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Title:
SEMI-DECOUPLED PARTITIONING FOR VIDEO CODING
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2021/230930
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A method, computer program, and computer system is provided for encoding or decoding video data. Video data including a chroma component and a luma component is received. A first coding tree structure associated with the luma component and a second coding tree structure associated with the chroma component are determined, wherein the first coding tree structure and the second coding tree structure share a same top level coding tree structure. The video data is decoded based on the first coding tree structure and the second coding tree structure.

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JPH01280927PRIORITY ENCODER
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Inventors:
ZHAO, Liang (US)
ZHAO, Xin (US)
LIU, Shan (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2021/016200
Publication Date:
November 18, 2021
Filing Date:
February 02, 2021
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
TENCENT AMERICA LLC (US)
International Classes:
H03M7/00; H04N19/119
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
RABENA, John F. et al. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A method of video coding, executable by a processor, comprising: receiving video data comprising a luma component and a chroma component; determining a first coding tree structure associated with the luma component and a second coding tree structure associated with the chroma component, wherein the first coding tree structure and the second coding tree structure share a same top level coding tree structure; and decoding the video data based on the first coding tree structure and the second coding tree structure.

2. The method of claim 1, further comprising: determining the same top level coding tree structure based on a block size, a coding tree depth, and a partition type associated with the luma component.

3. The method of claim 1, wherein the first coding tree structure and the second coding tree structure are determined to share the same coding tree structure based on a block size associated with the luma component being greater than a first threshold value Tl, a coding tree splitting depth associated with the luma component being less than or equal to a second threshold value T2, and a quad-tree split partitioning being used for the luma component.

4. The method of claim 1, wherein the first coding tree structure and the second coding tree structure are determined to share the same coding tree structure based on a block size associated with the luma component being greater than a first threshold value Tl or a coding tree splitting depth associated with the luma component being less than or equal to a second threshold value T2 and based on a quad-tree split partitioning or a binary split partitioning being used for the luma component.

5. The method of claim 1, wherein the first coding tree structure and the second coding tree structure does not share any coding tree structure based on L-type partitioning or T-type partitioning being used for the luma component.

6. The method of claim 1, responsive to at least a portion of the first coding tree structure being different from the second coding tree structure, a set of partition types associated with the chroma component is a subset of partition types associated with the luma component.

7. The method of claim 6, wherein L-type partitioning or T-type partitioning are disallowed for the chroma component.

8. The method of claim 6, wherein only quad -tree split partitioning or binary split partitioning are allowed for the chroma component.

9. The method of claim 6, wherein L-type partitioning is disallowed from being further partitioned for the chroma component.

10. The method of claim 1, responsive to at least a portion of the first coding tree structure being different from the second coding tree structure, a tree depth of the chroma component is disallowed from exceeding a maximum tree depth associated with the luma component.

11. The method of claim 10, wherein area sizes of blocks associated with the chroma component are disallowed from being smaller than a minimum area size of blocks associated with the luma component.

12. The method of claim 10, wherein a tree depth of quad-tree split partitioning for the chroma component is disallowed from exceeding a maximum tree depth of quad-tree split partitioning for the luma component.

13. The method of claim 10, wherein a tree depth of binary tree partitioning plus triple tree partitioning for the chroma component is disallowed from exceeding a maximum tree depth of binary tree partitioning plus triple tree partitioning for the luma component.

14. The method of claim 1, wherein based on a depth of the luma component exceeding a first threshold value T1 or a minimum block area size for the luma component being less than or equal to a second threshold value T2, the luma component and the chroma component share a partial coding tree structure.

15. The method of claim 1, wherein based on a minimum a block area size for the luma component being less than or equal to a threshold value T2, the chroma component and the luma component share a top-level coding tree structure S, wherein T2 and S are non-negative integers.

16. The method of claim 1, wherein a point where the first coding tree structure and the second coding tree structure start to differ depends on partitioning information associated with the luma component.

17. The method of claim 16, wherein the point where the first coding tree structure and the second coding tree structure start to differ is signaled in a high level syntax of a bitstream, the high level syntax comprises one or more of a sequence header, a frame header, and a slice header.

18. The method of claim 1, wherein for each sub-partition of the chroma component and the luma component, a flag is signaled to indicate whether the first coding tree structure and the second coding tree structure are the same.

19. A computer system for decoding video data, the computer system comprising: one or more computer-readable non-transitory storage media configured to store computer program code; and one or more computer processors configured to access said computer program code and operate as instructed by said computer program code, said computer program code including: receiving code configured to cause the one or more computer processors to receive video data comprising a luma component and a chroma component; determining code configured to cause the one or more computer processors to determine a first coding tree structure associated with the luma component and a second coding tree structure associated with the chroma component, wherein the first coding tree structure and the second coding tree structure share a same top level coding tree structure; and decoding code configured to cause the one or more computer processors to decode the video data based on the first coding tree structure and the second coding tree structure.

20. A non-transitory computer readable medium having stored thereon a computer program for decoding video data, the computer program configured to cause one or more computer processors to: receive video data comprising a luma component and a chroma component; determine a first coding tree structure associated with the luma component and a second coding tree structure associated with the chroma component, wherein the first coding tree structure and the second coding tree structure share a same top level coding tree structure; and decode the video data based on the first coding tree structure and the second coding tree structure.

Description:
SEMI-DECOUPLED PARTITIONING FOR VIDEO CODING

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

[0001] This application claims priority from U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 63/023,059, filed on May 11, 2020, and U.S. Patent Application No. 17/125,350, filed on December 17, 2020 in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

FIELD

[0002] This disclosure relates generally to field of data processing, and more particularly to video encoding and/or decoding.

BACKGROUND

[0003] AOMedia Video 1 (AVI) is an open video coding format designed for video transmissions over the Internet. It was developed as a successor to VP9 by the Alliance for Open Media (AOMedia), a consortium founded in 2015 that includes semiconductor firms, video on demand providers, video content producers, software development companies and web browser vendors.

SUMMARY

[0004] Embodiments relate to a method, system, and computer readable medium for encoding and/or decoding video data. According to one aspect, a method for encoding and/or decoding video data is provided. The method may include receiving video data including a chroma component and a luma component. A first coding tree structure associated with the luma component and a second coding tree structure associated with the chroma component are determined. The video data is decoded based on the first coding tree structure and the second coding tree structure.

[0005] According to another aspect, a computer system for encoding and/or decoding video data is provided. The computer system may include one or more processors, one or more computer-readable memories, one or more computer-readable tangible storage devices, and program instructions stored on at least one of the one or more storage devices for execution by at least one of the one or more processors via at least one of the one or more memories, whereby the computer system is capable of performing a method. The method may include receiving video data including a chroma component and a luma component. A first coding tree structure associated with the luma component and a second coding tree structure associated with the chroma component are determined. The video data is decoded based on the first coding tree structure and the second coding tree structure.

[0006] According to yet another aspect, a computer readable medium for encoding and/or decoding video data is provided. The computer readable medium may include one or more computer-readable storage devices and program instructions stored on at least one of the one or more tangible storage devices, the program instructions executable by a processor. The program instructions are executable by a processor for performing a method that may accordingly include receiving video data including a chroma component and a luma component. A first coding tree structure associated with the luma component and a second coding tree structure associated with the chroma component are determined. The video data is decoded based on the first coding tree structure and the second coding tree structure.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS [0007] These and other objects, features and advantages will become apparent from the following detailed description of illustrative embodiments, which is to be read in connection with the accompanying drawings. The various features of the drawings are not to scale as the illustrations are for clarity in facilitating the understanding of one skilled in the art in conjunction with the detailed description. In the drawings:

[0008] FIG. 1 illustrates a networked computer environment according to at least one embodiment;

[0009] FIG. 2 is a diagram of coding tree structures of the chroma component and luma component of video data, according to at least one embodiment;

[0010] FIG. 3 is an operational flowchart illustrating the steps carried out by a program that codes video data, according to at least one embodiment;

[0011] FIG. 4 is a block diagram of internal and external components of computers and servers depicted in FIG. 1 according to at least one embodiment;

[0012] FIG. 5 is a block diagram of an illustrative cloud computing environment including the computer system depicted in FIG. 1, according to at least one embodiment; and

[0013] FIG. 6 is a block diagram of functional layers of the illustrative cloud computing environment of FIG. 5, according to at least one embodiment.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0014] Detailed embodiments of the claimed structures and methods are disclosed herein; however, it can be understood that the disclosed embodiments are merely illustrative of the claimed structures and methods that may be embodied in various forms. Those structures and methods may, however, be embodied in many different forms and should not be construed as limited to the exemplary embodiments set forth herein. Rather, these exemplary embodiments are provided so that this disclosure will be thorough and complete and will fully convey the scope to those skilled in the art. In the description, details of well-known features and techniques may be omitted to avoid unnecessarily obscuring the presented embodiments.

[0015] Embodiments relate generally to the field of data processing, and more particularly to video encoding and decoding. The following described exemplary embodiments provide a system, method and computer program to, among other things, encode and/or decode video data based on coding tree structures of components of the video data. Therefore, some embodiments have the capacity to improve the field of computing by improving encoding and decoding efficiency through the identification of the same or different coding tree structure types between the components of the video data and the restriction of certain coding tree structure types.

[0016] As previously described, AOMedia Video 1 (AVI) is an open video coding format designed for video transmissions over the Internet. It was developed as a successor to VP9 by the Alliance for Open Media (AOMedia), a consortium founded in 2015 that includes semiconductor firms, video on demand providers, video content producers, software development companies and web browser vendors.

[0017] In AVI, semi-decoupled tree partitioning, or semi-separate tree or flexible-block partitioning, may be used for the chroma component. In this method, the luma and chroma blocks in one super block may have the same or different block partitioning, which may be dependent on the luma coded block sizes or the luma tree depth. When the luma block area size is greater than one threshold value T1 or the coding tree splitting depth of luma block is less than or equal to another threshold value T2, then the chroma component may use the same coding tree structure as the luma component. Otherwise, when the block area size is less than or equal to T1 or the luma splitting depth is greater than T2, the corresponding chroma block may have different coding block partitioning than the luma component, which is called flexible-block partitioning for chroma component. T1 may be a positive integer, such as 128 or 256. T2 may be a positive integer, such as 1 or 2.

[0018] However, in semi-decoupled partitioning, a fixed threshold of luma block sizes or tree depth of luma component is employed to decide whether or not luma and chroma use different trees, which does not consider the diversity of different content. Although luma and chroma can have different trees, they still use the same amount of partition types. Some of the partition types may not be useful for chroma component, so the distortion reduction from these partition types may not deserve the extra bits signaled for these partition types. Additionally, when luma and chroma coded blocks use different block partitioning, the chroma block can have a higher tree depth than the luma block. Because this may happen rarely, it may not be optimal to spend the extra bits to signal these cases. Moreover, when the coded depth of luma block exceeds one threshold, luma and chroma may use different tree structures. However, when the luma block has very complex texture, the chroma block also has a higher probability to be a block having a relatively complex texture. It may be advantageous, therefore, to identify whether the chroma component and luma component use the same or different coding tree structure types and restrict certain coding tree structure types based on various conditions.

[0019] Aspects are described herein with reference to flowchart illustrations and/or block diagrams of methods, apparatus (systems), and computer readable media according to the various embodiments. It will be understood that each block of the flowchart illustrations and/or block diagrams, and combinations of blocks in the flowchart illustrations and/or block diagrams, can be implemented by computer readable program instructions.

[0020] Referring now to FIG. 1, a functional block diagram of a networked computer environment illustrating a video coding system 100 (hereinafter “system”) for encoding and/or decoding video data based on coding tree structure types. It should be appreciated that FIG. 1 provides only an illustration of one implementation and does not imply any limitations with regard to the environments in which different embodiments may be implemented. Many modifications to the depicted environments may be made based on design and implementation requirements.

[0021] The system 100 may include a computer 102 and a server computer 114. The computer 102 may communicate with the server computer 114 via a communication network 110 (hereinafter “network”). The computer 102 may include a processor 104 and a software program 108 that is stored on a data storage device 106 and is enabled to interface with a user and communicate with the server computer 114. As will be discussed below with reference to FIG. 4 the computer 102 may include internal components 800 A and external components 900 A, respectively, and the server computer 114 may include internal components 800B and external components 900B, respectively. The computer 102 may be, for example, a mobile device, a telephone, a personal digital assistant, a netbook, a laptop computer, a tablet computer, a desktop computer, or any type of computing devices capable of running a program, accessing a network, and accessing a database.

[0022] The server computer 114 may also operate in a cloud computing service model, such as Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), or Infrastructure as a Service (laaS), as discussed below with respect to FIGS. 6 and 7. The server computer 114 may also be located in a cloud computing deployment model, such as a private cloud, community cloud, public cloud, or hybrid cloud.

[0023] The server computer 114, which may be used for encoding video data is enabled to run a Video Encoding Program 116 (hereinafter “program”) that may interact with a database 112. The Video Encoding Program method is explained in more detail below with respect to FIG. 3. In one embodiment, the computer 102 may operate as an input device including a user interface while the program 116 may run primarily on server computer 114. In an alternative embodiment, the program 116 may run primarily on one or more computers 102 while the server computer 114 may be used for processing and storage of data used by the program 116. It should be noted that the program 116 may be a standalone program or may be integrated into a larger video encoding program.

[0024] It should be noted, however, that processing for the program 116 may, in some instances be shared amongst the computers 102 and the server computers 114 in any ratio. In another embodiment, the program 116 may operate on more than one computer, server computer, or some combination of computers and server computers, for example, a plurality of computers 102 communicating across the network 110 with a single server computer 114 In another embodiment, for example, the program 116 may operate on a plurality of server computers 114 communicating across the network 110 with a plurality of client computers. Alternatively, the program may operate on a network server communicating across the network with a server and a plurality of client computers.

[0025] The network 110 may include wired connections, wireless connections, fiber optic connections, or some combination thereof. In general, the network 110 can be any combination of connections and protocols that will support communications between the computer 102 and the server computer 114 The network 110 may include various types of networks, such as, for example, a local area network (LAN), a wide area network (WAN) such as the Internet, a telecommunication network such as the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), a wireless network, a public switched network, a satellite network, a cellular network (e.g., a fifth generation (5G) network, a long-term evolution (LTE) network, a third generation (3G) network, a code division multiple access (CDMA) network, etc.), a public land mobile network (PLMN), a metropolitan area network (MAN), a private network, an ad hoc network, an intranet, a fiber optic-based network, or the like, and/or a combination of these or other types of networks.

[0026] The number and arrangement of devices and networks shown in FIG. 1 are provided as an example. In practice, there may be additional devices and/or networks, fewer devices and/or networks, different devices and/or networks, or differently arranged devices and/or networks than those shown in FIG. 1. Furthermore, two or more devices shown in FIG. 1 may be implemented within a single device, or a single device shown in FIG. 1 may be implemented as multiple, distributed devices. Additionally, or alternatively, a set of devices (e.g., one or more devices) of system 100 may perform one or more functions described as being performed by another set of devices of system 100.

[0027] Referring now to FIG. 2, a block diagram 200 of an exemplary coding tree structure for the video data is depicted. The coding tree structure may include a luma component 202 and a chroma component 204.

[0028] In addition to luma block sizes and coding tree depth of luma blocks, partition types of luma coded blocks may also be employed to determine whether luma or chroma coded block in a super block may use the same partitioning or separate partitioning. In one embodiment, when the luma block size may be greater than one threshold T1 and/or coding tree splitting depth of luma block may be smaller than or equal to one threshold T2, and/or only quad-tree split (4-way split) may be used for luma block, then the chroma block may use the same coding tree structure as luma. Otherwise, they may use a different coding tree structure. In one embodiment, when the luma block size may be greater than one threshold T1 or coding tree splitting depth of luma block may be smaller than or equal to one threshold T2, and/or only quad-tree split (4-way split) or binary split (2 -way split) may be used for luma block, then chroma block may use the same coding tree structure as the luma block. Otherwise, if the luma block size is less than T1 or the coding tree splitting depth of the luma block is greater than or equal to T2, the chroma block and the luma block may use different coding tree structures from each other as part of a flexible block partitioning scheme. In one embodiment, when L-type partition or T-type partition may be employed for luma coded block, then luma and chroma coded block may use a different partitioning methods from each other. An L-type block partitioning tree method can split a block into an L-shaped partition and a rectangular partition. Similarly, a T-type block partitioning tree method can split a block into a T-shaped partition and two rectangular partitions.

[0029] When luma and chroma coded blocks in one super block may employ different partitioning structure, the partition types allowed for chroma coded blocks may be a subset of that allowed for luma coded blocks. In one embodiment, L-type partition or T-type partition may not be allowed for chroma coded blocks when luma coded blocks and chroma coded blocks employ different partition trees from each other. In one embodiment, only quad-tree split (4-way split) and/or binary split (2 -way split) may be allowed for chroma coded blocks when luma and chroma coded blocks may employ different partition tree types from each other. In one embodiment, L- type partition may not be allowed to be further split for chroma coded blocks when luma and chroma coded blocks employ different partition tree types from each other. In one embodiment, only quad-tree split (4-way split) or binary split (2 -way split) may be further split for chroma coded blocks when luma and chroma coded blocks may employ different partition tree types from each other.

[0030] When luma and chroma coded blocks in one super block may employ different tree structure, the tree depth of chroma coded blocks may not exceed the maximum tree depth of the luma coded blocks in this super block. In one embodiment, when luma and chroma coded blocks in one super block employ different partitioning structure, the area sizes of chroma coded blocks cannot be smaller than the minimum area sizes of the luma coded blocks in this super block. In one embodiment, when luma and chroma coded blocks in one super block employ different tree structure, the tree depth of quad-tree split (4-way split) for chroma coded blocks cannot exceed the maximum tree depth of quad-tree split (4-way split) for the luma coded blocks in this super block. In one embodiment, when luma and chroma coded blocks in one super block employ different tree structure, the tree depth of Binary tree (2 -way split) plus Triple tree (3-way split) for chroma coded blocks cannot exceed the maximum tree depth of Binary tree (2 -way split) plus Triple tree (3-way split) for the luma coded blocks in this super block. In one embodiment, if the chroma block may be partitioned to a depth that may be same of the tree depth of the collocated luma coded block, then partitioning pattern and whether the current chroma block may be to be partitioned will not be signalled.

[0031] In one super block, when depth of luma coded block may exceeds one threshold T1 or the minimum luma block area sizes may be smaller than or equal to another threshold T2, luma and chroma coded blocks may share a partial tree structure. In one embodiment, when the minimum luma block area sizes may be smaller than or equal to threshold T2, then chroma and luma block share the top S level tree structure, wherein T2 and S may both be non-negative integers. For example, T2 can be 128 or 256, and S can be 1 or 2. In one example, T2 may be set to 256, and S may be set 1. In another example, the minimum luma coded block may be 16x16, so luma and chroma may share the first level tree depth, and for the tree structure under that point, luma and chroma may have different tree structures. [0032] In one super block, the condition on when luma and chroma may start separate tree partitioning may depend on partitioning information of luma. In one embodiment, if luma and chroma have separate tree partitioning structures after the luma (or chroma) block may be split to depth NO, then NO may depend on the partitioning depth (Nl) of luma.

[0033] In one super block, the starting point of when luma and chroma may start separate tree partitioning may be signaled in the bitstream. In one embodiment, the starting point of when luma and chroma start separate tree partitioning may be signaled at the super block level, so the starting point of separate trees may be different for different super blocks. The point where the separate tree structures start to differ may be signaled in a high level syntax of a bitstream. The high level syntax may include one or more of a sequence header, a frame header, a slice header, etc.

[0034] In one super block, starting from a super block, for each sub-partition, a flag may be signaled to indicate whether the luma and chroma share the same partition tree. If the flag may be signaled as a value that may indicate luma and chroma share the same partition tree, then the chroma may not signal additional partitioning information. Otherwise, for the chroma component, the partitioning information may be further signaled.

[0035] Referring now to FIG. 3, an operational flowchart illustrating the steps of a method 300 for encoding and/or decoding video data is depicted. In some implementations, one or more process blocks of FIG. 3 may be performed by the computer 102 (FIG. 1) and the server computer 114 (FIG. 1). In some implementations, one or more process blocks of FIG. 3 may be performed by another device or a group of devices separate from or including the computer 102 and the server computer 114.

[0036] At 302, the method 300 includes receiving video data comprising a luma component and a chroma component.

[0037] At 304, the method 300 includes determining a first coding tree structure associated with the luma component and a second coding tree structure associated with the chroma component, whereby the first coding tree structure and the second coding tree structure share a same top level coding tree structure. [0038] At 306, the method 300 includes decoding the video data based on the first coding tree structure and the second coding tree structure.

[0039] It may be appreciated that FIG. 3 provides only an illustration of one implementation and does not imply any limitations with regard to how different embodiments may be implemented. Many modifications to the depicted environments may be made based on design and implementation requirements.

[0040] FIG. 4 is a block diagram 400 of internal and external components of computers depicted in FIG. 1 in accordance with an illustrative embodiment. It should be appreciated that FIG. 4 provides only an illustration of one implementation and does not imply any limitations with regard to the environments in which different embodiments may be implemented. Many modifications to the depicted environments may be made based on design and implementation requirements.

[0041] Computer 102 (FIG. 1) and server computer 114 (FIG. 1) may include respective sets of internal components 800A,B and external components 900A,B illustrated in FIG 4. Each of the sets of internal components 800 include one or more processors 820, one or more computer- readable RAMs 822 and one or more computer-readable ROMs 824 on one or more buses 826, one or more operating systems 828, and one or more computer-readable tangible storage devices 830.

[0042] Processor 820 is implemented in hardware, firmware, or a combination of hardware and software. Processor 820 is a central processing unit (CPU), a graphics processing unit (GPU), an accelerated processing unit (APU), a microprocessor, a microcontroller, a digital signal processor (DSP), a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), or another type of processing component. In some implementations, processor 820 includes one or more processors capable of being programmed to perform a function. Bus 826 includes a component that permits communication among the internal components 800 A, B.

[0043] The one or more operating systems 828, the software program 108 (FIG. 1) and the Video Encoding Program 116 (FIG. 1) on server computer 114 (FIG. 1) are stored on one or more of the respective computer-readable tangible storage devices 830 for execution by one or more of the respective processors 820 via one or more of the respective RAMs 822 (which typically include cache memory). In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 4, each of the computer- readable tangible storage devices 830 is a magnetic disk storage device of an internal hard drive. Alternatively, each of the computer-readable tangible storage devices 830 is a semiconductor storage device such as ROM 824, EPROM, flash memory, an optical disk, a magneto-optic disk, a solid state disk, a compact disc (CD), a digital versatile disc (DVD), a floppy disk, a cartridge, a magnetic tape, and/or another type of non-transitory computer-readable tangible storage device that can store a computer program and digital information.

[0044] Each set of internal components 800A,B also includes a R/W drive or interface 832 to read from and write to one or more portable computer-readable tangible storage devices 936 such as a CD-ROM, DVD, memory stick, magnetic tape, magnetic disk, optical disk or semiconductor storage device. A software program, such as the software program 108 (FIG. 1) and the Video Encoding Program 116 (FIG. 1) can be stored on one or more of the respective portable computer-readable tangible storage devices 936, read via the respective R/W drive or interface 832 and loaded into the respective hard drive 830.

[0045] Each set of internal components 800A,B also includes network adapters or interfaces 836 such as a TCP/IP adapter cards; wireless Wi-Fi interface cards; or 3G, 4G, or 5G wireless interface cards or other wired or wireless communication links. The software program 108 (FIG. 1) and the Video Encoding Program 116 (FIG. 1) on the server computer 114 (FIG. 1) can be downloaded to the computer 102 (FIG. 1) and server computer 114 from an external computer via a network (for example, the Internet, a local area network or other, wide area network) and respective network adapters or interfaces 836. From the network adapters or interfaces 836, the software program 108 and the Video Encoding Program 116 on the server computer 114 are loaded into the respective hard drive 830. The network may comprise copper wires, optical fibers, wireless transmission, routers, firewalls, switches, gateway computers and/or edge servers.

[0046] Each of the sets of external components 900A,B can include a computer display monitor 920, a keyboard 930, and a computer mouse 934. External components 900A,B can also include touch screens, virtual keyboards, touch pads, pointing devices, and other human interface devices. Each of the sets of internal components 800A,B also includes device drivers 840 to interface to computer display monitor 920, keyboard 930 and computer mouse 934. The device drivers 840, R/W drive or interface 832 and network adapter or interface 836 comprise hardware and software (stored in storage device 830 and/or ROM 824).

[0047] It is understood in advance that although this disclosure includes a detailed description on cloud computing, implementation of the teachings recited herein are not limited to a cloud computing environment. Rather, some embodiments are capable of being implemented in conjunction with any other type of computing environment now known or later developed.

[0048] Cloud computing is a model of service delivery for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g. networks, network bandwidth, servers, processing, memory, storage, applications, virtual machines, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or interaction with a provider of the service. This cloud model may include at least five characteristics, at least three service models, and at least four deployment models.

[0049] Characteristics are as follows:

On-demand self-service: a cloud consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as server time and network storage, as needed automatically without requiring human interaction with the service’s provider.

Broad network access: capabilities are available over a network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g., mobile phones, laptops, and PDAs).

Resource pooling: the provider’s computing resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to demand. There is a sense of location independence in that the consumer generally has no control or knowledge over the exact location of the provided resources but may be able to specify location at a higher level of abstraction (e.g., country, state, or datacenter).

Rapid elasticity: capabilities can be rapidly and elastically provisioned, in some cases automatically, to quickly scale out and rapidly released to quickly scale in. To the consumer, the capabilities available for provisioning often appear to be unlimited and can be purchased in any quantity at any time.

Measured service: cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e.g., storage, processing, bandwidth, and active user accounts). Resource usage can be monitored, controlled, and reported providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the utilized service.

[0050] Service Models are as follows:

Software as a Service (SaaS): the capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider’s applications running on a cloud infrastructure. The applications are accessible from various client devices through a thin client interface such as a web browser (e.g., web-based e- mail). The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, storage, or even individual application capabilities, with the possible exception of limited user-specific application configuration settings.

Platform as a Service (PaaS): the capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired applications created using programming languages and tools supported by the provider. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including networks, servers, operating systems, or storage, but has control over the deployed applications and possibly application hosting environment configurations.

Infrastructure as a Service (laaS): the capability provided to the consumer is to provision processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computing resources where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software, which can include operating systems and applications. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over operating systems, storage, deployed applications, and possibly limited control of select networking components (e.g., host firewalls).

[0051] Deployment Models are as follows:

Private cloud: the cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization. It may be managed by the organization or a third party and may exist on-premises or off-premises.

Community cloud: the cloud infrastructure is shared by several organizations and supports a specific community that has shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may be managed by the organizations or a third party and may exist on-premises or off-premises.

Public cloud: the cloud infrastructure is made available to the general public or a large industry group and is owned by an organization selling cloud services.

Hybrid cloud: the cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability (e.g., cloud bursting for load balancing between clouds).

[0052] A cloud computing environment is service oriented with a focus on statelessness, low coupling, modularity, and semantic interoperability. At the heart of cloud computing is an infrastructure comprising a network of interconnected nodes.

[0053] Referring to FIG. 5, illustrative cloud computing environment 500 is depicted. As shown, cloud computing environment 500 comprises one or more cloud computing nodes 10 with which local computing devices used by cloud consumers, such as, for example, personal digital assistant (PDA) or cellular telephone 54A, desktop computer 54B, laptop computer 54C, and/or automobile computer system 54N may communicate. Cloud computing nodes 10 may communicate with one another. They may be grouped (not shown) physically or virtually, in one or more networks, such as Private, Community, Public, or Hybrid clouds as described hereinabove, or a combination thereof. This allows cloud computing environment 600 to offer infrastructure, platforms and/or software as services for which a cloud consumer does not need to maintain resources on a local computing device. It is understood that the types of computing devices 54A-N shown in FIG. 5 are intended to be illustrative only and that cloud computing nodes 10 and cloud computing environment 500 can communicate with any type of computerized device over any type of network and/or network addressable connection (e.g., using a web browser).

[0054] Referring to FIG. 6, a set of functional abstraction layers 600 provided by cloud computing environment 500 (FIG. 5) is shown. It should be understood in advance that the components, layers, and functions shown in FIG. 6 are intended to be illustrative only and embodiments are not limited thereto. As depicted, the following layers and corresponding functions are provided:

[0055] Hardware and software layer 60 includes hardware and software components. Examples of hardware components include: mainframes 61; RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) architecture based servers 62; servers 63; blade servers 64; storage devices 65; and networks and networking components 66. In some embodiments, software components include network application server software 67 and database software 68.

[0056] Virtualization layer 70 provides an abstraction layer from which the following examples of virtual entities may be provided: virtual servers 71; virtual storage 72; virtual networks 73, including virtual private networks; virtual applications and operating systems 74; and virtual clients 75.

[0057] In one example, management layer 80 may provide the functions described below. Resource provisioning 81 provides dynamic procurement of computing resources and other resources that are utilized to perform tasks within the cloud computing environment. Metering and Pricing 82 provide cost tracking as resources are utilized within the cloud computing environment, and billing or invoicing for consumption of these resources. In one example, these resources may comprise application software licenses. Security provides identity verification for cloud consumers and tasks, as well as protection for data and other resources. User portal 83 provides access to the cloud computing environment for consumers and system administrators. Service level management 84 provides cloud computing resource allocation and management such that required service levels are met. Service Level Agreement (SLA) planning and fulfillment 85 provide pre-arrangement for, and procurement of, cloud computing resources for which a future requirement is anticipated in accordance with an SLA.

[0058] Workloads layer 90 provides examples of functionality for which the cloud computing environment may be utilized. Examples of workloads and functions which may be provided from this layer include: mapping and navigation 91; software development and lifecycle management 92; virtual classroom education delivery 93; data analytics processing 94; transaction processing 95; and Video Encoding/Decoding 96. Video Encoding/Decoding 96 may encode/decode video data based on coding tree structure types. [0059] Some embodiments may relate to a system, a method, and/or a computer readable medium at any possible technical detail level of integration. The computer readable medium may include a computer-readable non-transitory storage medium (or media) having computer readable program instructions thereon for causing a processor to carry out operations.

[0060] The computer readable storage medium can be a tangible device that can retain and store instructions for use by an instruction execution device. The computer readable storage medium may be, for example, but is not limited to, an electronic storage device, a magnetic storage device, an optical storage device, an electromagnetic storage device, a semiconductor storage device, or any suitable combination of the foregoing. A non-exhaustive list of more specific examples of the computer readable storage medium includes the following: a portable computer diskette, a hard disk, a random access memory (RAM), a read-only memory (ROM), an erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM or Flash memory), a static random access memory (SRAM), a portable compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM), a digital versatile disk (DVD), a memory stick, a floppy disk, a mechanically encoded device such as punch-cards or raised structures in a groove having instructions recorded thereon, and any suitable combination of the foregoing. A computer readable storage medium, as used herein, is not to be construed as being transitory signals per se, such as radio waves or other freely propagating electromagnetic waves, electromagnetic waves propagating through a waveguide or other transmission media (e.g., light pulses passing through a fiber-optic cable), or electrical signals transmitted through a wire.

[0061] Computer readable program instructions described herein can be downloaded to respective computing/processing devices from a computer readable storage medium or to an external computer or external storage device via a network, for example, the Internet, a local area network, a wide area network and/or a wireless network. The network may comprise copper transmission cables, optical transmission fibers, wireless transmission, routers, firewalls, switches, gateway computers and/or edge servers. A network adapter card or network interface in each computing/processing device receives computer readable program instructions from the network and forwards the computer readable program instructions for storage in a computer readable storage medium within the respective computing/processing device. [0062] Computer readable program code/instructions for carrying out operations may be assembler instructions, instruction-set-architecture (ISA) instructions, machine instructions, machine dependent instructions, microcode, firmware instructions, state-setting data, configuration data for integrated circuitry, or either source code or object code written in any combination of one or more programming languages, including an object oriented programming language such as Smalltalk, C++, or the like, and procedural programming languages, such as the "C" programming language or similar programming languages. The computer readable program instructions may execute entirely on the user's computer, partly on the user's computer, as a stand-alone software package, partly on the user's computer and partly on a remote computer or entirely on the remote computer or server. In the latter scenario, the remote computer may be connected to the user's computer through any type of network, including a local area network (LAN) or a wide area network (WAN), or the connection may be made to an external computer (for example, through the Internet using an Internet Service Provider). In some embodiments, electronic circuitry including, for example, programmable logic circuitry, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA), or programmable logic arrays (PLA) may execute the computer readable program instructions by utilizing state information of the computer readable program instructions to personalize the electronic circuitry, in order to perform aspects or operations.

[0063] These computer readable program instructions may be provided to a processor of a general purpose computer, special purpose computer, or other programmable data processing apparatus to produce a machine, such that the instructions, which execute via the processor of the computer or other programmable data processing apparatus, create means for implementing the functions/acts specified in the flowchart and/or block diagram block or blocks. These computer readable program instructions may also be stored in a computer readable storage medium that can direct a computer, a programmable data processing apparatus, and/or other devices to function in a particular manner, such that the computer readable storage medium having instructions stored therein comprises an article of manufacture including instructions which implement aspects of the function/act specified in the flowchart and/or block diagram block or blocks.

[0064] The computer readable program instructions may also be loaded onto a computer, other programmable data processing apparatus, or other device to cause a series of operational steps to be performed on the computer, other programmable apparatus or other device to produce a computer implemented process, such that the instructions which execute on the computer, other programmable apparatus, or other device implement the functions/acts specified in the flowchart and/or block diagram block or blocks.

[0065] The flowchart and block diagrams in the Figures illustrate the architecture, functionality, and operation of possible implementations of systems, methods, and computer readable media according to various embodiments. In this regard, each block in the flowchart or block diagrams may represent a module, segment, or portion of instructions, which comprises one or more executable instructions for implementing the specified logical function(s). The method, computer system, and computer readable medium may include additional blocks, fewer blocks, different blocks, or differently arranged blocks than those depicted in the Figures. In some alternative implementations, the functions noted in the blocks may occur out of the order noted in the Figures. For example, two blocks shown in succession may, in fact, be executed concurrently or substantially concurrently, or the blocks may sometimes be executed in the reverse order, depending upon the functionality involved. It will also be noted that each block of the block diagrams and/or flowchart illustration, and combinations of blocks in the block diagrams and/or flowchart illustration, can be implemented by special purpose hardware-based systems that perform the specified functions or acts or carry out combinations of special purpose hardware and computer instructions.

[0066] It will be apparent that systems and/or methods, described herein, may be implemented in different forms of hardware, firmware, or a combination of hardware and software. The actual specialized control hardware or software code used to implement these systems and/or methods is not limiting of the implementations. Thus, the operation and behavior of the systems and/or methods were described herein without reference to specific software code — it being understood that software and hardware may be designed to implement the systems and/or methods based on the description herein.

[0067] No element, act, or instruction used herein should be construed as critical or essential unless explicitly described as such. Also, as used herein, the articles “a” and “an” are intended to include one or more items, and may be used interchangeably with “one or more.” Furthermore, as used herein, the term “set” is intended to include one or more items (e.g., related items, unrelated items, a combination of related and unrelated items, etc.), and may be used interchangeably with “one or more.” Where only one item is intended, the term “one” or similar language is used.

Also, as used herein, the terms “has,” “have,” “having,” or the like are intended to be open-ended terms. Further, the phrase “based on” is intended to mean “based, at least in part, on” unless explicitly stated otherwise.

[0068] The descriptions of the various aspects and embodiments have been presented for purposes of illustration, but are not intended to be exhaustive or limited to the embodiments disclosed. Even though combinations of features are recited in the claims and/or disclosed in the specification, these combinations are not intended to limit the disclosure of possible implementations. In fact, many of these features may be combined in ways not specifically recited in the claims and/or disclosed in the specification. Although each dependent claim listed below may directly depend on only one claim, the disclosure of possible implementations includes each dependent claim in combination with every other claim in the claim set. Many modifications and variations will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art without departing from the scope of the described embodiments. The terminology used herein was chosen to best explain the principles of the embodiments, the practical application or technical improvement over technologies found in the marketplace, or to enable others of ordinary skill in the art to understand the embodiments disclosed herein.