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Title:
A SEALING DEVICE WITH INCREASED CONCRETE ADHESION STRENGTH
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2022/008393
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The invention is directed to a sealing device comprising a functional layer (2) having a first major surface and a second major surface and a barrier layer (3) directly or indirectly connected to the second major surface of the functional layer (2), wherein the functional layer (2) comprises at least one first solid filler having a median particle size d50 in the range of 0.5 – 100 µm and at least one second solid filler different from the at least one first solid filler. The invention is also directed to a method for producing a sealing device and to use of a sealing device for waterproofing of a substrate.

Inventors:
ACKERMANN HERBERT (CH)
KERBER CARINE (CH)
Application Number:
PCT/EP2021/068428
Publication Date:
January 13, 2022
Filing Date:
July 05, 2021
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
SIKA TECH AG (CH)
International Classes:
B32B27/08; B32B13/12; B32B27/20; B32B27/30; B32B27/32
Domestic Patent References:
WO2017108843A12017-06-29
Foreign References:
EP3418050A12018-12-26
US20180361716A12018-12-20
US20170158926A12017-06-08
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SIKA PATENT ATTORNEYS (CH)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1. A sealing device (1 ) comprising a functional layer (2) having a first major surface and a second major surface and a barrier layer (3) directly or indirectly connected to the second major surface of the functional layer (2), the functional layer (2) comprising: a) 20 - 75 wt.-%, preferably 25 - 70 wt.-%, of at least one thermoplastic polymer P1 and b) 25 - 80 wt.-%, preferably 30 - 75 wt.-%, of a solid filler component F, all proportions being based on the total weight of the functional layer (2), wherein the solid filler component F comprises at least one first solid filler F1 having a median particle size dso in the range of 0.5 - 100 pm, preferably 1.0 - 75 pm, and at least one second solid filler F2 different from the at least one first solid filler F1.

2. The sealing device (1 ) according to claim 1 , wherein the at least one first solid filler F1 has a number average particle aspect ratio of not more than 3:1 , preferably not more than 2.5:1 and/or the at least one second solid filler F2 has a number average particle aspect ratio of at least 3.1, preferably at least 4.1 , wherein the particle aspect ratio is defined as a ratio of length and thickness of a particle.

3. The sealing device (1 ) according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the at least one second solid filler F2 has a median particle length Lso in the range of 5 - 350 pm, preferably 15 - 250 pm and/or a L90 particle length in the range of 15 - 500 pm, preferably 25 - 450 pm.

4. The sealing device according to any one of previous claims, wherein the at least one first solid filler F1 comprises at least 35 wt.-%, preferably at least 50 wt.-%, of the solid filler component F and/or wherein the at least one second solid filler F2 comprises not more than 45 wt.-%, preferably not more than 30 wt.-%, of the solid filler component F.

5. The sealing device according to any one of previous claims, wherein particles of the solid filler component F are distributed throughout the entire volume of the functional layer (2).

6. The sealing device (1 ) according to any one of previous claims, wherein the at least one first solid filler F1 comprises at least one inert mineral filler F11 and/or at least one hydraulic binder F12.

7. The sealing device (1 ) according to claim 6, wherein the at least one inert mineral filler F11 is selected from the group consisting of calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, diatomaceous earth, pumice, dolomite, xonotlite, perlite, barite, and comminuted concrete, preferably from the group consisting of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate and/or wherein the at least one hydraulic binder F12 is selected from the group consisting of Portland cement (CEM I), Portland composite cement (CEM II), blast-furnace cement (CEM III), pozzolan cement (CEM IV) and composite cement (CEM V).

8. The sealing device (1 ) according to any one of previous claims, wherein the at least one second solid filler F2 is selected from the group consisting of vermiculite, Wollastonite, mica, and talc, preferably from the group consisting of vermiculite and Wollastonite.

9. The sealing device (1 ) according to any one of previous claims, wherein the functional layer (2) has a mass per unit weight in the range of 100 - 1500 g/m2, preferably 150 - 1250 g/m2

10. The sealing device (1) according to any one of previous claims, wherein the barrier layer (3) comprises at least 50 wt.-%, preferably at least 65 wt.-%, of at least one thermoplastic polymer P2.

11. A method for producing a sealing device according to any one of previous claims, the method comprising a step of extruding or co extruding a first molten polymer composition comprising the constituents of the functional layer through an extruder die.

12. The method according to claim 11 , wherein the first molten polymer composition is obtained by melt-processing a first starting composition comprising the constituents of the functional layer. 13. The method according to claim 11 or 12, wherein the first molten polymer composition further contains a blowing gas, which is released from the first molten polymer composition through a surface of the functional layer discharged from the extruder die. 14. A sealing device obtained by using the method according to any one of claims 11-13.

15. Use of the sealing device according to any one of claims 1 -10 for waterproofing a substrate.

Description:
A sealing device with increased concrete adhesion strength

Technical field

The invention relates to sealing devices for use in the construction industry, for waterproofing of below or above ground building constructions. In particular, the invention relates to sealing devices, which can be used for protecting basements, roofing, and tunneling structures against penetration of water.

Background Art

In the field of construction polymeric sheets, which are often referred to as membranes or panels, are used to protect underground and above ground constructions, such as basements, tunnels, and roofs, against penetration of water. Waterproofing membranes are applied, for example, to prevent ingress of water through cracks that develop in the concrete structure due to building settlement, load deflection or concrete shrinkage. Roofing membranes are used for waterproofing of flat and low-sloped roof structures. State-of-the-art waterproofing and roofing membranes are single- or multiple-layer systems comprising at least one polymer-based barrier layer to provide watertightness.

Commonly used materials for the barrier layer include plastics, in particular thermoplastics such as plasticized polyvinylchloride (p-PVC), thermoplastic polyolefins (TPO), and elastomers such as ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM). Thermoplastic polyolefins are heterophase polyolefin compositions containing a high crystallinity base polyolefin and a low-crystallinity or amorphous polyolefin modifier. Membranes based on crosslinked EPDM are very flexible and resistant to weathering but they are not heat-weldable due to the chemically crosslinked structure. Membranes composed of TPOs are heat- weldable and less expensive than EPDM-membranes, but they are also somewhat more rigid, which can be a disadvantage in some applications. Membranes based on plasticized PVC are more flexible than TPO membranes, but they contain environmentally harmful plasticizers and heavy metal additives such as flame retardants that may restrict their use in some applications.

In waterproofing applications, the membrane can be post-applied to an existing concrete structure or pre-applied before the concrete structure to be waterproofed is built. In the first case, the membrane is adhered to a surface of the concrete structure to be waterproofed via a layer of an adhesive or by using a sealing tape. In pre-applied waterproofing applications, the membrane is placed with its barrier layer facing against the surface of the underlying structure or formwork and fresh concrete is then cast against the surface of the opposite surface of the membrane thereby fully and permanently bonding the membrane to the surface of the hardening concrete.

One of the well-known disadvantages of TPO-based barrier layers is their notoriously poor bonding properties; they typically show low bonding strength to adhesives that are commonly used in the construction industry, such as epoxy adhesives, polyurethane adhesives, and cementitious compositions. Therefore, a contact layer, for example, a fleece backing, is typically used to improve the bonding of the polymer-based barrier layer to the structure to be waterproofed. Some of the commercially available membranes for pre-applied waterproofing applications comprise a barrier layer and a layer of non-woven fabric as a contact layer, which is adhered to the barrier layer via an adhesive layer. The adhesive layer is used to secure the contact layer to the barrier layer but also to enable improved bonding between the barrier layer and fresh concrete casted against the contact layer. However, the presence of the adhesive layer increases the production costs of these types of waterproofing membranes and the layer of non-woven fabric, which is typically a fleece, in practice prevents the sealing of seams formed between overlapped edges of membranes by heat-welding.

Patent application WO2017/108843 A1 discloses a waterproofing membrane comprising a polymer-based barrier layer and a contact layer composed of a thermoplastic polymer composition comprising high amounts of mineral fillers, such as mineral binders. The waterproofing membrane can be produced by co extruding melt-processed compositions of the barrier layer and the functional layer and bonding the thus obtained layers to each other, for example, using calendaring cooling rolls. Waterproofing membranes disclosed in

WO201 7/108843 A1 provide high adhesion strength to concrete in pre-applied waterproofing applications when the concrete has been casted against the surface of the contact layer and let to harden for 28 days under normal atmospheric conditions.

Despite of building a high adhesion strength with fresh concrete after hardening, the waterproofing membranes of WO2017/108843 A1 have also been found to provide less than optimal early adhesion strength to the casted concrete, i.e. adhesion strength obtained after the casted concrete has been let to harden for 24 hours under normal atmospheric conditions. The low early adhesion strength to the casted concrete can result in detachment of the pre applied waterproofing membrane, since a formwork used in casting of a concrete structure, such as a base slab, is typically removed only 24 hours after the concrete has been casted.

There is thus a need for a novel type of waterproofing membrane, which builds high early adhesion strength with fresh concrete casted on the surface of the membrane in pre-applied waterproofing applications.

Summary of the invention

The objective of the present invention is to provide a sealing device, which can be used to protect surfaces against water penetration, for example in basement waterproofing, roofing and tunneling applications, and which fully and permanently bonds to concrete and other cementitious compositions cast onto the sealing device after hardening as well as to adhesives commonly used in the construction industry. Another objective of the present invention is to provide a sealing device, which builds high early adhesion strength to concrete and other cementitious compositions cast onto the surface of the sealing device after one day of hardening.

It was surprisingly found out that a sealing device comprising a barrier layer and a functional layer based on a highly-filled thermoplastic polymer composition comprising at least one first solid filler and at least one second solid filler different from the first filler provides high early adhesion strength to concrete cast onto the surface of the functional layer after hardening.

The subject of the present invention is a sealing device according to claim 1.

One of the advantages of the sealing device of the present invention is that the formwork can be removed after 24 hours of hardening of the casted concrete without the risk of detachment of the sealing device from a vertical surface of the casted concrete body.

Another advantage of the sealing device of the present invention is that the increased early adhesion strength can be achieved without significantly increasing the production costs of the sealing device compared to the State-of- the-Art sealing devices, such as the ones disclosed in WO2017/108843 A1.

Other aspects of the present invention are presented in other independent claims. Preferred aspects of the invention are presented in the dependent claims. Brief description of the Drawings

Fig. 1 shows a cross-section of a sealing device (1) of the present invention comprising a functional layer (2) having a first and second major surfaces and a barrier layer (3) directly connected to the second major surface of the functional layer (2).

Fig. 2 shows a cross-section of a sealing device (1) of the present invention comprising a first functional layer (2), a second functional layer (2’) and a barrier layer (3), wherein the first major surface of the barrier layer (3) is directly connected to the second major surface of the functional layer (2) and the second major surface of the barrier layer (3) is directly connected to the first major surface of the second functional layer (2’).

Detailed description of the invention

The subject of the present invention is a sealing device (1 ) comprising a functional layer (2) having a first major surface and a second major surface and a barrier layer (3) directly or indirectly connected to the second major surface of the functional layer (2), the functional layer (2) comprising: a) 20 - 75 wt.-%, preferably 25 - 70 wt.-%, of at least one thermoplastic polymer P1 and b) 25 - 80 wt.-%, preferably 30 - 75 wt.-%, of a solid filler component F, all proportions being based on the total weight of the functional layer (2), wherein the solid filler component F comprises at least one first solid filler F1 having a median particle size dso in the range of 0.5 - 100 pm, preferably 1.0 - 75 pm and at least one second solid filler F2 different from the at least one first solid filler F1.

The term “polymer” refers to a collective of chemically uniform macromolecules produced by a polyreaction (polymerization, polyaddition, polycondensation) where the macromolecules differ with respect to their degree of polymerization, molecular weight and chain length. The term also comprises derivatives of said collective of macromolecules resulting from polyreactions, that is, compounds which are obtained by reactions such as, for example, additions or substitutions, of functional groups in predetermined macromolecules and which may be chemically uniform or chemically non-uniform.

The term “thermoplastic” refers to any polymer material which can be melted and re-solidified with little or no change in physical properties.

The term “glass transition temperature” (T g ) refers to the temperature above which temperature a polymer component becomes soft and pliable, and below which it becomes hard and glassy. The glass transition temperature (T g ) is preferably determined by dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA) as the peak of the measured loss modulus (G”) curve using an applied frequency of 1 Hz and a strain level of 0.1 %.

The term “softening point” refers to a temperature at which compound softens in a rubber-like state, or a temperature at which the crystalline portion within the compound melts. The softening point can be determined by Ring and Ball measurement conducted according to DIN EN 1238:2011 standard.

The term “melting temperature” refers to a temperature at which a material undergoes transition from the solid to the liquid state. The melting temperature (Tm) is preferably determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) according to ISO 11357-3:2018 standard using a heating rate of 2 °C/min. The measurements can be performed with a Mettler Toledo DSC 3+ device and the Tm values can be determined from the measured DSC-curve with the help of the DSC-software. In case the measured DSC-curve shows several peak temperatures, the first peak temperature coming from the lower temperature side in the thermogram is taken as the melting temperature (T m ).

The “amount or content of at least one component X” in a composition, for example “the amount of the at least one thermoplastic polymer P1” refers to the sum of the individual amounts of all thermoplastic polymers P1 contained in the composition. For example, in case the composition comprises 20 wt.-% of at least one thermoplastic polymer P1 , the sum of the amounts of all thermoplastic polymers P1 contained in the composition equals 20 wt.-%.

The term “normal room temperature” refers to the temperature of 23°C.

The sealing device of the present invention comprises a functional layer having a first and second major surfaces and a barrier layer, which is indirectly or directly connected to the second major surface of the functional layer. The functional layer and the barrier layer are preferably sheet-like elements having a length and width at least 5 times, preferably at least 25 times, more preferably at least 50 times greater than the maximum thickness of the element. The term “major surface” refers in the present disclosure to the top and bottom surfaces of a sheet-like element defining the thickness of the element there between.

In waterproofing applications, one of the most important characteristics is the strength of adhesion by which a sealing device is bonded to a substrate, for example a concrete surface, to be sealed against water penetration. In case the strength of adhesion is too low, gaps are more easily formed between the sealing device and the surface of the substrate, which may lead to loss of water tightness. Furthermore, the early adhesion strength to the casted concrete, i.e. the strength of the adhesion to a casted concrete structure after 24 hours of hardening is especially critical in applications, where the sealing device has been applied on a vertical surface since the formwork used in the casting process is typically removed on the second day following the casting of the concrete structure.

The present invention is based on a surprising finding that the early adhesion strength of a pre-applied waterproofing membrane comprising a barrier layer and a functional layer comprising a highly filled polymer composition, can be improved by using at least two different types of fillers in the functional layer, wherein the first filler has a relatively low particle size. Without being bound to any theory it is believed that the observed increase in early adhesion strength results from advantageous surface and mechanical properties of the functional layer achieved by using a mixture of different types of fillers, which enables faster development of a bond with a fresh concrete composition casted on the surface of the functional layer.

According to one or more embodiments, the at least one first solid filler F1 and the at least one second solid filler F2 have different physical properties and/or different chemical compositions. The term “physical properties” refers in the context of solid fillers to any kind of physical properties of a solid filler, such as, particle size and shape, density, or surface area. According to one or more embodiments, the at least one first solid filler F1 and the at least one second solid filler F2 have different chemical compositions.

The functional layer of the sealing device comprises at least one first solid filler F1 having a median particle size dso in the range of 0.5 - 100 pm, preferably 1.0 - 75 pm, more preferably 1.0 - 50 pm, even more preferably 1.0 - 25 pm, still more preferably 1.0 - 15 pm, most preferably 1.0 - 10 pm.

According to one or more embodiments, the at least one first solid filler F1 has:

- a d9o particle size in the range of 5 - 250 pm, preferably 5 - 200 pm, more preferably 10 - 150 pm, even more preferably 15 - 100 pm and/or

- a dio particle size in the range of 0.1 - 10 pm, preferably 0.25 - 7.5 pm, more preferably 0.35 - 5 pm, even more preferably 0.5 - 2.5 pm.

The term “median particle size dso” refers to a particle size below which 50% of all particles by volume are smaller than the dso value. In analogy, the term d9o particle size refers in the present disclosure to a particle size below which 90% of all particles by volume are smaller than the d9o value and the term “dio particle size” refers to a particle size below which 10% of all particles by volume are smaller than the dio value. The particle size distributions can be determined by sieve analysis according to the method as described in ASTM C136/C136M -2014 standard (“Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates).

According to one or more embodiments, the at least one first solid filler F1 has a number average particle aspect ratio of not more than 3:1, preferably not more than 2.5:1 , more preferably not more than 2:1 , even more preferably not more than 1.5:1 and/or the at least one second solid filler F2 has a number average particle aspect ratio of at least 3.1 , preferably at least 4.1 , more preferably at least 5:1 , even more preferably at least 6:1.

The term “aspect ratio” of a particle refers in the present disclosure to the value obtained by dividing the length of the particle (L) by the thickness (T) of the particle. The “length of a particle” refers in the present disclosure to the maximum Feret diameter (XFe,max), i.e. the longest Feret diameter out of the measured set of Feret diameters. The term “Feret diameter” refers in the present disclosure to the distance between two tangents on opposite sides of the particle, parallel to some fixed direction and perpendicular to the measurement direction. The “thickness of a particle” refers in the present disclosure to the minimum Feret diameter (XFe.min), i.e. the shortest Feret diameter out of the measured set of Feret diameters. The aspect ratio can, therefore, calculated as the ratio of XFe,ma X and XFe,min.

The aspect ratio of a particle can be determined by measuring the length and thickness of the particle using any suitable measurement technique, preferably by using dynamic image analysis method conducted according to ISO 13322- 2:2006 standard, and calculating the aspect ratio from the measured dimensions of the particle as described above. The dimensions of particles are preferably measured with a dry dispersion method, where the particles are dispersed in air, preferably by using air pressure dispersion method. The measurements can be conducted using any type of dynamic image analysis apparatus, such as a CamsizerXT device (trademark of Retsch Technology GmbFI). The term “average aspect ratio” refers in the present disclosure to the arithmetic average of the individual aspect ratios of the particles within a sample or collection or a statistically significant and representative random sample drawn from such a sample or collection.

Sealing devices comprising a functional layer, wherein the at least one first solid filler F1 and the at least one second solid filler F2 have a particle size and an average particle aspect ratio falling within the above cited ranges have been found out to provide a high early adhesion strength determined after 24 hours of hardening of the fresh concrete casted on the first major surface of the functional layer. In particular, such sealing devices have been found out to have an early adhesion strength, which enables the use of the sealing device in pre-applied waterproofing applications, wherein the sealing device is positioned on a vertical surface of a formwork, which is removed within 24 hours after casting of the concrete structure.

Furthermore, it has been found out that the sealing device exhibits an early concrete adhesion strength of at least 10 N/50 mm, preferably at least 15 N/50 mm, more preferably at least 20 N/50 mm determined as average peel resistance per unit width of the sealing device upon peeling the sealing device from a surface of a concrete specimen, which has been obtained by casting a fresh concrete composition on the first major surface of the functional layer and letting it to harden for 24 hours under standard atmosphere (air temperature 23°C, relative air humidity 50%).

According to one or more embodiments, the at least one second solid filler F2 has:

- a median particle length Lso in the range of 5 - 350 pm, preferably 15 - 250 pm, more preferably 20 - 200 pm, even more preferably 25 - 175 pm and/or

- a l_9o particle length in the range of 15 - 500 pm, preferably 25 - 450 pm, more preferably 35 - 400 pm, even more preferably 45 - 350 pm and/or

- a Lio particle length in the range of 1 - 35 pm, preferably 2.5 - 30 pm, more preferably 5 -25 pm, even more preferably 7.5 - 20 pm. The term “median particle length Lso” refers to a particle length below which 50% of all particles by volume have a smaller length than the Lso value. In analogy, the term “L90 particle length” refers in the present disclosure to a particle length below which 90% of all particles by volume have a smaller length than the L90 value and the term “L10 particle size” refers to a particle length below which 10% of all particles by volume have a smaller length than the L10 value.

According to one or more embodiments, the at least one first solid filler F1 comprises at least 35 wt.-%, preferably at least 50 wt.-%, more preferably at least 65 wt.-%, even more preferably at least 75 wt.-%, still more preferably at least 85 wt.-% of the solid filler component F and/or wherein the at least one second solid filler F2 comprises not more than 45 wt.-%, preferably not more than 30 wt.-%, more preferably not more than 25 wt.-%, even more preferably not more than 20 wt.-%, still more preferably not more than 15 wt.-% of the solid filler component F.

According to one or more embodiments, the solid filler component F is composed of the at least one first solid filler F1 and the at least one second solid filler F2.

According to one or more embodiments, the functional layer comprises 25 - 65 wt.-%, preferably 30 - 60 wt.-%, more preferably 30 - 55 wt.-% of the at least one thermoplastic polymer P1 and 35 - 75 wt.-%, preferably 40 - 75 wt.-%, more preferably 40 - 70 wt.-% of the solid filler component F, all proportions being based on the total weight of the functional layer.

According to one or more embodiment, the sum of the amounts of the at least one thermoplastic polymer P1 and the solid filler component F comprises at least 75 wt.-%, preferably at least 85 wt.-%, more preferably at least 90 wt.-%, even more preferably at least 95 wt.-% of the total weight of the functional layer. The solid filler component F is preferably present in the functional layer as individual solid particles or as aggregates of one or more solid particles, which are dispersed in a continuous phase comprising the at least one thermoplastic polymer P1. The expression “dispersed in a continuous phase” is understood to mean that the individual solid particles or aggregates of one or more particles are at least partially, preferably completely surrounded by the continuous phase comprising the at least one thermoplastic polymer. In case the functional layer contains one or more mineral binders, i.e. mineral fillers that undergo a hydration reaction in the presence of water, it is essential that these do not form interconnected solid networks of hydrated mineral binders within the functional layer. Consequently, it may be preferred that the functional layer is essentially free, more preferably completely free, of interconnected solid networks of hydrated mineral binders at least before the sealing devices is used for waterproofing of a substrate.

Preferably, the particles of the solid filler component F are distributed throughout the entire volume of the functional layer. The term “distributed throughout” means that essentially all portions of the functional layer contain particles of the solid filler component F but it does not necessarily imply that the distribution of the particles is completely uniform throughout the functional layer.

It may also be preferable that the functional layer comprises a homogeneously mixed mixture of the at least one thermoplastic polymer P1 and the solid filler component F. A “homogeneously mixed mixture” refers in the present disclosure to compositions, in which the individual constituents are distributed substantially homogeneously in the composition. A homogeneously mixed mixture of the at least one thermoplastic polymer P1 and the solid filler component F refers, therefore, to compositions in which the particles of the solid filler component F are homogeneously/uniformly distributed in a thermoplastic polymer phase comprising the at least one thermoplastic polymer P1. For a person skilled in the art it is clear that within such mixed compositions there may be regions formed, which have a slightly higher concentration of one of the constituents than other regions and that a 100 % homogeneous distribution of all the constituents is generally not achievable. Such mixed compositions with "imperfect" distribution of constituents, however, are also intended to be included by the term "homogeneously mixed mixture" in accordance with the present invention.

The type of the at least one first solid filler F1 is not particularly restricted in the present invention. According to one or more embodiments, the at least one first solid filler F1 is selected from the group consisting of inert mineral fillers, hydraulic binders, non-hydraulic binders, latent hydraulic binders, pozzolanic binders, and synthetic organic fillers.

According to one or more embodiments, the at least one first solid filler F1 comprises at least one inert mineral filler F11. Generally, the expression “the at least one component X comprises at least one component XN”, such as “the at least one first solid filler F1 comprises at least one inert mineral filler F11” is understood to mean in the context of the present disclosure that the functional layer comprises one or more inert mineral fillers F11 as representatives of the at least one first solid filler F1.

The term “inert mineral filler” refers to mineral fillers, which, unlike hydraulic binders, do not undergo a hydration reaction in the presence of water. Suitable mineral fillers to be used as the at least one inert mineral filler F11 include, for example, sand, granite, calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, clay, expanded clay, diatomaceous earth, pumice, mica, kaolin, talc, potash, dolomite, xonotlite, perlite, vermiculite, Wollastonite, barite, cristobalite, silica (quartz), fumed silica, fused silica, glass beads, hollow glass spheres, ceramic spheres, bauxite, comminuted concrete, and zeolites.

The term “sand” refers in the present document mineral clastic sediments (clastic rocks) which are loose conglomerates (loose sediments) of round or angular small grains, which were detached from the original grain structure during the mechanical and chemical degradation and transported to their deposition point, said sediments having an S1O2 content of greater than 50 wt.- %, in particular greater than 75 wt.-%, particularly preferably greater than 85 wt.-%. The term “calcium carbonate” when used as inert mineral filler refers to solid particulate substances produced from chalk, limestone or marble by grinding and/or precipitation.

According to one or more embodiment, the at least one first solid filler F1 comprises at least one hydraulic binder F12.

The term “hydraulic binder” refers to substances, which react with water in a hydration reaction under formation of solid mineral hydrates or hydrate phases, which are not soluble in water or have a low water-solubility. Therefore, hydraulic binders, such as Portland cement, can harden and retain their strength even when exposed to water, for example underwater or under high humidity conditions. In contrast, the term “non-hydraulic binder” refers to substances, which harden by reaction with carbon dioxide and which, therefore, do not harden in wet conditions or under water.

Examples of suitable hydraulic binders to be used as the at least one hydraulic binder include hydraulic cements and hydraulic lime. The term “hydraulic cement” refers here to mixtures of silicates and oxides including alite, belite, tricalcium aluminate, and brownmillerite.

Commercially available hydraulic cements can be divided in five main cement types according to DIN EN 197-1, namely, Portland cement (CEM I), Portland composite cements (CEM II), blast-furnace cement (CEM III), pozzolan cement (CEM IV) and composite cement (CEM V). These five main types of hydraulic cement are further subdivided into an additional 27 cement types, which are known to the person skilled in the art and listed in DIN EN 197-1. Naturally, all other hydraulic cements that are produced according to another standard, for example, according to ASTM standard or Indian standard are also suitable for use as at least one hydraulic binder F12. According to one or more embodiments, the at least one first solid filler F1 comprises at least one non-hydraulic binder F13.

Examples of suitable non-hydraulic binders to be used as the at least one non- hydraulic binder F13 include air-slaked lime (non-hydraulic lime) and gypsum. The term "gypsum" refers in the present disclosure to any known form of gypsum, in particular calcium sulfate dehydrate, calcium sulfate a-hemihydrate, calcium sulfate b-hemihydrate, or calcium sulfate anhydrite or mixtures thereof.

According to one or more embodiments, the at least one first solid filler F1 comprises at least one latent hydraulic binder F14.

The term "latent hydraulic binder” refers in the present disclosure to type II concrete additives with a “latent hydraulic character” as defined in DIN EN 206- 1 :2000 standard. These types of mineral binders are calcium aluminosilicates that are not able to harden directly or harden too slowly when mixed with water. The hardening process is accelerated in the presence of alkaline activators, which break the chemical bonds in the binder’s amorphous (or glassy) phase and promote the dissolution of ionic species and the formation of calcium aluminosilicate hydrate phases.

Examples of suitable latent hydraulic binders to be used as the at least one latent hydraulic binder F14 include ground granulated blast furnace slag. Ground granulated blast furnace slag is typically obtained from quenching of molten iron slag from a blast furnace in water or steam to form a glassy granular product and followed by drying and grinding the glassy into a fine powder.

According to one or more embodiments, the at least one first solid filler F1 comprises at least one pozzolanic binder F15.

The term “pozzolanic binder” refers in the present disclosure to type II concrete additives with a “pozzolanic character” as defined in DIN EN 206-1 :2000 standard. These types of mineral binders are siliceous or aluminosilicate compounds that react with water and calcium hydroxide to form calcium silicate hydrate or calcium aluminosilicate hydrate phases.

Examples of suitable pozzolanic binders to be used as the at least one pozzolanic binder F15 include natural pozzolans, such as trass, and artificial pozzolans, such as fly ash and silica fume. The term "fly ash” refers in the present disclosure to the finely divided ash residue produced by the combustion of pulverized coal, which is carried off with the gasses exhausted from the furnace in which the coal is burned. The term “silica fume” refers in the present disclosure to fine particulate silicon in an amorphous form. Silica fume is typically obtained as a by-product of the processing of silica ores such as the smelting of quartz in a silica smelter which results in the formation of silicon monoxide gas and which on exposure to air oxidizes further to produce small particles of amorphous silica.

According to one or more embodiment, the at least one first solid filler F1 comprises at least one synthetic organic filler F16.

Suitable synthetic organic materials to be used as the at least one synthetic organic filler F16 include in particular plastic materials having a melting temperature (T m ) determined by DSC according to ISO 11357-3:2018 standard of at or above 250°C, preferably at or above 275°C, such as polyamide, aramid, epoxide, polystyrene, expanded polystyrene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), poly(phenyl ethers), polysulfones, and polyethersulfones.

According to one or more embodiments, the at least one first solid filler F1 comprises or consists of at least one inert mineral filler F11 and/or at least one hydraulic binder F12, wherein the at least one inert mineral filler F11 is preferably selected from the group consisting of calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, diatomaceous earth, pumice, dolomite, xonotlite, perlite, barite, and comminuted concrete, more preferably from the group consisting of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate and wherein the at least one hydraulic binder F12 is preferably selected from the group consisting of Portland cement (CEM I), Portland composite cements (CEM II), blast furnace cement (CEM III), pozzolan cement (CEM IV) and composite cement (CEM V).

The type of the at least one second solid filler F2 is not particularly restricted in the present invention. According to one or more embodiments, the at least one second solid filler F2 is selected from the group consisting of inert mineral fillers, hydraulic binders, non-hydraulic binders, latent hydraulic binders, pozzolanic binders, and synthetic organic fillers.

According to one or more embodiments, the at least one second solid filler F2 comprises at least one inert mineral filler F21, preferably selected from the group consisting of sand, granite, calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, clay, expanded clay, diatomaceous earth, pumice, mica, kaolin, talc, potash, dolomite, xonotlite, perlite, vermiculite, Wollastonite, barite, cristobalite, silica (quartz), fumed silica, fused silica, bauxite, and zeolites, more preferably from the group consisting of vermiculite, Wollastonite, mica, and talc, even more preferably from the group consisting of vermiculite and Wollastonite.

According to one or more embodiments, the at least one second solid filler F2 is selected from the group consisting of vermiculite, Wollastonite, mica, and talc, more preferably from the group consisting of vermiculite and Wollastonite.

The type of the at least one thermoplastic polymer P1 is not particularly restricted in the present invention.

According to one or more embodiments, the at least one thermoplastic polymer P1 has:

- a melting temperature (T m ) determined by DSC according to ISO 11357- 3:2018 standard in the range of 55 - 250°C, preferably 60 - 200°C, more preferably 65 - 175°C, even more preferably 70 - 165°C, still more preferably 75 - 155°C and/or

- a melt flow rate a melt flow rate determined according to ISO 1133 (190°C/2.16 kg) of not more than 250 g/10 min, preferably not more than 150 g/10 min, more preferably not more than 100 g/10 min, even more preferably not more than 50 g/10 min, still more preferably not more than 25 g/10 min and/or

- a glass transition temperature (T g ) determined by dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA) as the peak of the measured loss modulus (G”) curve using an applied frequency of 1 Hz and a strain level of 0.1 % of at or below 0°C, preferably at or below -10°C, more preferably at or below -20°C, even more preferably at or below -25°C, still more preferably at or below -30°C and/or

- a flexural modulus at 23°C determined according to ISO 178:2019 standard of not more than 750 MPa, preferably not more than 500 MPa, more preferably not more than 350 MPa, even more preferably not more than 250 MPa, still more preferably not more than 150 MPa, most preferably not more than 100 MPa.

Suitable polymers to be used as the at least one thermoplastic polymer P1 include, for example, ethylene - vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA), ethylene - acrylic ester copolymers, ethylene - a-olefin copolymers, propylene - a-olefin copolymers, propylene - ethylene copolymers, polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyvinylchloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS), polyamides (PA), chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE), ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM), and polyisobutylene (PIB).

According to one or more embodiments, the at least one thermoplastic polymer P1 is selected from the group consisting of polyethylene (PE), ethylene - vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA), ethylene - acrylic ester copolymers, ethylene - a- olefin copolymers, propylene - a-olefin copolymers, propylene - ethylene copolymers, polypropylene (PP), and polyvinylchloride (PVC), preferably from the group consisting of polyethylene (PE), ethylene - vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA), and ethylene - a-olefin copolymers. According to one or more embodiments, the at least one thermoplastic polymer P1 comprises at least one ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer P11 and at least one thermoplastic polymer P12 that is not an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, preferably selected from the group consisting of polyethylene and ethylene - a- olefin copolymers.

Suitable ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers for use as the at least one ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer P11 include those having a content of a structural unit derived from vinyl acetate in the range of 4 - 90 wt.-%, preferably 6 - 85 wt.-%, more preferably 8 - 80 wt.-%, based on the weight of the copolymer. Suitable copolymers of ethylene and vinyl acetate are commercially available, for example, under the trade name of Escorene® (from Exxon Mobil), under the trade name of Primeva® (from Repsol Quimica S.A.), under the trade name of Evatane® (from Arkema Functional Polyolefins), under the trade name of Greenflex® from Eni versalis S.p.A., and under the trade name of Levapren® from Arlanxeo GmbH.

Suitable polyethylenes for use as the at least one thermoplastic polymer P12 include low density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), and high density polyethylene (HDPE), preferably having a melting temperature (T m ) determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) according to ISO 11357-3:2018 standard using a heating rate of 2°C/min of at or above 100°C, preferably at or above 105°C, more preferably at or above 110°C.

Suitable ethylene - a-olefin copolymers include random and block copolymers of ethylene and one or more C3-C20 a-olefin monomers, in particular one or more of propylene, 1 -butene, 1-pentene, 1 -hexene, 1-heptene, 1-octene, 1- decene, 1-dodecene, and 1 -hexadodecene, preferably comprising at least 60 wt.-%, more preferably at least 65 wt.-% of ethylene-derived units, based on the weight of the copolymer. Suitable ethylene random copolymers include, for example, ethylene-based plastomers, which are commercially available, for example, under the trade name of Affinity®, such as Affinity® EG 8100G, Affinity® EG 8200G, Affinity® SL 8110G, Affinity® KC 8852G, Affinity® VP 8770G, and Affinity® PF 1140G (all from Dow Chemical Company); under the trade name of Exact®, such as Exact® 3024, Exact® 3027, Exact® 3128, Exact® 3131, Exact® 4049, Exact® 4053, Exact® 5371 , and Exact® 8203 (all from Exxon Mobil); and under the trade name of Queo® (from Borealis AG) as well as ethylene-based polyolefin elastomers (POE), which are commercially available, for example, under the trade name of Engage®, such as Engage® 7256, Engage® 7467, Engage® 7447, Engage® 8003, Engage® 8100, Engage® 8480, Engage® 8540, Engage® 8440, Engage® 8450, Engage® 8452, Engage® 8200, and Engage® 8414 (all from Dow Chemical Company).

Suitable ethylene-a-olefin block copolymers include ethylene-based olefin block copolymers (OBC), which are commercially available, for example, under the trade name of Infuse®, such as Infuse® 9100, Infuse® 9107, Infuse®

9500, Infuse® 9507, and Infuse® 9530 (all from Dow Chemical Company).

According to one or more embodiments, the ratio of the amounts of the at least one ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer P11 and the at least one thermoplastic polymer P12 that is not an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer is in the range of from 5:1 to 1:5, preferably from 3:1 to 1:3, more preferably from 3:1 to 1:3.

According to one or more embodiments, the functional layer further comprises at least one surfactant SF. The term “surfactant” refers to surface tension lowering substances, which are typically organic compounds containing both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups. Surfactants are commonly classified, based on the charge of their hydrophilic groups, to anionic, cationic, amphoteric, non-ionic, and polymeric surfactants. Without being bound to any theory, the presence of surfactants in the functional layer may lower the surface tension of water contained in a fresh concrete casted on the functional layer, which may further enhance the ability of the fresh concrete to enter the cavities and pores present on the first major surface of the functional layer.

Examples of suitable anionic surfactants to be used as the at least one surfactant SF include, for example, surfactants containing carboxylate, sulfate, phosphate or sulfonate groups, such as amino acid derivatives; fatty alcohol ether sulfates; fatty alcohol sulfates; soaps; alkylphenol ethoxylates; fatty alcohol ethoxylates; alkanesulfonates; olefinsulfonates; and alkyl phosphates.

Examples of suitable cationic surfactants to be used as the at least one surfactant SF include, for example, quaternary ammonium or phosphonium compounds, such as, for example, tetraalkylammonium salts; N,N- dialkylimidazoline compounds; dimethyldistearylammonium compounds, N- alkylpyridine compounds; and ammonium chlorides.

Amphoteric (zwitterionic) surfactants have both cationic and anionic centers attached to the same molecule. Examples of suitable amphoteric surfactants to be used as the at least one surfactant SF include, for example, amphoteric electrolytes such as aminocarboxylic acis and betaines.

Examples of suitable non-ionic surfactants to be used as the at least one surfactant SF include, for example, ethoxylates, such as, for example, ethoxylated adducts of alcohols, such as polyoxyalkylene polyols; amines; fatty acids; fatty acid amides; alkylphenols; ethanolamides; fatty amines; polysiloxanes; fatty acid esters; alkyl or alkylphenyl polyglycol ethers, such as, for example, fatty alcohol polyglycol ethers; alkylglycosides; sugar esters; sorbitan esters; polysorbates or trialkylamine oxides; esters and amides of poly(meth)acrylic acids with polyalkylene glycols or aminopolyalkylene glycols, which at most may be tacked at one end with alkyl groups.

Polymeric surfactants can be divided into two groups of compounds. The first group includes comb or rake polymers where there is an organic polymeric chain with hydrophobic groups at regular intervals along the chain and hydrophilic groups at random or regular intervals along that chain. The second group of polymeric surfactants includes block co-polymers where there are blocks of hydrophobic groups (B) and blocks of hydrophilic groups (A) usually in A-B-A configuration. Certain polymeric surfactants such as ethylene oxide- propylene oxide co-polymer surfactants can also be classified as non-ionic surfactants.

According to one or more embodiments, the at least one surfactant SF is selected from the group consisting of glycerol monostearates, polycarboxylate ethers, polyether-modified polysiloxanes, polyalkylene oxide siloxanes, hydroxyethyl amines, erucamides, stearyl stearamides, alkali metal alkanesulfonates, and alkyl aryl sulfonates.

Suitable glycerol monostearates are commercially available, for example, under the trade name of Dimodan® HP (from Danisco).

Suitable polycarboxylate ethers include polycarboxylate ether-based superplasticizers (PCEs), which are composed by a methoxy-polyethylene glycol copolymer (side chain) grafted with methacrylic acid copolymer (main chain). Suitable polycarboxylate ether-based superplasticizers are commercially available, for example, under the trade names of Viscocrete® Polymer PC-2, Viscocrete® Polymer RMC-2, Viscocrete® 125 P, and Cemerol® R-750 MC (from Sika AG).

Suitable polyether-modified polysiloxanes include polyetherpolysiloxane copolymers, which are commercially available, for example, under the trade name of Tegostab® B8870 (from Evonik Industries).

Suitable polyalkylene oxide siloxanes are commercially available, for example, under the trade name of Niax® L-1500 (from Momentive). Examples of suitable hydroxyethyl amines include bis(2-hydroxyethyl) amines, which are commercially available, for example, under the trade name of Armostat® 300 (from Akzo Nobel).

Suitable erucamides and stearyl stearamides are commercially available, for example, under the trade names of Kemamide® E180 and Kemamide® S180 (from PMC Biogenix).

Examples of suitable alkali metal alkanesulfonates include sodium alkanesulfonates, which are commercially available, for example, under the trade names of Armostat® 3002 (from Akzo Nobel) and Loxiol® 93P (from Emery Oleochemicals).

Suitable alkylarylsulfonates are commercially available, for example, under the trade name of ZetaSphere®, such as ZetaSphere® 2300, ZetaSphere® 3100 and ZetaSphere® 3700 (from Airproducts).

The at least one surfactant SF preferably comprises, if present in the functional layer, at least 0.01 wt.-%, more preferably at least 0.05 wt.-%, even more preferably at least 0.1 wt.-%, of the total weight of the functional layer. It is also preferred that the amount of the at least one surfactant SF in the functional layer is not more than 10 wt.-%, more preferably not more than 5 wt.-%, even more preferably not more than 3.5 wt.-%, based on the total weight of the functional layer.

According to one or more embodiments, the at least one surfactant SF comprises 0.05 - 7.5 wt.-%, preferably 0.1 - 5.0 wt.-%, more preferably 0.25 - 3.5 wt.-%, even more preferably 0.35 -2.5 wt.-%, still more preferably 0.5 - 1.5 wt.-% of the total weight of the functional layer.

The thickness of the functional layer typically varies along the length and width of the sealing device due to the unsymmetrical surface structure present on the first major surface of the functional layer. Some of the pores and cavities of the functional layer may even reach the first major surface of the barrier layer, in which case the thickness of the functional layer measured at such specific location may not even be measurable.

However, it may be preferred that the functional layer has a maximum thickness of not more than 25 mm, preferably not more than 15 mm, more preferably not more than 10 mm, even more preferably not more than 5 mm, still more preferably not more than 2.5 mm. In the context of the present invention, the maximum thickness of the functional layer can be determined according to DIN EN 1849-2:2010 standard using an optical microscope, such as of type Keyence VHX-600 with 30-fold magnification.

It has also been found out that the mass per unit area of the functional layer may affect the early adhesion strength obtained with the sealing device in pre applied waterproofing applications. It may be preferred that the functional layer has a mass per unit area of at least 100 g/m 2 , more preferably at least 150 g/m 2 , even more preferably at least 200 g/m 2 . According to one or more embodiments, the functional layer has a mass per unit weight in the range of 100 - 1500 g/m 2 , preferably 150 - 1250 g/m 2 , more preferably 250 - 1000 g/m 2 , even more preferably 350 - 1000 g/m 2 , still more preferably 450 - 1000 g/m 2 , most preferably 500 - 1000 g/m 2 .

The functional layer may further comprise one or more additives such as UV- and heat stabilizers, antioxidants, plasticizers, flame retardants, dyes, pigments such as titanium dioxide and carbon black, matting agents, antistatic agents, impact modifiers, biocides, and processing aids such as lubricants, slip agents, antiblock agents, and denest aids. It is preferred, that the total amount of these types of additives comprises not more than 10 wt.-%, preferably not more than 5 wt.-%, of the total weight of the functional layer.

The sealing device further comprises a barrier layer, which is indirectly or directly connected to the second major surface of the functional layer. The functional layer and the barrier layer can be indirectly connected to each other, for example, via a connecting layer, such as an adhesive layer or via a fiber-based layer, or a combination thereof. In case a porous connecting layer, such as an open weave fabric, the functional layer may be partially directly connected and partially indirectly connected to the barrier layer.

The expression “directly connected” is understood to mean in the context of the present invention that no further layer or substance is present between the layers, and that the opposing surfaces of the two layers are directly bonded to each other or adhere to each other. At the transition area between the two layers, the materials forming the layers can also be present mixed with each other.

According to one or more embodiments, the barrier layer has a first and a second major surface, wherein at least a portion of the first major surface of the barrier layer is directly connected to the second major surface of the functional layer. According to one or more embodiments, at least 50%, preferably at least 75 wt.-%, more preferably at least 95% of the area of the first major surface of the barrier layer is directly connected to the second major surface of the functional layer.

The composition of the barrier layer is not particularly restricted. However, the barrier layer should be as waterproof as possible and not to decompose or be mechanically damaged even under prolonged influence of water or moisture.

It is furthermore preferred that the barrier layer is in the form of a flexible plastic layer. This allows the sealing device to be wound into rolls, typically during production, and then easily applied to a surface of a substrate to be waterproofed. Preferably, the barrier layer has a tensile modulus of elasticity determined according to EN ISO 527:2018 standard of not more than 500 MPa, preferably not more than 350 MPa, more preferably not more than 250 MPa, even more preferably not more than 150 MPa, still more preferably not more than 100 MPa. According to one or more embodiments, the barrier layer comprises at least 50 wt.-%, preferably at least 65 wt.-%, more preferably at least 75 wt.-%, even more preferably at least 85 wt.-%, even more preferably at least 90 wt.-%, of at least one thermoplastic polymer P2.

According to one or more embodiments, the at least one thermoplastic polymer P2 has:

- a melting temperature (T m ) determined by DSC according to ISO 11357- 3:2018 standard in the range of 55 - 250°C, preferably 60 - 200°C, more preferably 65 - 175°C, even more preferably 70 - 165°C, still more preferably 75 - 155°C and/or

- a melt flow rate a melt flow rate determined according to ISO 1133 (190°C/2.16 kg) of not more than 250 g/10 min, preferably not more than 150 g/10 min, more preferably not more than 100 g/10 min, even more preferably not more than 50 g/10 min, still more preferably not more than 25 g/10 min and/or

- a glass transition temperature (T g ) determined by dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA) as the peak of the measured loss modulus (G”) curve using an applied frequency of 1 Hz and a strain level of 0.1 % of at or below 0°C, preferably at or below -10°C, more preferably at or below -20°C, even more preferably at or below -25°C, still more preferably at or below -30°C and/or

- a flexural modulus at 23°C determined according to ISO 178:2019 standard of not more than 750 MPa, preferably not more than 500 MPa, more preferably not more than 350 MPa, even more preferably not more than 250 MPa, still more preferably not more than 150 MPa, most preferably not more than 100 MPa.

Suitable polymers to be used as the at least one thermoplastic polymer P2 include, for example, ethylene - vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA), ethylene - acrylic ester copolymers, ethylene - a-olefin copolymers, propylene - a-olefin copolymers, propylene - ethylene copolymers, polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyvinylchloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS), polyamides (PA), chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE), ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM), and polyisobutylene (PIB).

According to one or more embodiments, the at least one thermoplastic polymer P2 is selected from the group consisting of polyethylene (PE), ethylene - vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA), ethylene - acrylic ester copolymers, ethylene - a- olefin copolymers, propylene - a-olefin copolymers, propylene - ethylene copolymers, polypropylene (PP), and polyvinylchloride (PVC), preferably from the group consisting of polyethylene (PE), ethylene - vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA), and ethylene - a-olefin copolymers.

It may be preferred that the at least one thermoplastic polymer P2 contained in the barrier layer is miscible with the at least one thermoplastic polymer P1 contained in the functional layer. By the polymers being “miscible” is meant in the present disclosure that a polymer blend composed of the at least one thermoplastic polymer P1 and the at least one thermoplastic polymer P2 has a negative Gibbs free energy and heat of mixing. The polymer blends composed of entirely miscible polymer components tend to have one single glass transition temperature (T g ).

The barrier layer can further comprise, in addition to the at least one thermoplastic polymer P2, one or more additives such as UV- and heat stabilizers, antioxidants, plasticizers, fillers, flame retardants, dyes, pigments such as titanium dioxide and carbon black, matting agents, antistatic agents, impact modifiers, biocides, and processing aids such as lubricants, slip agents, antiblock agents, and denest aids. It is, however, preferred that the total amount of these types of additives is not more than 35 wt.-%, preferably not more than 25 wt.-%, more preferably not more than 15 wt.-%, even more preferably not more than 10 wt.-%, based on the total weight of the barrier layer. The thickness of the barrier layer is not subjected to any particular restrictions. However, sealing devices comprising a barrier layer having a thickness of above 10 mm or below 0.1 mm are usually not practical in waterproofing applications. Preferably, the barrier layer has a thickness of at least 0.1 mm, more preferably at least 0.25 mm. According to one or more embodiments, the barrier layer has a thickness of 0.1 - 10.0 mm, preferably 0.25 - 5.0 mm, more preferably 0.3 - 3.5 mm, even more preferably 0.35 - 2.5 mm. The thickness of the barrier layer can be determined by using a measurement method as defined in DIN EN 1849-2:2010 standard.

According to one or more embodiments, the first major surface of the functional layer has a surface roughness characterized by a waviness factor Wf, determined as the product of the root mean square roughness of waviness Ws q and peak density of waviness Ws Pd , of at least 0.005 1/mm, preferably at least 0.010 1/mm, more preferably at least 0.0125 1/mm, even more preferably at least 0.0135 1/mm, still more preferably at least 0.0145 1/mm, such as at least 0.0155 1/mm, particularly at least 0.0175 1/mm, wherein the waviness parameters Ws q and Ws Pd are determined according to ISO 25178 standard from a waviness profile obtained from a measured primary profile using a cutoff length Ac of 0.8 mm.

The root mean square roughness of waviness Ws q and peak density of waviness Ws Pd are standardized three-dimensional (3D) areal parameters, which are calculated from a waviness profile as defined in ISO 25178 standard. The 3D areal parameters according to ISO 25178 standard can be calculated based on a waviness profile or based on a roughness profile of a surface, wherein the waviness profile can be obtained from a measured primary profile of a surface using a suitable profile cutoff filters Ac and optionally Af.

The term “measured primary profile” refers in the present disclosure to the primary profile defined in the ISO 25178 as “SF surface”, which is obtained from a measured surface geometry (extracted surface) using F-operator and optionally S-filter. The surface geometry can be measured, for example, using a 3D-scanner smartSCAN (trademark of AICON 3D Systems GmbH). In case of the present invention, the primary profile of the first major surface of the functional layer was obtained by subtracting a polynomial of second degree fitted with the measured data points from the measured surface geometry and a cutoff length Ac of 0.8 mm was used to obtain the waviness profile from a measured primary profile. The primary profile, waviness profile, and the 3D areal parameters according to ISO 25178 standard are preferably determined using a suitable computer software, such as a MountainsMap® Premium (V7) software (trademark of DigitalSurf company).

Especially in case the sealing device is used for waterproofing of roof substrates, it may be preferred that the barrier layer comprises one or more reinforcement layer, which is used for improving the dimensional stability of the barrier layer. It is, however, possible or even preferred that the barrier layer does not contain such reinforcement layers, in particular in case the sealing device is used for waterproofing of underground structures.

The reinforcement layer, if used, may be at least partially embedded, preferably fully embedded into the barrier layer. By the expression “at least partially embedded” is meant that the reinforcement layer is at least partially covered by the matrix of the barrier layer. The type of the reinforcing layer is not particularly restricted. For example, the reinforcing layers commonly used for improving the dimensional stability of thermoplastic waterproofing and roofing membranes can be used. Preferably, the reinforcing layer comprises at least one layer of fiber material, preferably selected from the group consisting of non-woven fabrics, woven fabrics, and laid scrims, more preferably from the group consisting of non-woven fabrics and laid scrims.

The term “non-woven fabric” refers in the present disclosure to materials composed of fibers, which are bonded together by using chemical, mechanical, or thermal bonding means, and which are neither woven nor knitted. Non- woven fabrics can be produced, for example, by using a carding or needle punching process, in which the fibers are mechanically entangled to obtain the nonwoven fabric. In chemical bonding, chemical binders such as adhesive materials are used to hold the fibers together in a nonwoven fabric.

The term “laid scrim” refers in the present disclosure web-like non-woven products composed of at least two sets of parallel yarns (also designated as weft and warp yarns), which lay on top of each other and are chemically bonded to each other. The yarns of a laid scrim are typically arranged with an angle of 60 - 120°, such as 90 ± 5°, towards each other thereby forming interstices, wherein the interstices preferably occupy more than 60% of the entire surface of the laid scrim. Typical materials for laid scrims include metal fibers, inorganic fibers, in particular glass fibers, and synthetic organic fibers, in particular polyester, polypropylene, polyethylene, and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). According to one or more embodiments, the sealing device further comprises a second functional layer (2’) having a first and a second major surface, wherein the second major surface of the barrier layer (3) is directly or indirectly connected to the first major surface of the second functional layer (2’) and wherein the second functional layer (2’) comprises: a) 20 - 75 wt.-%, preferably 25 - 70 wt.-% of at least one thermoplastic polymer P1’ and b) 25 - 80 wt.-%, preferably 30 - 75 wt.-% of a solid filler component F’, all proportions being based on the total weight of the second functional layer (2’).

According to one or more embodiments, the solid filler component F’ comprises at least one first solid filler F1’ having a median particle size dso in the range of 0.5 - 100 pm, preferably 1.0 - 75 pm and at least one second solid filler F2’ different from the at least one first solid filler F1’.

According to one or more embodiments, the at least one thermoplastic polymer P1’ is identical to the at least one thermoplastic polymer P1, the at least one first solid filler F1’ is identical to the at least one first solid filler F1, and the at least one second solid filler F2’ is identical to the at least one second solid filer

F2.

The preferences given above for the functional layer, the barrier layer, the at least one thermoplastic polymer P1 and P1’, the at least one solid filler component F and F’, and to the at least one surfactant SF apply equally to all other subjects of the present invention unless stated otherwise.

Another subject of the present invention is a method for producing a sealing device according to the present invention, the method comprising a step of extruding or co-extruding a first molten polymer composition comprising the constituents of the functional layer through an extruder die.

The first molten polymer composition is preferably obtained by melt-processing a first starting composition comprising the constituents of the functional layer. The term “melt-processing” refers in the present disclosure to a process, in which at least one molten polymeric component is intimately mixed with at least one other component, which may be another molten polymeric component or a solid component, such as a filler, until a melt blend, i.e. a substantially homogeneously mixed mixture of the polymeric component(s) and the other constituents is obtained. The melt processing of a starting composition can be conducted as a batch process using any conventional mixer, such as a Brabender, Banbury, or roll mixer or as continuous process using a continuous type mixer, preferably an extruder, such as a single screw or a twin-screw extruder or a planetary roller extruder.

According to one or more embodiments, the first molten polymer composition further contains a blowing gas, which is released from the first molten polymer composition through a surface of the functional layer discharged from the extruder die.

The blowing gas may be added to the first molten polymer composition to provide a functional layer having a certain surface roughness on its first major surface. After the molten polymer composition is discharged from the extruder die, the functional layer is first inflated due to volume increase of the blowing gas, which results in formation of closed cell structure in the material of the functional layer. Eventually, the surface of the functional layer is penetrated by the blowing gas, which results in formation of open or semi-open cells, pores, cavities, and other surface imperfections which are accessible from the side of the first major surface of the functional layer. The distribution and dimensions of these surface structures, which are accessible from the side of the first major surface of the functional layer, can be characterized using the 3D-surface roughness parameters as discussed above.

In order to prevent a premature release of the blowing gas from the molten polymer composition, i.e. before the molten polymer composition is discharged through the extruder die, the extruder should be operated with closed venting unit(s).

The blowing gas released from the first molten polymer composition through the surface of the functional layer is preferably present in the first starting composition or in the first molten polymer composition in form of a physical or chemical blowing agent. In case of a chemical blowing agent, the blowing agent is preferably added to the first starting composition and the blowing gas is generated during the melt-processing of the first starting composition. In case of a physical blowing agent, the blowing agent is preferably added to the first starting composition or to the melt-processed starting composition before the first molten polymer composition is extruded through the extruder die.

Suitable physical blowing agents to be used in the method for producing a sealing device include gaseous and liquid physical blowing agents. Gaseous physical blowing agents, such as compressed nitrogen or carbon dioxide, are can be directly injected under high pressure into the melt-processed starting composition, which is conveyed through a melt-processing apparatus, such as an extruder barrel. Liquid physical blowing agents include volatile liquids which produce gas through vaporization. Suitable liquid physical blowing agents generally include water, short- chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, for example having five to seven carbon atoms, and their halogenated, in particular chlorinated and fluorinated derivatives. Particularly suitable liquid physical blowing agents have a standard boiling point measured at a pressure of 1 bar of not more than 250°C, preferably not more than 200°C. The standard boiling point of a liquid physical blowing agent can be measured using an ebulliometer.

Chemical blowing agents, also known as foaming agents, are typically solids that liberate gas(es) by means of a chemical reaction, such as decomposition, when exposed to higher temperatures. Chemical blowing agents may be either inorganic or organic.

According to one or more embodiments, the first molten polymer composition is obtained by melt-processing a first starting composition comprising the constituents of the functional layer and further at least one chemical blowing agent CBA.

According to one or more embodiments, the at least one chemical blowing agent CBA has a maximum decomposition peak temperature measured by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) in the range of 85 - 225°C, preferably 95 - 215°C, more preferably 105 - 205°C, even more preferably 115 - 195°C. The maximum decomposition peak measured by DSC is preferably determined by using a DSC822e differential scanning calorimeter from Mettler-Toledo by keeping the sample for 2 min at 25°C, then heating the sample from 25°C to 280°C at a rate of 5°C/min, then keeping the sample for 2 min at 280°C and finally cooling the sample from 280°C to 25°C at a rate of 10°C/min.

Suitable substances to be used as the at least one chemical blowing agent CBA include, for example, azodicarbonamide, azobisisobutyronitrile, azocyclohexyl nitrile, dinitrosopentamethylene tetramine, azodiamino benzene, calcium azide, 4,4 ' -diphenyldisulphonyl azide, benzenesulphonyl hydrazide, 4,4-oxybenzenesulphonyl semicarbazide, 4,4-oxybis(benzenesulphonyl hydrazide), diphenyl sulphone-3,3-disulphonyl hydrazide, p-toluenesulphonyl hydrazide, p-toluenesulphonyl semicarbazide, trihydrazino triazine, N,N’- dimethyl-N,N’-dinitrosoterephthalamide, diazoaminobenzene, diazoaminotoluene, hydrazodicarbonamide, barium azodicarboxylate, 5- hydroxytetrazole, sodium bicarbonate, ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, and organic acids.

Most of the above listed preferable chemical blowing agents, such as sodium bicarbonate, are solid at normal room temperature and are typically provided in powder form. The particle size of such powders is preferably not too low in order to prevent premature decomposition the chemical blowing agent during a premixing process, for example, during pre-mixing of the constituents of the first starting composition. A narrow particle size distribution may also be preferred in order to better control the decomposition temperature the chemical blowing agent.

According to one or more embodiments, the at least one chemical blowing agent CBA is present in the first starting composition in form of solid particles having a median particle size dso in the range of 0.5 - 100 pm, preferably 1.0 - 75 pm, more preferably 2.5 - 50 pm, even more preferably 5 - 35 pm.

Suitable organic acids for use as the at least one chemical blowing agent CBA include, for example, monocarboxylic acids, such as acetic acid and propionic acid, solid polycarboxylic acids, such as solid, hydroxy-functionalized or unsaturated dicarboxylic, tricarboxylic, tetracarboxylic or polycarboxylic acids, in particular citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, and maleic acid.

Although some of the compounds used in the present invention are characterized as useful for specific functions, it should be understood that the use of these compounds is not limited to their stated functions. For example, it is also possible that some of the substances presented above as chemical blowing agents can also be used as activators for the at least one chemical blowing agent CBA. For example, commonly used activators for organic acid-based chemical blowing agents include hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate) and carbonate salts, in particular those of formula XHCO3 or X2CO3, wherein X stands for a generic cation, such as Na + , K + , NH4 + , ½ Zn 2+ , ½ Mg 2+ , and ½ Ca 2+ , in particular Na + and K + . On the other hand, these types of activators may themselves be suitable for use as the at least one chemical blowing agent CBA.

According to one or more embodiments, the first starting composition comprises, in addition to the at least one chemical blowing agent CBA, at least one activator for the at least one chemical blowing agent CBA.

According to one or more embodiments, the at least one chemical blowing agent CBA is selected from the group consisting of bicarbonates of formula XHCO3 and carbonates of formula X2CO3, wherein X stands for a generic cation, in particular Na + , K + , NH4 + , ½ Zn 2+ , ½ Mg 2+ , or ½ Ca 2+ , preferably from the group consisting of bicarbonates of formula XHCO3, wherein X stands for a generic cation, in particular Na + , K + , NH4 + , ½ Zn 2+ , ½ Mg 2+ , or ½ Ca 2+ , more preferably from the group consisting of sodium and potassium bicarbonates.

The at least one chemical blowing agent CBA is preferably present in the first starting composition in an amount of not more than 10 wt.-%, more preferably not more than 7.5 wt.-%, even more preferably not more than 5 wt.-%, based on the total weight of the first starting composition.

According to one or more embodiments, the at least one chemical blowing agent CBA comprises at least 0.1 wt.-%, preferably at least 0.15 wt.-%, more preferably at least 0.2 wt.-% of the total weight of the first starting composition. According to one or more further embodiments, the at least one chemical blowing agent CBA comprises 0.1 - 5.0 wt.-%, preferably 0.15 - 3.5 wt.-%, more preferably 0.2 - 2.5 wt.-%, even more preferably 0.2 - 1.5 wt.-% of the total weight of the first starting composition. Especially in case the solid filler component F comprises hydraulic binders, it may be preferred that the first starting composition contains only minor amounts of water. According to one or more embodiments, the first starting composition comprises less than 10 wt.-%, preferably less than 7.5 wt.-%, more preferably less than 5 wt.-%, even more preferably less than 3.5 wt.-% of water.

The first molten polymer composition is preferably extruded or co-extruded using an extrusion apparatus comprising an extruder and a die.

Such extrusion apparatuses are well known to a person skilled in the art. A suitable extruder comprises a barrel and a screw unit contained in the barrel or a ram. Any conventional extruders, for example, a ram extruder, single screw extruder, or a twin-screw extruder may be used. Preferably, the extruder is a screw extruder, more preferably a twin- screw extruder. The screw unit of a conventional screw extruder is typically considered to comprise feed, transition, and metering sections. In the feed section the thermoplastic composition enters the channels of the rotating screw and is conveyed towards the transition section, in which the composition is compressed and melted. The composition should be fully melted when it leaves the transition section. The function of the metering section is to homogenize the melted composition and to allow it to be metered or pumped out at constant rate. The extrusion apparatus further comprises a die, preferably a flat die, consisting of manifold, approach, and lip regions. In case of a co-extrusion process, the extrusion apparatus preferably comprises at least two extruders, preferably twin-screw extruders, and a single- or a multi-manifold die.

The extruder barrel comprises a feed port through which the material to be extruded is fed to the extruder and an outlet port through which the material leaves the barrel. The outlet port is coupled with the die via a gate or adapter piece. A mixing device may be interposed between the barrel and the die. The feed port is typically connected with a hopper to which the material to be extruded is added. It is preferred that a screen pack and a breaker plate are positioned at the end of the barrel to avoid plugging in the nozzles. The extruder further comprises heating elements, cooling elements, temperature sensors and temperature control elements to provide temperature controlled zones along the barrel, also known as barrel zones. The extruder may comprise, for example, 3 to 8 barrel zones, preferably at least 5 barrel zones, by the use of which a temperature profile can be realized in the barrel.

Preferably, a significant part, preferably the entire amount of the at least one thermoplastic polymer P1 is fed into the extruder through the feed port. It may be preferred that at least part of the solid filler component F is fed into the extruder through another port located downstream from the feed port. The term “downstream” designates in the present document the direction to the outlet port. For example, it may be advantageous that not more than 50 wt.-%, preferably not more than 30 wt.-%, more preferably not more than 10 wt.-%, of the total amount of the solid filler component F is fed into the extruder through the feed port with the entire amount of the at least one thermoplastic polymer P1 and that the remaining portion of the solid filler component F is fed into the extruder through a another port located downstream from the feed port.

It may also be preferred that only a portion of the at least one chemical blowing agent CBA and/or the at least one surfactant SF, if used, are fed into the extruder through the feed port and that at least 10 wt.-%, preferably at least 20 wt.% of the total amount of these components is fed into the extruder through another port located downstream from the feed port.

Some or all of the constituents of the first starting composition can also be mixed to obtain a premix, which is then fed into the extruder through the feed port. The premix can be carried out using any type of conventional blending apparatus, which are known to a person skilled in the art. In a premixing process, the particles of the at least one thermoplastic polymer P1 are mixed at an elevated temperature with the other constituents, such as with the solid filler component F and/or with the at least one chemical blowing agent CBA, to obtain a homogeneously mixed mixture. It is also possible to that some or all of the constituents of the first starting composition are processed in a compounding extruder to pellets or granules, which are then fed into the extruder though the feed port.

The preferred extrusion temperature depends on the embodiment of the sealing device, in particular on the type polymer basis of the functional layer. The term “extrusion temperature” refers to the temperature of the extruded composition in the die outlet. According to one or more embodiments, the extrusion temperature is in the range of 80 - 250°C, preferably 100 - 240°C, more preferably 120 - 220°C, even more preferably 140 - 200°C.

The preferred extrusion pressure depends on the embodiment of the sealing device, in particular on the type polymer basis of the functional layer and on the amount of the solid filler component F in the functional layer. The term “extrusion pressure” refers to the pressure of the composition at the end of the metering zone just before the composition enters the die inlet.

According to one or more embodiments, the extrusion pressure is in the range of 20 - 350 bar, preferably 30 - 240 bar, more preferably 35 - 200 bar, even more preferably 40 - 150 bar.

The extrusion process may be conducted by using different temperature profiles, such as an increasing temperature profile where the temperature increases downstream the barrel, a decreasing temperature profile where the temperature decreases downstream the barrel, and a humped temperature profile where the temperature increases from the feed port toward a certain set point, for example toward the middle of the barrel. It may be preferable that the extrusion process is conducted by using a humped temperature profile.

Preferably, at least part, such as at least 5 wt.-%, in particular at least 10 wt.- %, preferably 25 wt.-%, more preferably at least 50 wt.-%, most preferably at least 75 wt.-%, of the at least one chemical blowing agent CBA decomposes while the first starting composition is conveyed through the barrel and before the melt processed starting composition enters the die. This is ensured by selection of a suitable chemical blowing agent or a suitable mixture of a chemical blowing agent and an activator and by adjusting the temperature profile in the feed, transition and metering sections. Preferably, the first starting composition is maintained at a temperature, which is at least 10°C above the decomposition temperature of the at least one chemical blowing agent CBA as the first starting composition is conveyed through the extruder barrel.

Furthermore, the extruder is preferably operated with closed venting unit(s). It is essential that at least a significant part of the blowing gases released inside the extruder barrel are kept trapped in the melt-processed polymer composition and not released before the first molten polymer composition exits the extruder die.

According to one or more embodiments, the method for producing a sealing device comprises a further step of extruding or co-extruding a second molten polymer composition comprising the constituents of the barrier layer through an extruder die.

Preferably, the second molten polymer composition is obtained by melt processing a second starting composition comprising the constituents of the barrier layer.

The further details of the method for producing a sealing device depend on the embodiment of the sealing device.

According to one or more embodiments, the method for producing a sealing device comprises co-extruding the first molten polymer composition and the second molten polymer composition through a common extruder die, preferably a flat die, using a co-extrusion apparatus. Preferably, the co extrusion apparatus comprises a first extruder for melt-processing the first starting composition and a second extruder for melt-processing the second starting composition. The first and second molten polymer compositions are extruded through a common extruder die, which can be equipped with a single- or a multi-manifold. The thickness of the extruded functional layer and barrier layer as well as the adhesion between the layers can be easily controlled by adjusting the die lip of the co-extrusion apparatus. It is preferred that the first extruder is operated with closed venting unit(s) in order to prevent premature release of the blowing gas.

It may be preferred that the method for producing a sealing device comprises a further step of employing spaced apart calender cooling rolls through which the composite article comprising the extruded functional layer and the extruded barrier layer is drawn subsequent to the co-extrusion step. The thickness of the functional layer and the barrier layer can be further controlled by adjusting the gap size between the calender cooling rolls. Preferably, the gap between the calender cooling rolls is adjusted such that substantially no pressure is exerted on the surface of the functional layer in order to obtain a functional layer with surface roughness.

According to one or more further embodiments, the method for producing a sealing device comprises extruding the first molten polymer composition through a first extruder die using a first extrusion apparatus and extruding the second molten polymer composition through a second extruder die using a second extrusion apparatus and bonding the thus obtained functional layer and barrier layer to each other. The extruded functional layer and barrier layer can, for example, be thermally laminated to each other or adhered to each other using an adhesive. The term “thermal lamination” refers here to a process comprising partially melting at least one of the layers upon application of thermal energy followed by a cooling step, which results in formation of a bond between the layers without using a bonding agent, such as an adhesive.

According to one or more further embodiments, the method for producing a sealing device comprises extruding the second molten polymer composition through an extruder die on a second major surface of a pre-formed functional layer or extruding the first molten polymer composition through an extruder die on a first major surface of a pre-formed barrier layer. In these embodiments, the barrier layer is simultaneously formed and bonded to the previously formed functional layer or vice versa.

Another subject of the present invention is a sealing device obtained by using the method for producing a sealing device according to the present invention.

The sealing device can be a waterproofing membrane, a roofing membrane, a tunneling membrane, or a sealing tape.

Another subject of the present invention is use of the sealing device according to the present invention for waterproofing of a substrate. The substrate to be waterproofed can be any structural or civil engineering structure, which is to be sealed against moisture and water.

According to one or more embodiments, the use of the sealing device for waterproofing of a substrate comprises steps of: i) Applying a sealing device according to the present invention to a surface of the substrate such that the second major surface of the barrier layer is facing the surface of the substrate, ii) Casting a fresh concrete composition on the first major surface of the functional layer, and iii) Letting the fresh concrete composition to harden.

The term “fresh concrete composition” refers to a concrete composition before hardening, in particular before setting of the concrete composition. The casted concrete composition after hardening can be part of a structure, in particular, an above-ground or underground structure, for example a building, garage, tunnel, landfill, water retention, pond, dike or an element for use in pre fabricated constructions. According to one or more further embodiments, the use of the sealing device for waterproofing of substrate comprises steps of: i) Providing a sealing device according to the present invention, ii) Applying a layer of an adhesive on at least a portion of the surface of the substrate, iii) Contacting the layer of adhesive with first major surface of the functional layer.

The adhesive can be a fresh cementitious composition, or a synthetic resin- based adhesive composition, for example, a reactive epoxy-based, polyurethane-based, or acrylic-based adhesive composition or a non-reactive thermoplastic-based or rubber-based adhesive composition.

The term “cementitious composition” refers to concrete, shotcrete, grout, mortar, paste or a combination thereof. The terms "paste", "mortar", "concrete", “shotcrete”, and “grout” are well-known terms in the State-of-the-Art. Pastes are mixtures comprising a hydraulic cement binder, usually Portland cement, masonry cement, or mortar cement. Mortars are pastes additionally including fine aggregate, for example sand. Concrete are mortars additionally including coarse aggregate, for example crushed gravel or stone. Shotcrete is concrete (or sometimes mortar) conveyed through a hose and pneumatically projected at high velocity onto a surface. The cementitious compositions can be formed by mixing required amounts of certain components, for example, a hydratable cement, water, and fine and/or coarse aggregate, to produce the particular cementitious composition.

According to one or more further embodiments, the use of the sealing device for waterproofing of substrate comprises steps of: i) Providing a sealing device according to the present invention, ii) Applying a layer of an adhesive composition on at least a portion of the surface of the substrate to form a first adhesive film and on the first major surface of the functional layer to form a second adhesive film, iii) Contacting the first and second adhesive films to affect adhesive bonding between the substrate and the sealing device.

The adhesive composition used in this these embodiments is preferably a solvent or water based contact adhesive. Suitable solvent-based contact adhesives are commercially available, for example, under the trade name of Sarnacol® (from Sika AG).

Examples The followings compounds shown in Table 1 were used in the examples:

Table 1

Before extrusion Preparation of sealing devices

The exemplary sealing devices Ex-1 to Ex-8 and the reference sealing devices Ref-1 and Ref-2 were produced using a laboratory scale co-extrusion apparatus comprising two twin screw extruders (Berstorff GmbH), a flat die and set of water-cooled calender rolls. A thermoplastic waterproofing membrane based on polymer blend of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer and linear low- density polyethylene (LLDPE) was used as the barrier layer in all sealing devices.

A first starting composition containing the constituents of the functional layer was melt-processed in a first twin screw extruder. In case the first starting composition contained a chemical blowing agent, the extruder was operated with closed venting unit in order to prevent the escape of blowing gases. A second starting composition containing the constituents of the barrier layer was simultaneously melt-processed in a second twin screw extruder and the obtained first and second molten polymer compositions were co-extruded through a flat die on top of each other to produce a two-layer composite membrane, which was subsequently cooled between the calender rolls. The gap between the calender cooling rolls was adjusted to be somewhat larger than the thickness of the co-extruded membrane. The mass per unit area of the functional layers varied from 624 to 798 g/m 2 and the thickness of the barrier layer was approximately 0.7 mm.

The compositions of the functional layers and operating conditions of the co extrusion apparatus during production of the sealing devices are presented in Table 2. The extrusion temperature and pressure were measured at a point, where the melt-processed mass entered the inlet of the flat die. The temperature of the cooling rolls was approximately 20°C during the production process.

Particle size of vermiculite in functional layer

The particle size of vermiculite in the functional layer (after extrusion) was measured by dissolving a representative sample of a functional layer of a sealing device prepared as described above in xylene at a temperature of 90°C for 24 hours followed by separation of the solid filler component by filtration.

The dimensions of the vermiculite particles were then measured by using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (SEM-EDX). According to the measurements, the vermiculite is present in the functional layer in form of plate-like particles having a length of 20 - 550 pm and a thickness of 5 - 25 pm. Thickness of barrier layer

The thickness of the barrier layer was determined by using a measurement method as defined in DIN EN 1849-2:2010 standard. An optical microscope of type Keyence VHX-600 with 30-fold magnification was used for measuring the thickness of the cross sections.

Mass per unit area of functional layers

In order to the determine of the mass per unit area of the functional layer of an exemplary sealing device, a reference membrane composed of a barrier layer having the same thickness and composition as the barrier layer of the corresponding exemplary sealing device was first produced. 57 circular samples having a diameter of 8 cm were then cut from the exemplary sealing device and the corresponding reference membrane. The mass of each sample was measured with accuracy of 0.01 g and the mass per unit areas were calculated by dividing the measured mass by the calculated area of the sample. The coating weight the functional layer of the exemplary sealing device was then determined by subtracting the mass per unit area of the reference membrane from the mass per unit area of the exemplary sealing device. The circular samples were cut from the sealing device and the reference membrane in the longitudinal direction along a length of ca. 5.5 m, wherein the distance between adjacent samples was ca. 30 cm. Waviness parameters and waviness factor

For characterizing the surface roughness of the functional layers, a sample strip having dimension of 100 mm (length) x 100 mm (width) was cut from each of the produced sealing devices and adhered to a hard PVC sheet having a dimension of 100 mm (length) x 100 mm (width) x 5 mm (thickness), with the functional layer facing upwards, to ensure a completely planar lying of the sample. A double-sided adhesive tape was used in attaching the sample to the hard PVC sheet. The surface geometry of the functional layer of each sample strip was measured with a 3D-scanner smartSCAN from the company AICON 3D Systems GmbH. In the following paragraph the notations in parenthesis refer to the terminology used in ISO 25178 standard. A polynom of second degree fitted to the measured data points (F operator) was first subtracted from the surface geometry (extracted surface) to obtain a primary profile (SF surface). The waviness profile was then obtained from the primary profile using a cutoff length Ac (S filter) having a value of 0.8 mm. The waviness parameters Ws q and Ws Pd (areal parameters) according to ISO 25178 standard were calculated from the determined waviness profile and the waviness factor Wf was calculated as a product of the Ws q and Ws Pd . The calculations required for obtaining the primary profile, waviness profile, and the waviness parameters Ws q and Ws Pd from the measured surface geometry were performed with a MountainsMap® Premium (V7) software (from DigitalSurf).

Preparation of the concrete test specimen

Three sample strips with a dimension of 200 mm (length) x 50 mm (width) were cut from each of the sealing devices produced as described above. The sample strips were placed into formworks having a dimension of 200 mm (length) x 50 mm (width) x 30 mm (height) with the functional layer facing upwards and with the barrier layer against the bottom of the formwork. One edge of each sample strip on the side of the functional layer was covered with an adhesive tape having a length of 50 mm and width coinciding with the width of the strip to prevent the adhesion to the hardened concrete. The adhesive tapes were used to provide easier installation of the test specimens to the peel resistance testing apparatus.

For the preparation of concrete specimens a batch of fresh concrete formulation was prepared. The fresh concrete formulation was obtained by mixing 8.9900 kg of a concrete dry batch of type MC 0.45 conforming to EN 1766:2017 standard, 0.7440 kg of water and 0.0110 kg of Viscocrete 3082 for five minutes in a tumbling mixer. The concrete dry batch of type MC 0.45 contained 1.6811 kg of CEM I 42.5 N cement (Normo 4, Holcim), 7.3089 kg of aggregates containing 3% Nekafill-15 (from KFN) concrete additive (limestone filler), 24% sand having a particle size of 0-1 mm, 36% sand having a particle size of 1-4 mm, and 37% gravel having a particle size of 4-8 mm. Before blending with water and Viscocrete 3082 the concrete dry batch was homogenized for five minutes in a tumbling mixer.

The formworks containing the sample strips were subsequently filled with the fresh concrete formulation and vibrated for two minutes to release the entrapped air. After hardening for 24 hours under standard atmosphere (air temperature 23°C, relative air humidity 50%), the test concrete specimens were stripped from the formworks and measured for concrete peel resistances (early adhesion strength).

Concrete peel resistances

The measurement of peel resistances was conducted in accordance with the procedure laid out in the standard DIN EN 1372:2015-06. A Zwick Roell AllroundLine Z010 material testing apparatus equipped with a Zwick Roell 90°- peeling device (type number 316237) was used for conducting the peel resistance measurements. In the peel resistance measurements, a concrete specimen was clamped with the upper grip of the material testing apparatus for a length of 10 mm at the end of the concrete specimen comprising the taped section of the sample strip. Following, the strip was peeled off from the surface of the concrete specimen at a peeling angle of 90° and at a constant cross beam speed of 100 mm/min. During the measurements the distance of the rolls was approximately 570 mm. The peeling of the sample strip was continued until a length of approximately 140 mm of the strip was peeled off from the surface of the concrete specimen. The values for peel resistance were calculated as average peel force per width of the sample strip [N/ 50 mm] during peeling over a length of approximately 70 mm thus excluding the first and last quarter of the total peeling length from the calculation.

The average peel resistance values presented in Table 2 have been calculated as an average of three measurements conducted with the same sealing device.

Table 2