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Title:
SHAVING DEVICE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2021/209308
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to a shaving device (100) for shaving a skin surface comprising a housing (200) with a skin contacting surface (250) and at least one cutting blade (1) mounted in the housing, wherein the at least one cutting blade has an asymmetric cross-sectional shape with a first face (2), a second face (3) opposed to the first face as well as a cutting edge (4) at the intersection of the first face and the second face.

Inventors:
GLUCHE PETER (DE)
GRETZSCHEL RALPH (DE)
MERTENS MICHAEL (DE)
GESTER MATTHIAS (GB)
Application Number:
PCT/EP2021/059174
Publication Date:
October 21, 2021
Filing Date:
April 08, 2021
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
GFD GES FUER DIAMANTPRODUKTE MBH (DE)
GILLETTE CO LLC (US)
International Classes:
B26B21/40; B26B21/56; B26B21/58
Domestic Patent References:
WO2002100610A12002-12-19
WO2000064644A12000-11-02
Foreign References:
BE472676A
US20120311865A12012-12-13
US3606682A1971-09-21
US3863340A1975-02-04
US6655030B22003-12-02
US3842499A1974-10-22
EP2727880A12014-05-07
DE19859905A11999-09-09
Other References:
MARKUS MOHR ET AL.: "Youngs modulus, fracture strength, and Poisson's ratio of nanocrystalline diamond films", J. APPL. PHYS., vol. 116, 2014, pages 124308, XP012190286, DOI: 10.1063/1.4896729
R.MORRELL ET AL., INT. JOURNAL OF REFRACTORY METALS & HARD MATERIALS, vol. 28, 2010, pages 508 - 515
R. DANZERJ. KRIEGESMANN ET AL.: "Technische keramische Werkstoffe", HVB PRESS, article "Der 4-Kugelversuch zur Ermittlung der biaxialen Biegefestigkeit sproder Werkstoffe"
YEON-GIL JUNG, J. MATER. RES., vol. 19, no. 10, pages 3076
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
PFENNING, MEINIG & PARTNER MBB (DE)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1. A shaving device (100) for shaving a skin surface comprising

• a housing (200) with a skin contacting surface (250) and

• at least one cutting blade (1) mounted in the housing (200), wherein the at least one cutting blade (1) has an asymmetric cross-sectional shape with a first face (2), a second face (3) op posed to the first face (2) as well as a cutting edge (4) at the in tersection of the first face (2) and the second face (3), wherein o the first face (2) comprises a first surface (9) and a primary bevel (7) with

the primary bevel (7) extending from the cutting edge (4) to the first surface (9),

a first intersecting line (12) connecting the primary bevel (7) and the first surface (9) and

a first wedge angle qi between an imaginary extension of the first surface (9') and the primary bevel (7) and o the second face (3) comprises a secondary bevel (5) with

• the secondary bevel (5) extending from the cutting edge (4) rearwards, and

• a second wedge angle 02 between the first surface (9) and the secondary bevel (5), wherein the at least one cutting blade (1) is mounted in the housing that the clearance angle a between the skin contacting surface (250) and the primary bevel (7) or the secondary bevel (5) is < 11°, • the effective cutting angle e between the skin contacting sur face (250) and the bisecting line (260) of the first wedge angle qi is > 10° and

• 01 > 02-

2. The shaving device of claim 1, characterized in that the clearance angle a is < 5°, preferably < 1°, more preferably < 0° and even more preferably from -1° to -5° and/or the effective cutting angle e is > 15°, preferably > 20°.

3. The shaving device of any of claims 1 or 2, characterized in that the second face (3) comprises a tertiary bevel (6), extending from the second bevel (5) with a second intersecting line (11) connecting the secondary bevel (5) and the tertiary bevel (6) and a third wedge angle Q3 between the first surface (9) and the tertiary bevel (6), wherein Q2 is preferably smaller than Q3.

4. The shaving device of any of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the first wedge angle qi ranges from 5° to 75°, preferably 10° to 60°, more preferably 15° to 46°, even more prefera bly 20° to 45° and/or the second wedge angle Q2 ranges from -10° to 40°, preferably 0° to 30°, more preferably 10° to 25° and/or the third wedge angle Q3 ranges from 1° to 60°, preferably 10° to 55°, more pref erably 19° to 46° and even more preferably 20 to 45°.

5. The shaving device of any of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the primary bevel (7) has a length di being the di mension projected onto the imaginary extension of the first surface (9') taken from the cutting edge (4) to the first intersecting line (12) from 0.1 to 7 pm, preferably from 0.5 to 5 pm, more preferably from 1 to 3 pm. 6. The shaving device of any of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the dimension projected onto the first surface (9) and/or the imaginary extension of the first surface (9') taken from the cutting edge (4) to the second intersecting line (11) has a length d2 which ranges from 1 to 150 pm, preferably 5 to 100 pm, more prefera bly from 10 to 75 pm, and in particular 15 to 50 pm.

7. The shaving device of any of claims 1 to 6 characterized in that the cutting blade (1) comprises or consists of a blade body (15) consisting of a first material (18).

8. The shaving device of any of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the cutting blade (1) comprises or consists of a blade body (15) comprising or consisting of a first material (18) and a second material (19) joined with the first material (18).

9. The shaving device of claims 7 or 8, characterized in that the first material (18) comprises or consists of a material selected from the group consisting of

• metals, preferably titanium, nickel, chromium, niobium, tung sten, tantalum, molybdenum, vanadium, platinum, germanium, iron, and alloys thereof, in particular steel,

• ceramics comprising at least one element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, boron, oxygen and combi nations thereof, preferably silicon carbide, zirconium oxide, alu minum oxide, silicon nitride, boron nitride, tantalum nitride, TiAIN, TiCN, and/or TiB ,

• glass ceramics; preferably aluminum-containing glass-ceramics, • composite materials made from ceramic materials in a metallic matrix (cermets),

• hard metals, preferably sintered carbide hard metals, such as tungsten carbide or titanium carbide bonded with cobalt or nickel,

• silicon or germanium, preferably with the crystalline plane par allel to the second face (2) orientation <100>, <110>, <111> or <211>,

• single crystalline materials,

• glass or sapphire,

• polycrystalline or amorphous silicon or germanium,

• mono- or polycrystalline diamond, diamond like carbon (DLC), adamantine carbon and

• combinations thereof.

10. The shaving device of any of claims 8 or 9, characterized in that the second material (19) comprises or consists of a material selected from the group consisting of

• oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides, preferably aluminum nitride, chromium nitride, titanium nitride, titanium carbon nitride, ti tanium aluminum nitride, cubic boron nitride

• boron aluminum magnesium

• carbon, preferably diamond, nano-crystalline diamond, dia mond like carbon (DLC), and

• combinations thereof.

11. The shaving device of any of claims 8 to 10, characterized in that the second material (19) fulfills at least one of the following properties: • a thickness of 0.15 to 20 mih, preferably 2 to 15 pm and more preferably 3 to 12,

• a modulus of elasticity of less than 1200 GPa, preferably less than 900 GPa, more preferably less than 750 GPa, and even more preferably less than 500 GPa,

• a transverse rupture stress oo of at least 1 GPa, preferably at least 2.5 GPa, more preferably at least 5 GPa,

• a hardness of at least 20 GPa.

12. The shaving device of any of claims 8 to 11, characterized in that the second material (19) comprises or consists of nano-crystalline diamond and fulfills at least one of the following prop erties:

• an average surface roughness RRMS of less than 100 nm, less than 50 nm, more preferably less than 20 nm,

• an average grain size dso of the nano-crystalline diamond of 1 to 100 nm, preferably from 5 to 90 nm, more preferably from 7 to 30 nm, and even more preferably from 10 to 20 nm.

13. The shaving device of any of any of claims 7 to 12, characterized in that the first material (18) and/or the second material (19) are coated at least in regions with an low-friction material, prefer ably selected from the group consisting of fluoropolymer materials, parylene, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyme thyl methacrylate, graphite, diamond-like carbon (DLC) and combina tions thereof.

14. The shaving device of any of claims 8 to 13, characterized in that the first intersecting line (12) is shaped within the second material (19).

15. The shaving device of any of claims 1 to 14, characterized in that the cutting edge (4) has a tip radius of less than 200 nm, preferably less than 100 nm and more preferably less than 50 nm.

16. The cutting blade of any of claims 1 to 15, characterized in that the secondary bevel (5) comprises a further bev eled region (8) extending from the cutting edge (4) to a third intersect ing line (11) connecting the secondary bevel (5) and the beveled region (8), the beveled region (8) preferably having a fourth wedge angle 04 between the first surface (9) and the beveled region (8).

Description:
Shaving device

The present invention relates to a shaving device for shaving a skin surface com prising a housing with a skin contacting surface and at least one cutting blade mounted in the housing, wherein the at least one cutting blade has an asym metric cross-sectional shape with a first face, a second face opposed to the first face as well as a cutting edge at the intersection of the first face and the second face. The following definitions are used in the present application:

• the rake face is the surface of a cutting blade over which the cut hair slides that is removed in the cutting process

• the clearance face is the surface of a cutting tool that passes over the skin; the angle between the clearance face and the contacting surface with the skin is the clearance angle a • The cutting bevel of a cutting blade is enclosed by the rake face and the clearance face and denoted by the bevel angle Q

• The cutting edge is the line of intersection of the rake face and the clear ance face

• The effective cutting angle e is the angle between the skin contacting surface of the shaving device and the bisecting line of the cutting bevel, i.e. e = a + Q/2

In the prior art, the arrangement of the blades within a shaving device has been focused on multi-blade razors.

US 3,863,340 teaches a plural edge razor with a lead blade member and a fol lowing blade member, wherein the members have unsymmetrical edges hereon and have passages therethrough to facilitate removal of shaving debris from the cutting edge.

US 6,655,030 describes a shaving head with at least a first and second cutting member arranged behind and spaced apart from the first cutting member wherein the cutting angle between the skin contacting surface and the second cutting member is equal or higher than the cutting angle between the skin con tacting surface of the first cutting member.

US 3,842,499 refers to a razor blade assembly with one or more groups of mul tiple cutting elements wherein the group of cutting elements comprises at least two blades with one blade being chisel shaped. This allows a favorable geome try for tandem blade shaving operations.

The dimensions of shaving blade edge profiles and their arrangement in a shav ing device are interdependent and are typically optimized to cut hair efficiently. This comprises the following 3 parameters:

1. a small tip radius of the cutting edge for ease of penetration,

2. a small wedge angle Q of the cutting blade for low cutting force and 3. a large effective cutting angle e of the blade within the shaving device, i.e. the housing, to avoid the hair rotating or sliding away before it is cut and resulting in efficient hair removal.

These definitions and parameters are illustrated in the figures of the present application.

The first two parameters result in a comfortable shave without tugging on the hairs while they are cut. However, the small tip radius of the edge together with a large blade mounting angle, i.e. the clearance angle a, creates a significant pressure onto the skin surface, which is uncomfortable and may even lead to skin being cut. Reducing the effective cutting angle e improves the safety during shaving. However, in this case conventional symmetric wedge-shaped blades tend to ride over the hair without penetrating and cutting through.

During shaving the rake face interacts with the hair and is primarily responsible for the hair cutting performance while the clearance face interacts with the skin and is primarily responsible for the safety of the skin.

For optimizing the performance of shaving, it is required to increase the safety of a shaving blade by mounting the blade at a small blade mounting angle, i.e. the clearance angle a, so that the skin facing side of the cutting blade (clearance face) lies flat on the skin (low clearance angle) and then modify the blade edge profile so that the cutting efficiency of hairs is not compromised by this small clearance angle a. This means the clearance angle a should be as small as pos sible to ensure skin safety and the effective cutting angle e should be as large as possible to efficiently cut through the hair. Hence the clearance angle a plays the role of the safety angle and the effective cutting angle e plays the role of the efficiency angle.

The clearance angle a and the effective cutting angle e are related by e = a + Q/2

Hence, minimizing the clearance angle a while maintaining an effective cutting angle e of around 22° as has been used in shaving devices successfully for a long time, requires an increase of the cutting bevel angle Q. However, the force to cut through a hair is determined by the thickness of the cutting blade near to the cutting edge and this thickness increases when the bevel angle Q of the cut ting bevel is increased. Hence, increasing the bevel angle Q to maintain the cut ting angle e while reducing the clearance angle a creates a new problem of in creasing cutting force and decreasing the shaving comfort due to tugging on the hair, and hence the bevel angle Q plays the role of the comfort angle.

To overcome all these interdependencies and create a cutting edge profile that has a low cutting force (small Q) a high cutting efficiency (large e) and is safe for the skin (small a) an asymmetric cutting blade profile with at least one addi tional cutting bevel is disclosed.

The present invention therefore addresses the mentioned drawbacks in the prior art and provides a shaving device with an optimized geometrical setup allowing a low cutting force and a high cutting efficiency and ensuring sufficient safety for the skin.

This problem is solved by the shaving blade with the features of claim 1. The further dependent claims define preferred embodiments of such a blade.

The term "comprising" in the claims and in the description of this application has the meaning that further components are not excluded. Within the scope of the present invention, the term "consisting of" should be understood as pre ferred embodiment of the term "comprising". If it is defined that a group "com prises" at least a specific number of components, this should also be under stood such that a group is disclosed which "consists" preferably of these com ponents.

In the following, the term cross-sectional refers to the cross-section perpendic ular to the linear extension of the cutting edge.

The term intersecting line has to be understood as the linear extension of an intersecting point (according to a cross-sectional view as in Fig. 3) between dif ferent bevels regarding the perspective view (as in Fig. 1). As an example, if a straight bevel is adjacent to a straight bevel the intersecting point in the cross- sectional view is extended to an intersecting line in the perspective view.

According to the present invention a shaving device for shaving a skin surface is provided comprising a housing with a skin contacting surface and at least one cutting blade mounted in the housing, wherein the at least one cutting blade has an asymmetric cross-sectional shape with a first face and opposed to the first face a second face as well as a cutting edge at the intersection of the first face and the second face, wherein

• the first face comprises a first surface and a primary bevel with

the primary bevel extending from the cutting edge to the first surface,

a first intersecting line connecting the primary bevel and the first surface and

a first wedge angle qi between an imaginary extension of the first surface and the primary bevel and

• the second face comprises a secondary bevel with

the secondary bevel extending from the cutting edge rear wards, and

• a second wedge angle Q2 between the first surface and the sec ondary bevel (5).

According to the present invention the at least one cutting blade is mounted in the housing that the following conditions are met:

• the clearance angle a between the skin contacting surface and the pri mary bevel is < 11°,

• the effective cutting angle e between the skin contacting surface and the bisecting line of the first wedge angle qi is > 10° and

• 01 > 02-

It was surprisingly found that by choosing the conditions as defined above the contradictive effects of a high cutting efficiency on the one hand and a com fortable and safe cutting on the other hand are realized simultaneously. The at least one cutting blade has an asymmetric cross-sectional shape. The asymmetrical cross-sectional shape refers to the symmetry with respect to an axis which is the bisecting line between the primary bevel and the secondary bevel having an angle of (qi + 02)/2 and anchored at the cutting edge.

The at least one cutting blade according to the present invention has a low cut ting force due to a small 02 while the cutting efficiency is high which is realized by a larger effective cutting angle e. Moreover, the shaving device has an in creased safety of the shaving process due to the small clearance angle a.

Moreover, the primary bevel may have the additional function to strengthen the cutting blade if the primary wedge angle is largerthan the secondary wedge angle which allows a mechanical stabilization against damage from the cutting operation which allows a slim blade body in the area of the secondary bevel without affecting the cutting performance of the blade.

The primary bevel with the first wedge angle 0i has therefore the function of a stabilizing angle of the cutting edge preventing damage to the cutting edge when a hair is being cut, i.e. a bigger wedge angle 0i increases the mechanical stability of the cutting edge. In consequence, by using a primary bevel with the wedge angle 0i the second wedge angle 02 can be reduced.

Moreover, the primary bevel with the wedge angle 0i allows to lift the cutting edge from the object to be cut which makes the cutting step safer, e.g. by rais ing the distance between skin and cutting edge a cutting into the skin can be avoided.

The second wedge angle 0 2 represents the penetration angle of the blade pen etrating in the object being cut. The smaller the penetrating angle 0 2 , the lower the force to penetrate the object to be cut.

It is preferred that the clearance angel a is < 5°, preferably < 1°, more preferably < 0° and even more preferably from -1° to -5° and/or the effective cutting angle first wedge angle e is > 15°, preferably > 20°. According to a preferred embodiment, the first wedge angle qi ranges from 5° to 75°, preferably 10° to 60°, more preferably 15° to 46°, even more preferably 20° to 45° and/or the second wedge angle 0 2 ranges from -5° to 40°, preferably 0° to 30°, more preferably 10° to 25°.

The cutting blades according to the present invention are preferably further strengthened by adding a thick and strong tertiary bevel that has a tertiary wedge angle greater than the secondary wedge angle and by employing this tertiary bevel to split the object to be cut, thus reducing the forces acting on the thin secondary bevel. The third wedge angle 0 3 ranges preferably from 1° to 60°, more preferably from 10° to 55°, even more preferably from 19° to 46°, and in particular from 20° to 45°.

The third wedge angle 0 3 represents the splitting angle, i.e. the angle necessary to split the object to be cut. For this function the third wedge angle 0 3 has to be preferably larger than the second wedge angle 02.

According to a further preferred embodiment, the primary bevel has a length di being the dimension projected onto the first surface of the length taken from the cutting edge to the first intersecting line from 0.1 to 7 pm, preferably from 0.5 to 5 pm, and more preferably 1 to 3 pm. A length di < 0.1 pm is difficult to realize since an edge of such length is too fragile and would not allow a stable use of the cutting blade. It has been surprisingly found that the primary bevel stabilizes the blade body with the secondary and tertiary bevel which allows a slim blade in the area of the secondary bevel which offers a low cutting force. On the other hand, the primary bevel does not affect the cutting performance provided the length di is not larger than 7 pm.

Preferably, the length d2 being the dimension projected onto the first surface and/or the imaginary extension of the first surface (i.e. the projection of the primary and secondary bevel) taken from the cutting edge to the second inter secting line ranges from 1 to 100 pm, more preferably from 5 to 75 pm, and even more preferably from 10 to 50 pm. The length d2 corresponds to the pen etration depth of the cutting blade in the object to be cut. In general, d2 corre sponds to at least 30% of the diameter of the object to be cut, i.e. when the object is human hair which typically has a diameter of around 100 pm the length d2 is around 30 pm.

The cutting blade is preferably defined by a blade body comprising or consisting of a first material and a second material joined with the first material. The sec ond material can be deposited as a coating at least in regions of the first mate rial, i.e. the second material can be an enveloping coating of the first material or a coating deposited on the first material on the first face.

The material of the first material is in general not limited to any specific mate rial as long it is possible to bevel this material.

However, according to an alternative embodiment the blade body consists only of the first material, i.e. an uncoated first material. In this case, the first material is preferably a material with an isotropic structure, i.e. having identical values of a property in all directions. Such isotropic materials are often better suited for shaping, independent from the shaping technology.

The first material comprises or consists of a material selected from the group consisting of

• metals, preferably titanium, nickel, chromium, niobium, tungsten, tan talum, molybdenum, vanadium, platinum, germanium, iron, and alloys thereof, in particular steel,

• ceramics comprising carbon, nitrogen, boron, oxygen and combinations thereof, preferably silicon carbide, zirconium oxide, aluminum oxide, sil icon nitride, boron nitride, tantalum nitride, TiAIN, TiCN, and/or T1B2,

• glass ceramics; preferably aluminum-containing glass-ceramics,

• composite materials made from ceramic materials in a metallic matrix (cermets),

• hard metals, preferably sintered carbide hard metals, such as tungsten carbide or titanium carbide bonded with cobalt or nickel, • silicon or germanium, preferably with the crystalline plane parallel to the second face, wafer orientation <100>, <110>, <111> or <211>,

• single crystalline materials,

• glass or sapphire,

• polycrystalline or amorphous silicon or germanium,

• mono- or polycrystalline diamond, diamond like carbon (DLC), adaman tine carbon and

• combinations thereof.

The steels used for the first material are preferably selected from the group consisting of 1095, 12C27, 14C28N, 154CM, 3Crl3MoV, 4034, 40X10C2M, 4116, 420, 440A, 440B, 440C, 5160, 5Crl5MoV, 8Crl3MoV, 95X18, 9Crl8MoV, Acuto+, ATS-34, AUS-4, AUS-6 (= 6A), AUS-8 (= 8A), C75, CPM-10V, CPM-3V, CPM-D2, CPM-M4, CPM-S-30V, CPM-S-35VN, CPM-S-60V, CPM-154, Cronidur- 30, CTS 204 P, CTS 20CP, CTS 40CP, CTS B52, CTS B75P, CTS BD-1, CTS BD-30P, CTS XHP, D2, Elmax, GIN-1, HI, N690, N695, Niolox (1.4153), Nitro-B, S70, SGPS, SK-5, Sleipner, T6M0V, VG-10, VG-2, X-15T.N., X50CrMoV15, ZDP-189.

It is preferred that the second material comprises or consists of a material se lected from the group consisting of

• oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides, preferably aluminum nitride, chromium nitride, titanium nitride, titanium carbon nitride, ti tanium aluminum nitride, cubic boron nitride

• boron aluminum magnesium

• carbon, preferably diamond, poly-crystalline diamond, nano crystalline diamond, diamond like carbon (DLC), and

• combinations thereof.

The second material may be preferably selected from the group consisting of TiB 2 , AITiN, TiAIN, TiAISiN, TiSiN, CrAI, CrAIN, AICrN, CrN, TiN iCN and combi nations thereof. Moreover, all materials cited in the VDI guideline 2840 can be chosen for the second material.

It is particularly preferred to use a second material of nano-crystalline diamond and/or multilayers of nano-crystalline and polycrystalline diamond as second material. In this regard, it was surprisingly found that cutting blades having a second material of nano-crystalline diamond layers, detachment, as is known of polycrystalline diamond, is suppressed. Relative to monocrystalline dia mond, it has been shown that production of nano-crystalline diamond, com pared to the production of monocrystalline diamond, can be accomplished sub stantially more easily and economically. Hence, also longer and larger-area cut ting blades can be provided. Moreover, with respect to their grain size distribu tion nano-crystalline diamond layers are more homogeneous than polycrystal line diamond layers, the material also shows less inherent stress. Consequently, macroscopic distortion of the cutting edge is less probable.

It is preferred that the second material has a thickness of 0.15 to 20 pm, pref erably 2 to 15 pm and more preferably 3 to 12 pm.

It is preferred that the second material has a modulus of elasticity (Young ' s modulus) of less than 1200 GPa, preferably less than 900, and more preferably less than 750 GPa. Due to the low modulus of elasticity the hard coating be comes more flexible and more elastic and may be better adapted to the sub strate, object or the contour to be cut. The Young ' s modulus is determined ac cording to the method as disclosed in Markus Mohr et al., "Youngs modulus, fracture strength, and Poisson ' s ratio of nanocrystalline diamond films", J. Appl. Phys. 116, 124308 (2014), in particular under paragraph III. B. Static measure ment of Young ' s modulus.

The second material has preferably a transverse rupture stress oo of at least 1 GPa, more preferably of at least 2.5 GPa, and even more preferably at least 5 GPa.

With respect to the definition of transverse rupture stress oo, reference is made to the following literature references: • R. Morrell et al., Int. Journal of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials, 28 (2010), p. 508 - 515;

• R. Danzer et al. in "Technische keramische Werkstoffe", published by J. Kriegesmann, HvB Press, Ellerau, ISBN 978-3-938595-00-8, chapter 6.2.3.1 "Der 4-Kugelversuch zur Ermittlung der biaxialen Biegefestigkeit sproder Werkstoffe"

The transverse rupture stress oo is thereby determined by statistical evaluation of breakage tests, e.g. in the B3B load test according to the above literature details. It is thereby defined as the breaking stress at which there is a probability of breakage of 63%.

Due to the extremely high transverse rupture stress of the second material the detachment of individual crystallites from the second material, in particular from the cutting edge, is almost completely suppressed. Even with long-term use, the cutting blade therefore retains its original sharpness.

The second material has preferably a hardness of at least 20 GPa. The hardness is determined by nanoindentation (Yeon-Gil Jung et. al., J. Mater. Res., Vol. 19, No. 10, p. 3076).

The second material has preferably an surface roughness RRMS of less than 100 nm, more preferably less than 50 nm, and even more preferably less than 20 nm, which is calculated according to

A = evaluation area

Z(x,y) = the local roughness distribution The surface roughness RRMS is determined according to DIN EN ISO 25178. The mentioned surface roughness makes additional mechanical polishing of the grown second material superfluous.

In a preferred embodiment, the second material has an average grain size dso of the nano-crystalline diamond of 1 to 100 nm, preferably 5 to 90 nm and more preferably from 7 to 30 nm, and even more preferably 10 to 20 nm. The average grain size dso may be determined using X-ray diffraction or transmission elec tron microscopy and counting of the grains.

It is preferred that the first material and/or the second material is/are coated at least in regions with a low-friction material, preferably selected from the group consisting of fluoropolymer materials (like PTFE), parylene, polyvinylpyr rolidone, polyethylene, polypropylene, polymethyl methacrylate, graphite, di- amond-like carbon (DLC) and combinations thereof.

The edge connecting the primary bevel and the secondary bevel is preferably shaped within the second material.

It is further preferred that the edge between secondary and tertiary bevel is arranged at the boundary surface of the first material and the second material which makes the process of manufacture easier to handle and therefore more economic, e.g. the blades can be manufactured according to the process of Fig. 9a-d.

The cutting edge ideally has a round configuration which improves the stability of the blade. The cutting edge has preferably a tip radius of less than 200 nm, more preferably less than 100 nm and even more preferably less than 50 nm determined e.g. by cross sectional SEM using the method illustrated in Fig. 10.

It is preferred that the tip radius r of the cutting edge correlates with the aver age grain size dso of the hard coating. It is hereby advantageous if the ratio be tween the rounded radius r of the nano-crystalline diamond as second material at the cutting edge and the average grain size dso of the nano-crystalline dia mond as second material r/dso is from 0.03 to 20, preferably from 0.05 to 15, and particularly preferred from 0.5 to 10. The present invention is further illustrated by the following figures which show specific embodiments according to the present invention. However, these spe cific embodiments shall not be interpreted in any limiting way with respect to the present invention as described in the claims in the general part of the spec ification.

FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a shaving device according to the present in vention

FIG. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the shaving device according to Fig. 1 along the line A-A

FIG. 3a is a perspective view of a cutting blade in accordance with the pre sent invention having 2 bevels

FIG. 3b is a cross-sectional view of a cutting blade in accordance with the present invention having 2 bevels

FIG. 4a is a perspective view of a shaving device in accordance with the pre sent invention having 3 bevels

FIG. 4b is a cross-sectional view of a shaving device in accordance with the present invention having 3 bevels

FIG. 5a is a cross-sectional view of a further cutting blade in accordance with the present invention which is monolithic

FIG. 5b is a cross-sectional view of a further cutting blade in accordance with the present invention comprising a first and a second material

FIG. 6a is a cross-sectional view of a shaving device in accordance with the present invention with the first face being the clearance face and a clearance angle a > 0° FIG. 6b is a cross-sectional view of a further shaving device in accordance with the present invention with the second face being the clearance face and a clearance angle a > 0°

FIG. 7a is a cross-sectional view of a shaving device in accordance with the present invention with the first face the clearance face and a clear ance angle a = 0°

FIG. 7b is a cross-sectional view of a further shaving device in accordance with the present invention with the second face being the clearance face and a clearance angle a = 0°

FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional view of a further shaving device in accordance with the present invention with the second face being the clearance face and a clearance angle a < 0°

FIG. 9a-d is a flow chart of the process for manufacturing the cutting blades

Fig. 10 is a cross sectional view of a round tip showing the determination of the tip radius

The following reference signs are used in the figures of the present application.

Reference sign list

1 blade

2 first face

3 second face

4 cutting edge

5 secondary bevel

6 tertiary bevel

7 primary bevel

8 upper surface

9 first surface

9 ' imaginary extension of first surface

11 second intersecting line 12 first intersecting line 15 blade body

18 first material

19 second material

20 boundary surface

60 bisecting line

61 perpendicular line

62 circle

65 construction point

66 construction point

67 construction point

100 razor

150 grip

200 housing

210 forward skin support 220 rearward skin support 250 skin contacting surface 260 bisecting line

300 hair

310 skin

In Fig. 1, a shaving device 100 is shown which is commonly used in the prior art. The shaving device 100 has a grip 150 which is attached to a housing 200. The housing comprises a forward skin support 210, a rearward skin support 220 and in between at least one blade 1.

Fig. 2 shows a cross-sectional view of a shaving device 100 with the housing 200 and its forward skin support 210 and rearward skin support 220. It represents a cross-sectional view of the section A-A of Fig. 1. Between the supports two blades 1 and 1 ' are arranged. Also, more than 2 blades may be arranged in the housing, e.g. tree or four blades. During shaving the forward skin support 210, the rearward skin support 220 as well as the blades 1 and 1 ' are in direct contact with the skin 310. The shaving device 100 has a skin contacting surface 250 be ing in direct, preferably planar contact to the skin 310. The skin contacting sur face 250 is the connecting line between the forward skin support 210 and the rearward skin support 220. Fig. 3a is a perspective view of a cutting blade according to the present inven tion. This cutting blade 1 has a blade body 15 which comprises a first face 2 and a second face which is opposed to the first face 2. The first face 2 comprises a first surface 9 and a primary bevel 7 while the second surface 3 comprises a secondary bevel 5 and an upper surface 8 being parallel to the first surface 9. At the intersection of the primary bevel 7 and the secondary bevel 5 a cutting edge 4 is located. The cutting edge 4 is shaped straight or substantially straight. The secondary bevel 5 is connected to the upper surface 8 via an intersecting line 11 and the primary bevel 5 is connected to the first surface 9 via an inter secting line 12.

In Fig. 3b, a cross-sectional view of the cutting blade of Fig. 3a is shown. This cutting blade 1 comprises a first face 2 and a second face 3 which is opposed to the first face 2. The first face 2 comprises a planar first surface 9 and a primary bevel 7 with a first wedge angle qi between the first surface 9 and the primary bevel 7. The second face 3 comprises a secondary bevel 5 with a second wedge angle Q2 between the first surface 9 and the secondary bevel 5 which is smaller than qi. Moreover, the second face 3 comprises an upper surface 8. At the in tersection of the primary bevel 7 and the secondary bevel 5 a cutting edge 4 is located. The bisecting line 260 between primary bevel 7 and secondary bevel 5 is anchored at the cutting edge 4. The secondary bevel 5 is connected to the upper surface 8 via an intersecting line 11 and the primary bevel 5 is connected to the first surface 9 via an intersecting line 12. The primary bevel 7 has a length di being the dimension projected onto the first surface 9 which is in the range from 0.1 to 7 pm. The secondary bevel 6 has a length d2 being the dimension projected onto the first surface 9 which is in the range from 1 to 150 pm, pref erably 5 to 100 pm.

Fig.4a is a perspective view of the cutting blade according to the present inven tion. This cutting blade 1 has a blade body 15 which comprises a first face 2 and a second face 3 which is opposed to the first face 2. The first face 2 comprises a first surface 9 and a primary bevel 7 while the second surface 3 comprises a secondary bevel 5 and a tertiary bevel 6. The primary bevel 7 is connected via a first intersecting line 12 with the first face 9 and the secondary bevel 5 is con- nected via a second intersecting line 11 with the tertiary bevel 6. At the inter section of the primary bevel 7 and the secondary bevel 5 a cutting edge 4 is located. The cutting edge 4 has a linear shaped.

In Fig. 4b, a cross-sectional view of the cutting blade of Fig. 4a is shown. This cutting blade 1 comprises a first face 2 and a second face 3 which is opposed to the first face 2. The first face 2 comprises a planar first surface 9 and a primary bevel 7 with a first wedge angle qi between the first surface 9 and the primary bevel 5. The second face 3 comprises a secondary bevel 5 with a second wedge angle 0 2 between the first surface 9 and the secondary bevel 6 which is smaller than 0i. The tertiary bevel 6 has a third wedge angle 0 3 which is larger than 0 2 . At the intersection of the primary bevel 7 and the secondary bevel 5 a cutting edge 4 is located. The primary bevel 7 has a length di being the dimension pro jected onto the first surface 9 which is in the range from 0.1 to 7 pm. The sec ondary bevel 5 has a length d2 being the dimension projected onto the first surface 9 which is in the range from 1 to 150 pm, preferably 5 to 100 pm.

In Fig. 5a, a further sectional view of a cutting blade of the present invention is shown where the blade body 15 is monolithic. The cutting blade 1 comprises a first face 2 and a second face 3 which is opposed to the first face 2. The first face 2 comprises a planar first surface 9 and a primary bevel 7 while the second surface 3 comprises a secondary bevel 5 and a tertiary bevel 6. The primary bevel 7 is connected via a first intersecting line 12 with the first face 9 and the secondary bevel 5 is connected via a second intersecting line 11 with the ter tiary bevel 6. At the intersection of the primary bevel 7 and the secondary bevel 5 the cutting edge 4 is located.

In Fig. 5b, a further sectional view of a cutting blade of the present invention is shown wherein the blade body 15 comprises a first material 18, e.g. silicon, with a second material 19, e.g. a diamond layer on the first material 18 at the first face 2. The primary bevel 7 and the secondary bevel 5 are located in the second material 19 while the tertiary bevel 6 is located in the first material 18. The first material 18 and the second material 19 are joined along a boundary surface 20.

In Fig. 6a, a shaving device 100 of the present invention is shown illustrating the cutting process for a hair 300 which protrudes from the skin 310. The shaving device 100 comprises a housing 200 with a forward skin support 210 and a rear ward skin support 220. Between both supports 210, 220 a blade 1 is arranged. The shaving device 100 with the skin contacting surface 250 is brought in con tact with the skin 310. The hair 300 which is protruding from the skin 310 is touched by the cutting edge of the cutting blade 1. The cutting blade 1 has a first face 2 and a second face 3. According to this embodiment, the first face 2 is the clearance face. The first face 2 comprises a planar first surface 9 and a primary bevel 7 while the second surface 3 comprises a secondary bevel 6 and a surface 8 which is parallel to the first surface 9. The clearance angle a be tween the primary bevel 7 and the skin contacting surface 250 is larger than 0° but smaller or equal 11° which results in high skin safety. Moreover, due to the asymmetric cross-sectional shape of the cutting blade 1, a larger effective cut ting angle e between the skin contacting surface 250 and the bisecting line 260 of the first wedge angle qi may be realized, i.e. e > 10°, which improves the efficiency of the hairs to be cut.

In Fig. 6b, a shaving device 100 of the present invention is shown illustrating the cutting process for a hair 300 which protrudes from the skin 310. The shav ing device 100 comprises a housing 200 with a forward skin support 210 and a rearward skin support 220. Between both supports 210, 220 a blade 1 is ar ranged. The shaving device 100 with the skin contacting surface 250 is brought in contact with the skin 310 and the hair 300 which protrudes from the skin 310 is touched by the cutting edge of the cutting blade 1. According to this embod iment, the second face 3 is the clearance face. The clearance angle a between the secondary bevel 5 and the skin contacting surface 250 is larger than 0° but smaller or equal 11° which results in high skin safety. Moreover, due to the asymmetric cross-sectional shape of the cutting blade 1, a larger effective cut ting angle e between the skin contacting surface 250 and the bisecting line 260 of the first wedge angle qi may be realized, i.e. e > 10°, which improves the efficiency of the hairs to be cut.

In Fig. 7a, a shaving device 100 of the present invention is shown illustrating the cutting process for a hair 300 which protrudes from the skin 310. The shaving device 100 comprises a housing 200 with a forward skin support 210 and a rear ward skin support 220. Between both supports 210, 220 a blade 1 is arranged. The shaving device 100 with the skin contacting surface 250 is brought in con tact with the skin 310 and the hair 300 which is sticking out of the skin 310 is touched by the cutting edge 4 of the cutting blade 1. In this embodiment, the first face 2 is the clearance face. The clearance angle a between the primary bevel 7 and the skin contacting surface 250 is 0° which results in high skin safety. Moreover, due to the asymmetric cross-sectional shape of the cutting blade 1, a larger effective cutting angle e between the skin contacting surface 250 and the bisecting line 260 of the first wedge angle qi may be realized, i.e. e > 10°, which improves the efficiency of cutting hair.

In Fig. 7b, a shaving device 100 of the present invention is shown illustrating the cutting process for a hair 300 which sticks out of the skin 310. The shaving device 100 comprises a housing 200 with a forward skin support 210 and a rear ward skin support 220. Between both supports 210, 220 a blade 1 is arranged. The shaving device 100 with the skin contacting surface 250 is brought in con tact with the skin 310 and the hair 300 which is sticking out of the skin 310 is touched by the cutting edge 4 of the cutting blade 1. In this embodiment, the second face 2 is the clearance face. The clearance angle a between the second face 2 with the secondary bevel 5 of the cutting blade 1 and the skin contacting surface 250 is 0° which improves the skin safety. Moreover, due to the asym metric cross-sectional shape of the cutting blade 1, a larger effective cutting angle e between the skin contacting surface 250 and the bisecting line 260 of the first wedge angle qi can be realized, i.e. e > 10°, which improves the effi ciency of cutting hair.

In Fig. 8, a shaving device 100 of the present invention is shown illustrating the cutting process for a hair 300 which sticks out of the skin 310. The shaving de vice 100 comprises a housing 200 with a forward skin support 210 and a rear ward skin support 220. Between both supports 210, 220 a blade 1 is arranged. The shaving device 100 with the skin contacting surface 250 is brought in con tact with the skin 310 and the hair 300 which is sticking out of the skin 310 is touched by the cutting edge 4 of the cutting blade 1. In this embodiment, the second face 2 is the clearance face. The clearance angle a between the second face 2 with the secondary bevel 5 of the cutting blade 1 and the skin contacting surface 250 is smaller than 0° which improves the skin safety. Moreover, due to the asymmetric cross-sectional shape of the cutting blade 1, a larger effec tive cutting angle e between the skin contacting surface 250 and the bisecting line 260 of the first wedge angle qi can be realized, i.e. e > 10°, which improves the efficiency of cutting hair.

In Fig. 9a to 9d a flow chart of the inventive process is shown. In a first step 1, a silicon wafer 101 is coated by PE-CVD or thermal treatment (low pressure CVD) with a silicon nitride (S13N4) layer 102 as protection layer for the silicon. The layer thickness and deposition procedure must be chosen carefully to ena ble sufficient chemical stability to withstand the following etching steps. In step 2, a photoresist 103 is deposited onto the S13N4 coated substrate and subse quently patterned by photolithography. The (S13N4) layer is then structured by e.g. CF4-plasma reactive ion etching (RIE) using the patterned photoresist as mask. After patterning, the photoresist 103 is stripped by organic solvents in step 3. The remaining, patterned S13N4 layer 102 serves as a mask for the fol lowing pre-structuring step 4 of the silicon wafer 101 e.g. by anisotropic wet chemical etching in KOH. The etching process is ended when the structures on the second face 3 have reached a predetermined depth and a continuous sili con first face 2 remains. Other wet- and dry chemical processes may be suited, e.g. isotropic wet chemical etching in HF/HNO3 solutions or the application of fluorine containing plasmas. In the following step 5, the remaining S13N4 is re moved by, e.g. hydrofluoric acid (HF) or fluorine plasma treatment. In step 6, the pre-structured Si-substrate is coated with an approx. 10 pm thin diamond layer 104, e.g. nano-crystalline diamond. The diamond layer 104 can be depos ited onto the pre-structured second surface 3 and the continuous first surface 2 of the Si-wafer 101 (as shown in step 6) or only on the continuous fist surface 2 of the Si-wafer (not shown here). In the case of double-sided coating, the di amond layer 104 on the structured second surface 3 has to be removed in a further step 7 prior to the following edge formation steps 9-11 of the cutting blade. The selective removal of the diamond layer 104 is performed e.g. by us ing an Ar/02-plasma (e.g. RIE or ICP mode), which shows a high selectivity to wards the silicon substrate. In step 8, the silicon wafer 101 is thinned so that the diamond layer 104 is partially free standing without substrate material and the desired substrate thickness is achieved in the remaining regions. This step can be performed by wet chemical etching in KOH or HF/HNO 3 etchants or pref erably by plasma etching in CF 4 , SF 6 , or CHF 3 containing plasmas in RIE or ICP mode.

In a next step 9, the diamond film is etched anisotropically by an Ar/0 2 -plasma in an RIE system to form an almost vertical bevel 5' with a 90° corner in the diamond layer 104, which is required to form primary bevel 7 on the first face 2 of the cutting blade as shown in step 10.

To form primary bevel 7 on the first face 2 of the cutting blade, the Si-wafer 101 is now turned to expose the first face 2 to the subsequent etching step 10 (Fig. 9b). By utilizing a physical enriched anisotropic RIE process in Ar/0 2 -plasma the 90° corner 5' is chamfered to form primary bevel 7. Process details are disclosed for instance in EP 2 727880.

Finally, in step 11 (Fig. 9c) the cutting edge formation is completed by pro cessing the Si-wafer 101 on the second face 3 to form secondary bevel 5 as shown in Fig. 9d. Multiple bevels may be formed by varying the process param eters. Process details are disclosed for instance in DE 198 59 905 Al.

In Fig. 10, it is shown how the tip radius can be determined. The tip radius is determined by first drawing a line 60 bisecting the cross-sectional image of the first bevel of the cutting edge 1 in half. Where line 60 bisects the first bevel point 65 is drawn. A second line 61 is drawn perpendicular to line 60 at a dis tance of 110 nm from point 65. Where line 61 bisects the first bevel two addi tional points 66 and 67 are drawn. A circle 62 is then constructed from points 65, 66 and 67. The radius of circle 62 is the tip radius of the cutting edge 4.