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Title:
SCRAP PLASTIC RE-SYNTHESIS BY ANTIFERROMAGNETIC ENGINEERED BOND PERMUTATIONS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2022/146464
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Layered planes of copper peroxide (CuO2), or analogs thereof, are prepared within a ceramic lattice nano-structure, then uniformly dispersed as a micro-dust into a finely ground powder or hot melt medium consisting of one or several categories of scrap plastic. Upon uniform blending and/or cooling the compound matrix, presented as a thin substrate, is subjected to a series of high pressure, stress-strain compressions whereby atomic distortions of the ceramic cuprate(s) emit select bandwidths of ionizing radiation which are absorbed by carbon and hydrogen bonds within the plastic medium resulting in a bond cleavage. During the cleavage process progression, the hydrocarbon fragments are subsequently grafted by conventional co-polymerization methods with other selected chemistries, thereby preparing products having new, useful properties from the plastic waste stream.

Inventors:
COE WILLIAM (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2021/020727
Publication Date:
July 07, 2022
Filing Date:
March 03, 2021
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
COE WILLIAM B (US)
International Classes:
B29B13/00; B29B17/00; B29B17/02; B29B17/04; C08K3/20; C08K3/22
Domestic Patent References:
WO2018200340A12018-11-01
Foreign References:
US20150274873A12015-10-01
JP2002363337A2002-12-18
DE102006010458A12007-09-06
Other References:
WANG HAI-FENG, WANG DONG, LIU XIAOHUI, GUO YANG-LONG, LU GUAN-ZHONG, HU PEIJUN: "Unexpected C–C Bond Cleavage Mechanism in Ethylene Combustion at Low Temperature: Origin and Implications", ACS CATALYSIS, vol. 6, no. 8, 8 July 2016 (2016-07-08), US , pages 5393 - 5398, XP055946992, ISSN: 2155-5435, DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.6b00764
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ALTMAN, Daniel, E. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A method for preparing a plastic-containing material, comprising: applying a compressive force/relaxation pulse to a mixture comprising plastic particles and an antiferromagnetic material, whereby one or more chemical bonds of the plastic are cleaved to yield a plastic-containing material.

2. The method of Claim 1, wherein the plastic particles are obtained from mixed reusable plastic.

3. The method of Claim 1 or Claim 2, wherein the plastic-containing material is re- polymerized scrap plastic.

4. The method of any oonnee of the aforementioned claims, wherein the antiferromagnetic material is copper peroxide (CuO2) or an analog thereof.

5. The method of any one of the aforementioned claims, wherein the antiferromagnetic material is copper peroxide (CuO2).

6. The method of any oonnee of the aforementioned claims, wherein the antiferromagnetic material is copper peroxide (CuO2) on a solid support.

7. The method of Claim 6, wherein the antiferromagnetic material is copper peroxide (CuO2) deposited on a silica frit.

8. The method of any one of the aforementioned claims, wherein the antiferromagnetic material is copper peroxide (CuO2) and wherein during application of the compressive force/relaxation pulse a 90 degree non-stress geometry of the copper peroxide (CuO2) is distorted to up to a 135 degree fully stressed geometry.

9. The method of any one of tiie aforementioned claims, wherein a pressure applied during the compressive force/relaxation pulse is from 15-135 MPa.

10. The method of any one of the aforementioned claims, wherein a duration of the compressive force/relaxation pulse is from 300 ms to 800 ms

11. The method of any one of the aforementioned claims, wherein a series of compressive force/relaxation pulses are applied.

12. The method of any one of the aforementioned claims, wherein the compressive force/relaxation pulse generates photonic energy of a wavelength of from 200 nm to 900 in a vicinity of the one or more chemical bonds.

13. The method of any one of the aforementioned claims, wherein the one or more chemical bonds are selected from the group consisting of C-C bonds, C-H bonds, C-O bonds, C=C bonds, bonds, C=O bonds, C-N bonds, C=N bonds, and bonds.

14. The method of any one of the aforementioned claims, wherein the one or more chemical bonds are selected from the group consisting of C=O bonds, C-O bonds, or C=C bonds.

15. The method of any one of the aforementioned claims, wherein the mixture comprises 0.01% by weight or less water.

16. The method of any one of the aforementioned claims, wherein the plastic material has a particle size of 50 microns to 100 microns.

17. The method of any one of the aforementioned claims, wherein an active component of the antiferromagnetic material is employed at a concentration of from 0.01% to 5% by weight of the mixture, preferably at a concentration of 0.5% to 2% by weight of the mixture.

18. The method of any one of the aforementioned claims, wherein the antiferromagnetic material is copper peroxide (CuO2) supported on a silica frit, wherein from 0.5 to 5 parts by weight of the antiferromagnetic material is present for every 100 parts by weight plastic material, preferably from 0.5 to 2 parts by weight of the antiferromagnetic material is present for every 100 parts by weight plastic material, more preferably 1 part by weight of the antiferromagnetic material is present for every 99 parts by weight plastic material.

19. The method of any one of the aforementioned claims, wherein the antiferromagnetic material is copper peroxide (CuO2), and wherein the mixture is formed by: applying an aqueous mixture of copper peroxide (CuO2) at a concentration of

5 to 8% by weight, preferably about 6.5% by weight, to the plastic particles to yield coated plastic particles; and drying a resulting mixture of the plastic particles and aqueous mixture to reduce a moisture content of the resulting mixture.

20. The method of any of Claims 1-18, wherein the antiferromagnetic material is dry coated on the plastic particles.

21. The method of any of Claims 1-18, wherein the antiferromagnetic material is sputtered onto the plastic particles. 22. The method of any of Claims 1-18, wherein the antiferromagnetic material is laser sputtered onto the plastic particles.

23. The method of any of Claims 1-18, wherein the antiferromagnetic material is plasma coated onto the plastic particles.

24. The method of any of Claims 1-18, wherein the antiferromagnetic material is supported on a supporting particle.

25. The method of Claim 24, wherein the supporting particle has a surface area of 50 m2/g to 1000 m2/g.

26. The method of any of Claims 24-25, wherein the supporting particle is selected from the group consisting of an oxide, a metal, a refractory material, a ceramic, or a glass.

27. The method of any of Claims 24-26, wherein the supporting particle is porous.

28. The method of any of Claims 24-27, wherein the supporting particle is amorphous silica, e.g., having a surface area of 160 m2/g.

29. The method of any of Claims 24-28, wherein the antiferromagnetic material is deposited on the supporting particle by sputtering, laser sputtering, laser ablation, e-beam evaporation, physical or chemical vapor deposition, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, evaporative deposition, reactive deposition, atomic layer deposition, or plasma coating.

30. The method of any one of the aforementioned claims, further comprising: subjecting mixed recycled plastics to a hydrofinish process, whereby debris are removed; shredding the mixed recycled plastics from which debris have been removed; removing ferrous components from the shredded mixed recycled plastics; and processing the shredded mixed recycled plastics from which ferrous components have been removed in a cracker mill, whereby the plastic particles are obtained.

31. The method of any one of the aforementioned claims, wherein the plastic particles are mixed with the antiferromagnetic material and passed into an auger reactor, wherein the compressive force/relaxation pulse is applied.

32. The method of any one of the aforementioned claims, wherein the plastic- containing material is re-polymerized scrap plastic, further comprising recompounding the re- polymerized scrap plastic with mineral particulates, cellulosic fiber, or fiberglass.

33. The method of any of Claims 1-31, wherein the plastic-containing material is re- polymerized scrap plastic, further comprising dynamic vulcanization or crosslinking of an elastomer with the RSPS pre-polymer, whereby a thermoplastic vulcanizate is obtained.

34. The method of Claim 33, wherein the elastomer comprises one or more materials selected from the group consisting of ethylene-propylene-diene, isotactic polypropylene, butyl rubber, natural rubber, styrene butadiene rubber, block co-polymer rubber, and nitrile rubber.

35. A plastic-containing material prepared by the method of any one of the aforementioned claims.

36. The plastic-containing material of Claim 35, wherein the plastic-containing material is subjected to cross-linking.

37. The plastic-containing material of any one of Claims 35-36, wherein the plastic- containing material is subjected to cross-linking with virgin plastic.

38. The plastic-containing material of any one of Claims 35-37, wherein the plastic- containing material is subjected to cross-linking with recycled rubber or virgin rubber.

39. The plastic-containing material of any one of Claims 35-38, wherein the plastic- containing material is fabricated into a rubber-containing article.

40. The plastic-containing material of any one of Claims 35-39, wherein the article is an engineered rubber article.

41. An article fabricated from the plastic-containing material of any one of Claims 35-

40.

Description:
SCRAP PLASTIC RE-SYNTHESIS BY

ANTIFERROMAGNETIC ENGINEERED BOND PERMUTATIONS

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] Any and all priority claims identified in the Application Data Sheet, or any correction thereto, are hereby incorporated by reference under 37 CFR 1.57. This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 63/131,140, filed December 28, 2020. The aforementioned application is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety, and is hereby expressly made a part of this specification.

FIELD

[0002] Layered planes of copper peroxide (CuO2), or analogs thereof, are prepared within a ceramic lattice nano-structure, then uniformly dispersed as a micro-dust into a finely ground powder or hot melt medium consisting of one or several categories of scrap plastic. Upon uniform blending and/or cooling the compound matrix, presented as a thin substrate, is subjected to a series of high pressure, stress-strain compressions whereby atomic distortions of the ceramic cuprate(s) emit select bandwidths of ionizing radiation which are absorbed by carbon and hydrogen bonds within the plastic medium resulting in a bond cleavage. During the cleavage process progression, the hydrocarbon fragments are subsequently grafted by conventional co-polymerization methods with other selected chemistries, thereby preparing products having new, useful properties from the plastic waste stream.

BACKGROUND

[0003] According to World Bank data from 2016, tiie world generated 242 million tons of plastic waste - 12 percent of all municipal solid waste. This waste primarily originated from three regions - 57 million tons from East Asia and the Pacific, 45 million tons from Europe and Central Asia, and 35 million tons from North America.

[0004] The visibility of plastic waste is increasing because of its accumulation in recent decades and its negative impact on the surrounding environment and human health. Unlike organic waste, plastic can take hundreds to thousands of years to decompose in nature (New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services n.d.). Plastic waste is causing floods by clogging drains, causing respiratory issues when burned, shortening animal lifespans when consumed, and contaminating water bodies when dumped into canals and oceans (Baconguis 2018). In oceans, plastic is accumulating in swirling gyres that are miles wide (National Geographic n.d.). Under ultraviolet light from the sun, plastic is degrading into “microplastics” that are almost impossible to recover and that are disrupting food chains and degrading natural habitats (United States NOAA n.d.). The Ellen MacArthur Foundation (2016) anticipates that, by weight, there will be more plastic in the oceans than fish by 2050 if nothing is done.

[0005] Plastic waste mainly enters the environment when it is poorly managed, such as through open dumping, open burning, and disposal in waterways. Unfortunately, with more than one-fourth of waste dumped openly and many formal disposal sites managed improperly, plastic litter is increasing. Even when plastic waste is collected, many countries lack capacity to process the waste. In 2017, Europe exported one-sixth of its plastic waste, largely to Asia (The Economist 2018).

[0006] Biodiversity is declining rapidly across the world. Aquatic ecosystems, for example, have lost 50 percent of their biodiversity since the 1970s. One major driver is plastic pollution. Bottled water containers have become an important source of plastic waste, along with single-use straws, cutlery, food containers and other plastic items. Plastic debris is clogging up landfills, blocking drains, polluting waterways and contributing to biodiversity loss. Plastic litter on roadsides and beaches and in other public spaces is an eyesore. Mass production of plastics began just six decades ago. The bottled-water industry, however, took off after the commercial advent in the 1990s of single-serve bottles made from polyethylene terephthalate (PET), or polyester plastic. Fabricated from crude oil and natural gas, PET has helped turn water and oilier drinks into portable and lightweight consumer products. But PET takes hundreds of years to biodegrade and, if incinerated, generates toxic PM 2.5. Other forms of plastics are also polluting land and water. They include low-density polyethylene, which creates shopping bags, bubble wrap, flexible bottles and wire and cable insulation; high-density polyethylene used for making toys, garden furniture, trash bins, detergent and bleach bottles, buckets and jugs; and polypropylene found in bottle tops, diapers, drinking straw's, lunch boxes, insulated coolers, and fabric and carpet fiber.

[0007] Plastic pollution of oceans has increased tenfold since 1980 alone. By affecting many species of marine life, such pollution threatens human food chains. Microplastics, the tiny particles into which plastic degrades, are routinely detected in processed fish intestines.

[0008] A similar challenge to human health is posed by a different class of plastic particles called microbeads, used as abrasives in cosmetics and toothpaste. Such fine particles are not filtered out by most wastewater treatment plants. Despite efforts in some countries to prohibit or regulate their use, microbeads have entered freshwater bodies, such as the Great Lakes, where they can become coated with cancer-causing chemicals known as PCBs. These microbeads when ingested by fish, enter the human food chain.

[0009] Globally approximately fourteen percent ( 14%) of plastic waste is recycled. The rest ends up as unrecoverable trash, in land fills or as transient litter. China, India and many other Asia Pacific countries have placed bans on import of plastic waste for recycling. These bans are accentuating the global plastic crisis. Many cities in advanced economies, faced with mountains of plastic waste, are struggling to expand landfill capacities. The United States now must recycle more of its waste at home, an imperative that has prompted American firms and regional governmental agencies to pour investments into plastic recycling plants. With virgin plastic becoming more cost effective than recycled plastic, agencies are beginning to offer manufacturers tax concessions to switch to recycled plastic.

[0010] Against this background, nearly 180 countries agreed to a new U.N. accord to regulate the export of plastic waste, some eight million tons of which ends up in the oceans each year — the equivalent of one garbage truck of plastic being dumped into the world’s oceans every sixty seconds. The accord amends the 1989 Basel Con vention on the control of hazardous wastes to include plastic trash.

SUMMARY

[0011] While extensive research efforts over many years have been devoted to development of methods for recycling plastic waste streams, such methods have heretofore been of limited use. The most commonly recycled plastics include polyethylene terephthalate (PET-1), used to make water bottles, and high-density polyethylene (HDPE- 2). Other types of plastics that are commonly recycled include low density polyethylene (LDPE-4) polypropylene (PP-5), polystyrene (PS-6) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC-3). However, there are certain polymers (e.g., acrylic, nylon, mixed polymeric materials, etc.) that are difficult to recycle. Such recycled plastic is often downcycled into a different, less useful product which may be unfit for another round of recycling. Conventional recycling of plastics also involves complex sorting, pretreatment, extrusion, pelleting and manufacture processes, such as injection molding. The present methods provide an improvement to conventional processes in that they are applicable to a wide variety of polymeric materials and can yield a high quality recycled material with significantly greater efficiency and much greater cost effectiveness.

[0012] In a first aspect, a method for preparing a plastic-containing material is provided, comprising: subjecting a mixture comprising scrap plastic particles and copper peroxide (CuO2) or analog thereof to a pressure, then releasing the pressure, whereby a chemical bond of the scrap plastic is cleaved, whereby a plastic-containing material is obtained.

[0013] In an embodiment of the first aspect, the pressure is from 100-400 megapascals, wherein when the pressure is released photonic energy of a wavelength of from 200 nm to 900 nm is generated in a vicinity of the chemical bond.

[0014] In an embodiment of the first aspect, one or more bonds selected from the group consisting of S-C bonds, S-H bonds, S-N bonds, C-C bonds, C-H bonds, C-O bonds, C=C bonds, bonds, C=O bonds, C-N bonds, C=N bonds, and bonds is cleaved.

[0015] In an embodiment of the first aspect, a C=O bond, C-O bond, or a C=C bond is cleaved.

[0016] In an embodiment of the first aspect, the copper peroxide (CuO2) or analog thereof has a crystalline structure, wherein upon application of the pressure a 90 degree non- stress geometry of the antiferromagnetic material is distorted to up to a 135 degree fully stressed geometry.

[0017] In an embodiment of the first aspect, the mixture comprises 0.01% by weight or less water.

[0018] In an embodiment of the first aspect, the copper peroxide (CuO2) or analog thereof is copper oxide.

[0019] In an embodiment of the first aspect, the scrap plastic has a particle size greater than 200 mesh.

[0020] In an embodiment of the first aspect, the copper peroxide (CuO2) or analog thereof is employed at a concentration of from 0.01% to 0.5% by weight of the mixture. [0021] In an embodiment of the first aspect, the copper peroxide (CuO2) or analog thereof is employed at a concentration of 0.5% by weight of the mixture.

[0022] In an embodiment of the first aspect, the copper peroxide (CuO2) or analog thereof is applied to the scrap plastic particles in a form of an aqueous mixture, wherein the aqueous mixture has a concentration of copper peroxide (CuO2) or analog thereof of from 5 to 8% by weight, and wherein the resulting mixture is dried to reduce moisture content.

[0023] In an embodiment of the first aspect, the aqueous mixture has a concentration of copper peroxide (CuO2) or analog thereof of about 6.5% by weight.

[0024] In an embodiment of the first aspect, the copper peroxide (CuO2) or analog thereof is dry coated on the scrap plastic particles.

[0025] In an embodiment of the first aspect, the copper peroxide (CuO2) or analog thereof is sputtered onto the scrap plastic particles.

[0026] In an embodiment of the first aspect, the copper peroxide (CuO2) or analog thereof is laser sputtered onto the scrap plastic particles.

[0027] In an embodiment of the first aspect, the copper peroxide (CuO2) or analog thereof is plasma coated onto the scrap plastic particles.

[0028] In an embodiment of the first aspect, the copper peroxide (CuO2) or analog thereof is supported on a supporting particle.

[0029] In an embodiment of the first aspect, the supporting particle has a surface area of 50 m 2 /g to 1000 nr/g.

[0030] In an embodiment of the first aspect, the supporting particle is selected from the group consisting of an oxide, a metal, a refractory material, a ceramic, or a glass.

[0031] In an embodiment of the first aspect, the supporting particle is porous.

[0032] In an embodiment of the first aspect, the supporting particle is amorphous silica, e.g., having a surface area of 160 m 2 /g.

[0033] In an embodiment of the first aspect, the copper peroxide (CuO2) or analog thereof is deposited on the supporting particle by sputtering, laser sputtering, laser ablation, e- beam evaporation, physical or chemical vapor deposition, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, evaporative deposition, reactive deposition, atomic layer deposition, or plasma coating. [0034] In an embodiment of the first aspect, pressure is applied by passing the mixture through a multi-lobe, co-rotating mixer extruder.

[0035] In an embodiment of the first aspect, pressure is applied by passing the mixture between two rollers.

[0036] In an embodiment of the first aspect, the mixture passes between the two rollers from 3 to 100 times.

[0037] In an embodiment of the first aspect, mixture passes between the two rollers from 3 to 10 times.

[0038] In an embodiment of the first aspect, the mixture passes between the pinch rollers from 3 to 5 times.

[0039] In an embodiment of the first aspect, the mixture further comprises one or more of a recycled rubber, a virgin rubber, a virgin elastomer, or a synthetic rubber.

[0040] In an embodiment of the first aspect, the two rollers have a nip of 0.007 inches to about 0.050 inches.

[0041] In an embodiment of the first aspect, one of the two rollers rotates faster than the other.

[0042] In an embodiment of the first aspect, one of the two rollers rotates faster than the other, optionally up to 1.15 times faster than the other.

[0043] In an embodiment of the first aspect, one of the two rollers rotates faster than the other, optionally up to 1. 15 times faster than the other.

[0044] In an embodiment of the first aspect, one of the two rollers has a variable speed of from 5 to 150 rpm.

[0045] In an embodiment of the first aspect, the two rollers have a variable speed of from 5 to 150 rpm.

[0046] In a second aspect, a plastic-containing material is provided prepared by the method the first aspect or any embodiment thereof.

[0047] In an embodiment of the second aspect, the plastic-containing material is subjected to cross-linking.

[0048] In an embodiment of the second aspect, the plastic-containing material is subjected to cross-linking with virgin plastic. [0049] In an embodiment of the second aspect, the plastic-containing material is subjected to cross-linking with recycled rubber or virgin rubber.

[0050] In an embodiment of the second aspect, the plastic-containing material is fabricated into a rubber-containing article.

[0051] In an embodiment of the second aspect, the article is an engineered rubber article.

[0052] In a third aspect, a method is provided for preparing a plastic-containing material, comprising: applying a compressive force/relaxation pulse to a mixture comprising plastic particles and an antiferromagnetic material, whereby one or more chemical bonds of the plastic are cleaved to yield a plastic-containing material.

[0053] In an embodiment of the third aspect, the plastic particles are obtained from mixed reusable plastic.

[0054] In an embodiment of the third aspect, the plastic-containing material is re- polymerized scrap plastic.

[0055] In an embodiment of the third aspect, the antiferromagnetic material is copper peroxide (CuO2) or an analog thereof.

[0056] In an embodiment of the third aspect, the antiferromagnetic material is copper peroxide (CuO2).

[0057] In an embodiment of the third aspect, the antiferromagnetic material is copper peroxide (CuO2) on a solid support.

[0058] In an embodiment of tiie third aspect, the antiferromagnetic material is copper peroxide (CuO2) deposited on a silica frit.

[0059] In an embodiment of tiie third aspect, the antiferromagnetic material is copper peroxide (CuO2) and during application of the compressive force/relaxation pulse a 90 degree non-stress geometry of the copper peroxide (CuO2) is distorted to up to a 135 degree fully stressed geometry.

[0060] In an embodiment of the third aspect, a pressure applied during the compressive force/relaxation pulse is from 15-135 MPa.

[0061] In an embodiment of the third aspect, a duration of the compressive force/relaxation pulse is from 300 ms to 800 ms [0062] In an embodiment of the third aspect, a series of compressive force/relaxation pulses are applied.

[0063] In an embodiment of the third aspect, the compressive force/relaxation pulse generates photonic energy of a wavelength of from 200 nm to 900 in a vicinity of the one or more chemical bonds.

[0064] In an embodiment of the third aspect, the one or more chemical bonds are selected from the group consisting of S-C bonds, S-H bonds, S-N bonds, C-C bonds, C-H bonds, C-O bonds, C=C bonds, bonds, C=O bonds, C-N bonds, bonds, and bonds.

[0065] In an embodiment of the third aspect, wherein the one or more chemical bonds are selected from the group consisting of C=O bonds, C-O bonds, or C=C bonds.

[0066] In an embodiment of the third aspect, the mixture comprises 0.01% by weight or less water.

[0067] In an embodiment of the third aspect, the plastic material has a particle size of 50 microns to 100 microns.

[0068] In an embodiment of the third aspect, an active component of the antiferromagnetic material is employed at a concentration of from 0.01% to 5% by weight of the mixture, preferably at a concentration of 0.5% to 2% by weight of the mixture.

[0069] In an embodiment of the third aspect, the antiferromagnetic material is copper peroxide (CuO2) supported on a silica frit, wherein from 0.5 to 5 parts by weight of the antiferromagnetic material is present for every 100 parts by weight plastic material, preferably from 0.5 to 2 parts by weight of the antiferromagnetic material is present for every 100 parts by weight plastic material, more preferably 1 part by weight of the antiferromagnetic material is present for every 99 parts by weight plastic material.

[0070] In an embodiment of the third aspect, the antiferromagnetic material is copper peroxide (CuO2), and the mixture is formed by: applying an aqueous mixture of copper peroxide (CuO2) at a concentration of 5 to 8% by weight, preferably about 6.5% by weight, to the plastic particles to yield coated plastic particles; and drying a resulting mixture of the plastic particles and aqueous mixture to reduce a moisture content of the resulting mixture.

[0071] In an embodiment of the third aspect, the antiferromagnetic material is dry coated on the plastic particles. [0072] In an embodiment of the third aspect, the antiferromagnetic material is sputtered onto the plastic particles.

[0073] In an embodiment of the third aspect, the antiferromagnetic material is laser sputtered onto the plastic particles.

[0074] In an embodiment of the third aspect, the antiferromagnetic material is plasma coated onto the plastic particles.

[0075] In an embodiment of the third aspect, the antiferromagnetic material is supported on a supporting particle.

[0076] In an embodiment of the third aspect, the supporting particle has a surface area of 50 m 2 /g to 1000 m 2 /g.

[0077] In an embodiment of the third aspect, the supporting particle is selected from the group consisting of an oxide, a metal, a refractory material, a ceramic, or a glass.

[0078] In an embodiment of the third aspect, the supporting particle is porous.

[0079] In an embodiment of the third aspect, the supporting particle is amorphous silica, e.g., having a surface area of 160 m 2 /g.

[0080] In an embodiment of the third aspect, the antiferromagnetic material is deposited on the supporting particle by sputtering, laser sputtering, laser ablation, e-beam evaporation, physical or chemical vapor deposition, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, evaporative deposition, reactive deposition, atomic layer deposition, or plasma coating.

[0081] In an embodiment of the third aspect, the method further comprises: subjecting mixed recycled plastics to a hydrofinish process, whereby debris are removed; shredding the mixed recycled plastics from which debris have been removed; removing ferrous components from the shredded mixed recycled plastics; and processing the shredded mixed recycled plastics from which ferrous components have been removed in a cracker mill, whereby the plastic particles are obtained.

[0082] In an embodiment of the third aspect, the plastic particles are mixed with the antiferromagnetic material and passed into an auger reactor, wherein the compressive force/relaxation pulse is applied. [0083] In an embodiment of the third aspect, the plastic-containing material is re- polymerized scrap plastic, further comprising recompounding the re-polymerized scrap plastic with mineral particulates, cellulosic fiber, or fiberglass.

[0084] In an embodiment of the third aspect, the plastic-containing material is re- polymerized scrap plastic, further comprising dynamic vulcanization or crosslinking of an elastomer with the RSPS pre-polymer, whereby a thermoplastic vulcanizate is obtained.

[0085] In an embodiment of the third aspect, the elastomer comprises one or more materials selected from the group consisting of ethylene-propylene-diene, isotactic polypropylene, butyl rubber, natural rubber, styrene butadiene rubber, block co-polymer rubber, and nitrile rubber.

[0086] In a fourth aspect, a plastic-containing material is provided prepared by the method of the third aspect or any embodiment of the third aspect.

[0087] In an embodiment of the fourth aspect, the plastic-containing material is subjected to cross-linking.

[0088] In an embodiment of the fourth aspect, the plastic-containing material is subjected to cross-linking with virgin plastic.

[0089] In an embodiment of the fourth aspect, the plastic-containing material is subjected to cross-linking with recycled rubber or virgin rubber.

[0090] In an embodiment of the fourth aspect, the plastic-containing material is fabricated into a rubber-containing article.

[0091] In an embodiment of the fourth aspect, the article is an engineered rubber article.

[0092] In a fifth aspect, an article is provided that is fabricated from the plastic- containing material of the fourth aspect or any embodiment of the fourth aspect.

[0093] Any aspect or embodiment thereof can be combined with any other aspect or embodiment thereof, in whole or in part.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0094] FIG. 1A is a chart illustrating 2020 worldwide plastic production by categories.

[0095] FIG. IB is a chart illustrating 2015 worldwide plastic use in the packaging industry by categories. [0096] FIG. 2 depicts the chemical structures of plastics from Categories 1-6;

Category 7 corresponds to other mixed “meltable” plastics.

[0097] FIG. 3 is a table providing information regarding plastics from Categories

1-7.

[0098] FIG. 4A is a table providing information regarding amounts of plastic generated, recycled, composted, combusted, and landfilled in the United States from 1960- 2018.

[0099] FIG. 4B is a graph illustrating the data of the table of FIG. 4A, in tons versus time.

[0100] FIGS. 5 A and 5B are a statewide average monthly scrap value notice dated November 4, 2020, for the State of California.

[0101] FIG. 6 is photograph of mixed reusable plastic, washed and baled.

[0102] FIG. 7 is a diagram depicting a Re-Polymerized Scrap Plastic (RPSP) technology process line.

[0103] FIG. 8 is a diagram depicting a grinder unit for use in a RPSP technology process line.

[0104] FIG. 9 is a reactor auger, hopper, and thermal control assembly for use in a RPSP technology process line.

[0105] FIG. 10 is a graph depicting time versus pressure compression/ shear reaction data for a mixed plastic-blended antiferromagnetic (AFM) compound.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS

[0106] The following description and examples illustrate an embodiment of the present invention in detail. Those of skill in the art will recognize that there are numerous variations and modifications of this invention that are encompassed by its scope. Accordingly, the description of an embodiment should not be deemed to limit the scope of the present invention.

Waste Plastic Categories

PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate)

[0107] First used in 1940, PET plastics are commonly found in beverage bottles, perishable food containers and mouthwash. Clear PET plastics are generally considered safe, but can absorb odors and flavors from foods and liquids stored in them. They can also be dangerous if exposed to heat, such as if a water bottle is left in a hot car. Over time, this can cause antimony to leach out of the plastic and into the liquid. Advantageously, these plastics are easily recyclable, and most recycling plants accept them, so properly disposing of them is easy. PET plastics are recycled into carpet, furniture, and fiber for winter garments.

HDPE (High Density Polyethylene)

[0108] One of the newest types of plastics, HDPE was first created in the 1950s by Karl Ziegler and Erhard Holzkamp. HDPE is the most commonly recycled plastic and is usually deemed safe for food contact by the FDA. Because of its internal structure, HDPE is much stronger than PET, and can be reused safely. It can also be used for items that will be stored or used outdoors, because it does well in both high temperatures and freezing temperatures. HDPE products have a very low risk of leaching into foods or liquids. This plastic is used in milk jugs, yogurt tubs, cleaning product containers, body wash bottles and similar products. Many children’s toys, park benches, planting pots, and pipes are also made from HDPE. Recycled HDPE is made into pens, plastic lumber, plastic fencing, picnic tables, and bottles.

PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride)

[0109] First discovered in 1838, it is one of the oldest known plastics. Also known as vinyl, PVC is a common plastic that starts out rigid, but becomes flexible when plasticizers are added. Found in credit cards, food wrap, plumbing pipes, tiles, windows and medical equipment, PVC is seldom recycled. PVC plastics contain harmful chemicals linked to a variety of ailments, including bone and liver diseases and developmental issues in children and infants. PVC items should be kept out of contact with foods and drinks. Specialized programs recycle PVC into flooring, paneling, and roadside gutters.

LDPE (Low-Density Polyethylene)

[0110] LDPE has the simplest structure of all the plastics, making it easy to produce. It’s a preferred material for use in manufacturing many types of bags. A. very clean and safe plastic, LDPE is also found in household items like plastic wrap, frozen food containers and squeezable bottles. More recycling programs are beginning to accept LDPE plastics, but it is still quite difficult to recycle. Recycled LDPE is made into such items as garbage cans, paneling, furniture, flooring, and bubble wrap. PP (Polypropylene)

[0111] Discovered at a petroleum company in 1951, PP is hard, sturdy and can withstand high temperatures. It is also considered a safe plastic, and as a result, it is used in Tupperware and similar reusable food containers, car parts, thermal vests, yogurt containers, and even in disposable diapers. While it can be recycled, it is thrown away much more often. When recycled, it is turned into heavy-duty items like pallets, ice scrapers, rakes and battery cables. Many recycling programs accept PP.

PS (Polystyrene)

[0112] PS, or Styrofoam, was discovered by accident in Germany in 1839. An easily recognizable plastic, PS is found in beverage cups, insulation, packing materials, egg cartons, and disposable dinnerware. It is cheap and easy to create, and so is found everywhere. However, it is considered environmentally unsafe because it is notorious both for leaching harmful chemicals, especially when heated, and for poor recyclability. Like PP, it is usually thrown away, although some recycling programs may accept it. PS is recycled into various items including insulation, school supplies, and license plate framing.

Miscellaneous Plastics

[0113] SPI code 7 (“Plastic #7”) is used for all plastics not part of the other 6 types. Despite their inclusion in popular items such as sunglasses, computer casing, nylon, compact discs and baby bottles, these plastics contain the toxic chemical bisphenol A or BP A. Not only are they hazardous to health, but these types of plastics are also extremely hard to recycle as they do not break down easily. When recycling plants do accept them, Plastic #7 is primarily recycled into plastic lumber and specialized products.

Fate-Progression of Post-Consumer Plastics

[0114] FIGS. 1A and 1B provide pie charts depicting worldwide production and use of various plastics by categories. Plastic generally needs to be segregated for optimal recycling. The molecular structures of tiie Category 1 -7 plastic grades (see, e.g., FIG. 2 and FIG. 3) do not mix well. As produced, these individual plastic groups have no chemically- active functional groups that allow them to be easily crosslinked with other types of plastics. Simply melting all but a few grades together results in diminished properties that render the melt properties unknowable and thus unusable for any use other than low grade applications. Accordingly, only a small proportion of plastics generated is recycled using conventional techniques (see FIG. 4A and FIG. 4B, which provide information regarding amounts of plastic generated, recycled, composted, combusted, and landfilled in the United States from 1960- 2018). This is also reflected in the low scrap value for various kinds of plastics (see FIGS. 5A- 5B).

[0115] There are a number of obstacles to segregation for recycling. Packaging is the largest market segment for plastics, with household consumption of goods being the majority of that demand. The current collection “system” consists of curbside recycle bins provided to consumers, and are targeted to segregate cardboard, metal and plastic. Plastic, under many jurisdictions, is further divided into "recyclable bottles" and “other”. In practice, three or four, at most, curbside gondolas would become daunting for each home to manage. Often, organic substances and mixed recyclable items are placed in whatever bin is not full, usually due to time constraints. Local waste management contractors then pick-up these bins, which are delivered for re-sorting at a transfer station. Even when this system works perfectly, the “other” home-sorted plastic faces the fate of the challenge of segregation: mixed plastic stays mixed. To complicate matter, packaging labels are often made of non-meltable, non- plastic elements such as metallized foil, wood fiber, or thermoset compositions. As a practical matter, household skill sets, time and space management, and motivation prohibit further plastic segregation or impurity removal from the discarded plastic package. Accordingly, the “problem” is dumped into the current solid waste “system” for resolution.

[0116] Green plastic is any recycled scrap plastic that has been completely purged of any contaminates, including labels and organic waste, and analyzed to be substantially analogous to virgin plastic as standardized by the specific molecular properties found within any one of Categories 1 - 7 as set forth by The Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc.

[0117] As a general term, Mixed Reusable Plastic (MRP) refers to a mixture of all seven of the Category 1-7 plastics which has been subjected to a three-step sorting and separation process where: 1) most of the loose metal and organic materials have been removed,

2) the mixture has been partially washed clean of dirt and debris, including loose labels; and

3) easily identifiable, commercially valuable plastic, typically in plastic Categories 1, 2, 4 and 5 (PET, HDPE, LDPE and PP) has been removed (see FIG. 6 for a photograph of mixed reusable plastic, washed and baled). Plastics of Categories 1, 2, 4 and 5, the four categories removed during the cleaning and sorting process, are then usually 'flaked* into “green plastic” for re-use and sale to downstream processors.

[0118] Recognizing that the MRP has been relieved of most of the accessible and valuable “green plastic”, its management is problematic. At the end of cleaning and sorting by the “dirty” material recovery facility process, the MRP is baled into 600-900 lb, wire- banded bales, and then shipped to a point where there is a market for further gleaning of unextracted “green plastic" species not achievable without a low-cost labor force, otherwise the MRP is land-filled. This further gleaning (using a low cost, hand-sorting labor force) typically yields between 3-8% by weight additional “green plastic”. The remaining > 90% is typically left as a trash heap to be burned, buried, or blown into the surrounding countryside.

[0119] Mexico and some South American countries still receive MRP from the United States and Canada, but the growing environmental problems caused by this practice have been noted, making such practices a diminishing option. United States landfills are filling at five times the expected rates. MRP mitigation by licensed incineration plants, as an energy source, is a costly process due to the required air quality infrastructure.

[0120] While other options are under vigorous investigation, including monomerization to diesel conversion and forming new plastic polymers, supplemented by virgin petroleum feedstock, all options beyond the ’skimming’ of the "green plastic” inventory result in either unacceptable environmental damage or end products that are not cost competitive with conventional energy sources, conventional fuel, and/or new plastic production.

[0121] Provided herein is a novel method for generating Re-Polymerized Scrap Plastic (RPSP). RPSP Technology as described herein mitigates the current environmental challenges described above. RPSP technology is a three step process targeted to cost effectively and fully convert MRP into a completely novel material. In the first step, very high pressure (VHP), low water usage, hydro-flushing of un-baled, MRP is conducted to remove debris and non-plastic materials (e.g., labels, food residue, etc.). In the second step, the MRP is subjected to size reduction (e.g., by a shredding-granulator then cracker mill, which has an integral de-metallization step for removal of metallic components by electromagnetic and/or additional hydro-flushing). In the third step, the MRP is subjected to a de-polymerization reaction. The MRP conversion (de-polymerization reaction) is a carbon-neutral process and results in the generation of an engineered pre-polymer that may be utilized in manufacturing numerous composite articles and/or compounding thermoplastic vulcanizates(s). The size reduced particle for the second step is in the range of 180 - 300 microns (e.g., passing a 60 mesh screen). This particle size is further reduced during the third step, e.g., in the range of 50 - 100 microns (e.g., passing a 200 mesh screen).

[0122] A schematic of a RPSP technology process line that can advantageously be employed is provided in FIG. 7. In the portion of the line under the label “STEP ONE” is a MRP bale breaking area, where bales similar to those depicted in FIG. 6 are broken apart for further processing. The contents of the broken bales are then subjected to a high pressure (HP) hydro-finish process, where water under pressure is used to clean the bale contents of selected debris. In the portion of the line under the label “STEP TWO”, the hydrotreated bale contents is subjected to shredding, followed by a magnetics step to remove ferrous components, then to processing by a cracker mill to reduce the particle size of the bale contents to particulates suitable for reaction. In the portion of the line under the label “STEP THREE”, the particulates are combined with an antiferromagnetic (AFM) material, such as a doped ceramic frit (DCF) comprising, e.g., a cuprate (copper oxide) as described elsewhere herein. While the MRP particulates are typically described herein as being combined with a DCF, the use of a DCF is but one possible embodiment. Other AFM materials as described herein can also be employed, in the various forms as described herein (e.g., provided in pure form, or on a suitable support such as APSP). Unless otherwise specified, and in the context of processing conditions, any reference to a percent by weight or parts by weight of AFM material or DCF is meant to refer to the total weight of the AFM material or DCF (any inactive components or supporting materials as well as active components).

[0123] There are technical challenges with processing a ‘clean’, heterogeneous MRP; which are overcome by the RPSP Technology provided herein. Removal of contaminating, non-thermoplastic materials such as metal and metallic films is the most challenging step. Screw-on, metal bottle caps and lids attached to a glass or plastic jar within the MRP tend to be prolific. Because of the labor-intensive nature associated with cap removal, these containers are passed over by the initial, mechanized process plant, “green” plastic removal. After the MRP processing by the RPSP equipment through the shredding and granulation phase (second step) the fragments of ferrous metals are extracted by strong magnets and the non-ferrous materials like aluminum are removed by an eddy current separator before the waste stream is ground into tiny, 60 mesh particles by the cracker mill. The glass ‘dust' that remains after the waste stream reaches full attrition is nearly transparent to the third step (de-polymerizations stage).

RPSP Technology Reactor Dynamics

[0124] In the third step of the RPSP process mentioned above, clean, dry, MRP granules (as provided by conducting the first and second steps described above) is employed as a starting material. A grinder unit, e.g., as depicted in FIG. 8, can advantageously be employed to prepare suitable MRP granules using a suitable MRP starting material. The grinder unit as depicted in FIG. 8 includes two cylinder studs (1), a deflector (2), two cylinder nuts (3), a grinder cylinder assembly (4) including three plate pins (5), a grinder knife (6), a grinder plate (7), an adjusting ring (8), and a cylinder wrench (9). While the first and second steps can advantageously be performed, in certain instances one or more of the first and the second steps can be omitted. For example, MRP may be provided in a form without debris to remove, or in a form with extraneous material or debris not needed to be removed in view of the final product desired, the efficacy of the third step, or other factors. The MRP may also be provided in a powder, granule, or shredded form suitable for directly conducting the third step.

[0125] Granules or other particulate or solid form, when provided for the third step, is advantageously capable of passing through a 60 mesh sieve, e.g., particulates having a largest diameter of 0.25 mm (250 microns). In certain embodiments, particles having size in a range of 10 - 500 microns can be employed. A smaller particle size may facilitate the process of step three, so the upper limit of the particle size can be reduced through additional steps of comminuting, e.g., down to 400 microns, 300 microns, 200 microns, or less. Advantageously, a particle size having an upper limit of 100 microns (e.g., particle sizes in a range of 50 to 100 microns) can be employed.

[0126] The third step of tiie RPSP process can advantageously be performed in a reactor auger, hopper, and thermal control assembly, e.g., as depicted in FIG. 9. The MRP granules, optionally metered and homogenized, are combined together with a doped ceramic frit (DCF), e.g., a Si-CuO frit as described elsewhere herein, at a weight ratio of MRP:DCF of 99: 1. While a weight ratio of MRP:DCF of 99: 1 can advantageously be employed, in certain embodiments higher or lower amounts of MRP to DCF can be employed, e.g., 10-1000 parts by weight MRP to one part DCF, e.g., 50-250 parts by weight MRP to one part DCF, e.g., 90- 150 parts by weight MAP to one part DCF. The MRP granules and DCF pass through a high speed mixing tube into a reactor hopper (14), then transported horizontally by the flutes (15) of an auger (10), e.g., operating in a counter clockwise direction (CCW). The reactor auger

(10) is driven by a suitable power source (not depicted) providing rotary power, e.g., a motor, e.g., a variable speed, 150 hp, inverter duty electric motor which can be adjusted from 10 - 800 rpm. The flutes on the auger are arranged to feed the mixture with increasing pressure such that the powder passes around and through a rotating grinder knife (18) and grinder plate openings (11). The grinder knife rotates at the same speed as the auger as it is mechanically attached to the auger shaft (16). The auger barrel (13) is thermally controlled by an external chiller-heater (not depicted) feeding through a barrel jacket (not depicted). The grinder plate

(11) is fitted with a ring gear (17) and is driven clockwise (CW) through a mating spur gear

(12) attached to a separate, variable speed drive motor (not depicted) at up to 1,000 rpm. While the apparatus depicted in FIG. 9, can advantageously be employed, other apparatus configurations can also be employed, as are known in the art for subjecting a particulate mixture to compressive forces. Similarly, other apparatus in the RPSP technology process line can be omitted in certain circumstances (e.g., apparatus in “STEP ONE” and/or “STEP TWO”, if the nature of the MRP is such that these steps are unnecessary), or additional apparatus can be included, e.g., additional shredding, washing or grinding apparatus, multiple reactors in parallel or serial arrangement, or apparatus for adding other materials to the MRP introduced into the reactor (e.g., fillers, reactants, other polymeric materials, colorants, or the like) . The RPSP technology process line can also incorporate heating and cooling elements, and various sensors and actuators, as known in the art, to automate and control processing, e.g., to account for changes in MRP composition or other physical or chemical properties of the particulate input. The product of the RPSP technology process line can be handled as desired, e.g., stockpiled, containerized for transport elsewhere, or subjected to further processing steps to yield a desired intermediate or final product.

[0127] The mechanism by which the MRP is transformed to a new polymeric product, as described in detail herein, is discussed in terms of the degree of superposition of valence electrons in adjoining pillars of the DCF composition during the compression-induced, geometric distortion (e.g., of the ceramic cuprates, e.g., the Cu-O bonds). This superposition determines the yield of the photon eV burst from the nearest neighbor, valence electrons as they ‘jump’ back to the parent atoms, during post-compression strain relief.

[0128] FIG. 10 depicts time versus pressure data for a mixed plastic-blended AFM compound compression/shear reaction. Experimental data confirms that total compressive forces of approximately 135 MPa provide optimal, nearest neighbor spin interaction and AFM coupling. Optimal AFM coupling delivers the highest photon energy yield upon relaxation of the DCF structure(s); as is shown in the graph at the 135 MPa, when such compressive force/relaxation pulses occur in the range of 600 milliseconds. Alternatively, stress-strain pulses which are incrementally lower in compression pressure, but operating in the range of ca 350 milliseconds, will yield similar, optimal results. Generally, conditions of pressure of 15 MPa or lower to 135 or higher MPa can be employed (e.g., 10 MPa to 500 MPa, 20 MPa to 400 MPa, or 100 MPa to 140 MPa) with a compressive force/relaxation pulse duration of 800 ms or longer down to 300 ms or shorter (e.g., 1000 ms to 100 ms, or 900 ms to 200 ms), with the conditions of pressure and pulse duration of compressive force/relaxation adjusted within the range.

[0129] Reaction temperature also plays a role in the photon eV-wavelength yield of this stress-strain dynamic. An operating temperature range of 120°C - 130°C, at the knife/plate impingement zone, provides optimal photon-ionizing energy production in the prescribed band widths. However, under certain circumstances higher or lower operating temperatures can be employed, e.g., ambient temperature (-20°C to 45°C, e.g., 15°C to 30°C) up to higher temperatures, e.g., 140°C, 150°C, 160°C, 170°C, 180°C, 190°C, or 200°C or higher. Operating at lower temperatures, e.g., ambient temperatures, may necessitate more severe conditions of conditions of pressure and pulse duration of compressive force/relaxation to achieve a desired result. While higher temperatures, to a point, may facilitate reaction, it is generally desirable to maintain the temperature at or below the melting point of the most heat sensitive components of the MRP (e.g., melting points of 120°C for polyethylene, 140°C for PVC, 255°C for PET).

[0130] When the homogeneous MRP-DCF blend is inducted into the impingement zone between the CCW rotation of the leading edge of the grinder knife (6) and the trailing edged of the CW rotating grinder plate (11), both the reaction speed and the compressive forces upon the DCF may be adjusted by one or more of the shape of the leading edge of the knife, the rotational speed of the auger-knife drive, and rotational speed of the grinder plate.

Re-compounding end-use of RSPS pre-polymer.

[0131] The resulting RSPS pre-polymer can be employed in its as-produced state in various applications, or it can be combined with other polymeric materials (e.g., physical mixture, cross-linked, or the like), and shaped or formed using conventional plastics processing technology to yield useful articles.

[0132] In other embodiments, minerals and/or cellulosic (wood) fiber may be chemically potentiated with reactive sites which then may be crosslinked by free radical initiation with the RSPS pre-polymer; thereby forming a random, graft co-polymer at a competitive cost. Highly durable, code compliant, and carbon neutral materials can be produced using the RSPS pre-polymer. Use in construction materials is highly advantageous. For example, mineral-based products include but are not limited to Portland concrete (e.g., flexible, poured in place), building blocks (e.g., earthquake and fracture resistant), pavers (e.g., walkway or driveway pavers, stain and crack resistant), stucco (e.g., flexible stucco), cementitious coatings (e.g., graffiti resistant), binder systems (e.g., for road or other paving purposes), and traffic or other marking systems. For example, wood fiber-based products (or other cellulosic fibers, e.g., derived from plant materials (e.g., straw or agricultural waste) or synthetic sources, or fiber glass or other fibrous materials) include trusses and joists (e.g., comprising structural glued- wood or fiber components); shells, pipes, and electrical enclosures (e.g., utilizing as filler the product from a chopper gun, or thermoplastic-cellulose, chipped brush trimmings, or the like); underlayment (e.g., composite, elastomeric structural underlayment); and waterproofing (e.g., below grade foundation waterproofing). Thermoplastic Vulcanizates - A Primary Compound Application of RPSP Pre-Polymer.

[0133] Thermoplastic Vulcanizates (TPVs), also called vulcanized thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), are a special class of low-cost, high-volume elastomers that combine the advantages of thermoplastics with those of rubbers. They are produced by dynamic vulcanization or cross-linking of a rubber during blending and melt-processing with a thermoplastic at elevated temperature (e.g., reactive extrusion and injection molding). Most TPVs are binary blends of polyolefins and thermoplastic diene elastomers. The elastomeric component is typically ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) and the thermoplastic matrix polymer is predominantly crystalline isotactic polypropylene (i-PP). Other elastomers sometimes used in TPVs include butyl rubber (BR), natural rubber (NR), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), block co-polymer rubber (BCR) or nitrile rubber (NAR) blended with iPP. However, these TPVs are produced on a much smaller scale.

[0134] TPVs are often a good alternative to more expensive elastomers. They provide excellent elastomeric performance, including relatively high tensile strength and elongation at break, high elastic recovery as well as good dimensional stability in hot air, and excellent resistance to UV ageing, ozone and weathering. However, they are more challenging to process than standard TPEs due to a relative high melt viscosity.

[0135] TPVs are used in many industries, including automotive, industrial and consumer goods, electrical appliances, medical and healthcare, building and construction, and textiles. The automotive industry is currently the largest market for TPVs. Important applications include exterior and interior elastic components such as steering and suspension boots, electrical wires and cables, air duct systems, bumpers, tubes and connectors, inner and out belt line, tail gate trunk, windshield, mats, cup holders, handles, grips, and the like.

[0136] In the m ethods of the embodiments for producing RSPS pre-polymer, upon passage of the MRP-DCF mixture through the reactor cycle, provides sites of carbon bond cleavage within random mixed scrap plastic molecules (Categories 1-7). BR, NR, SBR, BCR and/or NAR may be crosslinked via these sites by free radical initiation, thereby forming a random, graft co-polymer at a competitive cost and with similar or exceptionally improved physical properties to conventional TPV compounds.

Detailed Process Description

1. Quantum Photon Emission Genetics (Q-PEG)

[0137] Ceramic compounds of copper and oxygen, known as cuprates, which exhibited “high” temperature superconducting were discovered in 1986. Within the next two years it was also discovered that these cuprates, and other metallic oxide crystalline structures could achieve room temperature superconducting properties when placed under strain and notably, upon the release of that strain, emit ionizing radiation in spectral bandwidth from near visible through UV.

[0138] Since then, especially during the last thirty years, intense investigation has been underway to harness these phenomena, especially as they relate to scalable quantum information technologies. Better understanding of the mechanisms for pressure-induced transitions between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases have centered around the two orbital p-d lattice model. Recent published studies have expanded with much greater detail upon this emergent understanding as it relates to cuprates.

[0139] All cuprates have the same structural building blocks: layered planes of copper peroxide (CuO2), or analogs thereof. These layered planes have an out-of-plane oxygen ion referred to herein as being an apical oxygen. The oxygen ion is positioned at the periphery “above" each copper atom in the CuO2 plane and may be analogized to a helium filled balloon attached to the cuprate structure. Cuprate compounds with such a planar element are otherwise defined by what other elements are integrated within its molecular, crystal lattice structure and attached to the apical oxygen, thereby becoming an apical cation, e.g., lanthanum, bismuth, copper, etc.

[0140] Research has demonstrated that a fundamental key to determining the “ease” with which the lattice structure can dimensionally move between a tension-compression cycle is regulated by the bond between the apical cation and apical oxygen (anion). The stronger this bond, the greater the pressure required to move the lattice to a superposition between adjoining, otherwise repelling orbitals. Upon achieving the mechanical distortion for a particular lattice compound, a superconducting highway is established with antiferromagnetic characteristics. As pressure drops (strain relief), with the lattice returning to its original geometry, a photon burst occurs.

2, Ceramic Structure

[0141] Crystal lattice spacing is targeted to be about 0.21 nm, with a range of between 0.09 nm and 0.45 nm. It can be composed of a Si-CuO frit; or derivatives thereof. The ceramic frit is compounded through a thermally controlled, twin shaft, co-rotating mixer/ extruder reactor into plastic to be processed at between 1 - 10% by weight as a 15-100 nm aggregate; with the ceramic frit aggregate experiencing some size attrition during the reaction cycle.

3. Strain Induced Photon Spectrum

[0142] During the compression cycles the frit is subjected to, atomic distances are reduced or modified. This strain induced, geometric modification is restored after the compressing force is removed. Upon compression, superposition of valence electrons, in particular the 2p orbitals of the elements in the lattice, exchange or hop to the adjoining element of the lattice structure. This superposition causes the magnetic fields within the crystal to become antiferromagnetic, whereby the crystal lattice offers no resistance to the flow of electrons, i.e., it becomes a superconductor. This event can occur at high temperatures up to 90°C and under pressures of as little as 20 MPa.

[0143] The Si-CuO, responding to anisotropic biaxial stress, upon relaxation, responds with transition energy in the form of bursts of photons. The spectral wavelengths emitted fall between 200 nm and 900 nm. Conditions dictating the transition energy bandwidth(s) include, but are not limited to, intentionally size-confined nano structures, crystal imperfections, rate of strain, degree of strain, compression cycle timing and temperature. Resulting Benefits of Process

[0144] Upgrading scrap plastic into more impact resistant and flexible co-polymers can be expected to increase scrap plastic recycling from its current approx. 8-12% by weight of total plastics generated to up to 39% by weight or higher (e.g., 39-53% by weight), substantially halving the waste plastics accumulation problem and providing a measurable contribution to atmospheric carbon reduction.

Resulting Products

[0145] The polymer product, produced according to the methods described above is suitable for crosslinking with itself or other polymeric materials. In one embodiment, the scrap rubber-derived polymer is crosslinked with a natural rubber (NR) or styrene butadiene/butadiene rubber (BR S-BR). Such rubber can be virgin rubber, or scrap rubber, e.g., end of life (EOL) ground tire rubber (GTR). Such rubber is typically provided in the form of particles in the size range of approx. 600 microns (30 mesh), also referred to as a ground scrap tire moiety (GSTM). It can be obtained from the old tire tread or the tire side wall or a combination of the two. It may be generally characterized as a heterogeneous matrix of an interpenetrating, cross linked, elastomer network filled with inorganic substances, primarily carbon. Depending upon whether it is primarily tire tread or sidewall in origin the primary entangled elastomers will be natural rubber (NR) or styrene butadiene/butadiene rubber (BR S-BR), with the BR and S-BR typically having the larger mass component in the tread for better wear and the sidewall having an NR bias for improved flexural qualities. The crosslink may generally be described as elemental sulfur and/or a complex compound incorporating sulfur as its principal element, e.g., a polysulfidic chemical. During tire construction the interpenetrating elastomer networks are formed using a sequential crosslink of the predominant elastomer (NR or S-BR) followed by the crosslink of the secondary elastomer, such that the secondary elastomer is “bent” to conform to the already vulcanized, higher strength primary elastomer. This technique imparts mechanical characteristics that are retained in the individual GTR particle.

Description of Phenomena and Process

[0146] Small quantities, typically less than 0.5%, of copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog thereof, when introduced onto the surface of moisture-free (0.01% or less measurable water) scrap plastic followed by the into a mechanically pressurized environment (pressure of about 100-400 megapascals) will, upon release of that pressure to a near ambient pressure, receive bursts of energy from the distortion of the copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog thereof in a wavelength of from about 200 nm to 900 nm. When tuned to a wavelength of 260 to 230 nanometers, this energy is particularly effective in cleaving S-S bonds. The wavelength can be further tuned to cleave S-C bonds, S-H bonds, S-N bonds, C-C bonds, C-H bonds, C-O bonds.

C=C bonds, C=C bonds, C=O bonds, C-N bonds, C=N bonds, C=N bonds, or other bonds. A resulting tuning of the wavelength is affected by the rate of pressure increase and decrease multiplied by the pressure quanta, or by other factors as disclosed herein. For example, UV irradiation of the embedded carbon filler modifies the carbon surface chemistry with photoluminescence around 280 nm, 340 nm and 435 nm as these spectra match the absorption wavelength of the carbon-oxygen binding energies. Morphology studies reveal that: C=C, C- O, and C=O bonds calculated to be 66%, 26%, and 8% respectively before irradiation and; subsequent to irradiation to be 80%, 14%, and 6% respectively.

[0147] Through repeated pulses of pressure and release therefrom, which can be accomplished in devices such as two roll mills, multi-lobe co-rotating mixer extruders, or the like, the copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog thereof is worked into the scrap plastic to generate scissioned, crosslink bonds, so as to release adjoining, inter-penetrating elastomer strands. Temperature, in the form of IR spectra radiation, can interfere with clean bursts so it is found that keeping the process at or below 90°C, e.g., 50°C, e.g., 0°C-50°C, results in a more efficient process when compared to higher temperatures. Further, such process temperatures assist in maintaining minimum damage or activation to the surrounding polymeric matrix, which may include classes of materials such as fillers or inert substances, e.g., carbon black, graphite, talc, silica, elemental sulfur, zinc oxide, nitrogen-based molecules, etc., in addition to the plastic (e.g., PET, HOPE, PVD, LDPE, PP, PS, etc.) or other polymeric material (e.g., natural rubber, butyl rubber, styrene- butadiene rubber when the scrap plastic is combined with rubber- containing material).

[0148] The molecular distortion during processing of the copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog thereof takes it through two half cycles during which it passes through a quantum space (QS) twice. During this transition, referred to as over into a classic super position then back into a classic, relaxed geometry (“over-back”), a third phase occurs.

[0149] As the copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog passes through this QS, there is a momentary “measurement problem” as the molecule moves from-into-then-back into a well- defined (classic) result. The over-back is a third phase in this two-cycle process during which quantum decoherence then coherence takes place. To be sure the forces of decoherence have been resolved back to a stable state, a plug-and-play algorithm which integrates consideration of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principal, Schrodinger’s Equation and Feynman Diagrams predicts the wave function distribution in term of probable position, and momentum in this phase thereby resolves the measurement problem. This distinguishes the unique role of the copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog in the process.

[0150] The copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog can be deposited on a substrate by a surface coating application, e.g., sputtering, laser sputtering, laser ablation, e-beam evaporation, physical or chemical vapor deposition, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, evaporative deposition, reactive deposition, electrodeposition, atomic layer deposition, plasma coating the copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog in a suitable atmosphere or environment, e.g., in an inert atmosphere or environment (e.g., vacuum, argon, nitrogen, or the like) directly onto the scrap plastic (e.g., in particulate form, e.g., 30 mesh or larger or smaller particles, e.g., 3 mesh or larger to 300 mesh or smaller), followed by running the partially coated moiety through doctor rolls for greater distribution. An alternate method is to suspend or dissolve the copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog in water or other suitable carrier liquid, e.g., distilled or deionized water, ethanol, methanol, propyl alcohol, acetone, etc., followed by spraying the suspension onto the scrap plastic at between 5-8% by weight, e.g., 6.5% by weight based on the scrap plastic mass, then high speed mixing the slightly damp mixture to gain a consistent distribution into the scrap plastic. This is followed by drying the mixture to remove all the water before proceeding to the high pressure, pulsed phase of the process.

[0151] In other methods, the copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog is coated on a solid substrate which is then mixed with the scrap plastic, e.g., on silica or other suitable solids. As an example of copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog deposited on silica, the finished surface architecture of the precipitated silica (SiO 2 ), surface area = 160m 2 /g) is deliberately textured to accommodate a molecular copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog which strongly adheres to the solid’s surface in a distance in the range of hydrogen bonding due to an engineered polar attraction. This ensures the copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog does not ‘butter’ the scrap plastic particles during the ultra-high compression cycles, thereby interfering with thorough processing of the scrap plastic particles throughout their full depth. A suitable coating of copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog on the solid substrate can be applied by sputter coating a layer approximately 5-10 nm of the copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog onto a SiO2, d impled particle. Other layer thicknesses may also be used, e.g., less than 5 nm to more than 10 nm, e.g., 1 nm to 100 nm, or 2 nm to 20 nm). Upon coating, this composite is then metered/mixed into an un- modified stream of scrap plastic as a homogenous, dry maw. This homogeneous, dry maw is then forced, by a stuffing box, into a twin screw, counterrotating, extruder barrel where it is subjected to a pulsed, high compression, electro-mechanical and acoustic environment. The copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog coated particle acts as a semi-rigid photon-anvil moving into and out of the previously described, distortion cycle and, at the end of tiie reactor excursion, remains substantially intact (as an embedded composite of copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog and silica) within the deepest regions of tiie then attrition-derived scrap plastic particle. By providing the copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog in supported form, e.g., copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog as sputter deposited on a porous silica substrate, the copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog is not in a floppy, unconstrained, unsupported form. Instead, a controlled geometric stature is imposed which facilitates the quantum processes described above.

[0152] It has been observed that if small amounts of remaining moisture are present, the efficiency of the process is notably reduced. For example a 1.0% by weight moisture content will require two times as many pulses to achieve a breakdown of a 600 micron particle to a 1-5 micron particle. Accordingly, a moisture (water) content of 1.0% by weight or less is generally employed, e.g., 0.2-0.3% by weight, or 0.3% by weight or less, or 0.2% by weight or less, or 0.1% by weight or less, or 0.01% by weight or less, e.g., 0.3% to 0.001% by weight, in the mixture of copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog (supported or not) and the scrap plastic. Further moisture loss during this extra process effort is likely the change required for the cross-link cleavage to proceed, as moisture content testing after particle size reduction shows the moisture content to be near zero. Moisture can advantageously be removed by microwaving the product, or otherwise heating the product. In certain embodiments, a moisture content over 1.0% may be acceptable, depending upon the processing conditions.

[0153] Current empirical data suggests that this energy release, as described herein by a high-pressure stress-strain upon the copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog, creates a spin density at the 's' and 'p* orbitals, resulting in at least a superexchange electron hopping between the 'd' orbital(s) of neighboring copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog molecules as the pressure distorts its respective crystalline structure from a 90 degree non-stress geometry to up to a 135 degree fully-stressed geometry. A uniform compression and release range of from about 50 to 500 milliseconds can be achieved with existing process equipment. Faster or slower rates multiplied by reasonably efficient methods of generating high compression are expected to yield improved process times to final target particle size.

Copper Peroxide (CuO2) and Analogs

[0154] Copper peroxide (CuO2) can advantageously be employed, as can analogs, e.g., perovskites, as disclosed in Fig. 1 of Keimer et al., Nature, Vol. 518, 179, 12 February 2015). The established record for conventional electron-phonon superconductors is 39K in MgB2. Given tiie small Fermi energies, the T c values found in the family of heavy fermion superconductors are actually remarkably high. There has been much interest in recent years in the new family of ‘iron superconductors’ in which T c values approach 60K. The record holders are found in the copper oxide family, with a maximum T c of 165K found in a ‘mercury’ copper oxide under pressure.

[0155] Also ddiisscclloosseedd iinn KKeeiimmeerr i iss aa highly crystalline copper(II) benzenehexathiolate coordination polymer (Cu-BHT) that is suitable for use.

[0156] Other antiferromagnetic compounds suitable for use include those disclosed in Table V of Baltz et al., Rev. Mod. Phys., Vol. 90, No. 1, January -March 2018, reproduced below: [0157] Other transition metal complexes suitable for use include those disclosed in Table 1 of Demir et al., Coordination Chemistry Reviews 289-290 (2015) 149-176, reproduced below:

Summary of magnetic exchange interactions in selected structurally characterized mononuclear transition metal complexes that contain radical ligands. aj values were estimated based on the general Hamiltonian H = 2/ 1 5 M 5 L1 — 2/ 2 S M S L2 — 2/ L _ L S L1 S L2 and are shown in units of cm’ 1 . b for (tempo) 2 M(hfac) 2 (M = Ni, Co), the magnetic interaction was shown to be antiferromagnetic, but no values of J were reported. c No Hamiltonian was reported. d a chain model based on Bonner-Fisher theory was used due to the presence of intermolecular interactions. e Diamagnetic at room temperature. f antiferromagnetic. g. single-molecule magnet. h S = 1 at room temperature.

* 5 = 1/2 at room temperature. j This value was fixed to fit the susceptibility data.

K 5 = 3/2 at room temperature.

1 Theoretical value obtained from DFT calculation m Magnetic behavior of isolated metal ion due to intermolecular ligand dimerization; nr=not reported.

Particulate Matter

[0158] The copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog can be provided in simple admixture with the scrap plastic and subjected to forces as described herein in a suitable reactor. A fixed wiping surface can facilitate distribution of the copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog throughout the scrap plastic in a mixing-grinding process. This surface can be provided in the form of solid particulate matter having properties of porosity or surface texture combined with structural rigidity and resistance to a force applied to the surface of the particle under conditions of the mixing-grinding process, wherein the copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog is supported on the surface. The solid particulate matter can also provide a non-compressible medium in the mixture, which aids in strain distortion of the copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog molecular structure in the reactor, furthering the superposition efficiency of the process.

Suitable solid particulate matter can include, e.g., minerals, metal alloys (e.g., nickel-chrome, stainless steel, 602A alloy), metals or metal oxides (e.g., iron, nickel, copper, aluminum, zinc, lead, tin, tungsten, titanium, molybdenum, nickel, tantalum, or oxides thereof), oxides, carbides, nitrides, borides, silicates, graphite, ceramics, refractories, sintered metals or other materials, and the like. These can include the oxides of silicon, aluminum, magnesium, calcium, and zirconium. Nonporous materials can be employed, but high surface area and/or porous solid particular matter can offer advantages as supports, e.g., in constraining the copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog. Such materials can have a surface area of approximately 50 m 2 /g to 1000 m 2 /g (e.g., 100-500 m 2 /g) but higher and lower surface areas can also be employed. The support particles can have an average diameter of from about 10 nm or less to about 1 mm or more, e.g., 100, 500, or 1000 nm to 0.01 mm, 0.1 mm or 1 mm. In some embodiments, the support is from 30 mesh down to 500 mesh, e.g., 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, or 90 mesh down to 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, or 500 mesh. Supports that are typically employed as heterogeneous catalyst supports for chemical processing may advantageously be employed, e.g., alumina, silica, titanium oxide, zeolites, etc. However, silica offers advantages in that it is a relatively lower-cost material with suitable properties than more exotic supports.

[0159] Wliile a copper peroxide (CuO2) or analog supported on a solid is typically employed, in certain embodiments the copper peroxide (CuO2) or analog may possess properties or be able to be formed into a suitable solid without the need for a support.

[0160] An example of a suitable solid particulate material is silica, e.g., in the form of amorphous precipitated silica powder (APSP). An exemplary method involves dry mixing- grinding the copper peroxide (CuO2) or analog with an APSP, e.g. PPG’s, Hi-Sil 134G micro granules, at a ratio in the range of 1:10 to 1 :50 (OMC:134G); then adding to 30 mesh (600 micron) scrap plastic, such that the copper peroxide (CuO2) or analog is kept in the range of 1-2 % of the initial scrap plastic weight when the dry compound copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog /APSP is added to the scrap plastic before entering the continuous reactor vessel. Such a supported cuprate is sometimes referred to herein as a doped ceramic frit (DCF). A. DCF prepared using the "N2, BET-5 Method" will have a surface area in the range of 140 - 190 m 2 /g. For a DCF within this surface area range, a mass-on-mass of the DCF on scrap plastic is typically 1.0- 1.5 parts by weight DCF to 100 parts by weight scrap plastic. A higher ratio of this DCF component to the scrap plastic maw may shorten the process time. Some breakage of the DCF can occur during the repeated stress-strain pulses; therefore, the rate and degree of bond cleavage can be impacted. Process testing can be conducted to assure an acceptable return on the DCF loading versus acceptable process results. The DCF frit, and therefore the quantity of DCF used, can result in nominal changes to the final end product within which the RPSP is subsequently deployed. These changes can include an increase in the surface friction in any subsequent injection molding operation, an increase in the opacity and hue of the surface finish, and/or a reinforcement of the tensile strength and reduced elasticity. Accordingly, the quantity of DCF employed can be adjusted to adjust the nature and/or magnitude of such changes.

[0161] This mixing-grinding of the copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog into micro- pores of APSP, which has a surface area of approximately 180 m 2 /g, provides a fixed wiping surface for distributing the copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog throughout the scrap plastic. It also provides a substantial increase in a non-compressible medium, which aids in strain distortion of the copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog molecular structure in the reactor, furthering the superposition efficiency of the copper peroxide (CuO2), or analog in the process.

[0162] End-use applications of such a copper peroxide (CuO2) or analog derived scrap plastic can include recycled rubber-containing products, which traditionally use a silica powder in formulations to improve strength and cut resistance.

[0163] The plastic produced by the methods herein can be employed in manufacturing a range of products, including the broad classes of products produced from a corresponding virgin plastic. The plastic produced by the methods herein can be employed in admixture with one or more virgin polymers, by itself, or in admixture with one or more recycled polymers, or subject to crosslinking with one or more other virgin or recycled polymers. The scrap plastic produced by the methods herein can be crosslinked with rubbers and rubber-containing materials or other polymeric materials to be manufactured, e.g., into articles or useful materials. In certain embodiments, elastomer goods meeting one or more military specifications are provided. The articles (e.g., engineered articles) can include but are not limited to tire tread, tire sidewall, roofing membrane, high dielectric electrical tape, tank lining, reservoir lining, trench lining, bridge underlayment, foundation waterproofing, parking garage waterproofing, hose, belt, molding, or other rubber goods prepared from molded rubber or rubber sheeting (e.g., gaskets, tubing, shock absorbing materials, floor mats and bed liners for vehicles, mats and flooring materials for commercial and residential construction, underlayments for floors, decking, and concrete, sound proofing, etc.). Other products include elasticized bands in clothing and hair ties, dishwashing gloves, toys, jar seals and tires, welcome mats, garden hoses. Other household rubber items include shoe soles, boots, raincoats, pond liners, mattresses and cushions, pillows, grips on garden tools, bathtub plugs, doorstops, earplugs, hot water bottles, aquarium tubing, faucet washers and backing for rugs. Stoppers for lab flasks and vials, chemical resistant mats and pads, prosthetics and other specialized products and equipment can be made from the rubber of the embodiments, as can rubber food and water bowls, chew toys and balls, foam rubber mattress pads, stall mats, elasticized vet wraps, flea collars, shed mitts and rubber combs, mouse pads, keyboards, adhesives and rolling chair wheels, anti-fatigue mats, carpet underlayment, head phone pads and rubber stamps, inflatable beds for camping, playground tiles, rubber ducks, sportswear, scuba suits, vehicle components for civilian and military use; boat, ship, and submarine components for civilian or military use; airplane, passenger plane, and fighter jet components, railcar and train engine components, residential and commercial building products, factory or industrial or manufacturing components, clothing and footwear components.

Exemplary Methods and Materials

[0164] Method 1 : A method for preparing a plastic-containing material, comprising: applying a compressive force/relaxation pulse to a mixture comprising plastic particles and an antiferromagnetic materi al, whereby one or more chemical bonds of the plastic are cleaved to yield a plastic-containing material.

[0165] Method 2: Method 1, wherein the plastic particles are obtained from mixed reusable plastic.

[0166] Method 3; Method 1 or Method 2, wherein the plastic-containing material is re-polymerized scrap plastic.

[0167] Method 4: Any one of Methods 1 through 3, wherein the antiferromagnetic material is copper peroxide (CuO2) or an analog thereof.

[0168] Method 5: Any one of Methods 1 through 4, wherein the antiferromagnetic material is copper peroxide (CuO2).

[0169] Method6: Any one of Methods 1 through 5, wherein the antiferromagnetic material is copper peroxide (CuO2) on a solid support.

[0170] Method 7: Method 6, wherein the antiferromagnetic material is copper peroxide (CuO2) deposited on a silica frit. [0171] Method 8: Any one of Methods 1 through 7, wherein the antiferromagnetic material is copper peroxide (CuO2) and wherein during application of the compressive force/relaxation pulse a 90 degree non-stress geometry of the copper peroxide (CuO2) is distorted to up to a 135 degree fully stressed geometry.

[0172] Method 9: Any one of Methods 1 through 8, wherein a pressure applied during the compressive force/relaxation pulse is from 15-135 MPa.

[0173] Method 10: Any one of Methods 1 through 9, wherein a duration of the compressive force/relaxation pulse is from 300 ms to 800 ms

[0174] Method 11: Any one of Methods 1 through 10, wherein a series of compressive force/relaxation pulses are applied.

[0175] Method 12: Any one of Methods 1 through 11, wherein the compressive force/relaxation pulse generates photonic energy of a wavelength of from 200 nm to 900 in a vicinity of the one or more chemical bonds.

[0176] Method 13: Any one of Methods 1 through 12, wherein the one or more chemical bonds are selected from the group consisting of C-C bonds, C-H bonds, C-O bonds, C=C bonds, C^C bonds, C=O bonds, C-N bonds, bonds, and bonds.

[0177] Method 14: Any one of Methods 1 through 13, wherein the one or more chemical bonds are selected from the group consisting of C=O bonds, C-O bonds, or C=C bonds.

[0178] Method 15: Any one of Methods 1 through 14, wherein the mixture comprises 0.01% by weight or less water.

[0179] Method 16: Any one of Methods 1 through 15, wherein the plastic material has a particle size of 50 microns to 100 microns.

[0180] Method 17: Any one of Methods 1 through 16, wherein an active component of the antiferromagnetic material is employed at a concentration of from 0.01% to 5% by weight of the mixture, preferably at a concentration of 0.5% to 2% by weight of the mixture.

[0181] Method 18: Any one of Methods 1 through 17, wherein the antiferromagnetic material is copper peroxide (CuO2) supported on a silica frit, wherein from 0.5 to 5 parts by weight of the antiferromagnetic material is present for every 100 parts by weight plastic material, preferably from 0.5 to 2 parts by weight of the antiferromagnetic material is present for every 100 parts by weight plastic material, more preferably 1 part by weight of the antiferromagnetic material is present for every 99 parts by weight plastic material.

[0182] Method 19: Any one of Methods 1 through 18, wherein the antiferromagnetic material is copper peroxide (CuO2), and wherein the mixture is formed by: applying an aqueous mixture of copper peroxide (CuO2) at a concentration of 5 to 8% by weight, preferably about 6.5% by weight, to the plastic particles to yield coated plastic particles; and drying a resulting mixture of the plastic particles and aqueous mixture to reduce a moisture content of the resulting mixture.

[0183] Method 20: Any one of Methods 1 through 18, wherein the antiferromagnetic material is dry coated on the plastic particles.

[0184] Method 21: Any one of Methods 1 through 18, wherein the antiferromagnetic material is sputtered onto the plastic particles.

[0185] Method 22: Any oonnee of Methods 1 through 18, wherein the antiferromagnetic material is laser sputtered onto the plastic particles.

[0186] Method 23: Any one of Methods 1 through 18, wherein the antiferromagnetic material is plasma coated onto the plastic particles.

[0187] Method 24: Any one of Methods 1 through 18, wherein the antiferromagnetic material is supported on a supporting particle.

[0188] Method 25: Method 24, wherein the supporting particle has a surface area of 50 m 2 /g to 1000 m 2 /g.

[0189] Method 26: Any one of Methods 24 through 25, wherein the supporting particle is selected from the group consisting of an oxide, a metal, a refractory material, a ceramic, or a glass.

[0190] Method 27: Any one of Methods 24 through 26, wherein the supporting particle is porous.

[0191] Method 28: Any one of Methods 24 through 27, wherein the supporting particle is amorphous silica, e.g., having a surface area of 160 m 2 /g.

[0192] Method 29: Any one of Methods 24 through 28, wherein the antiferromagnetic material is deposited on the supporting particle by sputtering, laser sputtering, laser ablation, e-beam evaporation, physical or chemical vapor deposition, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, evaporative deposition, reactive deposition, atomic layer deposition, or plasma coating.

[0193] Method 30: Any one of Methods 1 through 29, further comprising: subjecting mixed recycled plastics to a hydrofinish process, whereby debris are removed; shredding the mixed recycled plastics from which debris have been removed; removing ferrous components from the shredded mixed recycled plastics; and processing the shredded mixed recycled plastics from which ferrous components have been removed in a cracker mill, whereby the plastic particles are obtained.

[0194] Method 31 : Any one of Methods 1 through 30, wherein the plastic particles are mixed with the antiferromagnetic material and passed into an auger reactor, wherein the compressive force/relaxation pulse is applied.

[0195] Method 32: Any one of Methods 1 through 31, wherein the plastic- containing material is re-polymerized scrap plastic, further comprising recompounding the re- polymerized scrap plastic with mineral particulates, cellulosic fiber, or fiberglass.

[0196] Method 33: Any one of Methods 1 through 31, wherein the plastic- containing material is re-polymerized scrap plastic, further comprising dynamic vulcanization or crosslinking of an elastomer with the RSPS pre-polymer, whereby a thermoplastic vulcanizate is obtained.

[0197] Method 34: Method 33, wherein the elastomer comprises one or more materials selected from the group consisting of ethylene-propylene-diene, isotactic polypropylene, butyl rubber, natural rubber, styrene butadiene rubber, block co-poly mer rubber, and nitrile rubber.

[0198] Material 35: A. plastic-containing material prepared by the method of any one of Methods 1 through 34.

[0199] Material 36, Material 35, wherein the plastic-containing material is subjected to cross-linking.

[0200] Material 37: Any one of Materials 35 through 36, wherein the plastic- containing material is subjected to cross-linking with virgin plastic.

[0201] Material 38: Any one of Materials 35 through 37, wherein the plastic- containing material is subjected to cross-linking with recycled rubber or virgin rubber. [0202] Material 39: Any one of Materials 35 through 38, wherein the plastic- containing material is fabricated into a rubber-containing article.

[0203] Material 40: Any one of Materials 35 through 39, wherein the article is an engineered rubber article.

[0204] Article 41: An article fabricated from the plastic-containing material of any one of Materials 35-40.

[0205] While the disclosure has been illustrated and described in detail in the drawings and foregoing description, such illustration and description are to be considered illustrative or exemplary and not restrictive. The disclosure is not limited to the disclosed embodiments. Variations to the disclosed embodiments can be understood and effected by those skilled in the art in practicing the claimed disclosure, from a study of the drawings, the disclosure and the appended claims.

[0206] All references cited herein are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. To the extent publications and patents or patent applications incorporated by reference contradict the disclosure contained in the specification, the specification is intended to supersede and/or take precedence over any such contradictory material.

[0207] Unless otherwise defined, all terms (including technical and scientific terms) are to be given their ordinary and customary meaning to a person of ordinary skill in the art, and are not to be limited to a special or customized meaning unless expressly so defined herein. It should be noted that the use of particular terminology when describing certain features or aspects of the disclosure sh ould not be taken to imply that the terminology is being re-defined herein to be restricted to include any specific characteristics of the features or aspects of tiie disclosure with which that terminology is associated. Terms and phrases used in this application, and variations thereof, especially in the appended claims, unless otherwise expressly stated, should be construed as open ended as opposed to limiting. As examples of the foregoing, the term ‘including’ should be read to mean ‘including, without limitation,’ ‘including but not limited to,’ or the like; the term ‘comprising’ as used herein is synonymous with ‘including,’ ‘containing,’ or ‘characterized by,’ and is inclusive or open-ended and does not exclude additional, unrecited elements or method steps; the term ‘having’ should be interpreted as ‘having at least;’ the term ‘includes’ should be interpreted as ‘includes but is not limited to;’ the term ‘example’ is used to provide exemplary instances of the item in discussion, not an exhaustive or limiting list thereof; adjectives such as ‘known’, ‘normal’, ‘standard’, and terms of similar meaning should not be construed as limiting the item described to a given time period or to an item available as of a given time, but instead should be read to encompass known, normal, or standard technologies that may be available or known now or at any time in the future; and use of terms like ‘preferably,’ ‘preferred,’ ‘desired,’ or ‘desirable,’ and words of similar meaning should not be understood as implying that certain features are critical, essential, or even important to the structure or function of the invention, but instead as merely intended to highlight alternative or additional features that may or may not be utilized in a particular embodiment of the invention. Likewise, a group of items linked with the conjunction ‘and’ should not be read as requiring that each and every one of those items be present in the grouping, but rather should be read as ‘and/or’ unless expressly stated otherwise. Similarly, a group of items linked with the conjunction ‘or’ should not be read as requiring mutual exclusivity among that group, but rather should be read as ‘and/or’ unless expressly stated otherwise.

[0208] Where a range of values is provided, it is understood that the upper and lower limit, and each intervening value between the upper and lower limit of the range is encompassed within the embodiments.

[0209] With respect to the use of substantially any plural and/or singular terms herein, those having skill in the art can translate from the plural to the singular and/or from the singular to the plural as is appropriate to the context and/or application. The various singular/plural permutations may be expressly set forth herein for sake of clarity, The indefinite article “a” or “an” does not exclude a plurality. A single processor or other unit may fulfill the functions of several items recited in the claims. The mere fact that certain measures are recited in mutually different dependent claims does not indicate that a combinati on of these measures cannot be used to advantage. Any reference signs in the claims should not be construed as limiting the scope.

[0210] It will be further understood by those within the art that if a specific number of an introduced claim recitation is intended, such an intent will be explicitly recited in the claim, and in the absence of such recitation no such intent is present. For example, as an aid to understanding, the following appended claims may contain usage of the introductory phrases “at least one” and “one or more” to introduce claim recitations. However, the use of such phrases should not be construed to imply that the introduction of a claim recitation by the indefinite articles “a” oorr “ “aarin” limits any particular claim containing such introduced claim recitation to embodiments containing only one such recitation, even when the same claim includes the introductory phrases “one or more” or “at least one” and indefinite articles such as “a” or “an” (e.g., “a” and/or “an” should typically be interpreted to mean “at least one” or one or more”); the same holds true for the use of definite articles used to introduce claim recitations. In addition, even if a specific number of an introduced claim recitation is explicitly recited, those skilled in the art will recognize that such recitation should typically be interpreted to mean at least the recited number (e.g., the bare recitation of “two recitations,” without other modifiers, typically means at least two recitations, or two or more recitations). Furthermore, in those instances where a convention analogous to “at least one of A, B, and C, etc.” is used, in general such a construction is intended in the sense one having skill in the art would understand the convention (e.g., “a system having at least one of A, B, and C” would include but not be limited to systems that have A alone, B alone, C alone, A and B together, A and C together, B and C together, and/or A, B, and C together, etc.). In those instances where a convention analogous to “at least one of A, B, or C, etc.” is used, in general such a construction is intended in the sense one having skill in the art would understand the convention (e.g., “ a system having at least one of A, B, or C” would include but not be limited to systems that have A alone, B alone, C alone, A and B together, A and C together, B and C together, and/or A, B, and C together, etc.). It will be further understood by those within the art that virtually any disjunctive word and/or phrase presenting two or more alternative terms, whether in the description, claims, or drawings, should be understood to contemplate the possibilities of including one of the terms, either of the terms, or both terms. For example, the phrase “A. or B” will be understood to include the possibilities of “A” or “B” or “ A and B.”

[0211] All numbers expressing quantities of ingredients, reaction conditions, and so forth used in the specification are to be understood as being modified in all instances by the term ‘about.’ Accordingly, unless indicated to the contrary, the numerical parameters set forth herein are approximations that may vary depending upon the desired properties sought to be obtained. At the very least, and not as an attempt to limit the application of the doctrine of equivalents to the scope of any claims in any application claiming priority to the present application, each numerical parameter should be construed in light of the number of significant digits and ordinary rounding approaches.

[0212] Furthermore, although the foregoing has been described in some detail by way of illustrations and examples for purposes of clarity and understanding, it is apparent to those skilled in the art that certain changes and modifications may be practiced. Therefore, the description and examples should not be construed as limiting the scope of the invention to the specific embodiments and examples described herein, but rather to also cover all modification and alternatives coming with the true scope and spirit of the invention.