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Title:
RV SEQUENCE FOR ENHANCED MULTI-SEGMENT PUSCH
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2021/070075
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
According to some embodiments, a method performed by a wireless transmitter for transmitting a multiple-segmented physical channel comprising a plurality of nominal repetitions comprises assigning each nominal repetition of the plurality of nominal repetitions a redundancy version (RV). The RVs are taken consecutively and circularly from a pre-defined RV sequence. The method further comprises segmenting one or more of the nominal repetitions into one or more segments and assigning each segment of the one or more segments a RV. The RVs are taken consecutively and circularly from the pre-defined RV sequence starting with the RV assigned to the corresponding nominal repetition. The method further comprises transmitting the physical channel based on the assigned RVs.

Inventors:
BLANKENSHIP YUFEI (US)
ANDERSSON MATTIAS (SE)
Application Number:
PCT/IB2020/059410
Publication Date:
April 15, 2021
Filing Date:
October 07, 2020
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
ERICSSON TELEFON AB L M (SE)
International Classes:
H04L1/08; H04L1/18
Foreign References:
Other References:
CHINA UNICOM: "PUSCH enhancements for URLLC", vol. RAN WG1, no. Prague, CZ; 20190826 - 20190830, 13 August 2019 (2019-08-13), XP051764943, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20190813]
NOKIA ET AL: "Summary of Tuesday offline discussion on PUSCH enhancements for NR eURLLC (AI 7.2.6.3)", vol. RAN WG1, no. Prague, Czech Republic; 20190826 - 20190830, 3 September 2019 (2019-09-03), XP051766234, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20190903]
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
LEWIS, Stanton A. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS:

1. A method performed by a wireless transmitter for transmitting a multiple- segmented physical channel comprising a plurality of nominal repetitions, the method comprising: assigning (1012) each nominal repetition of the plurality of nominal repetitions a redundancy version (RV), wherein the RVs are taken consecutively and circularly from a pre defined RV sequence; segmenting (1014) one or more of the nominal repetitions into one or more segments; assigning (1018) each segment of the one or more segments a RV, wherein the RVs are taken consecutively and circularly from the pre-defmed RV sequence starting with the RV assigned to the corresponding nominal repetition; and transmitting (1020) the physical channel based on the assigned RVs.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the first nominal repetition of the plurality of nominal repetitions is assigned a RV from any position in the pre-defmed RV sequence.

3. The method of any one of claims 1-2, further comprising receiving (1010) signaling indicating which RV in the pre-defmed RV sequence to assign to the first nominal repetition of the plurality of nominal repetitions.

4. The method of any one of claims 1-3, further comprising determining (1016) a longest actual repetition after segmenting; and wherein when assigning each nominal repetition of the plurality of nominal repetitions the RV consecutively and circularly from the pre-defined RV sequence, the longest actual repetition is assigned the first RV in the pre-defined RV sequence.

5. The method of any one of claims 1-4, wherein the wireless transmitter comprises one of a base station and a wireless device. 6. The method of any one of claims 1-5, wherein the physical channel comprises one of an uplink physical channel, a downlink physical channel, and a sidelink physical channel.

7. A wireless transmitter (110, 160) capable of transmitting a multiple-segmented physical channel comprising a plurality of nominal repetitions, the wireless transmitter comprising processing circuitry (120, 170) operable to: assign each nominal repetition of the plurality of nominal repetitions a redundancy version (RV), wherein the RVs are taken consecutively and circularly from a pre-de fined RV sequence, segment one or more of the nominal repetitions into one or more segments; assigning each segment of the one or more segments a RV, wherein the RVs are taken consecutively and circularly from the pre-defined RV sequence starting with the RV assigned to the corresponding nominal repetition; and transmit the physical channel based on the assigned RVs.

8. The wireless transmitter of claim 7, wherein the first nominal repetition of the plurality of nominal repetitions is assigned a RV from any position in the pre-defined RV sequence.

9. The wireless transmitter of any one of claims 7-8, the processing circuitry further operable to receive signaling indicating which RV in the pre-defined RV sequence to assign to the first nominal repetition of the plurality of nominal repetitions.

10. The wireless transmitter of any one of claims 7-9, the processing circuitry further operable to determine a longest actual repetition after segmenting; and wherein when assigning each nominal repetition of the plurality of nominal repetitions the RV consecutively and circularly from the pre-defined RV sequence, the longest actual repetition is assigned the first RV in the pre-defined RV sequence. 11. The wireless transmitter of any one of claims 7-10, wherein the wireless transmitter comprises one of a base station and a wireless device.

12. The wireless transmitter of any one of claims 7-11, wherein the physical channel comprises one of an uplink physical channel, a downlink physical channel, and a sidelink physical channel.

13. A method performed by a wireless transmitter for transmitting a multiple- segmented physical channel comprising a plurality of nominal repetitions, the method comprising: generating (1112) a first repetition set by applying pre-defmed splits to divide the plurality of nominal repetitions; assigning (1116) each repetition of the first repetition set a redundancy version (RV), wherein the RVs are taken consecutively and circularly from a pre-defmed RV sequence; and transmitting (1024) the physical channel based on the assigned RVs.

14. The method of claim 13, further comprising: receiving (1118) an indication of one or more nominal repetitions to segment; generating (1120) a second repetition set by segmenting the first repetition set according to the received indication; and assigning (1122) each segment of the second repetition set a RV, wherein the RVs are taken consecutively and circularly from the pre-defmed RV sequence starting with the RV assigned to the corresponding repetition in the first repetition set.

15. The method of any one of claims 13-14, wherein the pre-defmed splits include any one or more of: a boundary of a nominal repetition; a slot boundary; and a switch between an uplink, downlink, or flexible transmission pattern. 16. The method of any one of claims 13-15, wherein the first repetition of the first repetition set is assigned a RV from any position in the pre-defmed RV sequence.

17. The method of any one of claims 13-16, further comprising receiving (1110) signaling indicating which RV in the pre-defmed RV sequence to assign to the first repetition of the first repetition set.

18. The method of any one of claims 13-17, further comprising: determining (1114) a longest repetition in the first repetition set; and wherein when assigning each repetition of the first repetition set the RV consecutively and circularly from the pre-defmed RV sequence, the longest repetition is assigned the first RV in the pre-defmed RV sequence.

19. The method of any one of claims 13-18, wherein the wireless transmitter comprises one of a base station and a wireless device.

20. The method of any one of claims 13-19, wherein the physical channel comprises one of an uplink physical channel, a downlink physical channel, and a sidelink physical channel.

21. A wireless transmitter (110, 160) capable of transmitting a multiple-segmented physical channel comprising a plurality of nominal repetitions, the wireless transmitter comprising processing circuitry (120, 170) operable to: generate a first repetition set by applying pre-defmed splits to divide the plurality of nominal repetitions; assign each repetition of the first repetition set a redundancy version (RV), wherein the RVs are taken consecutively and circularly from a pre-defmed RV sequence; and transmit the physical channel based on the assigned RVs. 22. The wireless transmitter of claim 21, the processing circuitry further operable to: receive an indication of one or more nominal repetitions to segment; generate a second repetition set by segmenting the first repetition set according to the received indication; and assign each segment of the second repetition set a RV, wherein the RVs are taken consecutively and circularly from the pre-defmed RV sequence starting with the RV assigned to the corresponding repetition in the first repetition set.

23. The wireless transmitter of any one of claims 21-22, wherein the pre-defmed splits include any one or more of: a boundary of a nominal repetition; a slot boundary; and a switch between an uplink, downlink, or flexible transmission pattern.

24. The wireless transmitter of any one of claims 21-23, wherein the first repetition of the first repetition set is assigned a RV from any position in the pre-defmed RV sequence.

25. The wireless transmitter of any one of claims 21-24, the processing circuitry further operable to receive signaling indicating which RV in the pre-defmed RV sequence to assign to the first repetition of the first repetition set.

26. The wireless transmitter of any one of claims 21-25, the processing circuitry further operable to: determine a longest repetition in the first repetition set; and wherein when assigning each repetition of the first repetition set the RV consecutively and circularly from the pre-defmed RV sequence, the longest repetition is assigned the first RV in the pre-defmed RV sequence. 27. The wireless transmitter of any one of claims 21-26, wherein the wireless transmitter comprises one of a base station and a wireless device.

28. The wireless transmitter of any one of claims 21-27, wherein the physical channel comprises one of an uplink physical channel, a downlink physical channel, and a sidelink physical channel.

Description:
RV SEQUENCE FOR ENHANCED MULTI-SEGMENT PUSCH

TECHNICAL FIELD

Embodiments of the present disclosure are directed to wireless communications and, more particularly, to a redundancy version (RV) sequence for enhanced multi-segment physical uplink shared channel (PUSCH).

BACKGROUND

Generally, all terms used herein are to be interpreted according to their ordinary meaning in the relevant technical field, unless a different meaning is clearly given and/or is implied from the context in which it is used. All references to a/an/the element, apparatus, component, means, step, etc. are to be interpreted openly as referring to at least one instance of the element, apparatus, component, means, step, etc., unless explicitly stated otherwise. The steps of any methods disclosed herein do not have to be performed in the exact order disclosed, unless a step is explicitly described as following or preceding another step and/or where it is implicit that a step must follow or precede another step. Any feature of any of the embodiments disclosed herein may be applied to any other embodiment, wherever appropriate. Likewise, any advantage of any of the embodiments may apply to any other embodiments, and vice versa. Other objectives, features, and advantages of the enclosed embodiments will be apparent from the following description.

Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) fifth generation (5G) new radio (NR) provides service for multiple use cases such as enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), ultra- reliable and low latency communication (URLLC), and machine type communication (MTC). Each of these services has different technical requirements. For example, the general requirement for eMBB is high data rate with moderate latency and moderate coverage, while URLLC service requires a low latency and high reliability transmission but perhaps for moderate data rates.

One of the solutions for low latency data transmission is shorter transmission time intervals. NR, in addition to transmission in a slot, supports a mini-slot transmission to reduce latency. A mini-slot may consist of any number of 1 to 14 orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) symbols. The concepts of slot and mini-slot are not specific to a specific service, meaning that a mini-slot may be used for either eMBB, URLLC, or other services.

FIGURE 1 is a time/frequency diagram illustrating an example radio resource in NR. The horizontal axis represents time and the other axis represents frequency. Each resource element corresponds to one OFDM subcarrier during one OFDM symbol interval.

NR includes resource blocks. A UE can be configured with up to four carrier bandwidth parts in the downlink with a single downlink carrier bandwidth part being active at a given time. A UE can be configured with up to four carrier bandwidth parts in the uplink with a single uplink carrier bandwidth part being active at a given time. If a UE is configured with a supplementary uplink, the UE can in addition be configured with up to four carrier bandwidth parts in the supplementary uplink with a single supplementary uplink carrier bandwidth part being active at a given time.

For a carrier bandwidth part with a given numerology m έ . a contiguous set of physical resource blocks (PRBs) are defined and numbered from 0 to N^ P έ — 1, where i is the index of the carrier bandwidth part. A resource block (RB) is defined as 12 consecutive subcarriers in the frequency domain.

NR includes multiple mimerologies. Multiple OFDM numcrologics.^ are supported in NR as given by Table 1, where the subcarrier spacing, D/, and the cyclic prefix for a carrier bandwidth part are configured by different higher layer parameters for downlink and uplink, respectively.

Table 1: Supported transmission numerologies

NR includes physical channels. A downlink physical channel corresponds to a set of resource elements carrying information originating from higher layers. Downlink physical channels include the physical downlink shared channel (PDSCH), physical broadcast channel (PBCH), and physical downlink control channel (PDCCH).

PDSCH is the main physical channel used for unicast downlink data transmission, but also for transmission of random access response (RAR), certain system information blocks, and paging information. PBCH carries the basic system information, required by the UE to access the network. PDCCH is used for transmitting downlink control information (DCI), mainly scheduling decisions required for reception of PDSCH, and for uplink scheduling grants enabling transmission on the physical uplink shared channel (PUSCH) .

An uplink physical channel corresponds to a set of resource elements carrying information originating from higher layers. Uplink physical channels include PUSCH, physical uplink control channel (PUCCH), and physical random access channel (PRACH).

PUSCH is the uplink counterpart to the PDSCH. PUCCH is used by UEs to transmit uplink control information, including hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) acknowledgements, channel state information reports, etc. PRACH is used for random access preamble transmission.

Frequency resources are allocated for PUSCH and PDSCH. In general, a UE determines the RB assignment in frequency domain for PUSCH or PDSCH using the resource allocation field in the detected DCI carried in PDCCH. For PUSCH carrying msg3 in a random- access procedure, the frequency domain resource assignment is signaled by using the uplink grant contained in RAR.

In NR, two frequency resource allocation schemes, type 0 and type 1, are supported for PUSCH and PDSCH. Which type to use for a PUSCH/PDSCH transmission is either defined by a radio resource control (RRC) configured parameter or indicated directly in the corresponding DCI or uplink grant in RAR (for which type 1 is used).

The RB indexing for uplink/downlink type 0 and type 1 resource allocation is determined within the UE's active carrier bandwidth part. The UE, upon detection of PDCCH intended for the UE, determines first the uplink/downlink carrier bandwidth part and then the resource allocation within the carrier bandwidth part. The uplink bandwidth part for PUSCH carrying msg3 is configured by higher layer parameters.

NR also includes PDCCH monitoring. In 3GPP NR standard, DCI is received over the PDCCH. The PDCCH may carry DCI in messages with different formats. DCI format 0 0 and 0_1 are DCI messages used to convey uplink grants to the UE for transmission of the PUSCH and DCI format 1 0 and 1 1 are used to convey downlink grants for transmission of the physical layer data channel on the downlink (PDSCH). Other DCI formats (2 0, 2 1, 2 2 and 2_3) are used for other purposes such as transmission of slot format information, reserved resource, transmit power control information, etc.

A PDCCH candidate is searched within a common or UE-specific search space which is mapped to a set of time and frequency resources referred to as a control resource set (CORESET). The search spaces within which PDCCH candidates must be monitored are configured to the UE via RRC signaling.

A monitoring periodicity is also configured for different PDCCH candidates. In any particular slot the UE may be configured to monitor multiple PDCCH candidates in multiple search spaces which may be mapped to one or more CORESETs. PDCCH candidates may need to be monitored multiple times in a slot, once every slot or once in multiple of slots.

The smallest unit used for defining CORESETs is a resource element group (REG), which is defined as spanning 1 PRB x 1 OFDM symbol in frequency and time. Each REG contains demodulation reference signals (DM-RS) to aid in the estimation of the radio channel over which the REG was transmitted.

When transmitting the PDCCH, a precoder may be used to apply weights at the transmit antennas based on some knowledge of the radio channel prior to transmission. It is possible to improve channel estimation performance at the UE by estimating the channel over multiple REGs that are proximate in time and frequency if the precoder used at the transmitter for the REGs is not different. To assist the UE with channel estimation, the multiple REGs can be grouped together to form a REG bundle and the REG bundle size for a CORESET is indicated to the UE. The UE may assume that any precoder used for the transmission of the PDCCH is the same for all the REGs in the REG bundle. A REG bundle may consist of 2, 3 or 6 REGs.

A control channel element (CCE) consists of 6 REGs. The REGs within a CCE may either be contiguous or distributed in frequency. When the REGs are distributed in frequency, the CORESET is said to be using an interleaved mapping of REGs to a CCE and if the REGs are not distributed in frequency, a non-interleaved mapping is said to be used. Interleaving can provide frequency diversity. Not using interleaving is beneficial for cases where knowledge of the channel allows the use of a precoder in a particular part of the spectrum improve the SINR at the receiver.

A PDCCH candidate may span 1, 2,4, 8 or 16 CCEs. If more than one CCE is used, the information in the first CCE is repeated in the other CCEs. Therefore, the number of aggregated CCEs used is referred to as the aggregation level for the PDCCH candidate.

A hashing function is used to determine the CCEs corresponding to PDCCH candidates that a UE must monitor within a search space set. The hashing is done differently for different UEs so that the CCEs used by the UEs are randomized and the probability of collisions between multiple UEs for which PDCCH messages are included in a CORESET is reduced.

The following describes the NR slot structures. An NR slot consists of several OFDM symbols, according to current agreements either 7 or 14 symbols (OFDM subcarrier spacing < 60 kHz) and 14 symbols (OFDM subcarrier spacing > 60 kHz). An example is illustrated in FIGURE 2.

FIGURE 2 is a time diagram illustrating an example slot. The example slot includes a subframe with 14 OFDM symbols. T s and T symb denote the slot and OFDM symbol duration, respectively.

In addition, a slot may also be shortened to accommodate downlink/uplink transient period or both downlink and uplink transmissions. Potential variations are illustrated in FIGURE 3.

FIGURE 3 includes timing diagrams illustrating various slot structures. The slots include mixtures of uplink and downlink opportunities.

Furthermore, NR also defines Type B scheduling, also referred to as mini-slots. Mini slots are shorter than slots (e.g., from 1 or 2 symbols up to number of symbols in a slot minus one) and can start at any symbol. Mini-slots are used if the transmission duration of a slot is too long or the occurrence of the next slot start (slot alignment) is too late. Applications of mini-slots include, among others, latency critical transmissions (both mini-slot length and frequent opportunity of mini-slots are important) and unlicensed spectrum where a transmission should start immediately after listen-before-talk succeeded (here the frequent opportunity of mini-slot is especially important). An example of mini-slots is illustrated in FIGURE 4.

FIGURE 4 is a time diagram illustrating a mini-slot. The mini-slot includes 2 OFDM symbols.

NR includes slot aggregation and automatic repetition of configured grant (CG) and downlink semi-persistent scheduling (DL-SPS). A transmission can be aggregated over a number of consecutive slots. The number of slots to aggregate over is semi-statically configured. The transmission in each slot uses a redundancy version (RV) from a predetermined sequence with consecutive slots using the next RV in the sequence, repeating circularly if the end of the sequence is reached. Possible sequences to use are [0, 2, 3, 1], [0, 3, 0, 3], [0, 0, 0, 0] For a dynamically scheduled transmission, the DCI indicates which RV to use in the first slot. For semi-persistent scheduling and configured grant, the first slot uses RV 0

NR also includes enhanced PUSCH transmission. The enhanced PUSCH supports both mini-slot repetition and multi-segment transmission, depending on the parameter setting of L (duration in symbols of a nominal repetition) and K (nominal number of repetitions).

One or more actual PUSCH repetitions in one slot, or two or more actual PUSCH repetitions across slot boundary in consecutive available slots, is supported using one uplink grant for dynamic PUSCH, and one configured grant configuration for configured grant PUSCH.

The number of the repetitions signaled by a gNB represents the “nominal” number of repetitions. The actual number of repetitions can be larger than the nominal number. The time domain resource assignment (TDRA) field in the DCI or the TDRA parameter in the type 1 configured grant indicates the resource for the first “nominal” repetition. The time domain resources for the remaining repetitions are derived based at least on the resources for the first repetition and the downlink/uplink direction of the symbols.

If a nominal repetition goes across the slot boundary or downlink/uplink switching point, the nominal repetition is split into multiple PUSCH repetitions, with one PUSCH repetition in each uplink period in a slot.

There is no DMRS sharing across multiple PUSCH repetitions. S+L can be larger than 14. Different repetitions may have the same or different RV. There currently exist certain challenges. For example, how to configure the RV sequence of the enhanced PUSCH for eURLLC PUSCH transmission is unknown.

SUMMARY

Based on the description above, certain challenges currently exist with configuring a redundancy version (RV) sequence for enhanced multi-segment physical uplink shared channel (PUSCH). Certain aspects of the present disclosure and their embodiments may provide solutions to these or other challenges. For example, some embodiments first assign redundancy versions to nominal repetitions according to a pre-defmed RV sequence. If a nominal repetition is split into more than one segment, each segment in the repetition is cyclically assigned an RV according to a predefined sequence, starting from the RV assigned in the first step.

According to some embodiments, a method performed by a wireless transmitter for transmitting a multiple-segmented physical channel comprising a plurality of nominal repetitions comprises assigning each nominal repetition of the plurality of nominal repetitions a redundancy version (RV). The RVs are taken consecutively and circularly from a pre-defmed RV sequence. The method further comprises segmenting one or more of the nominal repetitions into one or more segments and assigning each segment of the one or more segments a RV. The RVs are taken consecutively and circularly from the pre-defmed RV sequence starting with the RV assigned to the corresponding nominal repetition. The method further comprises transmitting the physical channel based on the assigned RVs.

In particular embodiments, the first nominal repetition of the plurality of nominal repetitions is assigned a RV from any position in the pre-defmed RV sequence. In some embodiments the method further comprises receiving signaling indicating which RV in the pre-defmed RV sequence to assign to the first nominal repetition of the plurality of nominal repetitions.

In particular embodiments, the method further comprises determining a longest actual repetition after segmenting, and then assigning each nominal repetition of the plurality of nominal repetitions the RV consecutively and circularly from the pre-defined RV sequence, the longest actual repetition is assigned the first RV in the pre-defmed RV sequence. According to some embodiments, a method performed by a wireless transmitter for transmitting a multiple-segmented physical channel comprising a plurality of nominal repetitions comprises generating a first repetition set by applying pre-defmed splits to divide the plurality of nominal repetitions, assigning each repetition of the first repetition set a RV, wherein the RVs are taken consecutively and circularly from a pre-defmed RV sequence, and transmitting the physical channel based on the assigned RVs.

In particular embodiments, the method further comprises receiving an indication (e.g., slot format indicator (SFI)) of one or more nominal repetitions to segment, generating a second repetition set by segmenting the first repetition set according to the received indication, and assigning each segment of the second repetition set a RV. The RVs are taken consecutively and circularly from the pre-defmed RV sequence starting with the RV assigned to the corresponding repetition in the first repetition set.

In particular embodiments, the pre-defmed splits include any one or more of a boundary of a nominal repetition, a slot boundary; and a switch between an uplink, downlink, or flexible transmission pattern.

In particular embodiments, the first repetition of the first repetition set is assigned a RV from any position in the pre-defmed RV sequence. In some embodiments, the method comprises receiving signaling indicating which RV in the pre-defmed RV sequence to assign to the first repetition of the first repetition set.

In particular embodiments, the method further comprises determining a longest repetition in the first repetition set, and when assigning each repetition of the first repetition set the RV consecutively and circularly from the pre-defmed RV sequence, the longest repetition is assigned the first RV in the pre-defmed RV sequence.

In particular embodiments, the wireless transmitter comprises one of a base station and a wireless device. The physical channel may comprise one of an uplink physical channel, a downlink physical channel, and a sidelink physical channel.

According to some embodiments, a wireless transmitter is capable of transmitting a multiple-segmented physical channel. The wireless transmitter comprises processing circuitry operable to perform any of the wireless transmitter methods described above. Also disclosed is a computer program product comprising a non-transitory computer readable medium storing computer readable program code, the computer readable program code operable, when executed by processing circuitry to perform any of the methods performed by the wireless transmitter described above.

Certain embodiments may provide one or more of the following technical advantages. For example, particular embodiments include efficient multi-segment PUSCH transmission for both dynamically scheduled PUSCH, as well as PUSCH associated with uplink configured grant.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

For a more complete understanding of the disclosed embodiments and their features and advantages, reference is now made to the following description, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIGURE 1 is a time/frequency diagram illustrating an example radio resource in NR;

FIGURE 2 is a time diagram illustrating an example slot;

FIGURE 3 includes timing diagrams illustrating various slot structures;

FIGURE 4 is a time diagram illustrating a mini-slot;

FIGURE 5 is a flow diagram illustrating RV assignment for segmented nominal repetitions, according to a particular embodiment;

FIGURE 6 is a flow diagram illustrating RV assignment for segmented nominal repetitions, according to another embodiment;

FIGURE 7 is a flow diagram illustrating RV assignment for segmented nominal repetitions with collision, according to a particular embodiment;

FIGURE 8 is a block diagram illustrating an example wireless network;

FIGURE 9 illustrates an example user equipment, according to certain embodiments;

FIGURE 10 is flowchart illustrating an example method in a wireless device, according to certain embodiments;

FIGURE 11 is flowchart illustrating an example method in a network node, according to certain embodiments; FIGURE 12 illustrates a schematic block diagram of a wireless device and a network node in a wireless network, according to certain embodiments;

FIGURE 13 illustrates an example virtualization environment, according to certain embodiments;

FIGURE 14 illustrates an example telecommunication network connected via an intermediate network to a host computer, according to certain embodiments;

FIGURE 15 illustrates an example host computer communicating via a base station with a user equipment over a partially wireless connection, according to certain embodiments;

FIGURE 16 is a flowchart illustrating a method implemented, according to certain embodiments;

FIGURE 17 is a flowchart illustrating a method implemented in a communication system, according to certain embodiments;

FIGURE 18 is a flowchart illustrating a method implemented in a communication system, according to certain embodiments; and

FIGURE 19 is a flowchart illustrating a method implemented in a communication system, according to certain embodiments.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

As described above, certain challenges currently exist with configuring a redundancy version (RV) sequence for enhanced multi-segment physical uplink shared channel (PUSCH). Certain aspects of the present disclosure and their embodiments may provide solutions to these or other challenges. For example, some embodiments first assign redundancy versions to nominal repetitions according to a pre-defined RV sequence. If a nominal repetition is split into more than one segment, each segment in the repetition is cyclically assigned an RV according to a predefined sequence, starting from the RV assigned in the first step.

Particular embodiments are described more fully with reference to the accompanying drawings. Other embodiments, however, are contained within the scope of the subject matter disclosed herein, the disclosed subject matter should not be construed as limited to only the embodiments set forth herein; rather, these embodiments are provided by way of example to convey the scope of the subject matter to those skilled in the art. In some cases, which nominal repetitions to be segmented may depend on signaling of a dynamic slot format indicator (SFI) to the user equipment (UE). If so, there might be a mismatch in understanding of which nominal repetitions are segmented due to erroneous detection of SFI at the UE. To avoid such misunderstanding, the RVs can be allocated to nominal repetitions without depending on the dynamic SFI, and instead using slot boundaries and semi-static time division duplex (TDD) pattern. The first and second group of embodiments described below resolve these issues.

A first group of embodiments include a basic RV sequence that is based on nominal repetitions. The basic RV sequence is based on assigning consecutive RVs to the consecutive nominal repetitions, where the RVs are taken consecutively and circularly from a pre-defined RV sequence. Typical pre-defined RV sequences include:

• {0,2, 3,1}

• {0,3, 0,3}

• {0,0, 0,0}

• {3, 3, 3, 3}

When taking the RV circularly from the pre-defined RV sequence, the next RV wraps around to the beginning when reaching the end of the RV sequence. The first nominal repetition can be assigned a starting RV from the beginning of the RV sequence, or from other location in the RV sequence.

For a dynamically scheduled PUSCH, the gNB can signal which repetition uses which RV. For example, the gNB may want to use different RVs for different repetitions in a retransmission and in a first transmission. Thus: for dynamically scheduled PUSCH, RV cycling is used for nominal repetitions, with the first nominal repetition using the RV indicated in downlink control information (DCI).

For configured grant (CG) PUSCH, it is beneficial to transmit as many bits as possible from RV0, to transmit as many systematic bits as possible. Therefore, in particular embodiments RV0 is used for the longest PUSCH, taking segmentation into account. Thus, for CG PUSCH, RV cycling is used for nominal repetitions, with the longest actual repetition after segmenting using RV0. If there is more than one repetition which is the longest, a rule may be used to determine which uses RV0, for example the first one among repetitions of equal length. If a nominal repetition is segmented, it is not clear which RV the individual segments should use. If all segments of a nominal repetition use the same RV, the bits at the beginning of the RV will be repeated.

In general, it is preferable to transmit fresh coded bits instead of repeating old coded bits. However, cycling the RV in each repetition, also across nominal repetitions can lead to mismatch between gNB and UE understanding if dynamic SFI is used. Thus, particular embodiments determine an RV for each nominal repetition using RV cycling as above, and if a nominal repetition is segmented, then use RV cycling for each segment, starting from the determined RV. Thus, the following method can be used to determine the RV index for each actual repetition (i.e., after segmentation, if any, is applied):

At step 1, particular embodiments assign each nominal repetition an RV, where the RV value is taken consecutively and circularly from a pre-defmed RV sequence. At step 2, if a nominal repetition is segmented, particular embodiments assign a RV value to each segment by taking RV values consecutively and circularly from a pre-defmed RV sequence, but start from the determined RV when transmitting segments from a new nominal repetition.

This behavior uses fresh coded bits as much as possible when segmenting, but each nominal repetition is unaffected by possible segmenting of other nominal repetitions using SFI. An example is illustrated in FIGURE 5.

FIGURE 5 is a flow diagram illustrating RV assignment for segmented nominal repetitions, according to a particular embodiment. The RV sequence used for the illustrated example is [0,2,3, 1] At step 1, each of the 4 nominal repetitions is assigned a RV sequentially and circularly from the RV sequence. The first two nominal repetitions are segmented. At step 2, the segments are assigned a RV sequentially and circularly from the RV sequence starting from the determined RV for the nominal. For example, the first nominal repetitions was assigned 0 and the segment is assigned 2, which is the next RV in the sequence after 0. The second nominal repetition was assigned 2 and the segments are assigned 3 and 1, which are the next two RVs in the sequence after 2.

Note that in FIGURES 5-7, in some cases where nominal repetitions are split due to TDD pattern, some symbols will not be used for uplink transmission. These are not shown in the figures, so the different uplink repetitions appear to be back to back in the figures. Also, the length of the repetitions do not accurately reflect the number of symbols in them after the split.

In a second group of embodiments, a basic RV sequence is based on repetitions obtained by pre-defined splits. Denote the repetitions after applying pre-defined splits as repetition-set# 1. Then each repetition in repetition repetition-set# 1 is assigned a RV consecutively and circularly from a pre-defined RV sequence. The pre-defined splits include, for example, a boundary of nominal repetitions, slot boundary, and dividers of uplink transmission due to semi-static uplink/downlink switching pattern.

In summary, the following method can be used to determine the RV index for each actual repetition (i.e., after segmentation, if any, is applied). At step 1, particular embodiments obtain repetition- set#l by applying the pre-defined splits (if any) to divide the set of nominal repetitions.

At step 2, particular embodiments assign each repetition of repetition-set# 1 an RV, where the RV value is taken consecutively and circularly from a pre-defined RV sequence. At step 3, if a repetition in repletion- set# 1 is further divided to repetition-set#2 due to SFI, then for each repetition-set#2 corresponding to a given repetition in repletion-set# 1, particular embodiments assign RV sequences consecutively and circularly from a pre-defined RV sequence, starting with the RV of the given repetition in repletion-set# 1 as determined in step 2

In some embodiments, which RV to assign to a specific repetition is determined by assigning a specific RV, e.g. RV 0, to the longest repetition after step 1. If several repetitions have the longest length after step 1, the specific repetition which gets the specific RV is determined by a rule, e.g. the first among repetitions which have the longest length gets assigned the specific RV.

In some embodiments, the dividers of uplink transmission due to semi-static uplink/downlink switching patterns occur between a semi-static flexible symbol and a semi static uplink symbol.

In some embodiments, the dividers of uplink transmission due to semi-static uplink/downlink switching patterns occur between a semi-static downlink symbol and a semi static uplink symbol. In some embodiments, the dividers of uplink transmission due to semi-static uplink/downlink switching patterns occur between a semi-static downlink symbol and a semi static uplink symbol.

In some embodiments, the pre-defmed splits include a subset of the pre-defmed splits listed above, e.g. slot boundary, boundary of nominal repetitions, and boundary between semi static downlink symbols and semi-static uplink symbols count as pre-defmed splits, but not boundary between semi-static flexible symbols and semi-static uplink symbols

In some embodiments, different methods are used based on whether the UE is configured to monitor SFI. For example, if the UE does not monitor SFI, then the UE may use the first group of embodiments, but if the UE monitors SFI, then the UE may sue the second group of embodiments.

In some embodiments, different versions of methods are used based on whether the UE is configured to monitor SFI. For example, if the UE does not monitor SFI, then the UE uses the second group of embodiments with pre-defmed splits including slot boundary, but if the UE monitors SFI, then the UE uses the second group of embodiments with pre-defmed splits including slot boundary and one or more divider of uplink transmission due to semi-static uplink/downlink switching pattern. An example is illustrated in FIGURE 6.

FIGURE 6 is a flow diagram illustrating RV assignment for segmented nominal repetitions, according to another embodiment. The RV sequence used for the illustrated example is [0,2,3, 1] At step 1, each of the 4 nominal repetitions is segmented by applying the pre-defines splits. At step 2, each repetition of repetition set 1 is assigned an RV sequentially and circularly. At step 3, if the repetitions are further segmented (e.g., by applying dynamic splits from SFI) into repetition set 2, then each repetition is assigned a RV sequentially and circularly starting with the RV of the corresponding repetition from repetition set 1. For example, at step 2, the second repetition in repetitions set 1 is assigned 2. In step 3, the second repetition is further segmented, and the third repetition in repetition set 2 is assigned 3, because it is the next value in the sequence after 2.

In some situations, a repetition is not transmitted due to collision with dynamic SFI pattern, or not receiving a dynamic SFI pattern. In this case, the RVs of other repetitions are not affected as can be seen in FIGURE 7. FIGURE 7 is a flow diagram illustrating RV assignment for segmented nominal repetitions with collision, according to a particular embodiment. As illustrated, repetitions that are discarded (indicated with the Xs in FIGURE 7) may be either repetitions in repetition set#l or repetition set#2, or nominal repetitions. This also can apply to the first group of embodiments.

The embodiments have been described herein with respect to uplink transmissions, but they apply to downlink and sidelink transmission as well.

FIGURE 8 illustrates an example wireless network, according to certain embodiments. The wireless network may comprise and/or interface with any type of communication, telecommunication, data, cellular, and/or radio network or other similar type of system. In some embodiments, the wireless network may be configured to operate according to specific standards or other types of predefined rules or procedures. Thus, particular embodiments of the wireless network may implement communication standards, such as Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), Long Term Evolution (LTE), and/or other suitable 2G, 3G, 4G, or 5G standards; wireless local area network (WLAN) standards, such as the IEEE 802.11 standards; and/or any other appropriate wireless communication standard, such as the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax), Bluetooth, Z-Wave and/or ZigBee standards.

Network 106 may comprise one or more backhaul networks, core networks, IP networks, public switched telephone networks (PSTNs), packet data networks, optical networks, wide-area networks (WANs), local area networks (LANs), wireless local area networks (WLANs), wired networks, wireless networks, metropolitan area networks, and other networks to enable communication between devices.

Network node 160 and WD 110 comprise various components described in more detail below. These components work together to provide network node and/or wireless device functionality, such as providing wireless connections in a wireless network. In different embodiments, the wireless network may comprise any number of wired or wireless networks, network nodes, base stations, controllers, wireless devices, relay stations, and/or any other components or systems that may facilitate or participate in the communication of data and/or signals whether via wired or wireless connections. As used herein, network node refers to equipment capable, configured, arranged and/or operable to communicate directly or indirectly with a wireless device and/or with other network nodes or equipment in the wireless network to enable and/or provide wireless access to the wireless device and/or to perform other functions (e.g., administration) in the wireless network.

Examples of network nodes include, but are not limited to, access points (APs) (e.g., radio access points), base stations (BSs) (e.g., radio base stations, Node Bs, evolved Node Bs (eNBs) and NR NodeBs (gNBs)). Base stations may be categorized based on the amount of coverage they provide (or, stated differently, their transmit power level) and may then also be referred to as femto base stations, pico base stations, micro base stations, or macro base stations.

A base station may be a relay node or a relay donor node controlling a relay. A network node may also include one or more (or all) parts of a distributed radio base station such as centralized digital units and/or remote radio units (RRUs), sometimes referred to as Remote Radio Heads (RRHs). Such remote radio units may or may not be integrated with an antenna as an antenna integrated radio. Parts of a distributed radio base station may also be referred to as nodes in a distributed antenna system (DAS). Y et further examples of network nodes include multi-standard radio (MSR) equipment such as MSR BSs, network controllers such as radio network controllers (RNCs) or base station controllers (BSCs), base transceiver stations (BTSs), transmission points, transmission nodes, multi-cell/multicast coordination entities (MCEs), core network nodes (e.g., MSCs, MMEs), O&M nodes, OSS nodes, SON nodes, positioning nodes (e.g., E-SMLCs), and/or MDTs.

As another example, a network node may be a virtual network node as described in more detail below. More generally, however, network nodes may represent any suitable device (or group of devices) capable, configured, arranged, and/or operable to enable and/or provide a wireless device with access to the wireless network or to provide some service to a wireless device that has accessed the wireless network.

In FIGURE 8, network node 160 includes processing circuitry 170, device readable medium 180, interface 190, auxiliary equipment 184, power source 186, power circuitry 187, and antenna 162. Although network node 160 illustrated in the example wireless network of FIGURE 8 may represent a device that includes the illustrated combination of hardware components, other embodiments may comprise network nodes with different combinations of components.

It is to be understood that a network node comprises any suitable combination of hardware and/or software needed to perform the tasks, features, functions and methods disclosed herein. Moreover, while the components of network node 160 are depicted as single boxes located within a larger box, or nested within multiple boxes, in practice, a network node may comprise multiple different physical components that make up a single illustrated component (e.g., device readable medium 180 may comprise multiple separate hard drives as well as multiple RAM modules).

Similarly, network node 160 may be composed of multiple physically separate components (e.g., a NodeB component and a RNC component, or a BTS component and a BSC component, etc.), which may each have their own respective components. In certain scenarios in which network node 160 comprises multiple separate components (e.g., BTS and BSC components), one or more of the separate components may be shared among several network nodes. For example, a single RNC may control multiple NodeB’s. In such a scenario, each unique NodeB and RNC pair, may in some instances be considered a single separate network node.

In some embodiments, network node 160 may be configured to support multiple radio access technologies (RATs). In such embodiments, some components may be duplicated (e.g., separate device readable medium 180 for the different RATs) and some components may be reused (e.g., the same antenna 162 may be shared by the RATs). Network node 160 may also include multiple sets of the various illustrated components for different wireless technologies integrated into network node 160, such as, for example, GSM, WCDMA, LTE, NR, WiFi, or Bluetooth wireless technologies. These wireless technologies may be integrated into the same or different chip or set of chips and other components within network node 160.

Processing circuitry 170 is configured to perform any determining, calculating, or similar operations (e.g., certain obtaining operations) described herein as being provided by a network node. These operations performed by processing circuitry 170 may include processing information obtained by processing circuitry 170 by, for example, converting the obtained information into other information, comparing the obtained information or converted information to information stored in the network node, and/or performing one or more operations based on the obtained information or converted information, and as a result of said processing making a determination.

Processing circuitry 170 may comprise a combination of one or more of a microprocessor, controller, microcontroller, central processing unit, digital signal processor, application-specific integrated circuit, field programmable gate array, or any other suitable computing device, resource, or combination of hardware, software and/or encoded logic operable to provide, either alone or in conjunction with other network node 160 components, such as device readable medium 180, network node 160 functionality.

For example, processing circuitry 170 may execute instructions stored in device readable medium 180 or in memory within processing circuitry 170. Such functionality may include providing any of the various wireless features, functions, or benefits discussed herein. In some embodiments, processing circuitry 170 may include a system on a chip (SOC).

In some embodiments, processing circuitry 170 may include one or more of radio frequency (RF) transceiver circuitry 172 and baseband processing circuitry 174. In some embodiments, radio frequency (RF) transceiver circuitry 172 and baseband processing circuitry 174 may be on separate chips (or sets of chips), boards, or units, such as radio units and digital units. In alternative embodiments, part or all of RF transceiver circuitry 172 and baseband processing circuitry 174 may be on the same chip or set of chips, boards, or units

In certain embodiments, some or all of the functionality described herein as being provided by a network node, base station, eNB or other such network device may be performed by processing circuitry 170 executing instructions stored on device readable medium 180 or memory within processing circuitry 170. In alternative embodiments, some or all of the functionality may be provided by processing circuitry 170 without executing instructions stored on a separate or discrete device readable medium, such as in a hard-wired manner. In any of those embodiments, whether executing instructions stored on a device readable storage medium or not, processing circuitry 170 can be configured to perform the described functionality. The benefits provided by such functionality are not limited to processing circuitry 170 alone or to other components of network node 160 but are enjoyed by network node 160 as a whole, and/or by end users and the wireless network generally. Device readable medium 180 may comprise any form of volatile or non-volatile computer readable memory including, without limitation, persistent storage, solid-state memory, remotely mounted memory, magnetic media, optical media, random access memory (RAM), read-only memory (ROM), mass storage media (for example, a hard disk), removable storage media (for example, a flash drive, a Compact Disk (CD) or a Digital Video Disk (DVD)), and/or any other volatile or non-volatile, non-transitory device readable and/or computer-executable memory devices that store information, data, and/or instructions that may be used by processing circuitry 170. Device readable medium 180 may store any suitable instructions, data or information, including a computer program, software, an application including one or more of logic, rules, code, tables, etc. and/or other instructions capable of being executed by processing circuitry 170 and, utilized by network node 160. Device readable medium 180 may be used to store any calculations made by processing circuitry 170 and/or any data received via interface 190. In some embodiments, processing circuitry 170 and device readable medium 180 may be considered to be integrated.

Interface 190 is used in the wired or wireless communication of signaling and/or data between network node 160, network 106, and/or WDs 110. As illustrated, interface 190 comprises port(s)/terminal(s) 194 to send and receive data, for example to and from network 106 over a wired connection. Interface 190 also includes radio front end circuitry 192 that may be coupled to, or in certain embodiments a part of, antenna 162.

Radio front end circuitry 192 comprises filters 198 and amplifiers 196. Radio front end circuitry 192 may be connected to antenna 162 and processing circuitry 170. Radio front end circuitry may be configured to condition signals communicated between antenna 162 and processing circuitry 170. Radio front end circuitry 192 may receive digital data that is to be sent out to other network nodes or WDs via a wireless connection. Radio front end circuitry 192 may convert the digital data into a radio signal having the appropriate channel and bandwidth parameters using a combination of filters 198 and/or amplifiers 196. The radio signal may then be transmitted via antenna 162. Similarly, when receiving data, antenna 162 may collect radio signals which are then converted into digital data by radio front end circuitry 192. The digital data may be passed to processing circuitry 170. In other embodiments, the interface may comprise different components and/or different combinations of components. In certain alternative embodiments, network node 160 may not include separate radio front end circuitry 192, instead, processing circuitry 170 may comprise radio front end circuitry and may be connected to antenna 162 without separate radio front end circuitry 192. Similarly, in some embodiments, all or some of RF transceiver circuitry 172 may be considered a part of interface 190. In still other embodiments, interface 190 may include one or more ports or terminals 194, radio front end circuitry 192, and RF transceiver circuitry 172, as part of a radio unit (not shown), and interface 190 may communicate with baseband processing circuitry 174, which is part of a digital unit (not shown).

Antenna 162 may include one or more antennas, or antenna arrays, configured to send and/or receive wireless signals. Antenna 162 may be coupled to radio front end circuitry 192 and may be any type of antenna capable of transmitting and receiving data and/or signals wirelessly. In some embodiments, antenna 162 may comprise one or more omni-directional, sector or panel antennas operable to transmit/receive radio signals between, for example, 2 GHz and 66 GHz. An omni-directional antenna may be used to transmit/receive radio signals in any direction, a sector antenna may be used to transmit/receive radio signals from devices within a particular area, and a panel antenna may be a line of sight antenna used to transmit/receive radio signals in a relatively straight line. In some instances, the use of more than one antenna may be referred to as MIMO. In certain embodiments, antenna 162 may be separate from network node 160 and may be connectable to network node 160 through an interface or port.

Antenna 162, interface 190, and/or processing circuitry 170 may be configured to perform any receiving operations and/or certain obtaining operations described herein as being performed by a network node. Any information, data and/or signals may be received from a wireless device, another network node and/or any other network equipment. Similarly, antenna 162, interface 190, and/or processing circuitry 170 may be configured to perform any transmitting operations described herein as being performed by a network node. Any information, data and/or signals may be transmitted to a wireless device, another network node and/or any other network equipment.

Power circuitry 187 may comprise, or be coupled to, power management circuitry and is configured to supply the components of network node 160 with power for performing the functionality described herein. Power circuitry 187 may receive power from power source 186. Power source 186 and/or power circuitry 187 may be configured to provide power to the various components of network node 160 in a form suitable for the respective components (e.g., at a voltage and current level needed for each respective component). Power source 186 may either be included in, or external to, power circuitry 187 and/or network node 160.

For example, network node 160 may be connectable to an external power source (e.g., an electricity outlet) via an input circuitry or interface such as an electrical cable, whereby the external power source supplies power to power circuitry 187. As a further example, power source 186 may comprise a source of power in the form of a battery or battery pack which is connected to, or integrated in, power circuitry 187. The battery may provide backup power should the external power source fail. Other types of power sources, such as photovoltaic devices, may also be used.

Alternative embodiments of network node 160 may include additional components beyond those shown in FIGURE 8 that may be responsible for providing certain aspects of the network node’s functionality, including any of the functionality described herein and/or any functionality necessary to support the subject matter described herein. For example, network node 160 may include user interface equipment to allow input of information into network node 160 and to allow output of information from network node 160. This may allow a user to perform diagnostic, maintenance, repair, and other administrative functions for network node 160.

As used herein, wireless device (WD) refers to a device capable, configured, arranged and/or operable to communicate wirelessly with network nodes and/or other wireless devices. Unless otherwise noted, the term WD may be used interchangeably herein with user equipment (UE). Communicating wirelessly may involve transmitting and/or receiving wireless signals using electromagnetic waves, radio waves, infrared waves, and/or other types of signals suitable for conveying information through air.

In some embodiments, a WD may be configured to transmit and/or receive information without direct human interaction. For instance, a WD may be designed to transmit information to a network on a predetermined schedule, when triggered by an internal or external event, or in response to requests from the network. Examples of a WD include, but are not limited to, a smart phone, a mobile phone, a cell phone, a voice over IP (VoIP) phone, a wireless local loop phone, a desktop computer, a personal digital assistant (PDA), a wireless cameras, a gaming console or device, a music storage device, a playback appliance, a wearable terminal device, a wireless endpoint, a mobile station, a tablet, a laptop, a laptop-embedded equipment (LEE), a laptop-mounted equipment (LME), a smart device, a wireless customer-premise equipment (CPE) a vehicle-mounted wireless terminal device, etc. A WD may support device-to-device (D2D) communication, for example by implementing a 3 GPP standard for sidelink communication, vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), vehicle-to-everything (V2X) and may in this case be referred to as a D2D communication device.

As yet another specific example, in an Internet of Things (IoT) scenario, a WD may represent a machine or other device that performs monitoring and/or measurements and transmits the results of such monitoring and/or measurements to another WD and/or a network node. The WD may in this case be a machine-to-machine (M2M) device, which may in a 3GPP context be referred to as an MTC device. As one example, the WD may be a UE implementing the 3GPP narrow band internet of things (NB-IoT) standard. Examples of such machines or devices are sensors, metering devices such as power meters, industrial machinery, or home or personal appliances (e.g. refrigerators, televisions, etc.) personal wearables (e.g., watches, fitness trackers, etc.).

In other scenarios, a WD may represent a vehicle or other equipment that is capable of monitoring and/or reporting on its operational status or other functions associated with its operation. A WD as described above may represent the endpoint of a wireless connection, in which case the device may be referred to as a wireless terminal. Furthermore, a WD as described above may be mobile, in which case it may also be referred to as a mobile device or a mobile terminal.

As illustrated, wireless device 110 includes antenna 111, interface 114, processing circuitry 120, device readable medium 130, user interface equipment 132, auxiliary equipment 134, power source 136 and power circuitry 137. WD 110 may include multiple sets of one or more of the illustrated components for different wireless technologies supported by WD 110, such as, for example, GSM, WCDMA, LTE, NR, WiFi, WiMAX, or Bluetooth wireless technologies, just to mention a few. These wireless technologies may be integrated into the same or different chips or set of chips as other components within WD 110.

Antenna 111 may include one or more antennas or antenna arrays, configured to send and/or receive wireless signals, and is connected to interface 114. In certain alternative embodiments, antenna 111 may be separate from WD 110 and be connectable to WD 110 through an interface or port. Antenna 111, interface 114, and/or processing circuitry 120 may be configured to perform any receiving or transmitting operations described herein as being performed by a WD. Any information, data and/or signals may be received from a network node and/or another WD. In some embodiments, radio front end circuitry and/or antenna 111 may be considered an interface.

As illustrated, interface 114 comprises radio front end circuitry 112 and antenna 111. Radio front end circuitry 112 comprise one or more filters 118 and amplifiers 116. Radio front end circuitry 112 is connected to antenna 111 and processing circuitry 120 and is configured to condition signals communicated between antenna 111 and processing circuitry 120. Radio front end circuitry 112 may be coupled to or a part of antenna 111. In some embodiments, WD 110 may not include separate radio front end circuitry 112; rather, processing circuitry 120 may comprise radio front end circuitry and may be connected to antenna 111. Similarly, in some embodiments, some or all of RF transceiver circuitry 122 may be considered a part of interface 114.

Radio front end circuitry 112 may receive digital data that is to be sent out to other network nodes or WDs via a wireless connection. Radio front end circuitry 112 may convert the digital data into a radio signal having the appropriate channel and bandwidth parameters using a combination of fdters 118 and/or amplifiers 116. The radio signal may then be transmitted via antenna 111. Similarly, when receiving data, antenna 111 may collect radio signals which are then converted into digital data by radio front end circuitry 112. The digital data may be passed to processing circuitry 120. In other embodiments, the interface may comprise different components and/or different combinations of components.

Processing circuitry 120 may comprise a combination of one or more of a microprocessor, controller, microcontroller, central processing unit, digital signal processor, application-specific integrated circuit, field programmable gate array, or any other suitable computing device, resource, or combination of hardware, software, and/or encoded logic operable to provide, either alone or in conjunction with other WD 110 components, such as device readable medium 130, WD 110 functionality. Such functionality may include providing any of the various wireless features or benefits discussed herein. For example, processing circuitry 120 may execute instructions stored in device readable medium 130 or in memory within processing circuitry 120 to provide the functionality disclosed herein.

As illustrated, processing circuitry 120 includes one or more of RF transceiver circuitry 122, baseband processing circuitry 124, and application processing circuitry 126. In other embodiments, the processing circuitry may comprise different components and/or different combinations of components. In certain embodiments processing circuitry 120 of WD 110 may comprise a SOC. In some embodiments, RF transceiver circuitry 122, baseband processing circuitry 124, and application processing circuitry 126 may be on separate chips or sets of chips.

In alternative embodiments, part or all of baseband processing circuitry 124 and application processing circuitry 126 may be combined into one chip or set of chips, and RF transceiver circuitry 122 may be on a separate chip or set of chips. In still alternative embodiments, part or all of RF transceiver circuitry 122 and baseband processing circuitry 124 may be on the same chip or set of chips, and application processing circuitry 126 may be on a separate chip or set of chips. In yet other alternative embodiments, part or all of RF transceiver circuitry 122, baseband processing circuitry 124, and application processing circuitry 126 may be combined in the same chip or set of chips. In some embodiments, RF transceiver circuitry 122 may be a part of interface 114. RF transceiver circuitry 122 may condition RF signals for processing circuitry 120.

In certain embodiments, some or all of the functionality described herein as being performed by a WD may be provided by processing circuitry 120 executing instructions stored on device readable medium 130, which in certain embodiments may be a computer-readable storage medium. In alternative embodiments, some or all of the functionality may be provided by processing circuitry 120 without executing instructions stored on a separate or discrete device readable storage medium, such as in a hard-wired manner. In any of those embodiments, whether executing instructions stored on a device readable storage medium or not, processing circuitry 120 can be configured to perform the described functionality. The benefits provided by such functionality are not limited to processing circuitry 120 alone or to other components of WD 110, but are enjoyed by WD 110, and/or by end users and the wireless network generally.

Processing circuitry 120 may be configured to perform any determining, calculating, or similar operations (e.g., certain obtaining operations) described herein as being performed by a WD. These operations, as performed by processing circuitry 120, may include processing information obtained by processing circuitry 120 by, for example, converting the obtained information into other information, comparing the obtained information or converted information to information stored by WD 110, and/or performing one or more operations based on the obtained information or converted information, and as a result of said processing making a determination.

Device readable medium 130 may be operable to store a computer program, software, an application including one or more of logic, rules, code, tables, etc. and/or other instructions capable of being executed by processing circuitry 120. Device readable medium 130 may include computer memory (e.g., Random Access Memory (RAM) or Read Only Memory (ROM)), mass storage media (e.g., a hard disk), removable storage media (e.g., a Compact Disk (CD) or a Digital Video Disk (DVD)), and/or any other volatile or non-volatile, non- transitory device readable and/or computer executable memory devices that store information, data, and/or instructions that may be used by processing circuitry 120. In some embodiments, processing circuitry 120 and device readable medium 130 may be integrated.

User interface equipment 132 may provide components that allow for a human user to interact with WD 110. Such interaction may be of many forms, such as visual, audial, tactile, etc. User interface equipment 132 may be operable to produce output to the user and to allow the user to provide input to WD 110. The type of interaction may vary depending on the type of user interface equipment 132 installed in WD 110. For example, if WD 110 is a smart phone, the interaction may be via a touch screen; if WD 110 is a smart meter, the interaction may be through a screen that provides usage (e.g., the number of gallons used) or a speaker that provides an audible alert (e.g., if smoke is detected). User interface equipment 132 may include input interfaces, devices and circuits, and output interfaces, devices and circuits. User interface equipment 132 is configured to allow input of information into WD 110 and is connected to processing circuitry 120 to allow processing circuitry 120 to process the input information. User interface equipment 132 may include, for example, a microphone, a proximity or other sensor, keys/buttons, a touch display, one or more cameras, a USB port, or other input circuitry. User interface equipment 132 is also configured to allow output of information from WD 110, and to allow processing circuitry 120 to output information from WD 110. User interface equipment 132 may include, for example, a speaker, a display, vibrating circuitry, a USB port, a headphone interface, or other output circuitry. Using one or more input and output interfaces, devices, and circuits, of user interface equipment 132, WD 110 may communicate with end users and/or the wireless network and allow them to benefit from the functionality described herein.

Auxiliary equipment 134 is operable to provide more specific functionality which may not be generally performed by WDs. This may comprise specialized sensors for doing measurements for various purposes, interfaces for additional types of communication such as wired communications etc. The inclusion and type of components of auxiliary equipment 134 may vary depending on the embodiment and/or scenario.

Power source 136 may, in some embodiments, be in the form of a battery or battery pack. Other types of power sources, such as an external power source (e.g., an electricity outlet), photovoltaic devices or power cells, may also be used. WD 110 may further comprise power circuitry 137 for delivering power from power source 136 to the various parts of WD 110 which need power from power source 136 to carry out any functionality described or indicated herein. Power circuitry 137 may in certain embodiments comprise power management circuitry.

Power circuitry 137 may additionally or alternatively be operable to receive power from an external power source; in which case WD 110 may be connectable to the external power source (such as an electricity outlet) via input circuitry or an interface such as an electrical power cable. Power circuitry 137 may also in certain embodiments be operable to deliver power from an external power source to power source 136. This may be, for example, for the charging of power source 136. Power circuitry 137 may perform any formatting, converting, or other modification to the power from power source 136 to make the power suitable for the respective components of WD 110 to which power is supplied.

Although the subject matter described herein may be implemented in any appropriate type of system using any suitable components, the embodiments disclosed herein are described in relation to a wireless network, such as the example wireless network illustrated in FIGURE 8. For simplicity, the wireless network of FIGURE 8 only depicts network 106, network nodes 160 and 160b, and WDs 110, 110b, and 110c. In practice, a wireless network may further include any additional elements suitable to support communication between wireless devices or between a wireless device and another communication device, such as a landline telephone, a service provider, or any other network node or end device. Of the illustrated components, network node 160 and wireless device (WD) 110 are depicted with additional detail. The wireless network may provide communication and other types of services to one or more wireless devices to facilitate the wireless devices’ access to and/or use of the services provided by, or via, the wireless network.

FIGURE 9 illustrates an example user equipment, according to certain embodiments. As used herein, a user equipment or UE may not necessarily have a user in the sense of a human user who owns and/or operates the relevant device. Instead, a UE may represent a device that is intended for sale to, or operation by, a human user but which may not, or which may not initially, be associated with a specific human user (e.g., a smart sprinkler controller). Alternatively, a UE may represent a device that is not intended for sale to, or operation by, an end user but which may be associated with or operated for the benefit of a user (e.g., a smart power meter). UE 200 may be any UE identified by the 3 rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), including a NB-IoT UE, a machine type communication (MTC) UE, and/or an enhanced MTC (eMTC) UE. UE 200, as illustrated in FIGURE 9, is one example of a WD configured for communication in accordance with one or more communication standards promulgated by the 3 rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), such as 3GPP’s GSM, UMTS, LTE, and/or 5G standards. As mentioned previously, the term WD and UE may be used interchangeable. Accordingly, although FIGURE 9 is a UE, the components discussed herein are equally applicable to a WD, and vice-versa. In FIGURE 9, UE 200 includes processing circuitry 201 that is operatively coupled to input/output interface 205, radio frequency (RF) interface 209, network connection interface 211, memory 215 including random access memory (RAM) 217, read-only memory (ROM) 219, and storage medium 221 or the like, communication subsystem 231, power source 213, and/or any other component, or any combination thereof. Storage medium 221 includes operating system 223, application program 225, and data 227. In other embodiments, storage medium 221 may include other similar types of information. Certain UEs may use all the components shown in FIGURE 9, or only a subset of the components. The level of integration between the components may vary from one UE to another UE. Further, certain UEs may contain multiple instances of a component, such as multiple processors, memories, transceivers, transmitters, receivers, etc.

In FIGURE 9, processing circuitry 201 may be configured to process computer instructions and data. Processing circuitry 201 may be configured to implement any sequential state machine operative to execute machine instructions stored as machine-readable computer programs in the memory, such as one or more hardware-implemented state machines (e.g., in discrete logic, FPGA, ASIC, etc.); programmable logic together with appropriate firmware; one or more stored program, general-purpose processors, such as a microprocessor or Digital Signal Processor (DSP), together with appropriate software; or any combination of the above. For example, the processing circuitry 201 may include two central processing units (CPUs). Data may be information in a form suitable for use by a computer.

In the depicted embodiment, input/output interface 205 may be configured to provide a communication interface to an input device, output device, or input and output device. UE 200 may be configured to use an output device via input/output interface 205.

An output device may use the same type of interface port as an input device. For example, a USB port may be used to provide input to and output from UE 200. The output device may be a speaker, a sound card, a video card, a display, a monitor, a printer, an actuator, an emitter, a smartcard, another output device, or any combination thereof.

UE 200 may be configured to use an input device via input/output interface 205 to allow a user to capture information into UE 200. The input device may include a touch-sensitive or presence-sensitive display, a camera (e.g., a digital camera, a digital video camera, a web camera, etc.), a microphone, a sensor, a mouse, a trackball, a directional pad, a trackpad, a scroll wheel, a smartcard, and the like. The presence-sensitive display may include a capacitive or resistive touch sensor to sense input from a user. A sensor may be, for instance, an accelerometer, a gyroscope, a tilt sensor, a force sensor, a magnetometer, an optical sensor, a proximity sensor, another like sensor, or any combination thereof. For example, the input device may be an accelerometer, a magnetometer, a digital camera, a microphone, and an optical sensor.

In FIGURE 9, RF interface 209 may be configured to provide a communication interface to RF components such as a transmitter, a receiver, and an antenna. Network connection interface 211 may be configured to provide a communication interface to network 243a. Network 243a may encompass wired and/or wireless networks such as a local-area network (LAN), a wide-area network (WAN), a computer network, a wireless network, a telecommunications network, another like network or any combination thereof. For example, network 243a may comprise a Wi-Fi network. Network connection interface 211 may be configured to include a receiver and a transmitter interface used to communicate with one or more other devices over a communication network according to one or more communication protocols, such as Ethernet, TCP/IP, SONET, ATM, or the like. Network connection interface 211 may implement receiver and transmitter functionality appropriate to the communication network links (e.g., optical, electrical, and the like). The transmitter and receiver functions may share circuit components, software or firmware, or alternatively may be implemented separately.

RAM 217 may be configured to interface via bus 202 to processing circuitry 201 to provide storage or caching of data or computer instructions during the execution of software programs such as the operating system, application programs, and device drivers. ROM 219 may be configured to provide computer instructions or data to processing circuitry 201. For example, ROM 219 may be configured to store invariant low-level system code or data for basic system functions such as basic input and output (I/O), startup, or reception of keystrokes from a keyboard that are stored in a non-volatile memory.

Storage medium 221 may be configured to include memory such as RAM, ROM, programmable read-only memory (PROM), erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM), electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM), magnetic disks, optical disks, floppy disks, hard disks, removable cartridges, or flash drives. In one example, storage medium 221 may be configured to include operating system 223, application program 225 such as a web browser application, a widget or gadget engine or another application, and data file 227. Storage medium 221 may store, for use by UE 200, any of a variety of various operating systems or combinations of operating systems.

Storage medium 221 may be configured to include a number of physical drive units, such as redundant array of independent disks (RAID), floppy disk drive, flash memory, USB flash drive, external hard disk drive, thumb drive, pen drive, key drive, high-density digital versatile disc (HD-DVD) optical disc drive, internal hard disk drive, Blu-Ray optical disc drive, holographic digital data storage (HDDS) optical disc drive, external mini-dual in-line memory module (DIMM), synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM), external micro- DIMM SDRAM, smartcard memory such as a subscriber identity module or a removable user identity (SIM/RUIM) module, other memory, or any combination thereof. Storage medium 221 may allow UE 200 to access computer-executable instructions, application programs or the like, stored on transitory or non-transitory memory media, to off-load data, or to upload data. An article of manufacture, such as one utilizing a communication system may be tangibly embodied in storage medium 221, which may comprise a device readable medium.

In FIGURE 9, processing circuitry 201 may be configured to communicate with network 243b using communication subsystem 231. Network 243a and network 243b may be the same network or networks or different network or networks. Communication subsystem 231 may be configured to include one or more transceivers used to communicate with network 243b. For example, communication subsystem 231 may be configured to include one or more transceivers used to communicate with one or more remote transceivers of another device capable of wireless communication such as another WD, UE, or base station of a radio access network (RAN) according to one or more communication protocols, such as IEEE 802.2, CDMA, WCDMA, GSM, LTE, UTRAN, WiMax, or the like. Each transceiver may include transmitter 233 and/or receiver 235 to implement transmitter or receiver functionality, respectively, appropriate to the RAN links (e.g., frequency allocations and the like). Further, transmitter 233 and receiver 235 of each transceiver may share circuit components, software or firmware, or alternatively may be implemented separately.

In the illustrated embodiment, the communication functions of communication subsystem 231 may include data communication, voice communication, multimedia communication, short-range communications such as Bluetooth, near-field communication, location-based communication such as the use of the global positioning system (GPS) to determine a location, another like communication function, or any combination thereof. For example, communication subsystem 231 may include cellular communication, Wi-Fi communication, Bluetooth communication, and GPS communication. Network 243b may encompass wired and/or wireless networks such as a local-area network (LAN), a wide-area network (WAN), a computer network, a wireless network, a telecommunications network, another like network or any combination thereof. For example, network 243b may be a cellular network, a Wi-Fi network, and/or a near-field network. Power source 213 may be configured to provide alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC) power to components of UE 200.

The features, benefits and/or functions described herein may be implemented in one of the components of UE 200 or partitioned across multiple components of UE 200. Further, the features, benefits, and/or functions described herein may be implemented in any combination of hardware, software or firmware. In one example, communication subsystem 231 may be configured to include any of the components described herein. Further, processing circuitry 201 may be configured to communicate with any of such components over bus 202. In another example, any of such components may be represented by program instructions stored in memory that when executed by processing circuitry 201 perform the corresponding functions described herein. In another example, the functionality of any of such components may be partitioned between processing circuitry 201 and communication subsystem 231. In another example, the non-computationally intensive functions of any of such components may be implemented in software or firmware and the computationally intensive functions may be implemented in hardware.

FIGURE 10 is a flowchart illustrating an example method in a wireless transmitter, according to certain embodiments. In particular embodiments, one or more steps of FIGURE 10 may be performed by wireless device 110 or network node 160 described with respect to FIGURE 8.

The method may begin at step 1010, where the wireless transmitter (e.g., wireless device 110 or network node 160) receives signaling indicating which RV in the pre-defmed RV sequence to assign to the first nominal repetition of the plurality of nominal repetitions. For example, wireless device 110 may receive signaling from network node 160 that includes an index into an RV sequence and the wireless device may use the RV value at the index when assigning RV values to repetitions.

At step 1012, the wireless transmitter assigns each nominal repetition of the plurality of nominal repetitions a RV. The RV s are taken consecutively and circularly from a pre-defmed RV sequence. For example, the RVs may be assigned as illustrated in FIGURE 5.

In particular embodiments, the first nominal repetition of the plurality of nominal repetitions is assigned a RV from any position in the pre-defmed RV sequence. In some embodiments the first nominal repetition is assigned according to the signaling received at step 1010

At step 1014, the wireless transmitter segments one or more of the nominal repetitions into one or more segments. For example, the nominal repetitions may be segmented as illustrated in FIGURE 5.

At step 1016, the wireless transmitter may determine a longest actual repetition after segmenting. The wireless transmitter may use the information about the longest actual repetitions later when assigning RVs.

At step 1018, the wireless transmitter assigns each segment of the one or more segments a RV. The RVs are taken consecutively and circularly from the pre-defmed RV sequence starting with the RV assigned to the corresponding nominal repetition. For example, the segments may be assigned an RV as illustrated in FIGURE 5.

In some embodiments, the longest actual repetition is assigned the first RV in the pre defined RV sequence.

At step 1020, the wireless transmitter transmits the physical channel according to the assigned RVs. Modifications, additions, or omissions may be made to method 1000 of FIGURE 10. Additionally, one or more steps in the method of FIGURE 10 may be performed in parallel or in any suitable order.

FIGURE 11 is a flowchart illustrating an example method in a wireless transmitter, according to certain embodiments. In particular embodiments, one or more steps of FIGURE 11 may be performed by wireless device 110 or network node 160 described with respect to FIGURE 8.

The method may begin at step 1110, where the wireless transmitter (e.g., wireless device 110 or network node 160) receives signaling indicating which RV in the pre-defined RV sequence to assign to the first nominal repetition of the plurality of nominal repetitions. For example, wireless device 110 may receive signaling from network node 160 that includes an index into an RV sequence and the wireless device may use the RV value at the index when assigning RV values to repetitions.

At step 1112, the wireless transmitter generates a first repetition set by applying pre defined splits to divide the plurality of nominal repetitions. For example, the wireless device may generate the first repetition set as illustrated in FIGURE 6.

In particular embodiments, the pre-defined splits include any one or more of a boundary of a nominal repetition, a slot boundary; and a switch between an uplink, downlink, or flexible transmission pattern.

In some embodiments, the first repetition of the first repetition set is assigned a RV from any position in the pre-defined RV sequence. In some embodiments, the first repetition of the first repetition set.is assigned according the signaling received at step 1110.

At step 1114, the wireless transmitter may determine a longest actual repetition after segmenting. The wireless transmitter may use the information about the longest actual repetitions later when assigning RVs.

At step 116, the wireless transmitter assigns each repetition of the first repetition set a RV. The RVs are taken consecutively and circularly from a pre-defined RV sequence. For example, the wireless transmitter may assign RVs as illustrated in FIGURE 6.

At step 118, the wireless transmitter may receive an indication (e.g., via SFI) of one or more nominal repetitions to segment. The method may continue to step 1120, where the wireless transmitter generates a second repetition set by segmenting the first repetition set according to the received indication.

At step 1122, the wireless transmitter may assign each segment of the second repetition set a RV. The RVs are taken consecutively and circularly from the pre-defined RV sequence starting with the RV assigned to the corresponding repetition in the first repetition set. For example, the wireless transmitter may assign RVs as illustrated in FIGURE 6.

At step 1124, the wireless transmitter transmits the physical channel based on the assigned RVs.

Modifications, additions, or omissions may be made to method 1100 of FIGURE 11. Additionally, one or more steps in the method of FIGURE 11 may be performed in parallel or in any suitable order.

FIGURE 12 illustrates a schematic block diagram of two apparatuses in a wireless network (for example, the wireless network illustrated in FIGURE 8). The apparatuses include a wireless device and a network node (e.g., wireless device 110 and network node 160 illustrated in FIGURE 8). Apparatuses 1600 and 1700 are operable to carry out the example methods described with reference to FIGURES 10 and 11, respectively, and possibly any other processes or methods disclosed herein. It is also to be understood that the methods of FIGURES 10 and 11 are not necessarily carried out solely by apparatuses 1600 and/or 1700. At least some operations of the methods can be performed by one or more other entities.

Virtual apparatuses 1600 and 1700 may comprise processing circuitry, which may include one or more microprocessor or microcontrollers, as well as other digital hardware, which may include digital signal processors (DSPs), special-purpose digital logic, and the like. The processing circuitry may be configured to execute program code stored in memory, which may include one or several types of memory such as read-only memory (ROM), random-access memory, cache memory, flash memory devices, optical storage devices, etc. Program code stored in memory includes program instructions for executing one or more telecommunications and/or data communications protocols as well as instructions for carrying out one or more of the techniques described herein, in several embodiments.

In some implementations, the processing circuitry may be used to cause receiving module 1602, determining module 1604, transmitting module 1606, and any other suitable units of apparatus 1600 to perform corresponding functions according one or more embodiments of the present disclosure. Similarly, the processing circuitry described above may be used to cause receiving module 1702, determining module 1704, transmitting module 1706, and any other suitable units of apparatus 1700 to perform corresponding functions according one or more embodiments of the present disclosure.

As illustrated in FIGURE 12, apparatus 1600 includes receiving module 1602 configured to receive signaling according to any of the embodiments and examples described herein. Determining module 1604 is configured to determine a RV values according to any of the embodiments and examples described herein. Transmitting module 1606 is configured to transmit a physical channel using the RV values, according to any of the embodiments and examples described herein.

As illustrated in FIGURE 12, apparatus 1700 includes receiving module 1702 configured to receive signaling according to any of the embodiments and examples described herein. Determining module 1704 is configured to determine RV values according to any of the embodiments and examples described herein. Transmitting module 1706 is configured to transmit a physical channel using the RV values, according to any of the embodiments and examples described herein.

FIGURE 13 is a schematic block diagram illustrating a virtualization environment 300 in which functions implemented by some embodiments may be virtualized. In the present context, virtualizing means creating virtual versions of apparatuses or devices which may include virtualizing hardware platforms, storage devices and networking resources. As used herein, virtualization can be applied to a node (e.g., a virtualized base station or a virtualized radio access node) or to a device (e.g., a UE, a wireless device or any other type of communication device) or components thereof and relates to an implementation in which at least a portion of the functionality is implemented as one or more virtual components (e.g., via one or more applications, components, functions, virtual machines or containers executing on one or more physical processing nodes in one or more networks).

In some embodiments, some or all of the functions described herein may be implemented as virtual components executed by one or more virtual machines implemented in one or more virtual environments 300 hosted by one or more of hardware nodes 330. Further, in embodiments in which the virtual node is not a radio access node or does not require radio connectivity (e.g., a core network node), then the network node may be entirely virtualized.

The functions may be implemented by one or more applications 320 (which may alternatively be called software instances, virtual appliances, network functions, virtual nodes, virtual network functions, etc.) operative to implement some of the features, functions, and/or benefits of some of the embodiments disclosed herein. Applications 320 are run in virtualization environment 300 which provides hardware 330 comprising processing circuitry 360 and memory 390. Memory 390 contains instructions 395 executable by processing circuitry 360 whereby application 320 is operative to provide one or more of the features, benefits, and/or functions disclosed herein.

Virtualization environment 300, comprises general-purpose or special-purpose network hardware devices 330 comprising a set of one or more processors or processing circuitry 360, which may be commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) processors, dedicated Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), or any other type of processing circuitry including digital or analog hardware components or special purpose processors. Each hardware device may comprise memory 390-1 which may be non-persistent memory for temporarily storing instructions 395 or software executed by processing circuitry 360. Each hardware device may comprise one or more network interface controllers (NICs) 370, also known as network interface cards, which include physical network interface 380. Each hardware device may also include non-transitory, persistent, machine-readable storage media 390-2 having stored therein software 395 and/or instructions executable by processing circuitry 360. Software 395 may include any type of software including software for instantiating one or more virtualization layers 350 (also referred to as hypervisors), software to execute virtual machines 340 as well as software allowing it to execute functions, features and/or benefits described in relation with some embodiments described herein.

Virtual machines 340, comprise virtual processing, virtual memory, virtual networking or interface and virtual storage, and may be run by a corresponding virtualization layer 350 or hypervisor. Different embodiments of the instance of virtual appliance 320 may be implemented on one or more of virtual machines 340, and the implementations may be made in different ways. During operation, processing circuitry 360 executes software 395 to instantiate the hypervisor or virtualization layer 350, which may sometimes be referred to as a virtual machine monitor (VMM). Virtualization layer 350 may present a virtual operating platform that appears like networking hardware to virtual machine 340.

As shown in FIGURE 13, hardware 330 may be a standalone network node with generic or specific components. Hardware 330 may comprise antenna 3225 and may implement some functions via virtualization. Alternatively, hardware 330 may be part of a larger cluster of hardware (e.g. such as in a data center or customer premise equipment (CPE)) where many hardware nodes work together and are managed via management and orchestration (MANO) 3100, which, among others, oversees lifecycle management of applications 320.

Virtualization of the hardware is in some contexts referred to as network function virtualization (NFV). NFV may be used to consolidate many network equipment types onto industry standard high -volume server hardware, physical switches, and physical storage, which can be located in data centers, and customer premise equipment.

In the context of NFV, virtual machine 340 may be a software implementation of a physical machine that runs programs as if they were executing on a physical, non-virtualized machine. Each of virtual machines 340, and that part of hardware 330 that executes that virtual machine, be it hardware dedicated to that virtual machine and/or hardware shared by that virtual machine with others of the virtual machines 340, forms a separate virtual network elements (VNE).

Still in the context of NFV, V irtual Network Function (VNF) is responsible for handling specific network functions that run in one or more virtual machines 340 on top of hardware networking infrastructure 330 and corresponds to application 320 in Figure 18.

In some embodiments, one or more radio units 3200 that each include one or more transmitters 3220 and one or more receivers 3210 may be coupled to one or more antennas 3225. Radio units 3200 may communicate directly with hardware nodes 330 via one or more appropriate network interfaces and may be used in combination with the virtual components to provide a virtual node with radio capabilities, such as a radio access node or a base station. In some embodiments, some signaling can be effected with the use of control system 3230 which may alternatively be used for communication between the hardware nodes 330 and radio units 3200.

With reference to FIGURE 14, in accordance with an embodiment, a communication system includes telecommunication network 410, such as a 3GPP-type cellular network, which comprises access network 411, such as a radio access network, and core network 414. Access network 411 comprises a plurality of base stations 412a, 412b, 412c, such as NBs, eNBs, gNBs or other types of wireless access points, each defining a corresponding coverage area 413a, 413b, 413c. Each base station 412a, 412b, 412c is connectable to core network 414 over a wired or wireless connection 415. A first UE 491 located in coverage area 413c is configured to wirelessly connect to, or be paged by, the corresponding base station 412c. A second UE 492 in coverage area 413a is wirelessly connectable to the corresponding base station 412a. While a plurality of UEs 491, 492 are illustrated in this example, the disclosed embodiments are equally applicable to a situation where a sole UE is in the coverage area or where a sole UE is connecting to the corresponding base station 412.

Telecommunication network 410 is itself connected to host computer 430, which may be embodied in the hardware and/or software of a standalone server, a cloud-implemented server, a distributed server or as processing resources in a server farm. Host computer 430 may be under the ownership or control of a service provider or may be operated by the service provider or on behalf of the service provider. Connections 421 and 422 between telecommunication network 410 and host computer 430 may extend directly from core network 414 to host computer 430 or may go via an optional intermediate network 420. Intermediate network 420 may be one of, or a combination of more than one of, a public, private or hosted network; intermediate network 420, if any, may be a backbone network or the Internet; in particular, intermediate network 420 may comprise two or more sub-networks (not shown).

The communication system of FIGURE 14 as a whole enables connectivity between the connected UEs 491, 492 and host computer 430. The connectivity may be described as an over-the-top (OTT) connection 450. Host computer 430 and the connected UEs 491, 492 are configured to communicate data and/or signaling via OTT connection 450, using access network 411, core network 414, any intermediate network 420 and possible further infrastructure (not shown) as intermediaries. OTT connection 450 may be transparent in the sense that the participating communication devices through which OTT connection 450 passes are unaware of routing of uplink and downlink communications. For example, base station 412 may not or need not be informed about the past routing of an incoming downlink communication with data originating from host computer 430 to be forwarded (e.g., handed over) to a connected UE 491. Similarly, base station 412 need not be aware of the future routing of an outgoing uplink communication originating from the UE 491 towards the host computer 430.

FIGURE 15 illustrates an example host computer communicating via a base station with a user equipment over a partially wireless connection, according to certain embodiments. Example implementations, in accordance with an embodiment of the UE, base station and host computer discussed in the preceding paragraphs will now be described with reference to FIGURE 15. In communication system 500, host computer 510 comprises hardware 515 including communication interface 516 configured to set up and maintain a wired or wireless connection with an interface of a different communication device of communication system 500. Host computer 510 further comprises processing circuitry 518, which may have storage and/or processing capabilities. In particular, processing circuitry 518 may comprise one or more programmable processors, application-specific integrated circuits, field programmable gate arrays or combinations of these (not shown) adapted to execute instructions. Host computer 510 further comprises software 511, which is stored in or accessible by host computer 510 and executable by processing circuitry 518. Software 511 includes host application 512. Host application 512 may be operable to provide a service to a remote user, such as UE 530 connecting via OTT connection 550 terminating at UE 530 and host computer 510. In providing the service to the remote user, host application 512 may provide user data which is transmitted using OTT connection 550.

Communication system 500 further includes base station 520 provided in a telecommunication system and comprising hardware 525 enabling it to communicate with host computer 510 and with UE 530. Hardware 525 may include communication interface 526 for setting up and maintaining a wired or wireless connection with an interface of a different communication device of communication system 500, as well as radio interface 527 for setting up and maintaining at least wireless connection 570 with UE 530 located in a coverage area (not shown in FIGURE 15) served by base station 520. Communication interface 526 may be configured to facilitate connection 560 to host computer 510. Connection 560 may be direct, or it may pass through a core network (not shown in FIGURE 15) of the telecommunication system and/or through one or more intermediate networks outside the telecommunication system. In the embodiment shown, hardware 525 of base station 520 further includes processing circuitry 528, which may comprise one or more programmable processors, application-specific integrated circuits, field programmable gate arrays or combinations of these (not shown) adapted to execute instructions. Base station 520 further has software 521 stored internally or accessible via an external connection.

Communication system 500 further includes UE 530 already referred to. Its hardware 535 may include radio interface 537 configured to set up and maintain wireless connection 570 with a base station serving a coverage area in which UE 530 is currently located. Hardware 535 of UE 530 further includes processing circuitry 538, which may comprise one or more programmable processors, application-specific integrated circuits, field programmable gate arrays or combinations of these (not shown) adapted to execute instructions. UE 530 further comprises software 531, which is stored in or accessible by UE 530 and executable by processing circuitry 538. Software 531 includes client application 532. Client application 532 may be operable to provide a service to a human or non-human user via UE 530, with the support of host computer 510. In host computer 510, an executing host application 512 may communicate with the executing client application 532 via OTT connection 550 terminating at UE 530 and host computer 510. In providing the service to the user, client application 532 may receive request data from host application 512 and provide user data in response to the request data. OTT connection 550 may transfer both the request data and the user data. Client application 532 may interact with the user to generate the user data that it provides.

It is noted that host computer 510, base station 520 and UE 530 illustrated in FIGURE 15 may be similar or identical to host computer 430, one of base stations 412a, 412b, 412c and one of UEs 491, 492 of FIGURE 13, respectively. This is to say, the inner workings of these entities may be as shown in FIGURE 15 and independently, the surrounding network topology may be that of FIGURE 13. In FIGURE 15, OTT connection 550 has been drawn abstractly to illustrate the communication between host computer 510 and UE 530 via base station 520, without explicit reference to any intermediary devices and the precise routing of messages via these devices. Network infrastructure may determine the routing, which it may be configured to hide from UE 530 or from the service provider operating host computer 510, or both. While OTT connection 550 is active, the network infrastructure may further take decisions by which it dynamically changes the routing (e.g., based on load balancing consideration or reconfiguration of the network).

Wireless connection 570 between UE 530 and base station 520 is in accordance with the teachings of the embodiments described throughout this disclosure. One or more of the various embodiments improve the performance of OTT services provided to UE 530 using OTT connection 550, in which wireless connection 570 forms the last segment. More precisely, the teachings of these embodiments may improve the signaling overhead and reduce latency, which may provide faster internet access for users.

A measurement procedure may be provided for monitoring data rate, latency and other factors on which the one or more embodiments improve. There may further be an optional network functionality for reconfiguring OTT connection 550 between host computer 510 and UE 530, in response to variations in the measurement results. The measurement procedure and/or the network functionality for reconfiguring OTT connection 550 may be implemented in software 511 and hardware 515 of host computer 510 or in software 531 and hardware 535 of UE 530, or both. In embodiments, sensors (not shown) may be deployed in or in association with communication devices through which OTT connection 550 passes; the sensors may participate in the measurement procedure by supplying values of the monitored quantities exemplified above or supplying values of other physical quantities from which software 511, 531 may compute or estimate the monitored quantities. The reconfiguring of OTT connection 550 may include message format, retransmission settings, preferred routing etc.; the reconfiguring need not affect base station 520, and it may be unknown or imperceptible to base station 520. Such procedures and functionalities may be known and practiced in the art. In certain embodiments, measurements may involve proprietary UE signaling facilitating host computer 510’s measurements of throughput, propagation times, latency and the like. The measurements may be implemented in that software 511 and 531 causes messages to be transmitted, in particular empty or ‘dummy’ messages, using OTT connection 550 while it monitors propagation times, errors etc.

FIGURE 16 is a flowchart illustrating a method implemented in a communication system, in accordance with one embodiment. The communication system includes a host computer, a base station and a UE which may be those described with reference to FIGURES 14 and 15. For simplicity of the present disclosure, only drawing references to FIGURE 16 will be included in this section.

In step 610, the host computer provides user data. In substep 611 (which may be optional) of step 610, the host computer provides the user data by executing a host application. In step 620, the host computer initiates a transmission carrying the user data to the UE. In step 630 (which may be optional), the base station transmits to the UE the user data which was carried in the transmission that the host computer initiated, in accordance with the teachings of the embodiments described throughout this disclosure. In step 640 (which may also be optional), the UE executes a client application associated with the host application executed by the host computer.

FIGURE 17 is a flowchart illustrating a method implemented in a communication system, in accordance with one embodiment. The communication system includes a host computer, a base station and a UE which may be those described with reference to FIGURES 14 and 15. For simplicity of the present disclosure, only drawing references to FIGURE 17 will be included in this section.

In step 710 of the method, the host computer provides user data. In an optional substep (not shown) the host computer provides the user data by executing a host application. In step 720, the host computer initiates a transmission carrying the user data to the UE. The transmission may pass via the base station, in accordance with the teachings of the embodiments described throughout this disclosure. In step 730 (which may be optional), the UE receives the user data carried in the transmission.

FIGURE 18 is a flowchart illustrating a method implemented in a communication system, in accordance with one embodiment. The communication system includes a host computer, a base station and a UE which may be those described with reference to FIGURES 14 and 15. For simplicity of the present disclosure, only drawing references to FIGURE 18 will be included in this section.

In step 810 (which may be optional), the UE receives input data provided by the host computer. Additionally, or alternatively, in step 820, the UE provides user data. In substep 821 (which may be optional) of step 820, the UE provides the user data by executing a client application. In substep 811 (which may be optional) of step 810, the UE executes a client application which provides the user data in reaction to the received input data provided by the host computer. In providing the user data, the executed client application may further consider user input received from the user. Regardless of the specific manner in which the user data was provided, the UE initiates, in substep 830 (which may be optional), transmission of the user data to the host computer. In step 840 of the method, the host computer receives the user data transmitted from the UE, in accordance with the teachings of the embodiments described throughout this disclosure.

FIGURE 19 is a flowchart illustrating a method implemented in a communication system, in accordance with one embodiment. The communication system includes a host computer, a base station and a UE which may be those described with reference to FIGURES 14 and 15. For simplicity of the present disclosure, only drawing references to FIGURE 19 will be included in this section.

In step 910 (which may be optional), in accordance with the teachings of the embodiments described throughout this disclosure, the base station receives user data from the UE. In step 920 (which may be optional), the base station initiates transmission of the received user data to the host computer. In step 930 (which may be optional), the host computer receives the user data carried in the transmission initiated by the base station.

The term unit may have conventional meaning in the field of electronics, electrical devices and/or electronic devices and may include, for example, electrical and/or electronic circuitry, devices, modules, processors, memories, logic solid state and/or discrete devices, computer programs or instructions for carrying out respective tasks, procedures, computations, outputs, and/or displaying functions, and so on, as such as those that are described herein.

Modifications, additions, or omissions may be made to the systems and apparatuses disclosed herein without departing from the scope of the invention. The components of the systems and apparatuses may be integrated or separated. Moreover, the operations of the systems and apparatuses may be performed by more, fewer, or other components. Additionally, operations of the systems and apparatuses may be performed using any suitable logic comprising software, hardware, and/or other logic. As used in this document, “each” refers to each member of a set or each member of a subset of a set.

Modifications, additions, or omissions may be made to the methods disclosed herein without departing from the scope of the invention. The methods may include more, fewer, or other steps. Additionally, steps may be performed in any suitable order.

The foregoing description sets forth numerous specific details. It is understood, however, that embodiments may be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well-known circuits, structures and techniques have not been shown in detail in order not to obscure the understanding of this description. Those of ordinary skill in the art, with the included descriptions, will be able to implement appropriate functionality without undue experimentation.

References in the specification to “one embodiment,” “an embodiment,” “an example embodiment,” etc., indicate that the embodiment described may include a particular feature, structure, or characteristic, but every embodiment may not necessarily include the particular feature, structure, or characteristic. Moreover, such phrases are not necessarily referring to the same embodiment. Further, when a particular feature, structure, or characteristic is described in connection with an embodiment, it is submitted that it is within the knowledge of one skilled in the art to implement such feature, structure, or characteristic in connection with other embodiments, whether or not explicitly described.

Although this disclosure has been described in terms of certain embodiments, alterations and permutations of the embodiments will be apparent to those skilled in the art. Accordingly, the above description of the embodiments does not constrain this disclosure. Other changes, substitutions, and alterations are possible without departing from the scope of this disclosure, as defined by the claims below.

At least some of the following abbreviations may be used in this disclosure. If there is an inconsistency between abbreviations, preference should be given to how it is used above. If listed multiple times below, the first listing should be preferred over any subsequent listing(s). lx RTT CDMA2000 lx Radio Transmission Technology 3 GPP 3rd Generation Partnership Project 5G 5th Generation ABS Almost Blank Subframe

ACK/NACK Acknowledgment/N on- acknowledgment

ARQ Automatic Repeat Request

AWGN Additive White Gaussian Noise

BCCH Broadcast Control Channel

BCH Broadcast Channel

CA Carrier Aggregation cc Carrier Component

CCCH SDU Common Control Channel SDU

CDMA Code Division Multiplexing Access

CG Configured Grant

CGI Cell Global Identifier

CIR Channel Impulse Response

CP Cyclic Prefix

CPICH Common Pilot Channel CPICH Ec/No CPICH Received energy per chip divided by the power density in the band

CQI Channel Quality information

C-RNTI Cell RNTI

CSI Channel State Information

DCCH Dedicated Control Channel

DCI Downlink Control Information

DFTS-OFDM Discrete Fourier Transform Spread OFDM

DL Downlink

DM Demodulation

DMRS Demodulation Reference Signal DRX Discontinuous Reception

DTX Discontinuous Transmission

DTCH Dedicated Traffic Channel

DUT Device Under Test

E-CID Enhanced Cell-ID (positioning method)

E-SMLC Evolved- Serving Mobile Location Centre

ECGI Evolved CGI eNB E-UTRAN NodeB ePDCCH enhanced Physical Downlink Control Channel

E-SMLC evolved Serving Mobile Location Center

E-UTRA Evolved UTRA

E-UTRAN Evolved UTRAN

FDD Frequency Division Duplex

GERAN GSM EDGE Radio Access Network

GF Grant-Free gNB Base station in NR

GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System

GSM Global System for Mobile communication

HARQ Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request

HO Handover

HSPA High Speed Packet Access

HRPD High Rate Packet Data

LOS Line of Sight

LPP LTE Positioning Protocol

LTE Long-Term Evolution

MAC Medium Access Control

MBMS Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services

MBSFN Multimedia Broadcast multicast service Single Frequency Network

MBSFN ABS MBSFN Almost Blank Subframe

MCS Modulation and Coding Scheme

MDT Minimization of Drive Tests MIB Master Information Block

MME Mobility Management Entity

MSC Mobile Switching Center

NPDCCH Narrowband Physical Downlink Control Channel

NR New Radio

OCNG OFDMA Channel Noise Generator

OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

OFDMA Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access

OSS Operations Support System

OTDOA Observed Time Difference of Arrival

O&M Operation and Maintenance

PBCH Physical Broadcast Channel

P-CCPCH Primary Common Control Physical Channel

PCell Primary Cell

PCFICH Physical Control Format Indicator Channel

PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel

PDP Profde Delay Profde

PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel

PGW Packet Gateway

PHICH Physical Hybrid-ARQ Indicator Channel

PLMN Public Land Mobile Network

PMI Precoder Matrix Indicator

PRACH Physical Random Access Channel

PRS Positioning Reference Signal

PSS Primary Synchronization Signal

PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel

PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel

RACH Random Access Channel

QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

RAN Radio Access Network

RAT Radio Access Technology

RLM Radio Link Management RNC Radio Network Controller

RNTI Radio Network Temporary Identifier

RRC Radio Resource Control

RRM Radio Resource Management

RS Reference Signal

RSCP Received Signal Code Power

RSRP Reference Symbol Received Power OR Reference Signal Received Power

RSRQ Reference Signal Received Quality OR Reference Symbol Received Quality

RSSI Received Signal Strength Indicator

RSTD Reference Signal Time Difference

SCH Synchronization Channel

SCell Secondary Cell

SDU Service Data Unit

SFN System Frame Number

SGW Serving Gateway

SI System Information

SIB System Information Block

SNR Signal to Noise Ratio

SON Self Optimized Network

SPS Semi-Persistent Scheduling

SUL Supplemental Uplink

SS Synchronization Signal

SSS Secondary Synchronization Signal

TDD Time Division Duplex

TDOA Time Difference of Arrival

TO Transmission Occasion

TOA Time of Arrival

TSS Tertiary Synchronization Signal

TTI Transmission Time Interval

UE User Equipment UL Uplink

URLLC Ultra-Reliable and Low-Latency Communications

UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunication System

USIM Universal Subscriber Identity Module UTDOA Uplink Time Difference of Arrival

UTRA Universal Terrestrial Radio Access UTRAN Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network WCDMA Wide CDMA WLAN Wide Local Area Network