Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
ROPES HAVING A STRUCTURE CONSTITUED BY PLACING SIDE-BY-SIDE AND/OR BY COMPOSING A PLURALITY OF BANDS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2012/011143
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to a cable or rope (1) characterized in that it comprises a structure realized by placing side-by- side and/or by composing a plurality of basic elements (2), said basic elements having rectilinear section which is preferably a flat section, similar to a band. The invention further relates to a method for realizing a cable or rope (1).

Inventors:
BRANCALEONI FABIO (IT)
MARNETTO ROBERTO (IT)
Application Number:
PCT/IT2011/000263
Publication Date:
January 26, 2012
Filing Date:
July 22, 2011
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
BRANCALEONI FABIO (IT)
MARNETTO ROBERTO (IT)
International Classes:
D07B1/02; D07B5/04; E01D19/16
Domestic Patent References:
WO2004057112A12004-07-08
Foreign References:
US3701554A1972-10-31
FR2675523A11992-10-23
US3500625A1970-03-17
US6476326B12002-11-05
US20100047613A12010-02-25
US5473877A1995-12-12
US20070006428A12007-01-11
US1333582A1920-03-09
Other References:
"NORWEGENS GROESSTE HAENGEBRUECKE FERTIGGESTELLT", STAHLBAU, ERNST & SOHN. BERLIN, DE, vol. 48, 1 July 1979 (1979-07-01), pages 221/222, XP001066429
None
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
IANNONE, Carlo, Luigi et al. (Via Piemonte 26, Roma, IT)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1) Cable or rope (1) characterized in that it comprises a structure realized by placing side-by-side and/or by composing a plurality of basic elements (2), said basic elements having rectilinear section which is preferably a flat section, similar to a band.

2) Cable or rope (1) according to claim 1 , characterized in that said plurality of basic elements (2) has an increasing and/or decreasing sequence of sections, said sequence of sections being suitable to determine the final section of said rope (1 ).

3) Cable or rope (1 ) according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that said basic elements (2) are made up of steel, stainless steel or any other material having a suitable strength.

4) Cable or rope (1 ) according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that said basic elements (2) are made of fiber-reinforced fabric, preferably pre-impregnated fabric.

5) Cable or rope (1 ) according to claim 4, characterized in that it is provided the interposition of sheets having such a rigidity to prevent the interpenetration of the wires comprising said overlapped basic elements (2).

6) Cable or rope (1) according to one of claims 4 - 5, characterized in that said fabric is realized using incorporation resins, allowing to obtain a cavity-free final section.

7) Cable or rope (1) according to one of claims 1 - 6, characterized in that said basic elements (2) are discontinuously or continuously bound together by bands (16).

8) Cable or rope (1) according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that a clamping device (17, 26; 31 ; 40; 42; 45; 49; 56) is provided on each end of the rope (1), to clamp said basic elements (2).

9) Cable or rope (1) according to claim 8, characterized in that said clamping device (17, 26; 31 ; 40; 42; 45; 49; 56) has two elements that can be coupled each other so as to enclose between them said basic elements (2), blocking the same and preventing them from sliding each other regardless the load to which the rope (1) is subjected, and means for hooking to a structure. 10) Cable or rope (1) according to claim 9, characterized in that said means for hooking to a structure are comprised of a hooking hole.

11) Cable or rope (1) according to claim 8, 9 or 10, characterized in that said clamping device (31, 40; 42; 45) has a first seat (33) so shaped to house a wedge (34), centrally provided with respect to the rope (1), thus diving the same rope (1) into two different bundles.

12) Cable or rope (1) according to one of claims 8 - 11 , characterized in that said clamping device (31 , 40; 42; 45) is comprised of two symmetric elements (311 ; 46), that can be coupled each other.

13) Cable or rope (1) according to claim 12, characterized in that said clamping device (31 ; 40) has a second hollow seat (35), so as to make said hole (32) communicating with the first seat (33), being further provided a hydraulic jack (37), having a piston (38) acting on said wedge (34)

14) Cable or rope (1) according to claim 13, characterized in that it is provided a second hole (41) wherein said jack (37) is provided.

15) Cable or rope (1) according to claim 13, characterized in that said jack (37) is removably provided within said hole (32), a pin (36) being provided within said seat (35), which can freely move along the same seat, and placed between said piston (38) and said wedge (34).

16) Cable or rope (1) according to one of claims 8 - 12, characterized in that said clamping device (42) has a third seat (43), which is suitably shaped, within which two further wedges (44) are inserted perpendicular with respect to said wedge (34), said two further wedges (44) being opposite each other and contacting said first wedge (34).

17) Cable or rope (1) according to one of claims 8 - 12, characterized in that each symmetrical element of said clamping device (45) has a substantially T-shape, the lateral wing (46) of which has one lateral threaded hole (47), parallel with respect to the axis of said clamping device (45), a hooking means (52) on which said hole (32) is provided.

18) Cable or rope (1) according to claim 17, characterized in that threaded bars (45) are provided on said hooking device (45), for each one of said lateral holes (47) and a bucking transverse element (49) blocked at the upper end of said threaded bars (48), a hydraulic jack (37) being removably provided within the space between said clamping device (45) and bucking transverse element (49), said jack (37) having a piston (38) acting on said first wedge (34). 19) Cable or rope (1) according to one of claims 8 - 10, characterized in that said rope (1) is comprised of an even number of elements (2), and it is divided at the ends into two parts, turned to realize two loops (50), within which an element (51) is housed, said rope (1) being housed within a seat (52) obtained within a body (53) of the clamping device (49) which, by a closure plate (54), is closed as a compact pack to realize the end coupling of the rope (1).

208) Method for realizing a cable or rope (1), characterized in that it comprises the following steps:

a) stretching a basic element (2) having a flat section all along its length;

b) repeating step a) for a plurality of basic elements (2), composing them each other, to create a bundle of basic elements (2), and c) compacting said basic elements (2) by dragging.

21) Method according to claim 20, characterized in that it further comprises the step of

d) binding discontinuously or continuously said basic elements (2) together by bands (16).

22) Method according to one of claims 20 - 21, characterized in that before step c) there is the following step:

c1) inserting one end of said composed bundle of basic elements (2) in a clamping device (17; 26).

23) Method according to one of claims 20 - 22, characterized in that step c) occurs by a compaction device (13), for example, comprising two compaction rollers (14), loaded by at least one thrust element (15).

24) Method according to one of claims 20 - 23, characterized in that in step d), said bands (16) are made of fiber or steel, stainless steel or another suitable material for maintaining a compact state.

25) Method according to one of claims 20 - 24, characterized in that it comprises, between step a) and step b), the following step:

b1) placing, on the sides of said basic elements (2), along the ends, elements able to increase the friction;

and in that step b) also comprises the repetition of step b1).

26) Method according to claim 25, characterized in that said step b1) comprises placing on the sides of those basic elements (2), along the ends, granular elements of appropriate grain size, angularity and hardness, possibly arranged on an adhesive support for easing its installation.

27) ' Method according to one of claims 20 - 26, characterized by comprising, after step a), the following step:

b2) placing a material (21) on the sides of said basic elements (2), along its ends, said material (21) being capable of appropriately increase the thickness of said cable or rope (1);

and in that step b) also comprises the repetition of step b2).

28) Method according to one of claims 20 - 27, characterized in that, before step a) there is the following step:

a1) positioning a first one of said basic elements (2) straddling a coupling device (4) having an inverted "U"-shape, so that the middle section of said first of said basic elements (2) is exactly on the ridge of said coupling device (4);

and in that step c) comprises also the repetition of step a1).

29) Method according to claim 28, characterized in that step a1) is achieved through the use of two winding/unwinding devices (12), on each one of them being wound the half of said basic elements (2).

Description:
ROPES HAVING A STRUCTURE CONSTITUED BY PLACING SIDE-BY-SIDE AND/OR BY COMPOSING A PLURALITY OF

BANDS The present invention relates to a structure realized by placing side-by-side and/or by composing bands.

More specifically, the invention relates to ropes obtained by assembling basic elements having a substantially rectilinear section 8in the following simply indicated as "bands", juxtaposed each other, so that also final section is without geometrical inner cavities, such as those deriving from placing side-by-side circular cross-section basic elements.

Ropes thus obtained, particularly, but not only, valid as suspension ropes, and ropes that must bear remarkable loads for very long periods, can be used in a simple and easy way, eliminating presence of inner voids, thus remarkably reducing, or even eliminating, "shape" deformability occurring in standard ropes realized by braiding circular cross-section basic elements.

A particular kind of ropes will be taken into consideration in the following, said ropes being realized by composing bands, preferably steel bands, and employed for realizing civil works, such as suspended bridges, but it is to be understood that the present invention can be applied to any kind of rope, regardless the material by which it is realized, and regardless its final destination.

Always more difficult challenges in the infrastructure technical field, requiring spanning always wider distances, involve always more bold engineering choices, wherein all structural elements must ensure a high response not only as far as static efficiency is concerned, but also a high guarantee as far as duration and easy installation are concerned, since both aspects can make costs rising.

As it is well known, in the structure suspension systems technical field, and particularly with reference to bridge scaffolding, two solutions exist, i.e. ropes and solid section round bars.

Neglecting now positive reasons why the above solutions are presently used, their drawbacks to which it is worthwhile finding a positive solution are well evident.

Ropes realized by composition of steel wires have the following main drawbacks: - they are subjected to corrosion, due to geometric cavities caused by composition of round sections, this requiring expensive constructive and protective solutions; in fact, presence of empty spaces makes this elements being in direct contact with atmospheric agents that can be particularly aggressive when spanning a sea tract; the above involves remarkable technological and maintenance expenses: a solution to this kind of problem provides blowing hot air within the ropes, with consequent costs connected with technology to be employed and energy consumption;

- high deformability under load, characterized by an apparent elastic module much lower than the one of the material; this means that, for the same load, a cable is subjected to a higher deformation, with consequent higher amplitudes, with respect to a bar having a corresponding resistant section; the above is due to the fact that ropes are realized by twisting wires and said shape involves a "distension" under load which is added to deformation due to the simple lengthening of material thus causing a higher total apparent deformability. The above is considered as a negative effect for the proper operation of a suspended structure;

- the rope, in its secondary configuration, can also be a double rope and not only a single rope, obtained folding back the same rope about the main suspension cable; where folded, said rope is contained within a channel receiving the same in the 180° turn; in this case, gravitational load tends, particularly in correspondence of the ridge position, to make wires comprising the rope entering one into the adjacent ones, thus creating very strong local stresses along the cable contact lines, which are negative to the proper global operation, thus reducing the durability of the product.

Instead, suspension bars have the following drawbacks:

- due to manufacturing, and transportation problems, it is not possible realizing very long elements as a single piece, thus being almost always necessary providing mechanical joints to obtain necessary length;

- higher working costs and higher probability of corrosion, thus requiring expensive solutions to prevent humidity penetrating into interspaces between said couplings, with consequent deterioration problems;

- difficult handling, and thus cumbersome assembling. In this situation its included the solution suggested according to the present invention, aiming solving the above drawbacks, offering a better technological and installation simplicity, making it very convenient both under the structural and economical point of view.

These and other results are obtained according to the present invention by suggesting realization of a rope obtained by composing elements having such a section not to create voids.

Still another object of the present invention is that of making convenient realizing said ropes directly in situ, being easy transporting and handling its components, and its assembling not providing critical operations.

It is therefore specific object of the present invention a cable or rope characterized in that it comprises a structure realized by placing side- by-side and/or by composing a plurality of basic elements, said basic elements, having a flat section, similar to a band.

Preferably, according to the present invention, said plurality of basic elements has an increasing and/or decreasing sequence of sections, said sequence of sections being suitable to determine the final section of said rope.

Furthermore, according to the present invention, said basic elements are made up of steel, stainless steel or any other material having a suitable strength.

Still according to the present invention, said basic elements are made of fiber-reinforced fabric, preferably pre-impregnated fabric.

According to the present invention, it is provided the interposition of sheets having such a rigidity to prevent the interpenetration of the wires comprising said overlapped basic elements.

Furthermore, according to the present invention, said fabric is realized using incorporation resins, allowing obtaining a cavity-free final section.

Always, according to the present invention, said basic elements are discontinuously or continuously bound together by bands.

In a first preferred embodiment of the rope according to the invention, a clamping device is provided on each end of the rope, to clamp said basic elements.

Particularly, according to the invention, said clamping device has two elements that can be coupled each other so as to enclose between them said basic elements, blocking the same and preventing tern sliding each other regardless load to which the rope is subjected, and means for hooking to a structure, preferably comprised of a hooking hole.

Furthermore, according to the invention, said clamping device has a first seat so shaped to house a wedge, centrally provided with respect to the rope, thus diving the same rope into two different bundles.

Still according to the invention, said clamping device is comprised of two symmetric elements, that can be coupled each other.

Always according to the invention, said clamping device has a second hollow seat, so as to make said hole communicating with the first seat, being further provided a hydraulic jack, having a piston acting on said wedge, being further provided a second hole wherein said jack is provided.

Furthermore, according to the invention, said jack is removably provided within said hole, a pin being provided within said seat, which can freely move along the same seat, and placed between said piston and said wedge.

Always according to the invention, said clamping device has a third seat, which is suitably shaped, within which two further wedges are inserted perpendicular with respect to said wedge, said two further wedges being opposite each other and contacting said first wedge.

In a further embodiment according to the invention, each symmetrical element of said clamping device has a substantially T-shape, the lateral wing of which has one or more lateral threaded holes, parallel with respect to the axis of said clamping device, a hooking means on which said hole is provided, threaded bars being provided on said hooking device, for each one of said lateral holes and a bucking transverse element blocked at the upper end of said threaded bars, a hydraulic jack being removably provided within the space between said clamping device and bucking transverse element, said jack having a piston acting on said first wedge.

The invention further relates to a possible, but not sole, method for realizing a cable or rope, characterized in that it comprises the following steps:

a) stretching a basic element having a flat section all along its length; b) repeating step a) for a plurality of basic elements, composing them each other, to create a bundle of basic elements, and

c) compacting said basic elements so as to be sure that the same have all the same length, eventually by dragging a compacting device, e.g. comprised of two rolls, stressed by at least a pushing device.

Furthermore, according to the invention, said method comprises the step of

d) binding discontinuously or continuously said basic elements together by bands.

Preferably, according to the invention, before step c) there is the following step:

c1) inserting one end of said composed bundle of basic elements in a clamping device, so as to obtain a stable end.

Further, according to the invention, in step d), said bands are made of fiber or steel, stainless steel or another suitable material for maintaining a compact state.

Still according to the invention, between step a) and step b), the following step is carried out:

b1) placing, on the sides of said basic elements (2), along the ends, elements able to increase the friction;

and step b) also comprises the repetition of step b1). Just as an example, step b1) comprises placing on the sides of those basic elements, along the ends, granular elements of appropriate grain size, angularity and hardness, possibly arranged on an adhesive support for easing its installation.

According to the invention, after step a), it is as an alternative provided the following step:

b2) placing a material on the sides of said basic elements, along its ends, said material being capable of appropriately increase the thickness of said cable or rope, so as to obtain a prismatic anchoring configuration, preferably a dovetail configuration, to realize necessary mechanical bucking in a suitable connection element;

and step b) also comprises the repetition of step b2). Preferably, according to the invention, before step a) there is the following step:

a1) positioning a first one of said basic elements straddling a coupling device having an inverted "U"-shape, so that the middle section of said first of said basic elements is exactly on the ridge of said coupling device.

Still according to the invention step a1) is achieved through the use of two winding/unwinding devices, on each one of them being wound the half of said basic elements.

Furthermore, according to the invention, rope is comprised of an even number of elements, and it is divided at the ends into two parts, turned to realize two loops, within which an element is housed, said rope being housed within a seat obtained within a body of the clamping device which, by a closure plate, is closed as a compact pack to realize the end coupling of the rope.

The invention will be now described, for illustrative, but not limitative purposes, with particular reference to the figures of the enclosed drawings, wherein:

figure 1 is an axonometric view of a first embodiment of the rope according to the invention, comprising a plurality of basic elements, before compacting;

figure 2 shows rope of figure 1 with interposition on one end of friction elements;

figure 3 shows rope of figure 1 with interposition of a thickening material with variable thickness to obtain a shape useful to mechanical bucking;

figure 4 is a view of rope of figures 1 or 2 with a clamping device on one end;

figure 5A is a cross section of a first embodiment of rope of figure 1 ;

figure 5B is a cross-section of a second embodiment of the rope of figure 1 ;

figure 6 shows a first use of a single rope according to the invention;

figure 7 is a view of the rope of figure 1 or 2 with a clamping device having a first embodiment of the coupling with a structure;

figure 8 is a view of rope of figure 1 or 2 with application of a clamping device having a second embodiment of the coupling with a structure; figure 9 is a view of rope of figure 1 or 2 with application of a clamping device having a third embodiment of the coupling with a structure;

figure 10 schematically shows the rope wound about a reel; figure 11 shows a first embodiment of a hooking device for a double rope to be folded about a main rope;

figure 12 is an exploded vies of the hooking device of figure 11 ; figure 13 shows hooking device of figure 11 on which a double rope according to the invention is provided;

figure 14 shows hooking device of figure 11 with two winding/unwinding devices for basic elements of the rope according to the invention;

figure 15 shows a double rope according to the invention provided on hooking device of figure 13, a compacting device being applied on said rope;

figure 16 shows two clamping devices applied at respective ends of the rope, said rope being supported by hooking device of figure 11 , between said clamping devices being it provided plate for hooking said rope to the structure;

figure 17 shows a front view of a first embodiment of the clamping device according to the invention;

figure 18 shows a lateral section view of device of figure 17 in a first operative position;

figure 19 shows a lateral section view of device of figure 17 in a second operative position;

figure 20 shows a front view of a second embodiment of the clamping device according to the invention;

figure 21 shows a lateral section view of device of figure 20 in a first operative position;

figure 22 shows a lateral section view of device of figure 21 in a second operative position;

figure 23 shows a partially cut-away perspective view of a third embodiment of the clamping device according to the invention;

figure 24 shows a lateral view of clamping device of figure 23; figure 25 shows a perspective view of a fourth embodiment of the clamping device according to the invention; figure 26 shows a front view of device of figure 25 with a jack applied above;

figure 27 shows a lateral section view of device of figure 26; figure 28 is a perspective view of device of figure 26; figure 29 shows a front view of device of figure 25 with a hooking device provided above;

figure 30 shows a perspective view of device of figure 29;

figure 31 shows a perspective view of a different solution for device of figure 29;

figure 32 is a perspective view of a clamping device according to the invention with a different system for fixing the rope;

figure 33 shows an exploded view of a further embodiment of the clamping device according to the invention;

figure 34 shows device of figure 32 partially assembled; figure 35 is a front view of clamping device of figure 33;

Observing first figure 1 , rope according to the invention, generically indicated by reference number 1 , is obtained by juxtaposition of a plurality of basic elements 2. Said basic elements 2 have a rectilinear section, so that final section of the rope has no inner cavity.

To transfer vertical load of rope 1 on a structure (not shown in the figures), it can be advantageously provided a friction solution, even if this is not the only possible solution, being it possible using every other mechanical solution.

A friction solution is shown in figure 2, by which, to increase friction between basic elements 2 comprising the rope 1 , and thus making it maximum transfer of load, it can be convenient increasing texture of basic elements 2, by interposition of granular elements having a suitable granulometry, sharpness and hardness, possibly provided on an adhesive support to make it easier installing them. As shown in figure 2, said granular elements can be replaced by very thin bands, advantageously comprised of metal, with adhesive on one face and coated, e.g., with quartz sand or metal on the other face, so as to being it easy placing them between the ends of the different basic elements 2 for a set length.

Besides a suitable tightening action, sand, by imprinting thin support, will "gear" between the two corresponding surfaces of basic elements 2, thus ensuring their adhesion and consequent transfer of load. In case, besides the simple friction solution, it can be employed a self-tightening wedge mechanical solution, as shown for example in figure 3.

By interposition of a material 21 between faces of basic elements 2, in correspondence of their ends, thickness of rope 1 is consequently increased, so as to obtain, when compacting the rope within a clamping device (not shown in this figure), a wedge-shaped spaced, conformity, which is self-tightening along the direction of potential withdrawal of the rope from the seat of said clamping device.

An example of clamping device 17, placed at the free ends of said rope 1, is shown in figure 4.

Said clamping device 17 is comprised of a "C"-shaped body 18, within which rope 1 is provided, said rope being closed and tightened by a plate 19, coupled with body 18 by screws.

Particularly, advantageously, rope can be comprised by composition/placing side-by-side strips having an increasing and/or decreasing sequence of sections, so as to obtain rectilinear sections, or, making reference to figure 5A and 5B, almost-circular section (figure 5A), semi-circular section (not shown in the figures), elliptical section (figure 5B), or with another shape.

Observing now figure 6, if rope 1 is employed as a single rope, it can advantageously be realized by composition of a convenient number of basic elements 2, having a rectilinear section, made up of steel, stainless steel, or any other material with a suitable resistance.

When comprising the final section, it will be possible preventing inner cavity, just because of presence of inner cavities.

In case a suitably pre-impregnated fiber-reinforced fabric is employed for realizing said basic elements 2, to prevent interpenetration of wires of the fabric strip, it is possible providing interposition of sheets between adjacent layers where a double rope is folded.

Further, even if used as fiber-reinforced material for realizing said fabric of circular section elementary components, incorporation resins can be employed, allowing to obtain a cavity-free final section.

As shown in figure 6, rope 1 is placed within a clamping device 26, provided with fork plates 27, connected by a pin 28 with a device 29 for hooking with main rope 3. Rope thus obtained will be probably "open", and to solve this problem, basic elements 2 can be, for example, compacted by dragging, using a compacting device 13, as shown in figure 6, which is comprised of two compacting rolls 14, loaded by two springs 15. Then said basic elements 2 can be, continuously or not, tied each other to maintain compact condition, by bands 16 comprised of fiber, stainless steel or other suitable material.

Three different configurations are shown if figures 7, 8 and 9, wherein clamping device 17 can directly provide suitable projections 24 (figure 7), or cavities (figure 8), preferably having a circular shape, or a fork-shaped clamping device 26, for hooking to a structure (not shown).

Advantageously, rope 1 can be partially assembled beforehand and wound on a suitable support 30, as show in figure 10. To this end, it is sufficient removing one of the two clamping devices 26, 17 on one of the ends, preferably the one on the lower end, thus winding rope 1 starting from its fixed end, i.e. the one with the remaining clamping device 17, 26. While winding, basic elements 2 make different paths, but since they can slide each other, possibly providing a lubricant, permits rope 1 to be wound with a suitable spiral diameter. Once installed, rope is unwound and hooked to the main rope 3 coupling, and thus compacted again by the above compacting device 13.

A double rope configuration is shown in figures 1 1 , 12 and 13, to be hanged to a structure. Rope 1 can be advantageously realized in situ by subsequent juxtapositions, directly straddling the main rope 3, without the risk of creating dangerous load concentrations, as it occurs in standard ropes, in correspondence of the folding about the support saddle.

Particularly, rope is housed on a hooking device 4, or clamp, on main rope 3, said device 4 comprising an upper clamping element 5 and a lower clamping element 6, tightening main rope 3 by screws, wherein upper clamping element 3 is provided with two pins 7, projecting laterally, acting as hinging axis for supporting a saddle 8. Saddle 8 is comprised of two hemi cylindrical seats 9, and conveniently by centering projections 10 for secondary rope 1 , or by a continuous channel having the same section (not shown in the figures).

To realize rope 1 , a fixture 11 can be used, e.g. the one shown in figure 14, wherein single basic element 2 is placed, with its intermediate section in correspondence of the upper part of said saddle 8. Two winding devices 12 are released, so as to drag by gravity basic element 2 until completely extending the same.

By gravity, rope 1 is naturally "packed" along saddle 8, while it will be probably opened along its vertical arms.

To solve this problem, basic elements 2 can be for example compacted by dragging, sing a compacting device 13, as shown in figure 7 and explained before. A different arrangement is shown in figure 16 for hooking clamping device 17 to a structure (not shown in the figures).

Two clamping devices 17 are used, provided at the ends of rope 1. A plate 22 can be suitably provided between bodies 17, said plate being extended so as to hook to the structure (not shown) by a pin 23.

A further advantage is reliability of the rope also after some time, thanks to the possibility of realizing the suspension element by using materials that it was not possible using with prior techniques, due to technical-performance limits, such as high resistance steel.

Rope 2 according to the invention is characterized by a very simple and quick assembling in the different configurations. In case of a single rope, wound on a suitable support, and then finished in situ; in case of a double rope, it can be directly realized in situ.

Wedge self-tightening mechanical bucking solution to be efficient requires a more or less relevant sliding of the same rope with respect to the hooking device. Said sliding is a consequence of wedge dragging for compacting the rope against the adjacent body.

Since said sliding can be more or less high, clamping of the rope is a particularly delicate work.

"Constructive" yielding must be possibly and conveniently eliminated being them difficult and expensive to be handled.

Further, clamping, and thus sliding between rope and hooking device is a function of the load. Thus, rope length would vary as a function of increase of the load. This means that, in case ropes are installed under a partial load, since the structure has not been completed as yet, lengthening would not be a fixed value when structural load increases, with the consequent loss of the control of tensional condition within the same structure.

In order to overcome said technical problems connected with the self-tightening wedge, a further clamping device has been developed. A first embodiment of said rope 1 clamping device 31 is shown in figures 17, 18 and 19, comprised of two symmetrical elements, preferably cotipled by screws, having above a circular hole 32, for hooking the structure pin (not shown), a first seat 33 so shaped to house a wedge 34, centrally provided with respect to the rope 1 , thus diving the same rope 1 into two different bundles, and a second hollow seat 35, so as to make said hole 32 communicating with the first seat 33.

A pin 36 is inserted within said second seat 35, which can freely move along said seat 35, so as to contact said wedge 34.

A hydraulic jack 37 is temporarily housed within the circular hole 32 in correspondence of said pin 36. Once operated said hydraulic jack 27, piston 38 is pushed with a set pressure, toward pin 36 which carries out a push of wedge 34, thus blocking rope 1 bundles, as shown in figure 19.

Said action involves putting wedge 34 under force against two rope 1 bundles, so as to compress them against the walls of the first seat 33, and consequently self-clamping by friction of the rope 1 with respect to the clamping device.

Once terminated said operation, piston 38 is returned within the jack 37, and the latter can be removed to permit using hole 32 for hooking at the structure.

A further blocking of the wedge 34 is suitable following removal of jack 37, to prevent that when moving the rope 1 , a contrary action (that would not be possible during the use) could cause unlocking the parts. To this end, it is possible filling in seat 35 by any type of mortar that can be cured, in case also with expansion during its curing.

A second embodiment of said rope 1 clamping device 40 is shown in figures 20, 21 and 22, which, differently from device shown in figure 17, has a further circular hole 41 , having the same size of said circular hole 32, and provided under the latter hole, between hole 32 and seat 35. In said second embodiment, piston 38 of jack 37 directly contacts wedge 34. Thus, acting on jack 37, a pressure is exerted on wedge 34 by said piston 38, as shown in figure 22. Once terminated said operation, said jack 37 can be left on device 40 and hole 32 is used for hooking to structure.

In a third embodiment shown in figures 23 and 24, further clamping device 42 according to the invention has, differently with respect to the previous embodiments, a suitably shaped third seat 43 between the first hole 32 and the second seat 33 of wedge 34, within which two further wedges 44, are provided, opposite each other, perpendicularly with respect to said wedge 34, and contacting the same wedge 34. Thus, by blocking the two further wedges 44, a pressure on blocking wedge 34 is obtained.

Thus, present invention permits, once realized the rope with the wished length, to restrain the same on clamping device so that no sliding occurs between the rope and the clamping device.

A fourth embodiment of the further clamping device according to the invention is shown in figures 25, 16, 17, 18, 19, 30 and 31.

Particularly, a further clamping device 45 is observed in figure 25, comprised of two elements 3 1 , with a coupling hole, offset each other and with alternate verso, to receive coupling screws. Each element 311 has a cavity 33, so shaped to receive rope 1 and wedge 34. Each element 311 has a substantially T-shape, the lateral wing 46 of which has one lateral threaded hole 47, parallel with respect to the axis of said clamping device 45 .

The same clamping device 45 is observed from figures 26, 27 and 28 wherein threaded bars 48 are inserted, for each lateral hole 47, and a bucking transverse element 49 blocked at the upper end of said threaded bars 48, by simple nuts.

A hydraulic jack 37 is removably provided within the space between said clamping device 45 and bucking transverse element 49, said hydraulic jack 37 having, as in the previous embodiments, a piston 38 contacting said first wedge 34, thus realizing a pre-loading on the same, with maximum value corresponding to resistance of material by which wedge 34 is comprised, and sufficient to block the same between rope bundles, so as to block rope 1 sliding when subjected to a load.

Once carried out the operation of making wedge 34 and rope 1 acting each other, to ensure that the same wedge does not loose efficiency during transportation or potential shocks to which clamping device can be subjected during the subsequent steps of installation of the rope, it is possible inserting two dowels 50 through two threaded holes 51 obtained on each one of sad elements 3 of the clamping device 45. Said dowels 50 are put under force against lateral surface of the same wedge 34, so as to oppose to its exit. Once completed tightening of the rope 1 , jack 37, transverse element 49 and threaded bars 48 are removed. A hooking device 52 is coupled, by screws, on the upper portion of said clamping device 45, in correspondence of the lateral wings 46, said device 52 having a hook 32 for hooking the pin for connection with the structure (not shown).

If a "death" end of the rope is present, clamping device 45 and hooking device 52 will realize a single compact body, as shown in figures 29 and 30.

If the end is realized to put the rope under load, hooking device 52 can conveniently remain spaced from clamping device 45, by threaded bars 48, so as to permit a suitable variation of said distance during installation, aimed to obtain the set length of the rope.

Observing figure 32, clamping device 56, which is substantially as clamping devices shown in figures 17 - 31 , provides rope 1 fixed above to clamping device 56, with its ends clamped between two substantially horizontal plates 57, 58, of a clamping clamp 59.

Observing now figures 33 - 35 of the enclosed drawings, it is shown a further embodiment of the clamping device 49 according to the invention.

In this embodiment, rope 1 , comprised of an even number of basic elements, is divided at its ends into two parts, which are turned to realize two loops 50. An element 51 is housed within each loop 50. Rope 1 is housed within the seat 52 realized in body 53 which, by plate 54 and screws 55, is closed as a compact pack to realize terminal attack of rope 1.

This solution has the advantage of not being directionally active, since, if put under tension, loops 50 turn over, thus self-tightening upturned rope 1 under the thrust of element 51 , above toward inside, and at the bottom outward.

Under said action, rope 1 cannot slide and thus cannot withdraw.

Narrow fold of rope about body 53 is permitted by the fact that rope 1 is comprised of thin bands, each one characterized by negligible flexion resistance, and thus making it possible said restraint geometry by easy operation that can be directly made both at the factory or in situ.

Said coupling can be connected to the structure by the solution described in the above with reference to the other solutions. The present invention has been described for illustrative but not limitative purposes with reference to preferred embodiments, but it is to be understood that variations and/or modification can be introduced by those skilled in the arte without departing from the relevant scope as defined in the enclosed claims.