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Title:
A SHIP LIQUID AIR / PNEUMATIC POWER SYSTEM
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2021/026644
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Power systems, heating systems and electrical regeneration systems for a marine ship are provided. The systems comprise a ship that includes a liquid air / compressed air system and electrical system. The power system also comprises a plurality of pneumatic motors, multiple motors connected to each ship shaft, the pneumatic motors using compressed air to drive each wheel. The electrical system regenerates electricity for ship batteries. A plug-in charge system for battery charging.

Inventors:
ANTROBUS CRAIG (CA)
Application Number:
PCT/CA2020/051094
Publication Date:
February 18, 2021
Filing Date:
August 08, 2020
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
ANTROBUS CRAIG (CA)
International Classes:
B63H21/00
Foreign References:
US9868496B22018-01-16
CN2693653Y2005-04-20
US8894454B22014-11-25
US20120094202A12012-04-19
US6988917B22006-01-24
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A ship system, comprising: a power system comprising at least one air motor in communication with each ship propeller shaft, said power system being configured as a power train, wherein each of said air motors is configured to transmit power to its associated shaft; at least one liquid air storage tank being sufficiently covered with insulation to maintain a constant temperature to deliver liquid air to at least one air supply tank; the at least one air supply tank being sufficiently covered by tank heat trace lines so as to maintain a desired level of tank heat and heating elements within the tank to sufficiently heat the liquid air when injected into the air supply tank an exhaust air system comprising of manifold that powers an air turbine motor generator that produces electricity for the ship system.

2. The system of claim 1, in which the ship further includes a freezing and cooling system comprising coils that are cooled by the exhaust air from the ship to freeze or cool the ship cabin and ship compartments.

3. The system of claim 1, in which the ship further includes a station for rapid filling of tanks with liquid air.

4. The system of claim 1, in which the ship further includes a plug-in option for a 12-volt charge system connected to a power inverter to provide energy for heating the air supply tank.

5. The system of claim 1, in which the heat lines are attached to all piping to heat the air in the piping for increased system efficiency.

6. The system of claim 1, in which multiple pneumatic motors controlling each propeller shaft eliminates need for conventional engine, transmission and powertrain which creates greater efficiency due to reduced mechanical friction losses.

7. The system of claim 1, in which the exhaust air system powers an exhaust motor generator that produces electricity for batteries.

8. A ship system comprising: a ship propelled by operation of a compressed air system supplied by liquid air, the ship comprising: a plurality of pneumatic motors, multiple pneumatic motors connected to each ship propeller shaft, the pneumatic motors configured to use compressed air to drive each shaft; a system in which during operation of the ship by the compressed air system, air heated by heating lines and elements is distributed substantially evenly to each of the pneumatic motors.

9. The system of claim 8, in which multiple pneumatic motors controlling each ship propeller shaft eliminates need for conventional engine, transmission and powertrain which increases the power ratio above conventional delivery systems.

10. The system of claim 8, in which exhaust from the compressed air system powers an exhaust motor generator to provide electricity to battery and heating systems.

11. The system of claim 8, in which the electrical system is recharged by a 12-volt charge system connected to batteries.

Description:
A SHIP LIQUID AIR / PNEUMATIC POWER SYSTEM by CRAIG ANTROBUS Antrobus Consulting Ltd.

FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT [0001] Not applicable.

COPYRIGHT NOTICE

[0002] A portion of the disclosure of this patent document contains material that is subject to copyright protection by the author thereof. The copyright owner has no objection to the facsimile reproduction by anyone of the patent document or patent disclosure for the purposes of referencing as patent prior art, as it appears in the Patent and Trademark Office, patent file or records, but otherwise reserves all copyright rights whatsoever.

BACKGROUND OF THE RELEVANT PRIOR ART

[0003] One or more embodiments of the invention generally relate to a power system. More particularly, certain embodiments of the invention relate to a marine vessel ship power system.

[0004] The following background information may present examples of specific aspects of the prior art (e.g., without limitation, approaches, facts, or common wisdom) that, while expected to be helpful to further educate the reader as to additional aspects of the prior art, is not to be construed as limiting the present invention, or any embodiments thereof, to anything stated or implied therein or inferred thereupon.

[0005] Typically, conventional Ship power may be powered by combustion.

Conventional combustion motors may include a combustible liquid such as diesel, wherein an expansive force from heating the liquid may cause a piston of the engine to move, and thus creating work. This work may prorogate through a multiplicity of gears and axels, typically known as a drivetrain, to a propeller shaft and may deliver the work to the shaft in a form of torque which may cause the shaft to turn. Some other conventional ship may be powered by electricity. Conventional electric motors may include current supplied to a stator from a battery, wherein the stator may then become energized to create a rotating magnetic flux. The flux may generate a magnetic field which may result in a current being produce in a rotor position within the stator. The rotating flux and the current may produce a force wherein that force may propagate torque to a coupled wheel. The following is an example of a specific aspect in the prior art that, while expected to be helpful to further educate the reader as to additional aspects of the prior art, is not to be construed as limiting the present invention, or any embodiments thereof, to anything stated or implied therein or inferred thereupon. By way of educational background, another aspect of the prior art generally useful to be aware of is that with conventional combustion motors, an exhaust, after a combustible liquid has gone through combustion, may need to be expelled. Typically, the exhaust may be expelled into the atmosphere. Furthermore, much of the power created by the combustion may be used to move moving parts of the drivetrain before torque may be delivered to a coupled shaft. With conventional electric motors, a cost to produce such a system may typically be more expensive than the conventional combustion motor. Moreover, the battery which supplies current to the electric motor may only be recharged by plugging the battery into a power supplying station.

[0006] In view of the foregoing, it is clear that these traditional techniques are not perfect and leave room for more optimal approaches.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0007] The present invention is illustrated by way of example, and not by way of limitation, in the figures of the accompanying drawings and in which like reference numerals refer to similar elements and in which: [0008] FIG. 1 illustrates an exemplary embodiment of a liquid air / pneumatic power systems architecture of a marine ship, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention

[0009] FIG. 2 illustrates operational component diagrams of an exemplary liquid air / pneumatic power systems, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention, wherein FIG. 2 illustrates operational air flow components, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

[0010] FIG. 3 illustrates operational component diagrams of an exemplary liquid air / pneumatic power systems, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention, wherein FIG. 3 illustrates operational electric flow components, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

[0011] FIG. 4 illustrates an exemplary method embodiment of using an exemplary liquid air / pneumatic power system vehicle, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.

Unless otherwise indicated illustrations in the figures are not necessarily drawn to scale.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF SOME EMBODIMENTS

[0012] The present invention is best understood by reference to the detailed figures and description set forth herein.

[0013] Embodiments of the invention are discussed below with reference to the Figures. However, those skilled in the art will readily appreciate that the detailed description given herein with respect to these figures is for explanatory purposes as the invention extends beyond these limited embodiments. For example, it should be appreciated that those skilled in the art will, in light of the teachings of the present invention, recognize a multiplicity of alternate and suitable approaches, depending upon the needs of the particular application, to implement the functionality of any given detail described herein, beyond the particular implementation choices in the following embodiments described and shown. That is, there are modifications and variations of the invention that are too numerous to be listed but that all fit within the scope of the invention. Also, singular words should be read as plural and vice versa and masculine as feminine and vice versa, where appropriate, and alternative embodiments do not necessarily imply that the two are mutually exclusive.

[0014] It is to be further understood that the present invention is not limited to the particular methodology, compounds, materials, manufacturing techniques, uses, and applications, described herein, as these may vary. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is used for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only, and is not intended to limit the scope of the present invention. It must be noted that as used herein and in the appended claims, the singular forms "a," "an," and "the" include the plural reference unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Thus, for example, a reference to "an element" is a reference to one or more elements and includes equivalents thereof known to those skilled in the art. Similarly, for another example, a reference to "a step" or "a means" is a reference to one or more steps or means and may include sub steps and subservient means. All conjunctions used are to be understood in the most inclusive sense possible. Thus, the word "or" should be understood as having the definition of a logical "or" rather than that of a logical "exclusive or" unless the context clearly necessitates otherwise. Stmctures described herein are to be understood also to refer to functional equivalents of such structures. Language that may be constmed to express approximation should be so understood unless the context clearly dictates otherwise.

[0015] All words of approximation as used in the present disclosure and claims should be construed to mean “approximate,” rather than “perfect,” and may accordingly be employed as a meaningful modifier to any other word, specified parameter, quantity, quality, or concept. Words of approximation, include, yet are not limited to terms such as “substantial”, “nearly”, “almost”, “about”, “generally”, "largely", "essentially”, "closely approximate", etc.

[0016] As will be established in some detail below, it is well settle law, as early as 1939, that words of approximation are not indefinite in the claims even when such limits are not defined or specified in the specification. [0017] For example, a court said "The examiner has held that most of the claims are inaccurate because apparently the laminar film will not be entirely eliminated. The claims specify that the fdm is “substantially” eliminated and for the intended purpose, it is believed that the slight portion of the film which may remain is negligible. We are of the view, therefore, that the claims may be regarded as sufficiently accurate."

[0018] Note that claims need only “reasonably apprise those skilled in the art” as to their scope to satisfy the definiteness requirement. In addition, the use of modifiers in the claim, like “generally” and “substantial,” does not by itself render the claims indefinite.

[0019] Moreover, the ordinary and customary meaning of terms like “substantially” includes “reasonably close to: nearly, almost, about”, connoting a term of approximation. Depending on its usage, the word “substantially” can denote either language of approximation or language of magnitude. When referring to the “substantially halfway” limitation, the Specification uses the word “approximately” as a substitute for the word “substantially”. The ordinary meaning of “substantially halfway” is thus reasonably close to or nearly at the midpoint between the forwardmost point of the upper or outsole and the rearward most point of the upper or outsole.

[0020] Similarly, the term 'substantially' is well recognized in case law to have the dual ordinary meaning of connoting a term of approximation or a term of magnitude.

The term "substantially" is commonly used by claim drafters to indicate approximation.

[0021] It should also be noted that such words of approximation as contemplated in the foregoing clearly limits the scope of claims such as saying ‘generally parallel’ such that the adverb ‘generally’ does not broaden the meaning of parallel. Accordingly, it is well settled that such words of approximation as contemplated in the foregoing (e.g., like the phrase ‘generally parallel’) envisions some amount of deviation from perfection (e.g., not exactly parallel), and that such words of approximation as contemplated in the foregoing are descriptive terms commonly used in patent claims to avoid a strict numerical boundary to the specified parameter. To the extent that the plain language of the claims relying on such words of approximation as contemplated in the foregoing are clear and uncontradicted by anything in the written description herein or the figures thereof, it is improper to rely upon the present written description, the figures, or the prosecution history to add limitations to any of the claim of the present invention with respect to such words of approximation as contemplated in the foregoing. That is, under such circumstances, relying on the written description and prosecution history to reject the ordinary and customary meanings of the words themselves is impermissible. The plain language of phrase 2 requires a “substantial helical flow.” The term “substantial” is a meaningful modifier implying “approximate,” rather than “perfect.”

[0022] The reader should appreciate that case law generally recognizes a dual ordinary meaning of such words of approximation, as connoting a term of approximation or a term of magnitude; where a court was asked to construe the meaning of the term "substantially" in a patent claim. In conducting their analysis, the court instructed to begin with the ordinary meaning of the claim terms to one of ordinary skill in the art. Reference to dictionaries and our cases indicates that the term "substantially" has numerous ordinary meanings. As the district court stated, "substantially" can mean "significantly" or "considerably." The term "substantially" can also mean "largely" or "essentially." Webster's New 20th Century Dictionary 1817 (1983).

[0023] Words of approximation, as contemplated in the foregoing, may also be used in phrases establishing approximate ranges or limits, where the end points are inclusive and approximate, not perfect, where it where a court said We conclude that the ordinary meaning of the phrase “up to about 10%” includes the “about 10%” endpoint. Because we have here a numerical limit — “about 10%” — the ordinary meaning is that that endpoint is included.

[0024] In the present specification and claims, a goal of employment of such words of approximation, as contemplated in the foregoing, is to avoid a strict numerical boundary to the modified specified parameter. It is well established that when the term "substantially" serves reasonably to describe the subject matter so that its scope would be understood by persons in the field of the invention, and to distinguish the claimed subject matter from the prior art, it is not indefinite ” Expressions such as "substantially" are used in patent documents when warranted by the nature of the invention, in order to accommodate the minor variations that may be appropriate to secure the invention. [0025] Similarly, other courts have noted that like the term "about," the term "substantially" is a descriptive term commonly used in patent claims to "avoid a strict numerical boundary to the specified parameter. Noting that terms such as "approach each other," "close to," "substantially equal," and "closely approximate" are ubiquitously used in patent claims and that such usages, when serving reasonably to describe the claimed subject matter to those of skill in the field of the invention, and to distinguish the claimed subject matter from the prior art, have been accepted in patent examination and upheld by the courts. In this case, "substantially" avoids the strict 100% nonuniformity boundary.

[0026] Indeed, the foregoing sanctioning of such words of approximation, as contemplated in the foregoing, has been established as early as 1939, where, for example, a court said “the claims specify that the fdm is “substantially” eliminated and for the intended purpose, it is believed that the slight portion of the film which may remain is negligible. We are of the view, therefore, that the claims may be regarded as sufficiently accurate.”

[0027] Hence, for at least the forgoing reason, Applicants submit that it is improper for any examiner to hold as indefinite any claims of the present patent that employ any words of approximation.

[0028] Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meanings as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs. Preferred methods, techniques, devices, and materials are described, although any methods, techniques, devices, or materials similar or equivalent to those described herein may be used in the practice or testing of the present invention. Structures described herein are to be understood also to refer to functional equivalents of such structures. The present invention will be described in detail below with reference to embodiments thereof as illustrated in the accompanying drawings.

[0029] References to a "device," an "apparatus," a "system," etc., in the preamble of a claim should be construed broadly to mean “any structure meeting the claim terms” exempt for any specific stmcture(s)/type(s) that has/(have) been explicitly disavowed or excluded or admitted/implied as prior art in the present specification or incapable of enabling an object/aspect/goal of the invention. Furthermore, where the present specification discloses an object, aspect, function, goal, result, or advantage of the invention that a specific prior art structure and/or method step is similarly capable of performing yet in a very different way, the present invention disclosure is intended to and shall also implicitly include and cover additional corresponding alternative embodiments that are otherwise identical to that explicitly disclosed except that they exclude such prior art structure(s)/step(s), and shall accordingly be deemed as providing sufficient disclosure to support a corresponding negative limitation in a claim claiming such alternative embodiment(s), which exclude such very different prior art stmcture(s)/step(s) way(s).

[0030] From reading the present disclosure, other variations and modifications will be apparent to persons skilled in the art. Such variations and modifications may involve equivalent and other features which are already known in the art, and which may be used instead of or in addition to features already described herein.

[0031] Although Claims have been formulated in this Application to particular combinations of features, it should be understood that the scope of the disclosure of the present invention also includes any novel feature or any novel combination of features disclosed herein either explicitly or implicitly or any generalization thereof, whether or not it relates to the same invention as presently claimed in any Claim and whether or not it mitigates any or all of the same technical problems as does the present invention.

[0032] Features which are described in the context of separate embodiments may also be provided in combination in a single embodiment. Conversely, various features which are, for brevity, described in the context of a single embodiment, may also be provided separately or in any suitable subcombination. The Applicants hereby give notice that new Claims may be formulated to such features and/or combinations of such features during the prosecution of the present Application or of any further Application derived therefrom.

[0033] References to "one embodiment," "an embodiment," "example embodiment," "various embodiments," “some embodiments,” “embodiments of the invention,” etc., may indicate that the embodiment s) of the invention so described may include a particular feature, stmcture, or characteristic, but not every possible embodiment of the invention necessarily includes the particular feature, structure, or characteristic. Further, repeated use of the phrase "in one embodiment," or "in an exemplary embodiment," “an embodiment,” do not necessarily refer to the same embodiment, although they may. Moreover, any use of phrases like “embodiments” in connection with “the invention” are never meant to characterize that all embodiments of the invention must include the particular feature, structure, or characteristic, and should instead be understood to mean “at least some embodiments of the invention” includes the stated particular feature, stmcture, or characteristic.

[0034] References to “user”, or any similar term, as used herein, may mean a human or non-human user thereof. Moreover, “user”, or any similar term, as used herein, unless expressly stipulated otherwise, is contemplated to mean users at any stage of the usage process, to include, without limitation, direct user(s), intermediate user(s), indirect user(s), and end user(s). The meaning of “user”, or any similar term, as used herein, should not be otherwise inferred or induced by any pattem(s) of description, embodiments, examples, or referenced prior-art that may (or may not) be provided in the present patent.

[0035] References to “end user”, or any similar term, as used herein, is generally intended to mean late stage user(s) as opposed to early stage user(s). Hence, it is contemplated that there may be a multiplicity of different types of “end user” near the end stage of the usage process. Where applicable, especially with respect to distribution channels of embodiments of the invention comprising consumed retail products/services thereof (as opposed to sellers/vendors or Original Equipment Manufacturers), examples of an “end user” may include, without limitation, a “consumer”, “buyer”, “customer”, “purchaser”, “shopper”, “enjoyer”, “viewer”, or individual person or non-human thing benefiting in any way, directly or indirectly, from use of. or interaction, with some aspect of the present invention.

[0036] In some situations, some embodiments of the present invention may provide beneficial usage to more than one stage or type of usage in the foregoing usage process.

In such cases where multiple embodiments targeting various stages of the usage process are described, references to “end user”, or any similar term, as used therein, are generally intended to not include the user that is the furthest removed, in the foregoing usage process, from the final user therein of an embodiment of the present invention.

[0037] Where applicable, especially with respect to retail distribution channels of embodiments of the invention, intermediate user(s) may include, without limitation, any individual person or non-human thing benefiting in any way, directly or indirectly, from use of, or interaction with, some aspect of the present invention with respect to selling, vending, Original Equipment Manufacturing, marketing, merchandising, distributing, service providing, and the like thereof.

[0038] References to “person”, “individual”, "human", "a party", “animal”, “creature”, or any similar term, as used herein, even if the context or particular embodiment implies living user, maker, or participant, it should be understood that such characterizations are sole by way of example, and not limitation, in that it is contemplated that any such usage, making, or participation by a living entity in connection with making, using, and/or participating, in any way, with embodiments of the present invention may be substituted by such similar performed by a suitably configured non living entity, to include, without limitation, automated machines, robots, humanoids, computational systems, information processing systems, artificially intelligent systems, and the like. It is further contemplated that those skilled in the art will readily recognize the practical situations where such living makers, users, and/or participants with embodiments of the present invention may be in whole, or in part, replaced with such non-living makers, users, and/or participants with embodiments of the present invention. Likewise, when those skilled in the art identify such practical situations where such living makers, users, and/or participants with embodiments of the present invention may be in whole, or in part, replaced with such non-living makers, it will be readily apparent in light of the teachings of the present invention how to adapt the described embodiments to be suitable for such non-living makers, users, and/or participants with embodiments of the present invention. Thus, the invention is thus to also cover all such modifications, equivalents, and alternatives falling within the spirit and scope of such adaptations and modifications, at least in part, for such non-living entities.

[0039] Headings provided herein are for convenience and are not to be taken as limiting the disclosure in any way. [0040] The enumerated listing of items does not imply that any or all of the items are mutually exclusive, unless expressly specified otherwise.

[0041] It is understood that the use of specific component, device and/or parameter names are for example only and not meant to imply any limitations on the invention. The invention may thus be implemented with different nomenclature/terminology utilized to describe the mechanisms/units/structures/components/devices/parameters herein, without limitation. Each term utilized herein is to be given its broadest interpretation given the context in which that term is utilized.

[0042] Terminology. The following paragraphs provide definitions and/or context for terms found in this disclosure (including the appended claims):

[0043] "Comprising." This term is open-ended. As used in the appended claims, this term does not foreclose additional stmcture or steps. Consider a claim that recites: "A memory controller comprising a system cache . . . . " Such a claim does not foreclose the memory controller from including additional components (e.g., a memory channel unit, a switch).

[0044] "Configured To." Various units, circuits, or other components may be described or claimed as "configured to" perform a task or tasks. In such contexts, "configured to" or “operable for” is used to connote stmcture by indicating that the mechanisms/units/circuits/components include structure (e.g., circuitry and/or mechanisms) that performs the task or tasks during operation. As such, the mechanisms/unit/circuit/component can be said to be configured to (or be operable) for perform(ing) the task even when the specified mechanisms/unit/circuit/component is not currently operational (e.g., is not on). The mechanisms/units/circuits/components used with the "configured to" or “operable for” language include hardware-for example, mechanisms, structures, electronics, circuits, memory storing program instructions executable to implement the operation, etc. Reciting that a mechanism/unit/circuit/component is "configured to" or “operable for” perform(ing) one or more tasks is expressly intended for that mechanism/unit/circuit/component. "Configured to" may also include adapting a manufacturing process to fabricate devices or components that are adapted to implement or perform one or more tasks. [0045] "Based On." As used herein, this term is used to describe one or more factors that affect a determination. This term does not foreclose additional factors that may affect a determination. That is, a determination may be solely based on those factors or based, at least in part, on those factors. Consider the phrase "determine A based on B." While B may be a factor that affects the determination of A, such a phrase does not foreclose the determination of A from also being based on C. In other instances, A may be determined based solely on B.

[0046] The terms "a", "an" and "the" mean "one or more", unless expressly specified otherwise.

[0047] Unless otherwise indicated, all numbers expressing conditions, concentrations, dimensions, and so forth used in the specification and claims are to be understood as being modified in all instances by the term "about." Accordingly, unless indicated to the contrary, the numerical parameters set forth in the following specification and attached claims are approximations that may vary depending at least upon a specific analytical technique.

[0048] The term "comprising," which is synonymous with "including,"

"containing," or "characterized by" is inclusive or open-ended and does not exclude additional, unrecited elements or method steps. "Comprising" is a term of art used in claim language which means that the named claim elements are essential, but other claim elements may be added and still form a constmct within the scope of the claim.

[0049] As used herein, the phase "consisting of" excludes any element, step, or ingredient not specified in the claim. When the phrase "consists of" (or variations thereof) appears in a clause of the body of a claim, rather than immediately following the preamble, it limits only the element set forth in that clause; other elements are not excluded from the claim as a whole. As used herein, the phase "consisting essentially of" and "consisting of" limits the scope of a claim to the specified elements or method steps, plus those that do not materially affect the basis and novel characteristic(s) of the claimed subject matter. Moreover, for any claim of the present invention which claims an embodiment "consisting essentially of" or "consisting of" a certain set of elements of any herein described embodiment it shall be understood as obvious by those skilled in the art that the present invention also covers all possible varying scope variants of any described embodiment(s) that are each exclusively (i.e., “consisting essentially of’) functional subsets or functional combination thereof such that each of these plurality of exclusive varying scope variants each consists essentially of any functional subset(s) and/or functional combination(s) of any set of elements of any described embodiment(s) to the exclusion of any others not set forth therein. That is, it is contemplated that it will be obvious to those skilled how to create a multiplicity of alternate embodiments of the present invention that simply consisting essentially of a certain functional combination of elements of any described embodiment(s) to the exclusion of any others not set forth therein, and the invention thus covers all such exclusive embodiments as if they were each described herein.

[0050] With respect to the terms "comprising," "consisting of," and "consisting essentially of," where one of these three terms is used herein, the presently disclosed and claimed subject matter may include the use of either of the other two terms. Thus in some embodiments not otherwise explicitly recited, any instance of "comprising" may be replaced by "consisting of" or, alternatively, by "consisting essentially of", and thus, for the purposes of claim support and construction for "consisting of" format claims, such replacements operate to create yet other alternative embodiments "consisting essentially of" only the elements recited in the original "comprising" embodiment to the exclusion of all other elements.

[0051] Devices or system modules that are in at least general communication with each other need not be in continuous communication with each other, unless expressly specified otherwise. In addition, devices or system modules that are in at least general communication with each other may communicate directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries.

[0052] A description of an embodiment with several components in communication with each other does not imply that all such components are required. On the contrary a variety of optional components are described to illustrate the wide variety of possible embodiments of the present invention. [0053] As is well known to those skilled in the art many careful considerations and compromises typically must be made when designing for the optimal manufacture of a commercial implementation any system, and in particular, the embodiments of the present invention. A commercial implementation in accordance with the spirit and teachings of the present invention may configured according to the needs of the particular application, whereby any aspect(s), feature(s), function(s), result(s), component s), approach(es), or step(s) of the teachings related to any described embodiment of the present invention may be suitably omitted, included, adapted, mixed and matched, or improved and/or optimized by those skilled in the art, using their average skills and known techniques, to achieve the desired implementation that addresses the needs of the particular application.

[0054] In the following description and claims, the terms "coupled" and "connected," along with their derivatives, may be used. It should be understood that these terms are not intended as synonyms for each other. Rather, in particular embodiments, "connected" may be used to indicate that two or more elements are in direct physical or electrical contact with each other. "Coupled" may mean that two or more elements are in direct physical or electrical contact. However, "coupled" may also mean that two or more elements are not in direct contact with each other, but yet still cooperate or interact with each other.

[0055] It is to be understood that any exact measurements/dimensions or particular construction materials indicated herein are solely provided as examples of suitable configurations and are not intended to be limiting in any way. Depending on the needs of the particular application, those skilled in the art will readily recognize, in light of the following teachings, a multiplicity of suitable alternative implementation details.

[0056] Numerous conventional teachings for marine ships and related systems have been generally provided above. They may differ from many embodiments of the present invention in that they may not teach a liquid air - pneumatic power system for a marine ship, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention of which will be described in some detail below. [0057] It is to be understood that any exact measurements/dimensions or particular construction materials indicated herein are solely provided as examples of suitable configurations and are not intended to be limiting in any way. Depending on the needs of the particular application, those skilled in the art will readily recognize, in light of the following teachings, a multiplicity of suitable alternative implementation details.

[0058] In some embodiments, the liquid air / pneumatic power system may also work in conjunction with a generator. The generator may provide electricity to components used in the liquid air / pneumatic power system. This feedback functionality may make the liquid air / pneumatic powering system more efficient and thus the cost of travel may be quite inexpensive as compared to conventional passenger vehicles.

[0059] It may be contemplated that in many embodiments, a cost to manufacture, use, and maintain a marine ship in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention, may be far less than conventional combustion marine ships. In many embodiments, greenhouse gas emissions will be far less than with combustion marine ships. In many embodiments, the liquid air / pneumatic power system may be much safer than conventional combustion marine ships.

[0060] FIG. 1 illustrates an exemplary embodiment of a pneumatic power systems architecture of a marine ship, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. In the present embodiment, the pneumatic power system architecture may include a refueling attachment 100, a Liquid air storage device 101, a liquid air pump 102, an air storage tank 103, an ignition switch 104, an acceleration device 106, main air flow valve 108, pressure reducing regulator device 110, a forward motion multi directional air flow manifold 112, forward motion supply airflow valve 116, reverse motion return airflow valve 118, reverse motion supply airflow manifold valve 120, forward motion return air flow valve 122, multiple pneumatic motors 124, a reverse motion multidirectional air flow manifold 126, an exhaust motor generator 128, a power invertor 130, batteries 132, heating lines 133 and 134, cooling coil 136, a heating element 138, multiple shaft propellers 142, a forward and reverse switch 144, air intake valve 148 and a pressure relief valve 152. [0061] In many embodiments the pneumatic power system may be, for example, and without limitation, a compressed air power system, wherein the air storage device 103 may be configured to store compressed air. Furthermore, in the present embodiment, liquid air storage device 101 may be operably coupled to a liquid air station, such that, the liquid air storage device may be connected to a liquid air pump and filled with liquid air. In some exemplary alternative embodiments, the liquid air storage device may include a multiplicity of operably coupled tanks, wherein each tank may be in a range of particular sizes, volumes, shapes, and structures. Liquid air storage tanks may be insulated steel cryogenic tanks of a size applicable to the size required for the size of the marine ship.

[0062] In the present embodiment the air storage device 103 may also be operably coupled to regulator device 110. In some embodiments the regulator device may include a pressure regulator such as, without limitation, a single stage pressure regulator or a double stage pressure regulator. In the present embodiment, the regulator device may reduce an air flow pressure output from the air storage device to an optimal operating pressure.

[0063] In the present embodiment the liquid air storage device 101 may be operably coupled to liquid air pump 102 which pumps liquid air to the air storage device 103. In the present embodiment the air storage device may have heating lines 133 wrapped around the device to maintain a device temperature and lines around all air supply lines between air storage device 103 and air motors 124. In the present embodiment the air storage device 103 may have a heating element 134 inside it to increase the devices air temperature.

[0064] In the present embodiment, the regulator device may further be operably coupled to a main air flow valve 108, which opens when pressure is applied to the acceleration device 106 thereby allowing air to flow through air valves to multi directional air flow valves 112 or 126. In the present embodiment as the pressure on the acceleration device 106 is increased the main air flow valve 108 allows more air to flow through it. In the present embodiment when the pressure is removed from the acceleration device 106 main air flow valve 108 closes and air intake valve 148 opens to allow outside air to flow to the multi directional air flow valves 112 or 126. In the present embodiment, the heating lines 133 and 134 may utilize an electric charge from the power invertor 130 to maintain an optimum operation temperature.

[0065] Furthermore, in the present embodiment, air may be directed from the air storage device 103 into, operably coupled, multidirectional air flow valves 112 or 126, wherein the multidirectional air flow valves may include at least one input port for receiving air from the air storage device 103, and may further include at least four output ports for directing the air to the four pneumatic motors 124.

[0066] In some exemplary alternative embodiments, the four pneumatic motors 124, may include, for example, and without limitation, compound engine motors, multi stage expansion motors, a four-stage expansion motor, rotary vane motors, a turbine or any combination thereof, wherein compressed air may travel through stages of the motors and impart energy, and thus expand, to move a multiplicity of pistons and a central shaft throughout the stages. Furthermore, downstream stages may use exhaust from upstream stages, such that a final exhaust may be of a lower energy state (expanded and cooler) than an initial energy state (compressed and warmer). In the present embodiment, respective central shafts of the four pneumatic motors 124, may be directly connected to respective ship shaft propellers 142 and thus power may be transmitted directly to the propellers as opposed to possibly having to propagate through a multiplicity of powertrain elements as with conventional vehicles. It may be contemplated that the direct connection may greatly improve efficiency as it may eliminate a substantial amount of mechanical friction losses associated with moving the multiplicity of powertrain elements.

[0067] When air may be expanded with a large expansion ratio, temperature of the air may reduce dramatically, furthermore, if there may be any moisture in the air, it may cause freezing which affects the above described pneumatic motor operation. In order to possibly avoid this problem, this system requires heat addition before expansion. Increasing air temperature before entering the pneumatic motors may increase system work potential and may directly improve system efficiency. [0068] Air from the air storage device 103 will flow to multidirectional valve 112 for forward movement or to multidirectional valve 126 for reverse direction movement of the ship. Furthermore, in the present embodiment, the pneumatic motors each may be operably coupled to multidirectional valves 112 or 126, wherein used air from the four pneumatic motors 124, may be directed to the multidirectional valves 112 or 126. The multidirectional valves 112 or 126 may include at least four input ports for receiving air from each of the pneumatic motors and may further include at least one output port for directing the air to the exhaust motor generator 128 and then to the cooling coil 136.

[0069] The multidirectional valve 112 or 126 may also be operably coupled to exhaust motor generator 128 wherein the exhaust motor generator may be for example, and without limitation, an air turbine generator also be operably coupled to the cooling coil 136 or to container cooling systems.

[0070] In the present embodiment, generator 128 may be operably coupled to power invertor 130 and at least battery 132, wherein the battery may receive the charge produced by each generator. Furthermore, in the present embodiment, battery 132 may be an advanced rechargeable Li-Ion battery with 0.875 MJ/kg total charge, 2 MJ/1 energy density, and 90% charge discharge efficiency. In some embodiments, the battery may be used until the charge depletes to 20% of the total charge. Available battery storage may be of 0.7 MJ for 1 kg of battery. In some embodiments, an optimum battery may be 125 kg with a capacity of 24 kWh and a battery volume of 751. In the present embodiment, battery 132 may include plug-in charging system 150.

[0071] In many embodiments, heat trace lines may include cables comprising high resistance wire in physical contact with air storage device 103 and air piping wherein current applied to the heat trace lines may increase the temperature of the heat trace lines and thus increase the surface temperature of the air storage device 103.

[0072] In the present embodiment battery 132 may also be operably coupled to the power invertor 130 to supply power to the heat element 138, wherein the heat element pump may be configured to heat incoming outside air to flow to the vehicle cabins. [0073] In the present embodiment exhaust air from the exhaust motor generator 128 may be operably coupled to the cooling coil 136 to cool recirculated air to the ship cabin for air conditioning or direct cool air to ship compartments.

[0074] In the present embodiment, battery 132 may be operably coupled to the exhaust motor generator 128, auxiliary heating element 138, and a charging station via the plug-in charging system 150, as described above.

[0075] In many alternative embodiments, a liquid air / pneumatic power system may include a switching device which may be operably coupled to a power invertor 130, heating lines 133 and heating element 134, a heat element 138, generator 128, and batteries 132 wherein the switch device may be configured with executable instmctions to direct electricity to particular components for the needs of particular applications, such as, and without limitation, recharging the battery, powering the heating units, and/or receiving electricity from the generators. Furthermore, in some alternative embodiments, the switching device may be configured to be a processor such as, without limitation, a microprocessor, programmable intelligent computer (PIC™) chip, a PICmicro™ chip, a programmable logic controller (PLC), a programmable logic relay (PLR), a PLC on a Chip™, a field programmable gate array (FPGA) or any combination thereof. In some alternative embodiments, at least one of the three generators, and any combination thereof may be operably coupled to the power invertor 130, batteries 132, Furthermore, the electricity may be directly provided when a power saving mode may be switched on. In some alternative embodiments an operator may trigger buttons to drive electricity to or away from particular components operably connected to a switching device. In some other alternative embodiments driving electricity to or away from particular components may be automatically triggered by an on-board processor receiving data from temperature and pressure sensors installed throughout a vehicle. In yet another alternative embodiment, driving electricity to or away from particular components may be automatically triggered by a remote processor in wireless communication with an on board processor, wherein temperature and pressure sensors installed throughout the vehicle may communicate data to the on-board computer. In some other alternative embodiments, a switching device may be configured to process sensed feedback from a device operably coupled to the switching device. [0076] FIG. 2 illustrates operation component diagrams of an exemplary liquid air / pneumatic power systems 200, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention, wherein FIG. 2 illustrates operational air flow components, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. In the present embodiment, and with reference to FIG. 1, a liquid air refueling attachment 100 may be configured to inject and fill a liquid air storage device 101 with liquid air, wherein a liquid air refueling station may be a large size specialized station used for fast filling of the liquid air storage device with clean, liquid air. In the present embodiment the liquid air storage device 101 may be coupled to a liquid air pump 102 which pumps liquid air into the air storage device 103 to maintain a constant air pressure in the air storage device 103. In the present embodiment if the pressure in the air storage device 103 increases above the set desired pressure then the pressure reducing valve 152 opens to allow the excess air pressure to vent to the outside atmosphere. During acceleration, the air in the air storage device 103 may travel to regulator device 110, wherein the regulator device may be configured to reduce the pressure to the operating pressure which can be varied by the operating system. The reduced pressure air may then pass through the main air flow valve 108. The air may then travel to multidirectional output valve 112 or 126 wherein, the multidirectional output valve may be configured to evenly distribute the air and further may direct the distributed air toward four pneumatic motors 124. Air flow valves 116, 118, 120 and 122 direct the air to the pneumatic motors so that the vehicle can travel in the forward direction or reverse direction as directed by the forward and reverse switch 144. Exhaust (exiting air sent through the pneumatic motors) from each of the pneumatic motors may be combined together in the multidirectional valve 112 or 126, wherein the multidirectional valve may be further configured to pass the combined air back to the exhaust motor generator 128. The heating lines are attached to all air piping and the air storage device 103 to allow heating of the air. The exhaust motor generator 128 may be configured to have the heated air pass through the exhaust motor and further be configured to possibly produce electrical output.

[0077] Furthermore, FIG 3, illustrates operational electricity flow components, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention, and with further reference to FIG 1, plug-in charging system 150 may be configured to be plug into an outlet at an electricity fueling station. In return, the electricity fueling station may be configured to provide electrical charge to the plug-in charging system. The plug-in charging system may be configured to provide electric charge to battery 132. In a case that the heating lines 133 may be receiving electrical charge, it may keep the air storage device 103 and all air piping warm during cold weather so that the ship may be started easily. In the present embodiment the heating element 134 may receive electrical charge to heat the air inside the air storage device 103. Furthermore, the battery 132 may be configured to receive additional electric charge from the generator 128 the battery 132 may be further configured to provide electricity to the ship power invertor 130 and for on-board power needs. In the present embodiment, battery 132 may further be configured to send electrical charge to the heat element 138.

[0078] FIG. 4 illustrates an exemplary method embodiment 400 of using an exemplary liquid air / pneumatic power system vehicle, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. In the present embodiment, and with reference to FIG. 1, an operator may start a vehicle, in a step 405, wherein the ship may be configured with an exemplary, and without limitation, liquid air / pneumatic power system as illustrated in FIG.l. Next, the operator may apply pressure to an acceleration lever of the ship. In response to pressure possibly being applied to the acceleration lever 106, air flow valve 108 opens allowing air to flow from air storage device 103 and operates pump 102 to allow liquid air to flow into air storage device 103 to replenish air flowing from the air storage device 103, in a step 410. After the compressed air may travel through regulator device 110, a main air flow valve 108, and multidirectional valves 112 or 126, the compressed air may travel through each of pneumatic motors 124, which may cause the ship to accelerate, in a step 415. While the ship may be accelerating, the pneumatic motors may output exhaust air to the exhaust motor generator 128, via multidirectional valves 112 or 126 The exhaust gas may cause the exhaust motor generator to produce electrical charge for battery 132 and power invertor 130. While the ship may be traveling, and/or while pressure may be applied to the acceleration lever 106, the battery may continue to be charged via generator 128. When pressure is removed from acceleration device 106 main air flow valve 108 closes and air intake valve 148 opens allowing outside air to flow to multidirectional output valves 112 or 126. Processing may continue back to step 410 and the process may be repeated until the operator may have reached a desired destination, may need to refuel in step 425 or may have decided to stop.

[0079] Those skilled in the art will readily recognize, in light of and in accordance with the teachings of the present invention, that any of the foregoing steps may be suitably replaced, reordered, removed and additional steps may be inserted depending upon the needs of the particular application. Moreover, the prescribed method steps of the foregoing embodiments may be implemented using any physical and/or hardware system that those skilled in the art will readily know is suitable in light of the foregoing teachings. For any method steps described in the present application that can be carried out on a computing machine, a typical computer system can, when appropriately configured or designed, serve as a computer system in which those aspects of the invention may be embodied.

[0080] All the features disclosed in this specification, including any accompanying abstract and drawings, may be replaced by alternative features serving the same, equivalent or similar purpose, unless expressly stated otherwise. Thus, unless expressly stated otherwise, each feature disclosed is one example only of a generic series of equivalent or similar features.

[0081] Having fully described at least one embodiment of the present invention, other equivalent or alternative methods of implementing a pneumatic powering system according to the present invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art. Various aspects of the invention have been described above by way of illustration, and the specific embodiments disclosed are not intended to limit the invention to the particular forms disclosed. The particular implementation of the liquid air / pneumatic powering system may vary depending upon the particular context or application. By way of example, and not limitation, the liquid air / pneumatic powering system described in the foregoing were principally directed to providing a liquid air / pneumatic air and direct powertrain powering system to a ship implementation; however, similar techniques may instead be applied to providing a similar direct powertrain powering system to motorcycles, boats, airplanes, and trains, which implementations of the present invention are contemplated as within the scope of the present invention. The invention is thus to cover all modifications, equivalents, and alternatives falling within the spirit and scope of the following claims. It is to be further understood that not all of the disclosed embodiments in the foregoing specification will necessarily satisfy or achieve each of the objects, advantages, or improvements described in the foregoing specification.

[0082] Claim elements and steps herein may have been numbered and/or lettered solely as an aid in readability and understanding. Any such numbering and lettering in itself is not intended to and should not be taken to indicate the ordering of elements and/or steps in the claims.

[0083] The corresponding structures, materials, acts, and equivalents of all means or step plus function elements in the claims below are intended to include any structure, material, or act for performing the function in combination with other claimed elements as specifically claimed.

[0084] The corresponding structures, materials, acts, and equivalents of all means or step plus function elements in the claims below are intended to include any stmcture, material, or act for performing the function in combination with other claimed elements as specifically claimed. The description of the present invention has been presented for purposes of illustration and description, but is not intended to be exhaustive or limited to the invention in the form disclosed. Many modifications and variations will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention. The embodiment was chosen and described in order to best explain the principles of the invention and the practical application, and to enable others of ordinary skill in the art to understand the invention for various embodiments with various modifications as are suited to the particular use contemplated.

[0085] The Abstract is provided to comply with 37 C.F.R. Section 1.72(b) requiring an abstract that will allow the reader to ascertain the nature and gist of the technical disclosure. That is, the Abstract is provided merely to introduce certain concepts and not to identify any key or essential features of the claimed subject matter. It is submitted with the understanding that it will not be used to limit or interpret the scope or meaning of the claims.