bromoacetate (252 mg, 1.29 mmol), K 2 C0 3 (357 mg, 2.58 mmol) in 4.86 ml of DMF was heated at 80 °C for 1 h. K 2 C0 3 was filtered, DMF evaporated and the residue was taken up with water. The solid precipitated was filtered and crystallized from diethyl ether to give 187 mg (71 %) of product as white solid, m.p. 182 °C, R f (Hexane/EtOAc 80:20) 0.53. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, CHCI 3 -d ): 7.72 (1 H, d, J = 16.3 Hz), 7.61 -7.53 (4H, m), 7.50 (1 H, d, J = 2.62 Hz), 7.38 (1 H, dd, J = 8.56 , 2.62 Hz), 6.77 (1 H, d, J = 8.56 Hz), 6.46 (1 H, d, J = 16.3 Hz), 4.57 (2H, s), 3.82 (3H, s), 2.25-2.06 (9H, m), 1 .87-1 .73 (6H, m), 1 .51 (9H, s).

Step 2: 3-(3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-carboxymethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid methyl ester (BIO 47, GEM85). Into an ice-cooled solution of 3-(3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-tert- butoxycarbonylmethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid methyl ester (158 mg, 0.314 mmol) in 2.94 ml of CH2CI2 was dropped TFA (0.980 ml). The mixture was left 3 hrs at rt, then evaporated to give 109 mg (78%) of product as white solid, m.p. 218 °C, Rf (CH2CI2/MeOH 18:2) 0.40. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-de): 7.79-7.62 (5H, m), 7.49 (1 H, dd, J = 8.80, 2.10 Hz), 7.43 (1 H, d, J = 2.10 Hz), 6.93 (1 H, d, J = 8.80 Hz), 6.65 (1 H, d, J = 16.6 Hz), 4.71 (2H, s), 3.72 (3H, s), 2.20-1.97 (9H, m), 1 .84-1 .64 (6H, m).

Step 3: 3-{3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-[(tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxycarbamoyl)-methoxy]-bipheny l-4- yl}-acrylic acid methyl ester (BIO 48, GEM87). Into an ice-cooled suspension of 3-(3 - Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-carboxymethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid methyl ester (87 mg, 0.195 mmol) in 2 ml of dry DMF, under nitrogen, HBTU (74 mg, 0.195 mmol) and DIPEA (75.6 mg, 0.585 mmol) were added. After two minutes 24 mg (0.195 mmol) of 0-(tetrahydro-pyran-2-yl)-hydroxylamine were added and the mixture was left overnight at rt. DMF was evaporated, the residue was taken up with water and the white solid filtered. Purification by flash chromatography on silica gel with petroleum ether/EtOAc 60:40 gave 21 mg (88 %) of product as white solid, m.p. 121 °C, Rf (hexane/EtOAc 17:3) 0.18. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ): 1 1 .3, 7.80-7.62 (5H, m), 7.50 (1 H, dd, J = 8.50, 2.20 Hz), 7.43 (1 H, d, J = 2.20 Hz), 6.95 (1 H, d, J = 8.50 Hz), 6.64 (1 H, d, J = 16.2 Hz), 4.91 -4.84 (1 H, m), 4.51 (2H, s), 4.00-3.88 (1 H, m), 3.72 (3H, s), 3.57-4.46 (1 H, m), 2.16-1.99 (9H, m), 1 .81 -1.45 (12H, m).

Step 4: 3-{3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-[(tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxycarbamoyl)-methoxy]-bipheny l-4- yl}-acrylic acid (9, BIO 49). To a solution of 3-{3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-[(tetrahydro-pyran-2- yloxycarbamoyl)-methoxy]-biphenyl-4-yl}-acrylic acid methyl ester (20 mg, 0.037 mmol) in 1 .0 ml of aq. 50% THF was added with 8 mg (0.185 mmol) of LiOH.H20 and left overnight at rt. After evaporation of THF the remaining aqueous phase was acidified with KHS04 1 M. The precipitated white solid was filtered and dried to give 14 mg (69%) of the product as white solid, m.p. dec 284 °C, Rf (CH 2 CI 2 /MeOH 19:1 ) 0.30. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ): 12.3 (1 H, brs), 1 1 .4 (1 H, s), 7.75-7.56 (5H, m), 7.49 (1 H, dd, J = 8.57, 2.05 Hz), 7.42 (1 H, d, J = 2.05 Hz), 6.95 (1 H, d, J = 8.57 Hz), 6.52 (1 H, d, J = 15.8 Hz), 4.91 -4.85 (1 H, m), 4.51 (2H, s), 4.01 -3.87 (1 H, m), 3.57-3.46 (1 H, m), 2.20-1 .98 (9H, m), 1 .82-1 .44 (12 H, m).

EXAMPLE 10

3-(3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-carboxymethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid (10)

Step 1 : 3-(3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-carboxymethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid (10, GEM 66))

To a solution of 3-(3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-carboxymethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)acrylic acid tert-butyl ester (Example 8, Step 2) 1 14 mg (0.233 mmol) in dichloromethane dry (7.34 mL) was added with TFA (2.33 mL) and stirred at 0°C for 2 h. Evaporation of the solvent gave 79 mg (79%) of the product as white solic, m.p. > 290 °C, R f (CH 2 CI 2 /MeOH 18:2) 0.21 . 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ): 12.6 (1 H, brs); 7.76-7.63 (4H, m); 7.60 (1 H, d, J = 15.9 Hz); 7.48 (1 H, dd, J = 8.50, 2.12 Hz); 7.43 (1 H, d, J = 2.12 Hz); 6.93 (1 H, d, J = 8.50 Hz); 6.52 (1 H, d, J = 15.9 Hz); 4.71 (2H, s); 2.20-2.00 (9H, m); 1 .83- 1 .66 (6H, m).

EXAMPLE 1 1

3-{3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-f2-(tetrahvdro-pyran-2-yloxycarbamoyl)-ethoxy1-biphen yl-4-yl)- acrylic acid (11 , GEM 57)

Step 1 : 3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(2-tert-butoxycarbonyl-ethoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid methyl ester (GEM 37). To a solution of 3-(3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-hydroxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid methyl ester (615 mg , 1 .58 mmol) in tert-butyl acrylate (22 mL) was added Na (18 mg, 0.79 mmol) at room temperature under nitrogen. The mixture was heated at 1 10°C for 8 h. After cooling to room temperature, the resulting mixture was quenched with NaCI saturated solution and extracted with CH2CI2. The combined organic extracts were dried over anhydrous Na2S04 and evaporated under vacuum to give the crude product, which was purified by column chromatography on silica gel (hexane/ethyl acetate 85:15) to give 365 mg (45%) of product as white solid, m.p. 166°C, R f (nexane/AcOEt 85:15 ) 0.26. 1 H-NMR (600 MHz, CHCI 3 -d): 7.76 (1 H, d, J = 16.0 Hz), 7.69-7.55 ( m, 4H), 7.50 (1 H, d, J = 2.23 Hz), 7.47 (1 H, dd, J = 8.45, 2.23 Hz), 6.95 (1 H, d, J = 8.45 Hz), 6.48 (1 H, d, J = 16.0 Hz), 4.31 (2H, t, J = 5.72 Hz), 3.81 (3H, s), 2.80 (2H, t, J = 5.72 Hz), 2.18-2.07 (9H, m), 1 .84-1.78 (6H, m), 1.50 (9H, s), 1 .48-1 .43 (2H, m).

Step 2: 3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(2-carboxy-ethoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid methyl ester ( GEM40). Into an ice-cooled solution of the 3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(2-ie f-butoxycarbonyl-ethoxy)- biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid methyl ester (365 mg, 0.706 mmol) in 12.2 ml of CH 2 CI 2 , under nitrogen, was dropped TFA (6.12 ml). The mixture was left 3 h at 0°C then solvent was evaporated to give 293 mg of a solid that was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (CH 2 CI 2 /CH 3 OH 15:5 ) to give 166 mg (51 %) of the product as a white solid m.p. 230 °C, R f (CH 2 CI 2 /MeOH 195:5) 0.45. 1 H- NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ): 12.4 (1 H, br s), 7.78-7.62 (5H, m), 7.50 (1 H, dd, J = 8.45, 2.30 Hz), 7.41 (1 H, d, J = 2.30 Hz), 7.04 (1 H, d, J = 8.45 Hz), 6.64 (1 H, d, J = 16.0 Hz), 4.21 (2H, t, J = 5.73 Hz), 3.71 (3H, s), 2.75 (2H, t, J = 5.73 Hz), 2.18-1.96 (9H, m), 1.82-1 .69 (6H, m).

Step 3: 3-{3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-[2-(tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxycarbamoyl)-ethoxy]-biphen yl-4- yl}-acrylic acid methyl ester (GEM42). Into an ice-cooled suspension of 3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'- (2-carboxy-ethoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid methyl ester (146 mg, 0.317 mmol) in 3.22 ml of dry DMF, under nitrogen, HBTU (120 mg, 0.317 mmol) and DIPEA (123 mg, 0.951 mmol) were added. After two minutes 39 mg (0.317 mmol) of 0-(tetrahydro-pyran-2-yl)-hydroxylamine were added and the mixture was left overnight at rt. DMF was evaporated, the residue was taken up with 5 ml of water and stirred at rt for 15 minutes. Than the white solid was filtered and purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (hexane/EtOAc 40: 60) to give 165 mg (93%) of product as white solid, m.p. 169°C, R f (hexane/EtOAc 40: 60) 0.34. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, aceton-d6): 10.28 (1 H, br s), 7.77-7.67 (5H, m), 7.54-7.50 (2H, m), 7.10 (1 H, d, J = 8.73 Hz), 6.57 (1 H, d, J = 16.0 Hz), 4.96- 4.90 (1 H, m), 4.45-4.30 (2H, m), 4.02-3.92 (1 H, m), 3.78 (3H, s), 3.57-3.46 (1 H, m), 2.72 (2H, t, J = 5.90 Hz), 2.21 -2.15 (9H, m), 1 .91 -1 .69 (8H, m), 1 .65-1.50 (4H, m).

Step 4: 3-{3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-[2-(tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxycarbamoyl)-ethoxy]-biphen yl-4- yl}-acrylic acid (11 , GEM 57). To a solution of 3-{3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-[2-(tetrahydro-pyran-2- yloxycarbamoyl)-ethoxy]-biphenyl-4-yl}-acrylic acid methyl ester (132 mg, 0.236 mmol) in 7.34 ml of aq. 50% THF was added with 49.5 mg (1 .18 mmol) of LiOH.H 2 0 and left overnight at rt. After evaporation of THF the remaining aqueous phase was acidified with HCI 1 M (1 .2 ml). The precipitated white solid was filtered and dried to give 100 mg (78%) of the product, m.p. 150°C, R f (CH 2 CI 2 / MeOH 19:1 ) 0.19. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ): 12.35 (1 H, br s), 1 1.14 (1 H, s), 7.74- 7.62 (4H, m), 7.60 (1 H, d, J = 16.1 Hz), 7.49 (1 H, dd, J = 8.51 , 2.30 Hz), 7.41 (1 H, d, J = 2.30 Hz), 7.05 (1 H, d, J = 8.51 Hz), 6.52 (1 H, d, J = 16.1 Hz), 4.80-4.76 (1 H, m), 4.30-4.14 (1 H, m), 3.96-3.85 (1 H, m), 2.56 (2H, t, J = 5.55 Hz), 2.10-1 .96 (9H, m), 1 .81 -1 .58 (10 H, m), 1 .54-1.43 (2H, m).

EXAMPLE 12

3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(2-hydroxycarbamoyl-ethoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid (12, GEM 60)

Step 1 : 3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(2-hydroxycarbamoyl-ethoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid (12,

GEM 60). To a solution of 3-{3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-[2-(tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxycarbamoyl)-ethoxy]- biphenyl-4-yl}-acrylic acid (Example 1 1 , Step 4) (85 mg, 0.156 mmol) in dioxane (1 ml) at 0 °C under nitrogen were added 3.54 ml of HCI 4M solution in dioxane. The resulting mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 2h. After evaporation of the solvent the residue was purified by flash chromatography (CH 2 CI 2 /MeOH/H 2 0 18.5:1 .5:0.2) to give 43 mg (60%) of product as white solid, m.p. 242°C, R f (CH 2 CI 2 /MeOH/H 2 0 18.5:1 .5:0.2) 0.35. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ): 12.38 (1 H, br s), 10.58 (1 H, s), 8.78 (1 H, br s), 7.74-7.62 (4H, m), 7.59 (1 H, d, J = 16.1 Hz), 7.49 (1 H, dd, J =

8.50, 2.05 Hz), 7.41 (1 H, d, J = 2.05 Hz), 7.05 (1 H, d, J = 8.50 Hz), 6.51 (1 H, d, J = 16.1 Hz), 4.21 (2H, t, J = 5.87 Hz), one signal missing due to the overlap with solvent signal, 2.13-1.95 (9H, m), 1 .83-1 .62 (6H, m).

EXAMPLE 13

6-{3-Adamantan-1 -yl-4-f(tetrahvdro-pyran-2-yloxycarbamoyl)-methoxy1-phenyl)- naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid (13, GEM 59)

Step 1 : (2-Adamantan-1 -yl-4-bromophenoxy)-acetic acid methyl ester (GEM 48). A solution of 2-Adamantan-1 -yl-4-bromophenol (500 mg, 1 .63 mmol) and of ethyl bromoacetate (561 mg, 3.62 mmol) in 12.3 ml of DMF was added with K 2 CO 3 (901 mg, 6.52 mmol) and heated 1 h at 80°C. DMF was evaporated and the residue was poured into water and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic extracts were washed sequentially with water, brine, dried over Na 2 S0 4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (hexane/Ethyl acetate 95:5) to give 400 mg (62%) of the desired compound as a yellow solid, m.p. 98°C, R f (Hexane/Ethyl acetate 95:5) 0.39.

1 H-NMR (300 MHz, CDCI 3 ) δ: 7.33 (1 H, d, J = 2.54 Hz), 7.24 (1 H, dd, J = 8.65, 2.54 Hz), 6.58 (1 H, d, J = 8.65 Hz), 4.59 (2H, s), 4.28 (2H, q, J = 7.15 Hz), 2.15-2.04 (9H, m), 1.84-1 .71 (6H, m), 1 .30 (3H, t, J = 7.15 Hz).

Step 2: (2-Adamantan-1 -yl-4-bromophenoxy)-acetic acid (GEM50). To a solution of (2- Adamantan-1 -yl-4-bromophenoxy)-acetic acid methyl ester (223 mg, 0.567 mmol) in 17.6 ml of aq. 50% THF was added LiOH.H 2 0 (1 19 mg, 2.84 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at rt overnight. After evaporation of THF, HCI 2M ( 3 ml) was added and the white solid precipitated was filtered and dried to give 195 mg (94%) of the desired compound, m.p. 208 °C, R f (Hexane/Ethyl acetate 50:50 ) 0.20. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO) δ: 7.30 (1 H, dd, J = 8.82, 2.58 Hz), 7.18 (1 H, d, J = 2.58 Hz), 6.81 (1 H, d, J = 8.82 Hz), 4.64 (2H, s), 2.09-1 .95 (9H, m), 1 .79-1.63 (6H, m).

Step 3: 2-(2-Adamantan-1 -yl-4-bromophenoxy)-N-(tetrahydropyran-2-yloxy)-acetamide (GEM 51). Into an ice-cooled suspension of (2-Adamantan-1 -yl-4-bromophenoxy)-acetic acid (175 mg, 0.479 mmol) in 4.87 ml of dry DMF, under nitrogen, HBTU (182 mg, 0.479 mmol) and DIPEA (186 mg, 1.44 mmol) were added. After two minutes 58.4 mg (0.0.479 mmol) of 0-(tetrahydro-pyran-2- yl)-hydroxylamine were added and the mixture was left overnight at rt. DMF was evaporated, the residue was taken up with 5 ml of water and stirred at rt for 15 minutes. Then the white solid was filtered and purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (hexane/EtOAc 70: 30) to give 176 mg ( 79%) of product as white solid, m.p. 134°C, R f (hexane/ethyl acetate 70:30) 0.37. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, CDCIs) δ: 9.03 (1 H, s), 7.35 (1 H, d, J = 2.52 Hz), 7.29 (1 H, dd, J = 8.72, 2.52 Hz), 6.70 (1 H, d, J = 8.72 Hz), 5.05-4.99 (1 H, m), 4.60 (2H, s), 3.98-3.87 (1 H, m), 3.66-3.57 (1 H, m), 2.15-2.01 (9H, m), 1 .94-1.70 (12H, m). Step 4: 6-{3-Adamantan-1 -yl-4-[(tetrahydropyran-2-yloxycarbamoyl)-methoxy]phenyl}- naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester (GEM58, GEM54). To a degassed 3.5:1 mixture of dimethoxyethane and water (2 ml), 2-(2-Adamantan-1 -yl-4-bromophenoxy)-N-(tetrahydropyran-2- yloxy)-acetamide (104 mg, 0.224 mmol), (6-(methoxycarbonyl)naphthalene-2-boronic acid pinacol ester (91 mg, 0.291 mmol), PdCI 2 (dppf) CH 2 CI 2 (8.20 mg, 0.01 12 mmol) and sodium bicarbonate (56.5 mg, 0.672 mmol) were added under nitrogen. The mixture was heated for 1 h at 100°C, water was added and the mixture was extracted with CH 2 CI 2 (3x 20 ml). The combined organic layers were dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography (hexane/ethyl acetate 60:40) gave 1 12 mg (88 %) of the desired compound as white solid, m.p. 183°C, R f (hexane/ethyl acetate 60:40) 0.19. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ: 1 1.42 (1 H, s), 8.62 (1 H, d, J = 1 .79 Hz), 8.23 (1 H, d, J = 1 .49 Hz), 8.17 (1 H, d, J = 8.73 Hz), 8.09 (1 H, d, J = 8.73 Hz), 7.97 (1 H, dd, J = 8.73, 1 .49 Hz), 7.90 (1 H, dd, J = 8.73, 1.79 Hz), 7.63 (1 H, dd, J = 8.57, 2.20 Hz), 7.58 (1 H, d, J = 2.20 Hz), 7.01 (1 H, d, J = 8.57 Hz), 4.91 -4.87 (1 H, m), 4.53 (2H, s), 4.01 -3.92 (1 H, m), 3.90 (3H, s), 3.56-3.47 (1 H, m), 2.21 -2.00 (9H, m), 1 .82-1.46 (12H, m).

Step 5: 6-{3-Adamantan-1 -yl-4-[(tetrahydropyran-2-yloxycarbamoyl)-methoxy]-phenyl}- naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid (13, GEM59). A suspension of 130 mg (0.228 mmol) of 6-{3- Adamantan-1 -yl-4-[(tetrahydropyran-2-yloxycarbamoyl)-methoxy]phenyl}-na phthalene-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester in 9.12 ml of a 1 M solution of NaOH in methanol was refluxed for 1 h. The solvent was evaporated and water was added to the residue, then HCI 3M was slowly added. The solid formed was filterd and dried to give 100 mg (79%) of desired compound as white solid, m.p. 279°C, R f (hexane/ethyl acetate 70:30) 0.24. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ: 1 1.45 (1 H, br s), 8.35 (1 H, d, J = 1 .56 Hz), 8.05 (1 H, d, J = 1 .83 Hz), 8.01 (1 H, dd, J = 8.71 , 1.83 Hz), 7.95 (1 H, d, J = 8.71 Hz), 7.82 (1 H, d, J = 8.71 Hz), 7.71 (1 H, dd, J = 8.71 , 1 .83 Hz), 7.58-7.50 (2H, m), 7.01 (1 H, d, J = 8.45 Hz), 4.92-4.85 (1 H, m), 4.50 (2H, s), 4.02-3.89 (1 H, m), 3.56-3.44 (1 H, m), 2.21 -2.00 (9H, m), 1 .82-1.44 (12H, m).

EXAMPLE 14

6-(3-Adamantan-1 -yl-4-hvdroxycarbamoylmethoxy-phenyl)-naphthalene-2-carboxyl ic acid (14, GEM 61 )

Step 1 : 6-(3-Adamantan-1 -yl-4-hydroxycarbamoylmethoxy-phenyl)-naphthalene-2-carboxyl ic acid (14, GEM 61). Into an ice-cooled solution of 6-{3-Adamantan-1 -yl-4-[(tetrahydropyran-2- yloxycarbamoyl)-methoxy]-phenyl}-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid (Example 13, Step 5) (75 mg,

0.135 mmol) in 4.25 ml of CH 2 CI 2 was dropped TFA (1 .35 ml). The mixture was left 3 h at 0°C, under nitrogen, then evaporated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel

(CH 2 CI 2 / MeOH/H 2 0 18.5:1 .5:0.2) to give 32 mg (50%) of product as white solid, m.p. >280°C, R f

(CH 2 CI 2 / MeOH/H 2 0 18.5:1.5:0.2) 0.20. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ: 13.03 (1 H, br s), 10.79

(1 H, s), 9.07 (1 H, s), 8.58 (1 H, d, J = 1.72 Hz), 8.21 (1 H, d, J = 1 .72 Hz), 8.14 (1 H, d, J = 8.50 Hz),

8.06 (1 H, d, J =8.70 Hz), 7.96 (1 H, dd, J = 8.50, 1 .72 Hz), 7.88 (1 H, dd, J = 8.70, 1 .72 Hz), 7.63 (1 H, dd, J = 8.47, 2.25 Hz), 7.57 (1 H, d, J = 2.25 Hz), 7.03 (1 H, d, J = 8.47 Hz), 4.49 (2H, s), 2.20- 2.00 (9H, m), 1 .84-1 .67 (6H, m).

EXAMPLE 15

3-f3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(hvdroxyl-buthoxy)-biphenyl-4-vn-acrylic acid (15)

Step 1 : 3-[4'-(4-Acetoxy-butoxy)-3'-adamantan-1 -yl-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid methyl ester (BI03). A mixture of 3-(3'-adamantan-1 -yl-4'-hydroxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid methyl ester (Example 9, Step 1 ) (100 mg, 0.26 mmol), 4-bromobutyl acetate (67.4 mg, 0.34 mmol), K 2 CO 3 (102 mg, 0.74 mmol) in 4.50 ml of DMF was heated at 80 °C for 2 h. K 2 C0 3 was filtered, DMF evaporated and the residue was taken up with water. The mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate, washed with 1 M HCI, water and brine. The organic phase was dried and the solvent evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography (petroleum ether/ethyl acetate 80: 20) gave 98 mg (75 %) of product as white solid, m.p. 157 °C, R f (petroleum ether/EtOAc 80:20) 0.50. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ: 7.76-7.60 (4H, m); 7.56 (1 H, d, J =16.5 Hz); 7.48 (1 H, dd, J = 8.50, 2.14 Hz); 7.43 (1 H, d, J = 2.14 Hz); 6.95 (1 H, d, J = 8.50 Hz); 6.51 (1 H, d, J = 16.5 Hz); 4.84 (2H, s); 3.73 (3H, s); 4H missing due to the overlap with signal solvent; 2.20-1.98 (9H, m); 1.84-1.65 (6H, m); 1 .47 (7H, s).

Step 2: 3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(hydroxyl-buthoxy)-biphenyl-4-yl]-acrylic acid (15, BIO 5).

The above ester (30 mg, 0.06 mmol) was suspended in 3 mL of a solution of 0.7 N NaOH in methanol and the mixture was refluxed for 10 h. after evaporation of methanol, the residue was treated with water, acidified with 1 M HCI, and the precipitate was filtered. Crystallization from isopropyl ether gave 10 mg (37%) of the pure product as white solid, m.p. 208°C, R f (petroleum ether/EtOAc 50:50) 0.15. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ: 7.74-7.61 (4H, m); 7.59 (1 H, d, J = 16.5 Hz); 7.49 (1 H, dd, J = 8.80, 2.1 1 Hz); 7.41 (1 H, d, J = 2.1 1 Hz); 7.03 (1 H, d, J = 8.80 Hz); 6.51 (1 H, d, J = 16.5 Hz); 4.49 (1 H, brs); 4.02 (2H, t, J = 6.38 Hz); 3.48 (2H, t, J = 6.38 Hz); 2.16-2.20 (9H, m); 1 .90-1 .78 (2H, m); 1 .77-1 .59 (8H, m).

EXAMPLE 16

3-(3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-hvdroxyaminomethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid trifluoroacetate (16, GEM 95)

Step 1 : 3-[3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(2-bromo-ethoxy)-biphenyl -4-yl]-acrylic acid ferf-butyl ester

A solution of 3-(3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-hydroxybiphenyl-4-yl)acrylic acid tert-butyl ester (470 mg, 1 .09 mmol) and 1 ,2-dibromoethane (410 mg, 2.18 mmol) in 2.20 ml of dry acetone was added with K 2 C0 3 (301 mg, 2.18 mmol) and heated 15 h at reflux. K 2 C0 3 was filtered and the solvent evaporated. The residue was poured into water and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic extracts were dried over Na 2 S0 4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (hexane/Ethyl acetate 90:10) to give 104 mg (18%) of the desired compound as a white solid, m.p. 177 °C, R f (Hexane/Ethyl acetate 90:10) 0.16. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ: 7.76-7.60 (4H, m); 7.55 (1 H, d, J = 16.1 Hz); 7.50 (1 H, dd, J = 8.50, 2.14 Hz); 7.44 (1 H, d, J = 2.14 Hz); 7.02 (1 H, d, J = 8.50 Hz); 6.51 (1 H, d, J = 16.1 Hz); 4.42-4.35 (2H, m); 3.93-3.86 (2H, m); 2.21 -2.00 (9H, m); 1 .84-1.67 (6H, m); 1.47 (9H, s).

Step 2: ferf-butyl 3-(3'-Adamantan-1 -yl)-4'-(2-((ferf-butoxycarbonyl)((-ferf- buthoxycarbonyl)oxy)amino)ethoxy)-[1 ,1 '-biphenyl]-4-yl)-acrylate. To a suspension of sodium hydride (60% in mineral oil, 10 mg, 0.250 mmol) in 0.5 mL of DMF , N,0-diBoc-hydroxylamine (55.6 mg, 0.230 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred for 30' at 0°C then a solution of 3-[3'- Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-(2-bromo-ethoxy)-biphenyl -4-yl]-acrylic acid ferf-butyl ester (103 mg, 0.192 mmol) in 2 mL of DMF was slowly added. After having stirred at room temperature overnight, DMF was evaporated, the residue was poured into saturated solution of NH 4 CI and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phase was dried and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography (Hexane/Ethyl acetate 90:10) gave 109 mg (81 %) of the desired compound as white solid; m.p. 165°C, R f (Hexane/Ethyl acetate 90:10) 0.26. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, CDCI 3 ) δ:7.61 (1 H, d, J = 16.1 Hz); 7.57.7.50 (4H, m); 7.47 (1 H, d, J = 2.21 Hz); 7.39 (1 H, dd, J = 8.46, 2.21 Hz); 6.93 (1 H, d, J = 8.46 Hz); 6.38 (1 H, d, J = 16.1 Hz); 4.27-4.17 (2H, m); 4.16-4.01 (2H, m); 2.22-2.02 (9H, m), 1 .86- 1 .70 (6H, m), 1 .54 (9H, s); 1 .52 (9H, s); 1.49 (9H, s).

Step 3: 3-(3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-hydroxyaminomethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid trifluoroacetate (16, GEM 95). Into an ice-cooled solution of the above ester (84 mg, 0.122 mmol) in 1.14 ml of CH 2 CI 2 was dropped TFA (0.381 ml). The mixture was left 2h at 0°C, under nitrogen, then evaporated. Crystallization from diethyl ether gave 56 mg (84%) of product as white solid, m.p. 224 °C, 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ: 10.4 (2H, brs); 8.84 (1 H, brs); 7.76-7.62 (4H, m); 7.60 (1 H, d, J = 16.2 Hz); 7.52 (1 H, dd, J = 8.60, 2.01 Hz); 7.43 (1 H, d, J = 2.01 Hz); 7.07 (1 H, d, J = 8.60 Hz); 6.52 (1 H, d, J = 16.2 Hz); 4.21 (2H, t, J = 5.61 Hz); 3.42-3.31 (2H, m); 2.18-1.99 (9H, m); 1 .79-1 .67 (6H, m).

EXAMPLE 17

3-(3'-adamantan-1 -yl-4'-hvdrazinocarbonylmethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid trifluoroacetate (17, GEM 93)

Step 1 : 3-(3'-Adamantan-1 -yl-4'-hydrazinocarbonylmethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid methyl ester (GEM 92). A solution of 3-(3'-adamantan-1 -yl-4'-carboxymethoxybiphenyl-4-yl)acrylic acid methyl ester (Example 9, Step 2) (257 mg, 0.576 mmol), WSC (169 mg, 0.864 mmol), N- hydroxysuccinimide (102 mg, 0.864 mmol) in anhydrous DMF (5.58 mol) was stirred at room temperature 3h and during this time a white insoluble solid formed. This suspension was transferred, under nitrogen, into a flask containing NH 2 NH 2 .H 2 0 (59 mg, 1.15 mmol), cyclohexene (15μί) and CH 3 CN (3mL) at 0°C. The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight then solvents were evaporated and the white residue washed with water. Purification by flash chromatography (CH 2 CI 2 /MeOH 196:4) gave 223 mg (84%) of the product as white solid, m.p. 195°C , R f (CH 2 CI 2 /MeOH 196:4 0.21 . 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ: 9.17 (1 H, s); 7.79-7.61 (5H, m); 7.50 (1 H, dd, J = 8.49, 2.06 Hz); 7.43 (1 H, d, J = 2.06 Hz), 6.96 (1 H, d, J = 8.49 Hz); 6.64 (1 H, d, J = 16.2 Hz); 4.52 (2H, s); 4.36 (2H, d, J = 3.62 Hz); 3.71 (3H, s); 2.20-1.96 (9H, m); 1 .82- 1 .63 (6H, m).

Step 2: 3-(3'-adamantan-1 -yl-4'-hydrazinocarbonylmethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid trifluoroacetate (17, GEM 93). Into an ice-cooled solution of the above methyl ester (GEM 92) (106 mg, 0.21 1 mmol) in 6.65 ml of CH 2 CI 2 was dropped TFA (2.1 1 ml). The mixture was left 2h at 0°C under nitrogen. Evaporation of the solvent gave 1 16 mg (98%) of product as white solid, m.p. >290°C, 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ: 7.76-7.63 (4H, m); 7.60 (1 H, d, J = 16.1 Hz); 7.51 (1 H, dd, J = 8.43, 1.34 Hz); 7.44 (1 H, d, J = 1 .34 Hz); 6.96 (1 H, d, J = 8.43 Hz), 6.53 (1 H, d, J = 16.1 Hz); 4.72 (2H, s); 2.21 -1.97 (9H, m); 1 .83-1.63 (6H, m).

EXAMPLE 18

3-(4'-Hvdroxycarbamoylmethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid (18) (GEM 103)

Step 1 : 3-(4'-Ethoxycarbonylmethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid ieri-butyl ester (GEM 96). A solution of 3-(4'-Hydroxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid ieri-butyl ester (Giannini, G. et al. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry (2012), 20(7), 2405-2415) (500 mg, 1.69 mmol) and of ethyl bromoacetate (582 mg, 3.38 mmol) in 10 ml of DMF was added with K 2 C0 3 (934 mg, 6.76 mmol) and heated 2 h at 80°C. DMF was evaporated and the residue was poured into water. After being stirred for 15' the white solid formed was filtered and dried. Crystallization from ethyl ether gave 475 mg (74%) of the desired compound as a white solid, m.p. 137°C, R f (Hexane/Ethyl acetate 90:10) 0.19.

1 H-NMR (300 MHz, CDCI 3 ) δ: 7.63 (1 H, d, J = 16.3 Hz); 7.60-7.53 (6H, m); 7.01 (2H, d, J = 8.63 Hz); 6.41 (1 H, d, J = 16.3 Hz); 4.68 (2H, s); 4.31 (2H, q, J = 7.29 Hz); 1.57 (9H, s); 1.33 (3H, t, J = 7.29 Hz).

Step 2: 3-(4'-Carboxymethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid ieri-butyl ester (GEM 99). To a solution of the above ester (440 mg, 1 .15 mmol) in 35.6 ml of aq. 50% THF was added LiOH.H 2 0 (241 mg, 5.75 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at rt overnight. After evaporation of THF, KHS0 4 1 M ( 45 ml) was added and the white solid precipitated was filtered. Crystallization from diethyl ether gave 357 mg (88%) of the desired compound as white solid, m.p. > 290 °C, R f (CH 2 CI 2 /MeOH 18:2) 0.15. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO) δ: 12.9 (1 H, brs); 7.79-7.63 (6H, m); 7.58 (1 H, d, J = 16.3 Hz); 7.01 (2H, d, J = 8.78 Hz); 6.54 (1 H, d, J = 16.3 Hz); 4.73 (2H, s); 1.50 (9H, s).

Step 3: 3-{4'-[Tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxycarbamoyl)-methoxy]-biphenyl- 4-yl}-acrylic acid ieri- butyl ester (GEM 100). Into an ice-cooled suspension of the above ester (200 mg, 0.564 mmol) in 5.73 ml of dry DMF, under nitrogen, HBTU (214 mg, 0.564 mmol) and DIPEA (218 mg, 1 .69 mmol) were added. After two minutes 69 mg (0.564 mmol) of 0-(tetrahydro-pyran-2-yl)-hydroxylamine were added and the mixture was left overnight at rt. DMF was evaporated, the residue was taken up with 5 ml of water and stirred at rt for 15 minutes. Then the white solid was filtered and purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (hexane/EtOAc 55: 45) to give 161 mg ( 52%) of product as white solid, m.p. 148 °C, R f (hexane/ethyl acetate 70:30) 0.24. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, CDCI 3 ) δ: 9.12 (1 H, s); 7.61 (1 H, d, J = 16.3 Hz); 7.57-7.53 (6H, m); 7.00 (2H, d, J = 8.41 Hz); 6.39 (1 H, d, J = 16.3 Hz); 5.05-5.00 (1 H, m); 4.63 (2H, s); 4.06-3.95 (1 H, m); 3.70-3.61 (1 H, m); 1 .92-1 .78 (3H, m); 1 .66-1 .56 (3H, m); 1 .54 (9H, s).

Step 4: 3-(4'-Hydroxycarbamoylmethoxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acylic acid (18, GEM 103)

Into an ice-cooled solution of 3-{4'-[Tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxycarbamoyl)-methoxy]-biphenyl- 4-yl}- acrylic acid ie/f-butyl ester (127 mg, 0.280 mmol) in 2.62 ml of CH 2 CI 2 was dropped TFA (0.874 ml). The mixture was left 2h at 0°C under nitrogen and during this time a pink solid formed. The solid was filtered, washed with cold CH 2 CI 2 and dried to give 85 mg (97%) of product as white solid, m.p. 239 °C, 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ: 12.3 (1 H, br s); 10.8 (1 H, s); 8.95 (1 H, br s); 7.79-7.66 (6H, m); 7.62 (1 H, d, J = 16.3 Hz); 7.06 (2H, d, J = 8.88 Hz); 6.55 (1 H, d, J = 16.3 Hz); 4.52 (2H, s).

EXAMPLES 19-23

Evaluation of biological activity

Cell lines

Human NCI-H460 NSCLC, H460-R9A (Adarotene-resistant NCI-H460) NSCLC, A2780 and A2780- Dx (multidrug resistant) ovarian carcinoma, MDA-MB436 breast carcinoma, MM288, MM317, MM404, MM473, and MM481 epithelioid mesothelioma, MM487 and MM491 biphasic mesothelioma, MM432 and MM472 sarcomatoid mesothelioma, MM487Luc (luciferase-expressing) biphasic mesothelioma, U87MG-Luc glioma, U937 histiocytic lymphoma, RAJI, DG-75, and RAMOS Burkitt lymphoma, JECO-1 , MAVER-2, MINO, REC-1 , and Z-138 mantle cell lymphoma, KM-H2 and L-428 Hodgkin lymphoma, OCI-LY3 and U-2932 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, NB4 promyelocytic leukemia (APL).

Cell cultures

NCI-H460, H460-R9A, A2780, A2780-Dx, NB4, U937, RAJI, REC-1 , DG-75, U-2932, KM-H2, L- 428 cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 10 % FBS, 2 mM L-glutamine and gentamicin sulphate. MDA-MB436 cells were cultured in DMEM medium supplemented with 10 % FBS, 2 mM L-glutamine and gentamicin sulfate. MM288, MM317, MM404, MM473, MM481 , MM487, MM491 , MM432, MM472 cells were cultured in Ham's F-10 Nutrient Mixture supplemented with 10 % FBS, 2 mM L-glutamine, and gentamicin sulphate, MM487Luc cells were cultured in Ham's F-10 Nutrient Mixture supplemented with 10 % FBS, 2 mM L-glutamine, and

G418 antibiotic. U87MG-Luc cells were cultured in EMEM medium supplemented with 10 % FBS, 2 mM L-glutamine and gentamicin sulfate. RAMOS, OCI-LY3, JECO-1 , MAVER-2, MINO cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 20% FBS, 2 mM L-glutamine and gentamicin sulfate. Z-138 cells were cultured in IMDM medium supplemented with 10 % FBS, L- glutamine and gentamicin sulfate.

Cells were maintained in a 37°C incubator with saturated humidity and an atmosphere of 95% air and 5% C02, and were sub-cultured every 2-3 days.

Experimental Design

The anti-proliferative activity of a number of new atypical retinoids (AR) was assessed on various human cell lines from solid and hematological cancers.

To this end, cells in logarithmic phase of growth were seeded in 96-wells plastic plates, incubated overnight in culture medium, and treated with scalar concentrations of the compounds for either 24 h followed by 48 h recovery in drug-free-medium, or 72 h. Cell survival was finally assayed by the SRB (sulphate reducing bacterial) or MTT test and the IC50 value (drug concentration inhibiting 50% of cell growth) calculated by the ALLFIT program.

Results

The following Tables 1 -7 report examples of anti-proliferative activity of selected compounds.

EXAMPLE 19

Tumor cells were exposed for 24 h to new atypical retinoids (AR) and the anti-proliferative activity assessed upon 48 h recovery in drug-free medium with the SRB assay. Results are reported in the following table 1.

Table 1. Human NCI-H460 NSCLC exposed to new atypical retinoids

Compound ± SD (μΜ)

8 (MIR002) <0.5 EXAMPLE 20

Tumor cells were chronically treated with various atypical retinoids and the anti-proliferative activity assessed upon 72 h with the SRB assay. Results are reported in the following table 2.

Table 2. Human NCI-H460 NSCLC chronically exposed to new atypical retinoids Compound IC50 ± SD (μΜ)

1 (RC1315) < 5

2 (RC1375) < 5

3 (RC1268) < 5

4 (RC1363) < 10

5 (RC1338) < 5

6 (AB514) < 0.1

8 (MIR002) < 0.5

EXAMPLE 21

Tumor cells were exposed for 24 h to new atypical retinoids (AR) and the anti-proliferative activity assessed upon 48 h recovery in drug-free medium with the SRB assay. Rl = Resistance Index (ratio between the IC50 values of resistant and sensitive cells). Results are reported in the following table 3.

Table 3. Human Adarotene-resistant NCI-H460 (R9A) NSCLC, MM487-Luc mesothelioma, parent A2780 and A2780-Dx multidrug-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines, U87MG glioblastoma cells exposed to new atypical retinoids.

ICso ± SD (μΜ)

Compound H460-R9A MM487-Luc U87MG A2780 A2780-DX Rl

Adarotene (ST1926) 26,9± 0.7 9.2± 0.3 1 .63 ± 0.1

1 (RC1315) 8.3± 0.2 1.7± 0.08 4.2± 0.3 3.9± 0.1 0.9

2 (RC1375) 5.9± 0.1 1.9± 0.2 5.5 ± 0.9 * 3.7± 0.3 4.5± 0.07 1.3

8 (MIR002) 2.8 ± 0.3 4.5± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.3 0.6 ± 0.01 0.41 ± 0.005 0.7

12 (GEM 60) 10.6± 0.3

13 (GRM 59) 16.9± 0.5

14 (GEM 61 ) 2.3± 0.4

17 (GEM 93) 17.3± 1.3

As described by Zuco V. et al in Neoplasia, 2005 Jul;7(7):667-77, H460-R9A are about 70 fold resistant with respect to parental H460 to Adarotene. Surprisingly, the new retinoid derivatives showed a significantly increase of cytotoxic activity against this cell line compared to Adarotene. Ovarian cancer A2780 and its clone derivative A2780DX (Doxorubicin resistant) which overexpress P-glycoprotein (PGP), were used to evaluate the possibility of these new molecules to be absorbed at intestinal level. In fact, the overexpression of PGP, as well known, drastically reduces the possibility, after oral administration, of absorption of several chemotherapeutic agents (i.e. Paclitaxel, doxorubicin etc.). Since the IC50 of the tested compounds in A2780 and A2780DX, have similar values we conclude that they are not PGP substrates and they could be administrated to the patients via oral route. Moreover, the antitumor activity of 2 and 8 on Glioblastoma tumor cells (U87MG) suggest the use of this class of compounds in intracranial tumors including Glioma.

EXAMPLE 22

Tumor cells were exposed for 24 h to new atypical retinoids (AR) and the anti-proliferative activity assessed upon 48 h recovery in drug-free medium with the MTT assay. Result are reported in the following table 4.

Table 4. Human hematological cancer cell lines exposed to new atypical retinoids.

IC50 ± SD (μΜ)

8 (MIR002)

Cell lines

Z-138 mantle cell lymphoma 0.074 ± 0.02

NB4 (pro-myelocytic. leukemia) 0.18 ± 0.04

EXAMPLE 23

Evaluation of antitumor activity of compounds 2 (RC1375) and 8 (MIR002) on xenograft mouse model

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Animals

CD-1 nude and NOG mice, females, 4-5 weeks-old, were housed under specific-pathogen-free conditions in individually ventilated cages. Ethics approval was obtained from the Italian Ministry of Health and all experiments were in accordance with the European guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals.

Cell cultures and tumor implants Cells were cultured in appropriated media and expanded in a 37°C incubator with saturated humidity and an atmosphere of 95% air and 5% C0 2 , and were sub-cultured every 2-3 days. Before the injection in mice, cells were checked with MycoAlert® Mycoplasma Detection Kit (Lonza) to exclude mycoplasma contamination, counted by trypan blue dye exclusion, evaluated for cell viability (> 95%).

H-460-R9A lung cancer cells were suspended at a concentration of 25x106/ml. 5x10 6 tumor cells were suspended in 0.2 ml of M199, then inoculated subcutaneously on the right flank of each animal.

Orthotopic mesothelioma model

(MM473-Luc) were re-suspended at the concentration of 1 x10 6 οβΙΙβ ΟμΙ M199 medium., then orthotopically injected intrapeulically with infusion of Ι μΙ/min (with Hamilton syringe).

Orthotopic glioma murine model. 1 x10 6 Brain glioblastoma bioluminescent cells (U-87 MG) were injected intracranically and tumor growth was evaluated through IVIS imaging system.

Reagents and in vivo treatments

Different concentrations of compound 2 (RC1375) were diluted in 10% 1 :1 absolute Ethanol- Cremophor solution in saline. Compound and vehicle were administered IP at the volume of 5ml/kg. MIR002 was dissolved to a concentration of 3,3 mg/mL in 10% DMSO, 5% ethanol, 20% Kolliphor® EL and 65% Na2C03 10 mM pH 1 1 and administered by gavage; Cisplatin was dissolved to a concentration of 0,8 mg/mL in sterile saline solution and administered intravenously.

Measurements and in vivo imaging

. Four days after inoculation, tumor masses of H460-R9A were measured in length and width using a Mitutoyo caliper, mice were sorted basing on tumor volume (TV) and treatments were started. Tumor volume was calculated as follows: TV (mm3)= (Length (mm)x Width (mm)2) / 2. Tumor growth was followed by biweekly measurements. Tumor Growth Inhibition (TGI) for each group was calculated as follows: TGI (%) = 100 - (mean TVtreated / mean TVcontrol x 100). Mice were weighed twice a week . In-vivo tumor engraftment of luciferase expressing tumors was followed by biweekly radiance (BLI) measurements using IVIS Spectrum (Perkin Elmer), 30 minutes after intraperitoneal administration of 15 mg/kg D-Luciferine. 12 days after cells inoculation, animals were sorted basing on BLI and treatments were started. Tumor growth was further followed by weekly BLI measurements. TGI was calculated as for the H460 trial.

Statistical analysis

Statistical analysis was performed by using U-Test (GraphPad Prism 6). Outliers were removed by using the Rout test (Q = 10%, GraphPad Prism 6).

RESULTS The activity of compound 2 (RC1375) was evaluated on glioma xenograft murine models. Brain glioblastoma bioluminescent cells (U-87 MG) were injected intracranically and tumor growth was evaluated through IVIS imaging system. After a week of injection, 2 (RC1375) (100mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to mice (qdx5x4w). As shown in Figure 1 , treatment with compound 2 (RC1375) determines a significant tumor reduction with a TGI of 72%.

All the results are summarized in the table 5 below.

Table 5. BW = body weight, TGI= tumor growth inhibition, BLI= units of Bioluminescent imaging.

The antitumor activity of compound MIR002 (8) was evaluated in Mesothelioma tumor model MM473 and NSCLC H460. In both models the compound was administered orally using the schedule and doses reported in tables 6 and 7. In both models MIR002 significantly reduced tumor growth evaluated as TGI.

Interestingly, the combination of MIR002 with cisplatin in resistant H460-R9A cell line significantly reduced the tumor growth with respect to the drugs administered alone.

Table 6. MIR002 (8) significantly reduced tumor growth of human Pleural Epithelioid Mesothelioma MM473 orthotopically xenografted on nude mice

Table 7. Compound 8 (MIR002) exerted a strong in-vivo antitumor activity on H460-R9A retinoid resistant cells, which was comparable to and synergistic with the activity of Cisplatin, without affecting body weight. On the contrary, Adarotene (ST1926) resulted not active although administered at its pharmacological active dose.

Taken together, the results from in vitro and in vivo experiments indicate that this new class of synthetic retinoids, including compounds 2 (RC1375), and 8 (MIR002), possesses a very large spectrum of anti-tumoral activity against several tumor histotypes suggesting their therapeutic use for the treatment of different human cancers.

Moreover, the administration of these compounds alone or in combination with Cisplatin did not show any negative effect on mice body weight, thus suggesting an high tolerability.