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Title:
SIMULCAST LAYERS FOR MULTIVIEW IN VIDEO CODING
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2021/061394
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A video coding mechanism is disclosed. The mechanism includes encoding a bitstream comprising one or more layers of coded pictures. A video parameter set (VPS) is also encoded into the bitstream. The VPS includes an each layer is an output layer set (OLS) flag (each_layer_is_an_ols_flag) when all layers specified by the VPS are independently coded without inter-layer prediction. The each_layer_is_an_ols_flag specifies whether each OLS contains only one layer. The bitstream is stored for communication toward a decoder.

Inventors:
WANG YE-KUI (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2020/049732
Publication Date:
April 01, 2021
Filing Date:
September 08, 2020
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
FUTUREWEI TECHNOLOGIES INC (US)
International Classes:
H04N5/93
Foreign References:
US20170019673A12017-01-19
US20160165252A12016-06-09
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
DIETRICH, William H. et al. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A method implemented in a decoder, the method comprising: receiving, by a receiver of the decoder, a bitstream comprising one or more layers of coded pictures and a video parameter set (VPS), wherein an each layer is an output layer set (OLS) flag (each layer is an ols flag) is included in the VPS when all layers specified by the VPS are independently coded without inter-layer prediction, the each layer is an ols flag specifying whether each OLS contains only one layer; decoding, by a processor of the decoder, a coded picture from an output layer of an OLS based on the each layer is an ols flag in the VPS to produce a decoded picture; and forwarding, by the processor, the decoded picture for display as part of a decoded video sequence.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the each_layer_is_an_ols_flag is set to one when specifying that each OLS contains only one layer and each layer is the only output layer in the each OLS.

3. The method of any of claims 1-2, wherein the each_layer_is_an_ols_flag is set to zero when specifying that at least one OLS contains more than one layer.

4. The method of any of claims 1-3, wherein a total number of OLSs are explicitly signaled and layers associated with OLSs are explicitly signaled when an OLS mode identification code (ols mode idc) is equal to two, and wherein the ols mode idc is inferred to be equal to two when a VPS all independent layers flag (vps all independent layers flag) is set to one and when the each_layer_is_an_ols_flag is set to zero.

5. The method of any of claims 1-4, wherein the VPS includes a vps_all_independent_layers_flag set to one to specify that all layers specified by the VPS are independently coded without inter-layer prediction.

6. The method of any of claims 1-5, wherein the VPS includes a VPS maximum layers minus one (vps max layers minusl) syntax element specifying a number of layers specified by the VPS, and wherein the vps all independent layers flag is signaled when vps max layers minusl is greater than zero.

7. The method of any of claims 1-6, wherein the VPS includes a number of output layer sets minus one (num output layer sets minusl) that specifies a total number of OLSs specified by the VPS when ols mode idc is equal to two.

8. A method implemented in an encoder, the method comprising: encoding, by a processor of the encoder, a bitstream comprising one or more layers of coded pictures; encoding into the bitstream, by the processor, a video parameter set (VPS), the VPS including an each layer is an output layer set (OLS) flag (each layer is an ols flag) when all layers specified by the VPS are independently coded without inter-layer prediction, the each layer is an ols flag specifying whether each OLS contains only one layer; and storing, by a memory coupled to the processor, the bitstream for communication toward a decoder.

9. The method of claim 8, wherein the each layer is an ols flag is set to one when specifying that each OLS contains only one layer and each layer is the only output layer in the each OLS.

10. The method of any of claims 8-10, wherein the each_layer_is_an_ols_flag is set to zero when specifying that at least one OLS contains more than one layer.

11. The method of any of claims 8-10, wherein a total number of OLSs are explicitly signaled and layers associated with OLSs are explicitly signaled when an OLS mode identification code (ols mode idc) is equal to two, and wherein the ols mode idc is inferred to be equal to two when a VPS all independent layers flag (vps all independent layers flag) is set to one and when the each_layer_is_an_ols_flag is set to zero.

12. The method of any of claims 8-11, wherein the VPS includes a vps_all_independent_layers_flag set to one to specify that all layers specified by the VPS are independently coded without inter-layer prediction.

13. The method of any of claims 8-12, wherein the VPS includes a VPS maximum layers minus one (vps max layers minusl) syntax element specifying a number of layers specified by the VPS, and wherein the vps all independent layers flag is signaled when vps max layers minusl is greater than zero.

14. The method of any of claims 8-13, wherein the VPS includes a number of output layer sets minus one (num output layer sets minusl) that specifies a total number of OLSs specified by the VPS when ols mode idc is equal to two.

15. A video coding device comprising: a processor, a receiver coupled to the processor, a memory coupled to the processor, and a transmitter coupled to the processor, wherein the processor, receiver, memory, and transmitter are configured to perform the method of any of claims 1-14.

16. A non-transitory computer readable medium comprising a computer program product for use by a video coding device, the computer program product comprising computer executable instructions stored on the non-transitory computer readable medium such that when executed by a processor cause the video coding device to perform the method of any of claims 1-14.

17. A decoder comprising: a receiving means for receiving a bitstream comprising one or more layers of coded pictures and a video parameter set (VPS), wherein an each layer is an output layer set (OLS) flag (each layer is an ols flag) is included in the VPS when all layers specified by the VPS are independently coded without inter-layer prediction, the each layer is an ols flag specifying whether each OLS contains only one layer; a decoding means for decoding a coded picture from an output layer of an OLS based on the each layer is an ols flag in the VPS to produce a decoded picture; and a forwarding means for forwarding the decoded picture for display as part of a decoded video sequence.

18. The decoder of claim 17, wherein the decoder is further configured to perform the method of any of claims 1-7.

19. An encoder comprising: an encoding means for: encoding a bitstream comprising one or more layers of coded pictures; and encoding into the bitstream a video parameter set (VPS) including an each layer is an output layer set (OLS) flag (each layer is an ols flag) when all layers specified by the VPS are independently coded without inter-layer prediction, the each layer is an ols flag specifying whether each OLS contains only one layer; and a storing means for storing the bitstream for communication toward a decoder.

20. The encoder of claim 19, wherein the encoder is further configured to perform the method of any of claims 8-14.

Description:
Simulcast Layers For Multiview In Video Coding

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This patent application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/905,126 filed September 24, 2019 by Ye-Kui Wang, and titled “Support Of Operation Points With More Than One Output Layer For Simulcast Layers,” which is hereby incorporated by reference.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0002] The present disclosure is generally related to video coding, and is specifically related to configuring output layer sets (OLSs) in multi-layer bitstreams for use in multiview applications.

BACKGROUND

[0003] The amount of video data needed to depict even a relatively short video can be substantial, which may result in difficulties when the data is to be streamed or otherwise communicated across a communications network with limited bandwidth capacity. Thus, video data is generally compressed before being communicated across modem day telecommunications networks. The size of a video could also be an issue when the video is stored on a storage device because memory resources may be limited. Video compression devices often use software and/or hardware at the source to code the video data prior to transmission or storage, thereby decreasing the quantity of data needed to represent digital video images. The compressed data is then received at the destination by a video decompression device that decodes the video data. With limited network resources and ever increasing demands of higher video quality, improved compression and decompression techniques that improve compression ratio with little to no sacrifice in image quality are desirable.

SUMMARY

[0004] In an embodiment, the disclosure includes a method implemented in a decoder, the method comprising: receiving, by a receiver of the decoder, a bitstream comprising one or more layers of coded pictures and a video parameter set (VPS), wherein an each layer is an output layer set (OLS) flag (each layer is an ols flag) is included in the VPS when all layers specified by the VPS are independently coded without inter-layer prediction, the each_layer_is_an_ols_flag specifying whether each OLS contains only one layer; decoding, by a processor of the decoder, a coded picture from an output layer of an OLS based on the each layer is an ols flag in the VPS to produce a decoded picture; and forwarding, by the processor, the decoded picture for display as part of a decoded video sequence.

[0005] Layers of pictures can be employed to support scalability. For example, a video can be coded into multiple layers. A layer may be coded without referencing other layers. Such a layer is referred to as a simulcast layer. Accordingly, a simulcast layer can be decoded without reference to other layers. As another example, a layer can be coded using inter-layer prediction. This allows a current layer to be coded by including only the differences between the current layer and a reference layer. Layers can be organized into OLSs. An OLS is a set of layers that includes at least one output layer and any layers that support decoding the output layer. As a particular example, a first OLS may contain a base layer, while a second OLS may contain the base layer and also an enhancement layer with an increased characteristic. In an example, the first OLS can be transmitted to a decoder to allow the video to be decoded at a base resolution or the second OLS can be transmitted to allow the video to be decoded at a higher enhanced resolution. Accordingly, the video can scale based on user requests. In some instances, scalability is not used and each layer is coded as a simulcast layer. Some systems infer that if all layers are simulcast, then each OLS should include a single layer (as no reference layers are used). This inference increases coding efficiency as signaling can be omitted from an encoded bitstream. However, such an inference does not support multiview. Multiview is also known as stereoscopic video. In multiview, two video sequences of the same scene are recorded by spatially offset cameras. The two video sequences are displayed to the user on different lenses in a headset. Displaying a different spatially offset sequence for each eye in this manner can create the impression of three dimension (3D) video and/or visual depth. Accordingly, an OLS implementing multiview includes two layers (e.g., one for each eye). However, when the layers are all simulcast, a video decoder may employ the inference to infer that each OLS contains only one layer. This may result in an error as the decoder may display only one layer of the multiview or may be unable to proceed with displaying either layer. Hence, the inference that each OLS contains a single layer when all layers are simulcast may prevent multiview applications from rendering properly at a decoder.

[0006] The present example includes a mechanism to allow a video coding system to properly decode multiview video when all layers in the video are simulcast and do not employ inter-layer prediction. A VPS all independent layers flag (vps all independent layers flag) can be included in the bitstream in a VPS and set to one when none of the layers use inter-layer prediction (e.g., are all simulcast). When this flag is set to one, each_layer_is_an_ols_flag is signaled in the VPS. The each layer is an ols flag can be set to specify whether each OLS contains a single layer or whether at least one OLS contains more than one layer (e.g., to support multiview). Accordingly, the vps all independent layers flag and the each layer is an ols flag can be used to support multiview applications. Further, an OLS mode identification code (ols mode idc) can be set to two in the VPS when this occurs. This causes the number of OLSs and the layers related to OLSs to be explicitly signaled. The decoder can then use this information to correctly decode an OLS containing multiview video. This approach supports coding efficiency while correcting errors. As such, the disclosed mechanisms increase the functionality of an encoder and/or a decoder. Further, the disclosed mechanisms may decrease bitstream size, and hence reduce processor, memory, and/or network resource utilization at both the encoder and the decoder.

[0007] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, another implementation of the aspect provides, wherein the each layer is an ols flag is set to one when specifying that each OLS contains only one layer and each layer is the only output layer in the each OLS.

[0008] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, another implementation of the aspect provides, wherein the each_layer_is_an_ols_flag is set to zero when specifying that at least one OLS contains more than one layer.

[0009] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, another implementation of the aspect provides, wherein a total number of OLSs are explicitly signaled and layers associated with OLSs are explicitly signaled when an OLS mode identification code (ols mode idc) is equal to two, and wherein the ols_mode_idc is inferred to be equal to two when a VPS all independent layers flag (vps_all_independent_layers_flag) is set to one and when the each_layer_is_an_ols_flag is set to zero.

[0010] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, another implementation of the aspect provides, wherein the VPS includes a vps_all_independent_layers_flag set to one to specify that all layers specified by the VPS are independently coded without inter-layer prediction. [0011] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, another implementation of the aspect provides, wherein the VPS includes a VPS maximum layers minus one (vps max layers minusl) syntax element specifying a number of layers specified by the VPS, and wherein the vps all independent layers flag is signaled when vps max layers minusl is greater than zero. [0012] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, another implementation of the aspect provides, wherein the VPS includes a number of output layer sets minus one (num output layer sets minusl) that specifies a total number of OLSs specified by the VPS when ols mode idc is equal to two.

[0013] In an embodiment, the disclosure includes a method implemented in an encoder, the method comprising: encoding, by a processor of the encoder, a bitstream comprising one or more layers of coded pictures; encoding into the bitstream, by the processor, a VPS, the VPS including an each layer is an ols flag when all layers specified by the VPS are independently coded without inter-layer prediction, the each layer is an ols flag specifying whether each OLS contains only one layer; and storing, by a memory coupled to the processor, the bitstream for communication toward a decoder.

[0014] Layers of pictures can be employed to support scalability. For example, a video can be coded into multiple layers. A layer may be coded without referencing other layers. Such a layer is referred to as a simulcast layer. Accordingly, a simulcast layer can be decoded without reference to other layers. As another example, a layer can be coded using inter-layer prediction. This allows a current layer to be coded by including only the differences between the current layer and a reference layer. Layers can be organized into OLSs. An OLS is a set of layers that includes at least one output layer and any layers that support decoding the output layer. As a particular example, a first OLS may contain a base layer, while a second OLS may contain the base layer and also an enhancement layer with an increased characteristic. In an example, the first OLS can be transmitted to a decoder to allow the video to be decoded at a base resolution or the second OLS can be transmitted to allow the video to be decoded at a higher enhanced resolution. Accordingly, the video can scale based on user requests. In some instances, scalability is not used and each layer is coded as a simulcast layer. Some systems infer that if all layers are simulcast, then each OLS should include a single layer (as no reference layers are used). This inference increases coding efficiency as signaling can be omitted from an encoded bitstream. However, such an inference does not support multiview. Multiview is also known as stereoscopic video. In multiview, two video sequences of the same scene are recorded by spatially offset cameras. The two video sequences are displayed to the user on different lenses in a headset. Displaying a different spatially offset sequence for each eye in this manner can create the impression of 3D video and/or visual depth. Accordingly, an OLS implementing multiview includes two layers (e.g., one for each eye). However, when the layers are all simulcast, a video decoder may employ the inference to infer that each OLS contains only one layer. This may result in an error as the decoder may display only one layer of the multiview or may be unable to proceed with displaying either layer. Hence, the inference that each OLS contains a single layer when all layers are simulcast may prevent multiview applications from rendering properly at a decoder.

[0015] The present example includes a mechanism to allow a video coding system to properly decode multiview video when all layers in the video are simulcast and do not employ inter-layer prediction. A vps all independent layers flag can be included in the bitstream in a VPS and set to one when none of the layers use inter-layer prediction (e.g., are all simulcast). When this flag is set to one, each_layer_is_an_ols_flag is signaled in the VPS. The each layer is an ols flag can be set to specify whether each OLS contains a single layer or whether at least one OLS contains more than one layer (e.g., to support multi view). Accordingly, the vps all independent layers flag and the each layer is an ols flag can be used to support multiview applications. Further, an ols mode idc can be set to two in the VPS when this occurs. This causes the number of OLSs and the layers related to OLSs to be explicitly signaled. The decoder can then use this information to correctly decode an OLS containing multiview video. This approach supports coding efficiency while correcting errors. As such, the disclosed mechanisms increase the functionality of an encoder and/or a decoder. Further, the disclosed mechanisms may decrease bitstream size, and hence reduce processor, memory, and/or network resource utilization at both the encoder and the decoder.

[0016] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, another implementation of the aspect provides, wherein the each_layer_is_an_ols_flag is set to one when specifying that each OLS contains only one layer and each layer is the only output layer in the each OLS.

[0017] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, another implementation of the aspect provides, wherein the each_layer_is_an_ols_flag is set to zero when specifying that at least one OLS contains more than one layer.

[0018] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, another implementation of the aspect provides, wherein a total number of OLSs are explicitly signaled and layers associated with OLSs are explicitly signaled when an ols mode idc is equal to two, and wherein the ols_mode_idc is inferred to be equal to two when a vps_all_independent_layers_flag is set to one and when the each_layer_is_an_ols_flag is set to zero.

[0019] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, another implementation of the aspect provides, wherein the VPS includes a vps_all_independent_layers_flag set to one to specify that all layers specified by the VPS are independently coded without inter-layer prediction. [0020] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, another implementation of the aspect provides, wherein the VPS includes a vps max layers minusl syntax element specifying a number of layers specified by the VPS, and wherein the vps all independent layers flag is signaled when vps_max_layers_minusl is greater than zero.

[0021] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, another implementation of the aspect provides, wherein the VPS includes a num output layer sets minusl that specifies a total number of OLSs specified by the VPS when ols mode idc is equal to two.

[0022] In an embodiment, the disclosure includes a video coding device comprising: a processor, a receiver coupled to the processor, a memory coupled to the processor, and a transmitter coupled to the processor, wherein the processor, receiver, memory, and transmitter are configured to perform the method of any of the preceding aspects.

[0023] In an embodiment, the disclosure includes a non-transitory computer readable medium comprising a computer program product for use by a video coding device, the computer program product comprising computer executable instructions stored on the non- transitory computer readable medium such that when executed by a processor cause the video coding device to perform the method of any of the preceding aspects.

[0024] In an embodiment, the disclosure includes a decoder comprising: a receiving means for receiving a bitstream comprising one or more layers of coded pictures and a VPS, wherein an each layer is an ols flag is included in the VPS when all layers specified by the VPS are independently coded without inter-layer prediction, the each layer is an ols flag specifying whether each OLS contains only one layer; a decoding means for decoding a coded picture from an output layer of an OLS based on the each layer is an ols flag in the VPS to produce a decoded picture; and a forwarding means for forwarding the decoded picture for display as part of a decoded video sequence.

[0025] Layers of pictures can be employed to support scalability. For example, a video can be coded into multiple layers. A layer may be coded without referencing other layers. Such a layer is referred to as a simulcast layer. Accordingly, a simulcast layer can be decoded without reference to other layers. As another example, a layer can be coded using inter-layer prediction. This allows a current layer to be coded by including only the differences between the current layer and a reference layer. Layers can be organized into OLSs. An OLS is a set of layers that includes at least one output layer and any layers that support decoding the output layer. As a particular example, a first OLS may contain a base layer, while a second OLS may contain the base layer and also an enhancement layer with an increased characteristic. In an example, the first OLS can be transmitted to a decoder to allow the video to be decoded at a base resolution or the second OLS can be transmitted to allow the video to be decoded at a higher enhanced resolution. Accordingly, the video can scale based on user requests. In some instances, scalability is not used and each layer is coded as a simulcast layer. Some systems infer that if all layers are simulcast, then each OLS should include a single layer (as no reference layers are used). This inference increases coding efficiency as signaling can be omitted from an encoded bitstream. However, such an inference does not support multiview. Multiview is also known as stereoscopic video. In multiview, two video sequences of the same scene are recorded by spatially offset cameras. The two video sequences are displayed to the user on different lenses in a headset. Displaying a different spatially offset sequence for each eye in this manner can create the impression of 3D video and/or visual depth. Accordingly, an OLS implementing multiview includes two layers (e.g., one for each eye). However, when the layers are all simulcast, a video decoder may employ the inference to infer that each OLS contains only one layer. This may result in an error as the decoder may display only one layer of the multiview or may be unable to proceed with displaying either layer. Hence, the inference that each OLS contains a single layer when all layers are simulcast may prevent multiview applications from rendering properly at a decoder.

[0026] The present example includes a mechanism to allow a video coding system to properly decode multiview video when all layers in the video are simulcast and do not employ inter-layer prediction. A vps all independent layers flag can be included in the bitstream in a VPS and set to one when none of the layers use inter-layer prediction (e.g., are all simulcast). When this flag is set to one, each_layer_is_an_ols_flag is signaled in the VPS. The each layer is an ols flag can be set to specify whether each OLS contains a single layer or whether at least one OLS contains more than one layer (e.g., to support multi view). Accordingly, the vps all independent layers flag and the each layer is an ols flag can be used to support multiview applications. Further, an ols mode idc can be set to two in the VPS when this occurs. This causes the number of OLSs and the layers related to OLSs to be explicitly signaled. The decoder can then use this information to correctly decode an OLS containing multiview video. This approach supports coding efficiency while correcting errors. As such, the disclosed mechanisms increase the functionality of an encoder and/or a decoder. Further, the disclosed mechanisms may decrease bitstream size, and hence reduce processor, memory, and/or network resource utilization at both the encoder and the decoder.

[0027] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, another implementation of the aspect provides, wherein the decoder is further configured to perform the method of any of the preceding aspects.

[0028] In an embodiment, the disclosure includes an encoder comprising: an encoding means for: encoding a bitstream comprising one or more layers of coded pictures; and encoding into the bitstream a VPS including an each layer is an ols flag when all layers specified by the VPS are independently coded without inter-layer prediction, the each layer is an ols flag specifying whether each OLS contains only one layer; and a storing means for storing the bitstream for communication toward a decoder.

[0029] Layers of pictures can be employed to support scalability. For example, a video can be coded into multiple layers. A layer may be coded without referencing other layers. Such a layer is referred to as a simulcast layer. Accordingly, a simulcast layer can be decoded without reference to other layers. As another example, a layer can be coded using inter-layer prediction. This allows a current layer to be coded by including only the differences between the current layer and a reference layer. Layers can be organized into OLSs. An OLS is a set of layers that includes at least one output layer and any layers that support decoding the output layer. As a particular example, a first OLS may contain a base layer, while a second OLS may contain the base layer and also an enhancement layer with an increased characteristic. In an example, the first OLS can be transmitted to a decoder to allow the video to be decoded at a base resolution or the second OLS can be transmitted to allow the video to be decoded at a higher enhanced resolution. Accordingly, the video can scale based on user requests. In some instances, scalability is not used and each layer is coded as a simulcast layer. Some systems infer that if all layers are simulcast, then each OLS should include a single layer (as no reference layers are used). This inference increases coding efficiency as signaling can be omitted from an encoded bitstream. However, such an inference does not support multiview. Multiview is also known as stereoscopic video. In multiview, two video sequences of the same scene are recorded by spatially offset cameras. The two video sequences are displayed to the user on different lenses in a headset. Displaying a different spatially offset sequence for each eye in this manner can create the impression of 3D video and/or visual depth. Accordingly, an OLS implementing multiview includes two layers (e.g., one for each eye). However, when the layers are all simulcast, a video decoder may employ the inference to infer that each OLS contains only one layer. This may result in an error as the decoder may display only one layer of the multiview or may be unable to proceed with displaying either layer. Hence, the inference that each OLS contains a single layer when all layers are simulcast may prevent multiview applications from rendering properly at a decoder.

[0030] The present example includes a mechanism to allow a video coding system to properly decode multiview video when all layers in the video are simulcast and do not employ inter-layer prediction. A vps all independent layers flag can be included in the bitstream in a VPS and set to one when none of the layers use inter-layer prediction (e.g., are all simulcast). When this flag is set to one, each_layer_is_an_ols_flag is signaled in the VPS. The each layer is an ols flag can be set to specify whether each OLS contains a single layer or whether at least one OLS contains more than one layer (e.g., to support multi view). Accordingly, the vps all independent layers flag and the each layer is an ols flag can be used to support multiview applications. Further, an ols mode idc can be set to two in the VPS when this occurs. This causes the number of OLSs and the layers related to OLSs to be explicitly signaled. The decoder can then use this information to correctly decode an OLS containing multiview video. This approach supports coding efficiency while correcting errors. As such, the disclosed mechanisms increase the functionality of an encoder and/or a decoder. Further, the disclosed mechanisms may decrease bitstream size, and hence reduce processor, memory, and/or network resource utilization at both the encoder and the decoder.

[0031] Optionally, in any of the preceding aspects, another implementation of the aspect provides, wherein the encoder is further configured to perform the method of any of the preceding aspects.

[0032] For the purpose of clarity, any one of the foregoing embodiments may be combined with any one or more of the other foregoing embodiments to create a new embodiment within the scope of the present disclosure.

[0033] These and other features will be more clearly understood from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0034] For a more complete understanding of this disclosure, reference is now made to the following brief description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings and detailed description, wherein like reference numerals represent like parts.

[0035] FIG. 1 is a flowchart of an example method of coding a video signal.

[0036] FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of an example coding and decoding (codec) system for video coding.

[0037] FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram illustrating an example video encoder.

[0038] FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram illustrating an example video decoder.

[0039] FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram illustrating an example multi-layer video sequence configured for inter-layer prediction.

[0040] FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram illustrating an example multiview sequence containing simulcast layers for use in multiview. [0041] FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram illustrating an example bitstream including OLS with simulcast layers for use in multiview.

[0042] FIG. 8 is a schematic diagram of an example video coding device.

[0043] FIG. 9 is a flowchart of an example method of encoding a video sequence with OLSs of simulcast layers for use in multiview.

[0044] FIG. 10 is a flowchart of an example method of decoding a video sequence including an OLS of simulcast layers for use in multiview.

[0045] FIG. 11 is a schematic diagram of an example system for coding a video sequence with OLSs of simulcast layers for use in multiview.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0046] It should be understood at the outset that although an illustrative implementation of one or more embodiments are provided below, the disclosed systems and/or methods may be implemented using any number of techniques, whether currently known or in existence. The disclosure should in no way be limited to the illustrative implementations, drawings, and techniques illustrated below, including the exemplary designs and implementations illustrated and described herein, but may be modified within the scope of the appended claims along with their full scope of equivalents.

[0047] The following terms are defined as follows unless used in a contrary context herein. Specifically, the following definitions are intended to provide additional clarity to the present disclosure. However, terms may be described differently in different contexts. Accordingly, the following definitions should be considered as a supplement and should not be considered to limit any other definitions of descriptions provided for such terms herein.

[0048] A bitstream is a sequence of bits including video data that is compressed for transmission between an encoder and a decoder. An encoder is a device that is configured to employ encoding processes to compress video data into a bitstream. A decoder is a device that is configured to employ decoding processes to reconstruct video data from a bitstream for display. A picture is an array of luma samples and/or an array of chroma samples that create a frame or a field thereof. A picture that is being encoded or decoded can be referred to as a current picture for clarity of discussion.

[0049] A network abstraction layer (NAL) unit is a syntax structure containing data in the form of a Raw Byte Sequence Payload (RBSP), an indication of the type of data, and interspersed as desired with emulation prevention bytes. A video coding layer (VCL) NAL unit is a NAL unit coded to contain video data, such as a coded slice of a picture. A non-VCL NAL unit is a NAL unit that contains non-video data such as syntax and/or parameters that support decoding the video data, performance of conformance checking, or other operations. A layer is a set of VCL NAL units that share a specified characteristic (e.g., a common resolution, frame rate, image size, etc.) and associated non-VCL NAL units. The VCL NAL units of a layer may share a particular value of a NAL unit header layer identifier (nuh layer id). A coded picture is a coded representation of a picture comprising VCL NAL units with a particular value of a NAL unit header layer identifier (nuh layer id) within an access unit (AU) and containing all coding tree units (CTUs) of the picture. A decoded picture is a picture produced by applying a decoding process to a coded picture.

[0050] An output layer set (OLS) is a set of layers for which one or more layers are specified as output layer(s). An output layer is a layer that is designated for output (e.g., to a display). A zeroth (0-th) OLS is an OLS that contains only a lowest layer (layer with a lowest layer identifier) and hence contains only an output layer. A video parameter set (VPS) is a data unit that contains parameters related to an entire video. Inter-layer prediction is a mechanism of coding a current picture in a current layer by reference to a reference picture in a reference layer, where the current picture and the reference picture are included in the same AU and the reference layer includes a lower nuh layer id than the current layer.

[0051] An each layer is an OLS flag (each layer is an ols flag) is a syntax element that signals whether each OLS in a bitstream contains a single layer. An OLS mode identification code (ols mode idc) is a syntax element that indicates information related to the number of OLSs, the layers of the OLSs, and the output layers in the OLSs. A VPS all independent layers flag (vps_all_independent_layers_flag) is a syntax element that signals whether inter layer prediction is used to code any of the layers in a bitstream. A VPS maximum layers minus one (vps max layers minusl) is a syntax element that signals the number of layers specified by a VPS, and hence the maximum number of layers allowed in a corresponding coded video sequence. A number of output layer sets minus one (num output layer sets minusl) is a syntax element that specifies the total number of OLSs specified by the VPS.

[0052] The following acronyms are used herein, Coding Tree Block (CTB), Coding Tree Unit (CTU), Coding Unit (CU), Coded Video Sequence (CVS), Joint Video Experts Team (JVET), Motion Constrained Tile Set (MCTS), Maximum Transfer Unit (MTU), Network Abstraction Layer (NAL), Output Layer Set (OLS), Picture Order Count (POC), Raw Byte Sequence Payload (RBSP), Sequence Parameter Set (SPS), Video Parameter Set (VPS), Versatile Video Coding (VVC), and Working Draft (WD). [0053] Many video compression techniques can be employed to reduce the size of video files with minimal loss of data. For example, video compression techniques can include performing spatial (e.g., intra-picture) prediction and/or temporal (e.g., inter-picture) prediction to reduce or remove data redundancy in video sequences. For block-based video coding, a video slice (e.g., a video picture or a portion of a video picture) may be partitioned into video blocks, which may also be referred to as treeblocks, coding tree blocks (CTBs), coding tree units (CTUs), coding units (CUs), and/or coding nodes. Video blocks in an intra-coded (I) slice of a picture are coded using spatial prediction with respect to reference samples in neighboring blocks in the same picture. Video blocks in an inter-coded unidirectional prediction (P) or bidirectional prediction (B) slice of a picture may be coded by employing spatial prediction with respect to reference samples in neighboring blocks in the same picture or temporal prediction with respect to reference samples in other reference pictures. Pictures may be referred to as frames and/or images, and reference pictures may be referred to as reference frames and/or reference images. Spatial or temporal prediction results in a predictive block representing an image block. Residual data represents pixel differences between the original image block and the predictive block. Accordingly, an inter-coded block is encoded according to a motion vector that points to a block of reference samples forming the predictive block and the residual data indicating the difference between the coded block and the predictive block. An intra-coded block is encoded according to an intra-coding mode and the residual data For further compression, the residual data may be transformed from the pixel domain to a transform domain. These result in residual transform coefficients, which may be quantized. The quantized transform coefficients may initially be arranged in a two-dimensional array. The quantized transform coefficients may be scanned in order to produce a one-dimensional vector of transform coefficients. Entropy coding may be applied to achieve even more compression. Such video compression techniques are discussed in greater detail below.

[0054] To ensure an encoded video can be accurately decoded, video is encoded and decoded according to corresponding video coding standards. Video coding standards include International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Standardization Sector (ITU-T) H.261, International Organization for Standardization/Intemational Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG)-1 Part 2, ITU-T H.262 or ISO/IEC MPEG-2 Part 2, ITU-T H.263, ISO/IEC MPEG-4 Part 2, Advanced Video Coding (AVC), also known as ITU-T H.264 or ISO/IEC MPEG-4 Part 10, and High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), also known as ITU-T H.265 or MPEG-H Part 2. AVC includes extensions such as Scalable Video Coding (SVC), Multiview Video Coding (MVC) and Multiview Video Coding plus Depth (MVC+D), and three dimensional (3D) AVC (3D-AVC). HEVC includes extensions such as Scalable HEVC (SHVC), Multiview HEVC (MV-HEVC), and 3D HEVC (3D-HEVC). The joint video experts team (JVET) of ITU-T and ISO/IEC has begun developing a video coding standard referred to as Versatile Video Coding (VVC). VVC is included in a WD, which includes JVET-02001-vl4.

[0055] Layers of pictures can be employed to support scalability. For example, a video can be coded into multiple layers. A layer may be coded without referencing other layers. Such a layer is referred to as a simulcast layer. Accordingly, a simulcast layer can be decoded without reference to other layers. As another example, a layer can be coded using inter-layer prediction. This allows a current layer to be coded by including only the differences between the current layer and a reference layer. For example, a current layer and a reference layer may contain the same video sequence coded by varying a characteristic, such as signal to noise ratio (SNR), picture size, frame rate, etc. Layers can be organized into output layer sets (OLSs). An OLS is a set of layers that includes at least one output layer and any layers that support decoding the output layer. As a particular example, a first OLS may contain a base layer, while a second OLS may contain the base layer and also an enhancement layer with an increased characteristic. In an example where the characteristic is picture resolution, the first OLS can be transmitted to a decoder to allow the video to be decoded at a base resolution or the second OLS can be transmitted to allow the video to be decoded at a higher enhanced resolution. Accordingly, the video can scale based on user requests.

[0056] In some instances, scalability is not used and each layer is coded as a simulcast layer. Some systems infer that if all layers are simulcast, then each OLS should include a single layer (as no reference layers are used). This inference increases coding efficiency as signaling can be omitted from an encoded bitstream. However, such an inference does not support multiview. Multiview is also known as stereoscopic video. In multiview, two video sequences of the same scene are recorded by spatially offset cameras. The two video sequences are displayed to the user on different lenses in a headset. Displaying a different spatially offset sequence for each eye in this manner can create the impression of three dimension (3D) video and/or visual depth. Accordingly, an OLS implementing multiview includes two layers (e.g., one for each eye). However, when the layers are all simulcast, a video decoder may employ the inference to infer that each OLS contains only one layer. This may result in an error as the decoder may display only one layer of the multiview or may be unable to proceed with displaying either layer. Hence, the inference that each OLS contains a single layer when all layers are simulcast may prevent multiview applications from rendering properly at a decoder. [0057] Disclosed herein is a mechanism to allow a video coding system to properly decode multiview video when all layers in the video are simulcast and do not employ inter-layer prediction. A VPS all independent layers flag (vps all independent layers flag) can be included in the bitstream in a VPS and set to one when none of the layers use inter-layer prediction (e.g., are all simulcast). When this flag is set to one, an each layer is an output layer set (OLS) flag (each_layer_is_an_ols_flag) is signaled in the VPS. The each layer is an ols flag can be set to specify whether each OLS contains a single layer or whether at least one OLS contains more than one layer (e.g., to support multi view). Accordingly, the vps all independent layers flag and the each layer is an ols flag can be used to support multiview applications. Further, an OLS mode identification code (ols mode idc) can be set to two in the VPS when this occurs. This causes the number of OLSs and the layers related to OLSs to be explicitly signaled. The decoder can then use this information to correctly decode an OLS containing multiview video. This approach supports coding efficiency while correcting errors. As such, the disclosed mechanisms increase the functionality of an encoder and/or a decoder. Further, the disclosed mechanisms may decrease bitstream size, and hence reduce processor, memory, and/or network resource utilization at both the encoder and the decoder.

[0058] FIG. 1 is a flowchart of an example operating method 100 of coding a video signal. Specifically, a video signal is encoded at an encoder. The encoding process compresses the video signal by employing various mechanisms to reduce the video file size. A smaller file size allows the compressed video file to be transmitted toward a user, while reducing associated bandwidth overhead. The decoder then decodes the compressed video file to reconstruct the original video signal for display to an end user. The decoding process generally mirrors the encoding process to allow the decoder to consistently reconstruct the video signal.

[0059] At step 101, the video signal is input into the encoder. For example, the video signal may be an uncompressed video file stored in memory. As another example, the video file may be captured by a video capture device, such as a video camera, and encoded to support live streaming of the video. The video file may include both an audio component and a video component. The video component contains a series of image frames that, when viewed in a sequence, gives the visual impression of motion. The frames contain pixels that are expressed in terms of light, referred to herein as luma components (or luma samples), and color, which is referred to as chroma components (or color samples). In some examples, the frames may also contain depth values to support three dimensional viewing. [0060] At step 103, the video is partitioned into blocks. Partitioning includes subdividing the pixels in each frame into square and/or rectangular blocks for compression. For example, in High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) (also known as H.265 and MPEG-H Part 2) the frame can first be divided into coding tree units (CTUs), which are blocks of a predefined size (e.g., sixty-four pixels by sixty-four pixels). The CTUs contain both luma and chroma samples. Coding trees may be employed to divide the CTUs into blocks and then recursively subdivide the blocks until configurations are achieved that support further encoding. For example, luma components of a frame may be subdivided until the individual blocks contain relatively homogenous lighting values. Further, chroma components of a frame may be subdivided until the individual blocks contain relatively homogenous color values. Accordingly, partitioning mechanisms vary depending on the content of the video frames.

[0061] At step 105, various compression mechanisms are employed to compress the image blocks partitioned at step 103. For example, inter-prediction and/or intra-prediction may be employed. Inter-prediction is designed to take advantage of the fact that objects in a common scene tend to appear in successive frames. Accordingly, a block depicting an object in a reference frame need not be repeatedly described in adjacent frames. Specifically, an object, such as a table, may remain in a constant position over multiple frames. Hence the table is described once and adjacent frames can refer back to the reference frame. Pattern matching mechanisms may be employed to match objects over multiple frames. Further, moving objects may be represented across multiple frames, for example due to object movement or camera movement. As a particular example, a video may show an automobile that moves across the screen over multiple frames. Motion vectors can be employed to describe such movement. A motion vector is a two-dimensional vector that provides an offset from the coordinates of an object in a frame to the coordinates of the object in a reference frame. As such, inter-prediction can encode an image block in a current frame as a set of motion vectors indicating an offset from a corresponding block in a reference frame.

[0062] Intra-prediction encodes blocks in a common frame. Intra-prediction takes advantage of the fact that luma and chroma components tend to cluster in a frame. For example, a patch of green in a portion of a tree tends to be positioned adjacent to similar patches of green. Intra-prediction employs multiple directional prediction modes (e.g., thirty- three in HEVC), a planar mode, and a direct current (DC) mode. The directional modes indicate that a current block is similar/the same as samples of a neighbor block in a corresponding direction. Planar mode indicates that a series of blocks along a row/column (e.g., a plane) can be interpolated based on neighbor blocks at the edges of the row. Planar mode, in effect, indicates a smooth transition of light/color across a row/column by employing a relatively constant slope in changing values. DC mode is employed for boundary smoothing and indicates that a block is similar/the same as an average value associated with samples of all the neighbor blocks associated with the angular directions of the directional prediction modes. Accordingly, intra-prediction blocks can represent image blocks as various relational prediction mode values instead of the actual values. Further, inter-prediction blocks can represent image blocks as motion vector values instead of the actual values. In either case, the prediction blocks may not exactly represent the image blocks in some cases. Any differences are stored in residual blocks. Transforms may be applied to the residual blocks to further compress the file. [0063] At step 107, various filtering techniques may be applied. In HEVC, the filters are applied according to an in-loop filtering scheme. The block based prediction discussed above may result in the creation of blocky images at the decoder. Further, the block based prediction scheme may encode a block and then reconstruct the encoded block for later use as a reference block. The in-loop filtering scheme iteratively applies noise suppression filters, de-blocking filters, adaptive loop filters, and sample adaptive offset (SAO) filters to the blocks/frames. These filters mitigate such blocking artifacts so that the encoded file can be accurately reconstructed. Further, these filters mitigate artifacts in the reconstructed reference blocks so that artifacts are less likely to create additional artifacts in subsequent blocks that are encoded based on the reconstructed reference blocks.

[0064] Once the video signal has been partitioned, compressed, and filtered, the resulting data is encoded in a bitstream at step 109. The bitstream includes the data discussed above as well as any signaling data desired to support proper video signal reconstruction at the decoder. For example, such data may include partition data, prediction data, residual blocks, and various flags providing coding instructions to the decoder. The bitstream may be stored in memory for transmission toward a decoder upon request. The bitstream may also be broadcast and/or multicast toward a plurality of decoders. The creation of the bitstream is an iterative process. Accordingly, steps 101, 103, 105, 107, and 109 may occur continuously and/or simultaneously over many frames and blocks. The order shown in FIG. 1 is presented for clarity and ease of discussion, and is not intended to limit the video coding process to a particular order.

[0065] The decoder receives the bitstream and begins the decoding process at step 111. Specifically, the decoder employs an entropy decoding scheme to convert the bitstream into corresponding syntax and video data. The decoder employs the syntax data from the bitstream to determine the partitions for the frames at step 111. The partitioning should match the results of block partitioning at step 103. Entropy encoding/decoding as employed in step 111 is now described. The encoder makes many choices during the compression process, such as selecting block partitioning schemes from several possible choices based on the spatial positioning of values in the input image(s). Signaling the exact choices may employ a large number of bins. As used herein, a bin is a binary value that is treated as a variable (e.g., a bit value that may vary depending on context). Entropy coding allows the encoder to discard any options that are clearly not viable for a particular case, leaving a set of allowable options. Each allowable option is then assigned a code word. The length of the code words is based on the number of allowable options (e.g., one bin for two options, two bins for three to four options, etc.) The encoder then encodes the code word for the selected option. This scheme reduces the size of the code words as the code words are as big as desired to uniquely indicate a selection from a small sub-set of allowable options as opposed to uniquely indicating the selection from a potentially large set of all possible options. The decoder then decodes the selection by determining the set of allowable options in a similar manner to the encoder. By determining the set of allowable options, the decoder can read the code word and determine the selection made by the encoder.

[0066] At step 113, the decoder performs block decoding. Specifically, the decoder employs reverse transforms to generate residual blocks. Then the decoder employs the residual blocks and corresponding prediction blocks to reconstruct the image blocks according to the partitioning. The prediction blocks may include both intra-prediction blocks and inter prediction blocks as generated at the encoder at step 105. The reconstructed image blocks are then positioned into frames of a reconstructed video signal according to the partitioning data determined at step 111. Syntax for step 113 may also be signaled in the bitstream via entropy coding as discussed above.

[0067] At step 115, filtering is performed on the frames of the reconstructed video signal in a manner similar to step 107 at the encoder. For example, noise suppression filters, de blocking filters, adaptive loop filters, and SAO filters may be applied to the frames to remove blocking artifacts. Once the frames are filtered, the video signal can be output to a display at step 117 for viewing by an end user.

[0068] FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of an example coding and decoding (codec) system 200 for video coding. Specifically, codec system 200 provides functionality to support the implementation of operating method 100. Codec system 200 is generalized to depict components employed in both an encoder and a decoder. Codec system 200 receives and partitions a video signal as discussed with respect to steps 101 and 103 in operating method 100, which results in a partitioned video signal 201. Codec system 200 then compresses the partitioned video signal 201 into a coded bitstream when acting as an encoder as discussed with respect to steps 105, 107, and 109 in method 100. When acting as a decoder, codec system 200 generates an output video signal from the bitstream as discussed with respect to steps 111, 113, 115, and 117 in operating method 100. The codec system 200 includes a general coder control component 211, a transform scaling and quantization component 213, an intra-picture estimation component 215, an intra-picture prediction component 217, a motion compensation component 219, a motion estimation component 221, a scaling and inverse transform component 229, a filter control analysis component 227, an in-loop filters component 225, a decoded picture buffer component 223, and a header formatting and context adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CAB AC) component 231. Such components are coupled as shown. In FIG. 2, black lines indicate movement of data to be encoded/decoded while dashed lines indicate movement of control data that controls the operation of other components. The components of codec system 200 may all be present in the encoder. The decoder may include a subset of the components of codec system 200. For example, the decoder may include the intra-picture prediction component 217, the motion compensation component 219, the scaling and inverse transform component 229, the in-loop filters component 225, and the decoded picture buffer component 223. These components are now described.

[0069] The partitioned video signal 201 is a captured video sequence that has been partitioned into blocks of pixels by a coding tree. A coding tree employs various split modes to subdivide a block of pixels into smaller blocks of pixels. These blocks can then be further subdivided into smaller blocks. The blocks may be referred to as nodes on the coding tree. Larger parent nodes are split into smaller child nodes. The number of times a node is subdivided is referred to as the depth of the node/coding tree. The divided blocks can be included in coding units (CUs) in some cases. For example, a CU can be a sub-portion of a CTU that contains a luma block, red difference chroma (Cr) block(s), and a blue difference chroma (Cb) block(s) along with corresponding syntax instructions for the CU. The split modes may include a binary tree (BT), triple tree (TT), and a quad tree (QT) employed to partition a node into two, three, or four child nodes, respectively, of varying shapes depending on the split modes employed. The partitioned video signal 201 is forwarded to the general coder control component 211, the transform scaling and quantization component 213, the intra picture estimation component 215, the filter control analysis component 227, and the motion estimation component 221 for compression.

[0070] The general coder control component 211 is configured to make decisions related to coding of the images of the video sequence into the bitstream according to application constraints. For example, the general coder control component 211 manages optimization of bitrat e/bitstream size versus reconstruction quality. Such decisions may be made based on storage space/bandw idth availability and image resolution requests. The general coder control component 211 also manages buffer utilization in light of transmission speed to mitigate buffer underrun and overrun issues. To manage these issues, the general coder control component 211 manages partitioning, prediction, and filtering by the other components. For example, the general coder control component 211 may dynamically increase compression complexity to increase resolution and increase bandwidth usage or decrease compression complexity to decrease resolution and bandwidth usage. Hence, the general coder control component 211 controls the other components of codec system 200 to balance video signal reconstruction quality with bit rate concerns. The general coder control component 211 creates control data, which controls the operation of the other components. The control data is also forwarded to the header formatting and CAB AC component 231 to be encoded in the bitstream to signal parameters for decoding at the decoder.

[0071] The partitioned video signal 201 is also sent to the motion estimation component 221 and the motion compensation component 219 for inter-prediction. A frame or slice of the partitioned video signal 201 may be divided into multiple video blocks. Motion estimation component 221 and the motion compensation component 219 perform inter-predictive coding of the received video block relative to one or more blocks in one or more reference frames to provide temporal prediction. Codec system 200 may perform multiple coding passes, e.g., to select an appropriate coding mode for each block of video data.

[0072] Motion estimation component 221 and motion compensation component 219 may be highly integrated, but are illustrated separately for conceptual purposes. Motion estimation, performed by motion estimation component 221, is the process of generating motion vectors, which estimate motion for video blocks. A motion vector, for example, may indicate the displacement of a coded object relative to a predictive block. A predictive block is a block that is found to closely match the block to be coded, in terms of pixel difference. A predictive block may also be referred to as a reference block. Such pixel difference may be determined by sum of absolute difference (SAD), sum of square difference (SSD), or other difference metrics. HEVC employs several coded objects including a CTU, coding tree blocks (CTBs), and CUs. For example, a CTU can be divided into CTBs, which can then be divided into CBs for inclusion in CUs. A CU can be encoded as a prediction unit (PU) containing prediction data and/or a transform unit (TU) containing transformed residual data for the CU. The motion estimation component 221 generates motion vectors, PUs, and TUs by using a rate-distortion analysis as part of a rate distortion optimization process. For example, the motion estimation component 221 may determine multiple reference blocks, multiple motion vectors, etc. for a current block/frame, and may select the reference blocks, motion vectors, etc. having the best rate-distortion characteristics. The best rate-distortion characteristics balance both quality of video reconstruction (e.g., amount of data loss by compression) with coding efficiency (e.g., size of the final encoding).

[0073] In some examples, codec system 200 may calculate values for sub-integer pixel positions of reference pictures stored in decoded picture buffer component 223. For example, video codec system 200 may interpolate values of one-quarter pixel positions, one-eighth pixel positions, or other fractional pixel positions of the reference picture. Therefore, motion estimation component 221 may perform a motion search relative to the full pixel positions and fractional pixel positions and output a motion vector with fractional pixel precision. The motion estimation component 221 calculates a motion vector for a PU of a video block in an inter-coded slice by comparing the position of the PU to the position of a predictive block of a reference picture. Motion estimation component 221 outputs the calculated motion vector as motion data to header formatting and CAB AC component 231 for encoding and motion to the motion compensation component 219.

[0074] Motion compensation, performed by motion compensation component 219, may involve fetching or generating the predictive block based on the motion vector determined by motion estimation component 221. Again, motion estimation component 221 and motion compensation component 219 may be functionally integrated, in some examples. Upon receiving the motion vector for the PU of the current video block, motion compensation component 219 may locate the predictive block to which the motion vector points. A residual video block is then formed by subtracting pixel values of the predictive block from the pixel values of the current video block being coded, forming pixel difference values. In general, motion estimation component 221 performs motion estimation relative to luma components, and motion compensation component 219 uses motion vectors calculated based on the luma components for both chroma components and luma components. The predictive block and residual block are forwarded to transform scaling and quantization component 213.

[0075] The partitioned video signal 201 is also sent to intra-picture estimation component 215 and intra-picture prediction component 217. As with motion estimation component 221 and motion compensation component 219, intra-picture estimation component 215 and intra picture prediction component 217 may be highly integrated, but are illustrated separately for conceptual purposes. The intra-picture estimation component 215 and intra-picture prediction component 217 intra-predict a current block relative to blocks in a current frame, as an alternative to the inter-prediction performed by motion estimation component 221 and motion compensation component 219 between frames, as described above. In particular, the intra picture estimation component 215 determines an intra-prediction mode to use to encode a current block. In some examples, intra-picture estimation component 215 selects an appropriate intra-prediction mode to encode a current block from multiple tested intra prediction modes. The selected intra-prediction modes are then forwarded to the header formatting and CAB AC component 231 for encoding.

[0076] For example, the intra-picture estimation component 215 calculates rate-distortion values using a rate-distortion analysis for the various tested intra-prediction modes, and selects the intra-prediction mode having the best rate-distortion characteristics among the tested modes. Rate-distortion analysis generally determines an amount of distortion (or error) between an encoded block and an original unencoded block that was encoded to produce the encoded block, as well as a bitrate (e.g., a number of bits) used to produce the encoded block. The intra-picture estimation component 215 calculates ratios from the distortions and rates for the various encoded blocks to determine which intra-prediction mode exhibits the best rate- distortion value for the block. In addition, intra-picture estimation component 215 may be configured to code depth blocks of a depth map using a depth modeling mode (DMM) based on rate-distortion optimization (RDO).

[0077] The intra-picture prediction component 217 may generate a residual block from the predictive block based on the selected intra-prediction modes determined by intra-picture estimation component 215 when implemented on an encoder or read the residual block from the bitstream when implemented on a decoder. The residual block includes the difference in values between the predictive block and the original block, represented as a matrix. The residual block is then forwarded to the transform scaling and quantization component 213. The intra-picture estimation component 215 and the intra-picture prediction component 217 may operate on both luma and chroma components.

[0078] The transform scaling and quantization component 213 is configured to further compress the residual block. The transform scaling and quantization component 213 applies a transform, such as a discrete cosine transform (DCT), a discrete sine transform (DST), or a conceptually similar transform, to the residual block, producing a video block comprising residual transform coefficient values. Wavelet transforms, integer transforms, sub-band transforms or other types of transforms could also be used. The transform may convert the residual information from a pixel value domain to a transform domain, such as a frequency domain. The transform scaling and quantization component 213 is also configured to scale the transformed residual information, for example based on frequency. Such scaling involves applying a scale factor to the residual information so that different frequency information is quantized at different granularities, which may affect final visual quality of the reconstructed video. The transform scaling and quantization component 213 is also configured to quantize the transform coefficients to further reduce bit rate. The quantization process may reduce the bit depth associated with some or all of the coefficients. The degree of quantization may be modified by adjusting a quantization parameter. In some examples, the transform scaling and quantization component 213 may then perform a scan of the matrix including the quantized transform coefficients. The quantized transform coefficients are forwarded to the header formatting and CAB AC component 231 to be encoded in the bitstream.

[0079] The scaling and inverse transform component 229 applies a reverse operation of the transform scaling and quantization component 213 to support motion estimation. The scaling and inverse transform component 229 applies inverse scaling, transformation, and/or quantization to reconstruct the residual block in the pixel domain, e.g., for later use as a reference block which may become a predictive block for another current block. The motion estimation component 221 and/or motion compensation component 219 may calculate a reference block by adding the residual block back to a corresponding predictive block for use in motion estimation of a later block/frame. Filters are applied to the reconstructed reference blocks to mitigate artifacts created during scaling, quantization, and transform. Such artifacts could otherwise cause inaccurate prediction (and create additional artifacts) when subsequent blocks are predicted.

[0080] The filter control analysis component 227 and the in-loop filters component 225 apply the filters to the residual blocks and/or to reconstructed image blocks. For example, the transformed residual block from the scaling and inverse transform component 229 may be combined with a corresponding prediction block from intra-picture prediction component 217 and/or motion compensation component 219 to reconstruct the original image block. The filters may then be applied to the reconstructed image block. In some examples, the filters may instead be applied to the residual blocks. As with other components in FIG. 2, the filter control analysis component 227 and the in-loop filters component 225 are highly integrated and may be implemented together, but are depicted separately for conceptual purposes. Filters applied to the reconstructed reference blocks are applied to particular spatial regions and include multiple parameters to adjust how such filters are applied. The filter control analysis component 227 analyzes the reconstructed reference blocks to determine where such filters should be applied and sets corresponding parameters. Such data is forwarded to the header formatting and CAB AC component 231 as filter control data for encoding. The in-loop filters component 225 applies such filters based on the filter control data. The filters may include a deblocking filter, a noise suppression filter, a SAO filter, and an adaptive loop filter. Such filters may be applied in the spatial/pixel domain (e.g., on a reconstructed pixel block) or in the frequency domain, depending on the example.

[0081] When operating as an encoder, the filtered reconstructed image block, residual block, and/or prediction block are stored in the decoded picture buffer component 223 for later use in motion estimation as discussed above. When operating as a decoder, the decoded picture buffer component 223 stores and forwards the reconstructed and filtered blocks toward a display as part of an output video signal. The decoded picture buffer component 223 may be any memory device capable of storing prediction blocks, residual blocks, and/or reconstructed image blocks.

[0082] The header formatting and CAB AC component 231 receives the data from the various components of codec system 200 and encodes such data into a coded bitstream for transmission toward a decoder. Specifically, the header formatting and CABAC component 231 generates various headers to encode control data, such as general control data and filter control data. Further, prediction data, including intra-prediction and motion data, as well as residual data in the form of quantized transform coefficient data are all encoded in the bitstream. The final bitstream includes all information desired by the decoder to reconstruct the original partitioned video signal 201. Such information may also include intra-prediction mode index tables (also referred to as codeword mapping tables), definitions of encoding contexts for various blocks, indications of most probable intra-prediction modes, an indication of partition information, etc. Such data may be encoded by employing entropy coding. For example, the information may be encoded by employing context adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC), CABAC, syntax-based context-adaptive binary arithmetic coding (SBAC), probability interval partitioning entropy (PIPE) coding, or another entropy coding technique. Following the entropy coding, the coded bitstream may be transmitted to another device (e.g., a video decoder) or archived for later transmission or retrieval.

[0083] FIG. 3 is a block diagram illustrating an example video encoder 300. Video encoder 300 may be employed to implement the encoding functions of codec system 200 and/or implement steps 101, 103, 105, 107, and/or 109 of operating method 100. Encoder 300 partitions an input video signal, resulting in a partitioned video signal 301, which is substantially similar to the partitioned video signal 201. The partitioned video signal 301 is then compressed and encoded into a bitstream by components of encoder 300.

[0084] Specifically, the partitioned video signal 301 is forwarded to an intra-picture prediction component 317 for intra-prediction. The intra-picture prediction component 317 may be substantially similar to intra-picture estimation component 215 and intra-picture prediction component 217. The partitioned video signal 301 is also forwarded to a motion compensation component 321 for inter-prediction based on reference blocks in a decoded picture buffer component 323. The motion compensation component 321 may be substantially similar to motion estimation component 221 and motion compensation component 219. The prediction blocks and residual blocks from the intra-picture prediction component 317 and the motion compensation component 321 are forwarded to a transform and quantization component 313 for transform and quantization of the residual blocks. The transform and quantization component 313 may be substantially similar to the transform scaling and quantization component 213. The transformed and quantized residual blocks and the corresponding prediction blocks (along with associated control data) are forwarded to an entropy coding component 331 for coding into a bitstream. The entropy coding component 331 may be substantially similar to the header formatting and CAB AC component 231.

[0085] The transformed and quantized residual blocks and/or the corresponding prediction blocks are also forwarded from the transform and quantization component 313 to an inverse transform and quantization component 329 for reconstruction into reference blocks for use by the motion compensation component 321. The inverse transform and quantization component 329 may be substantially similar to the scaling and inverse transform component 229. In-loop filters in an in-loop filters component 325 are also applied to the residual blocks and/or reconstructed reference blocks, depending on the example. The in-loop filters component 325 may be substantially similar to the filter control analysis component 227 and the in-loop filters component 225. The in-loop filters component 325 may include multiple filters as discussed with respect to in-loop filters component 225. The filtered blocks are then stored in a decoded picture buffer component 323 for use as reference blocks by the motion compensation component 321. The decoded picture buffer component 323 may be substantially similar to the decoded picture buffer component 223.

[0086] FIG. 4 is a block diagram illustrating an example video decoder 400. Video decoder 400 may be employed to implement the decoding functions of codec system 200 and/or implement steps 111, 113, 115, and/or 117 of operating method 100. Decoder 400 receives a bitstream, for example from an encoder 300, and generates a reconstructed output video signal based on the bitstream for display to an end user.

[0087] The bitstream is received by an entropy decoding component 433. The entropy decoding component 433 is configured to implement an entropy decoding scheme, such as CAVLC, CAB AC, SB AC, PIPE coding, or other entropy coding techniques. For example, the entropy decoding component 433 may employ header information to provide a context to interpret additional data encoded as codewords in the bitstream. The decoded information includes any desired information to decode the video signal, such as general control data, filter control data, partition information, motion data, prediction data, and quantized transform coefficients from residual blocks. The quantized transform coefficients are forwarded to an inverse transform and quantization component 429 for reconstruction into residual blocks. The inverse transform and quantization component 429 may be similar to inverse transform and quantization component 329.

[0088] The reconstructed residual blocks and/or prediction blocks are forwarded to intra picture prediction component 417 for reconstruction into image blocks based on intra prediction operations. The intra-picture prediction component 417 may be similar to intra picture estimation component 215 and an intra-picture prediction component 217. Specifically, the intra-picture prediction component 417 employs prediction modes to locate a reference block in the frame and applies a residual block to the result to reconstruct intra-predicted image blocks. The reconstructed intra-predicted image blocks and/or the residual blocks and corresponding inter-prediction data are forwarded to a decoded picture buffer component 423 via an in-loop filters component 425, which may be substantially similar to decoded picture buffer component 223 and in-loop filters component 225, respectively. The in-loop filters component 425 filters the reconstructed image blocks, residual blocks and/or prediction blocks, and such information is stored in the decoded picture buffer component 423. Reconstructed image blocks from decoded picture buffer component 423 are forwarded to a motion compensation component 421 for inter-prediction. The motion compensation component 421 may be substantially similar to motion estimation component 221 and/or motion compensation component 219. Specifically, the motion compensation component 421 employs motion vectors from a reference block to generate a prediction block and applies a residual block to the result to reconstruct an image block. The resulting reconstructed blocks may also be forwarded via the in-loop filters component 425 to the decoded picture buffer component 423. The decoded picture buffer component 423 continues to store additional reconstructed image blocks, which can be reconstructed into frames via the partition information. Such frames may also be placed in a sequence. The sequence is output toward a display as a reconstructed output video signal.

[0089] FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram illustrating an example multi-layer video sequence 500 configured for inter-layer prediction 521. The multi-layer video sequence 500 may be encoded by an encoder, such as codec system 200 and/or encoder 300 and decoded by a decoder, such as codec system 200 and/or decoder 400, for example according to method 100. The multi-layer video sequence 500 is included to depict an example application for layers in a coded video sequence. A multi-layer video sequence 500 is any video sequence that employs a plurality of layers, such as layer N 531 and layer N+l 532.

[0090] In an example, the multi-layer video sequence 500 may employ inter-layer prediction 521. Inter-layer prediction 521 is applied between pictures 511, 512, 513, and 514 and pictures 515, 516, 517, and 518 in different layers. In the example shown, pictures 511, 512, 513, and 514 are part of layer N+l 532 and pictures 515, 516, 517, and 518 are part of layer N 531. A layer, such as layer N 531 and/or layer N+l 532, is a group of pictures that are all associated with a similar value of a characteristic, such as a similar size, quality, resolution, signal to noise ratio, capability, etc. A layer may be defined formally as a set of VCL NAL units and associated non-VCL NAL units that share the same nuh_layer_id. A VCL NAL unit is a NAL unit coded to contain video data, such as a coded slice of a picture. A non-VCL NAL unit is a NAL unit that contains non- video data such as syntax and/or parameters that support decoding the video data, performance of conformance checking, or other operations.

[0091] In the example shown, layer N+l 532 is associated with a larger image size than layer N 531. Accordingly, pictures 511, 512, 513, and 514 in layer N+l 532 have a larger picture size (e.g., larger height and width and hence more samples) than pictures 515, 516, 517, and 518 in layer N 531 in this example. However, such pictures can be separated between layer N+l 532 and layer N 531 by other characteristics. While only two layers, layer N+l 532 and layer N 531, are shown, a set of pictures can be separated into any number of layers based on associated characteristics. Layer N+l 532 and layer N 531 may also be denoted by a layer identifier (ID). A layer ID is an item of data that is associated with a picture and denotes the picture is part of an indicated layer. Accordingly, each picture 511-518 may be associated with a corresponding layer ID to indicate which layer N+l 532 or layer N 531 includes the corresponding picture. For example, a layer ID may include a NAL unit header layer identifier (nuh layer id), which is a syntax element that specifies an identifier of a layer that includes a NAL unit (e.g., that include slices and/or parameters of the pictures in a layer). A layer associated with a lower quality/bitstream size, such as layer N 531, is generally assigned a lower layer ID and is referred to as a lower layer. Further, a layer associated with a higher quality/bitstream size, such as layer N+l 532, is generally assigned a higher layer ID and is referred to as a higher layer.

[0092] Pictures 511-518 in different layers 531-532 are configured to be displayed in the alternative. As a specific example, a decoder may decode and display picture 515 at a current display time if a smaller picture is desired or the decoder may decode and display picture 511 at the current display time if a larger picture is desired. As such, pictures 511-514 at higher layer N+l 532 contain substantially the same image data as corresponding pictures 515-518 at lower layer N 531 (notwithstanding the difference in picture size). Specifically, picture 511 contains substantially the same image data as picture 515, picture 512 contains substantially the same image data as picture 516, etc.

[0093] Pictures 511-518 can be coded by reference to other pictures 511-518 in the same layer N 531 or N+l 532. Coding a picture in reference to another picture in the same layer results in inter-prediction 523. Inter-prediction 523 is depicted by solid line arrows. For example, picture 513 may be coded by employing inter-prediction 523 using one or two of pictures 511, 512, and/or 514 in layer N+l 532 as a reference, where one picture is referenced for unidirectional inter-prediction and/or two pictures are referenced for bidirectional inter prediction. Further, picture 517 may be coded by employing inter-prediction 523 using one or two of pictures 515, 516, and/or 518 in layer N 531 as a reference, where one picture is referenced for unidirectional inter-prediction and/or two pictures are referenced for bidirectional inter-prediction. When a picture is used as a reference for another picture in the same layer when performing inter-prediction 523, the picture may be referred to as a reference picture. For example, picture 512 may be a reference picture used to code picture 513 according to inter-prediction 523. Inter-prediction 523 can also be referred to as intra-layer prediction in a multi-layer context. As such, inter-prediction 523 is a mechanism of coding samples of a current picture by reference to indicated samples in a reference picture that is different from the current picture where the reference picture and the current picture are in the same layer.

[0094] Pictures 511-518 can also be coded by reference to other pictures 511-518 in different layers. This process is known as inter-layer prediction 521, and is depicted by dashed arrows. Inter-layer prediction 521 is a mechanism of coding samples of a current picture by reference to indicated samples in a reference picture where the current picture and the reference picture are in different layers and hence have different layer IDs. For example, a picture in a lower layer N 531 can be used as a reference picture to code a corresponding picture at a higher layer N+l 532. As a specific example, picture 511 can be coded by reference to picture 515 according to inter-layer prediction 521. In such a case, the picture 515 is used as an inter-layer reference picture. An inter-layer reference picture is a reference picture used for inter-layer prediction 521. In most cases, inter-layer prediction 521 is constrained such that a current picture, such as picture 511, can only use inter-layer reference picture(s) that are included in the same AU and that are at a lower layer, such as picture 515. An AU is a set of pictures associated with a particular output time in a video sequence, and hence an AU can include as many as one picture per layer. When multiple layers (e.g., more than two) are available, inter layer prediction 521 can encode/decode a current picture based on multiple inter-layer reference picture(s) at lower levels than the current picture.

[0095] A video encoder can employ a multi-layer video sequence 500 to encode pictures 511 -518 via many different combinations and/or permutations of inter-prediction 523 and inter layer prediction 521. For example, picture 515 may be coded according to intra prediction. Pictures 516-518 can then be coded according to inter-prediction 523 by using picture 515 as a reference picture. Further, picture 511 may be coded according to inter-layer prediction 521 by using picture 515 as an inter-layer reference picture. Pictures 512-514 can then be coded according to inter-prediction 523 by using picture 511 as a reference picture. As such, a reference picture can serve as both a single layer reference picture and an inter-layer reference picture for different coding mechanisms. By coding higher layer N+l 532 pictures based on lower layer N 531 pictures, the higher layer N+l 532 can avoid employing intra prediction, which has much lower coding efficiency than inter-prediction 523 and inter-layer prediction 521. As such, the poor coding efficiency of intra-prediction can be limited to the smallest/lowest quality pictures, and hence limited to coding the smallest amount of video data The pictures used as reference pictures and/or inter-layer reference pictures can be indicated in entries of reference picture list(s) contained in a reference picture list structure. [0096] In order to perform such operations, layers such as layer N 531 and layer N+l 532 may be included in an OLS 525. An OLS 525 is a set of layers for which one or more layers are specified as an output layer. An output layer is a layer that is designated for output (e.g., to a display). For example, layer N 531 may be included solely to support inter-layer prediction 521 and may never be output. In such a case, layer N+l 532 is decoded based on layer N 531 and is output. In such a case, the OLS 525 includes layer N+l 532 as the output layer. An OLS 525 may contain many layers in different combinations. For example, an output layer in an OLS 525 can be coded according to inter-layer prediction 521 based on a one, two, or many lower layers. Further, an OLS 525 may contain more than one output layer. Hence, an OLS 525 may contain one or more output layers and any supporting layers needed to reconstruct the output layers. A multi-layer video sequence 500 can be coded by employing many different OLSs 525 that each employ different combinations of the layers.

[0097] As a specific example, inter-layer prediction 521, may be employed to support scalability. For example, a video can be coded into a base layer, such as layer N 531, and several enhancement layers, such as layer N+l 532, a layer N+2, a layer N+3, etc., that are coded according to inter-layer prediction 521. A video sequence can be coded for several scalable characteristics, such as resolution, frame rate, picture size, etc. An OLS 525 can then be created for each allowable characteristic. For example an OLS 525 for a first resolution may include only Layer N 531, an OLS 525 for a second resolution may include layer N 531 and layer N+l 532, an OLS for a third resolution may include layer N 531, layer N+l 532, a layer N+2, etc. In this way, an OLS 525 can be transmitted to allow a decoder to decode whichever version of the multi-layer video sequence 500 is desired based on network conditions, hardware constraints, etc.

[0098] FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram illustrating an example multiview sequence 600 containing simulcast layers 631, 632, 633, and 634 for use in multiview. Multiview sequence 600 is a type of multi-layer video sequence 500. Accordingly, multiview sequence 600 may be encoded by an encoder, such as codec system 200 and/or encoder 300 and decoded by a decoder, such as codec system 200 and/or decoder 400, for example according to method 100. [0099] Multiview video may also be referred to as stereoscopic video. In multiview, video sequences are captured simultaneously from multiple camera angles into a single video stream. For example, a pair of spatially offset cameras can be employed to capture a video. Each camera captures the video from a different angle. This results in a pair of views of the same subject matter. A first of the views can be presented to a user’s right eye and a second of the views can be presented to a user’s left eye. For example, this can be accomplished by employing a head mounted display (HMD) including a left eye display and a separate right eye display. Displaying a pair of streams of the same subject matter from different angles creates the impression of visual depth, and hence creates a 3D viewing experience.

[00100] In order to implement multiview, video can be encoded into multiple OLSs, such as OLS 625 and OLS 626, which are similar to OLS 525. Each of the views is encoded into a layer, such as layers 631, 632, 633, and 634, which may be similar to layer N 531. As a specific example, a right eye view may be encoded into layer 631 and a left eye view can be encoded into layer 632. Layer 631 and 632 can then be included into OLS 625. In this way, OLS 625 can be transmitted to a decoder with layer 631 and 632 marked as output layers. The decoder can then decode and display both layer 631 and 632. As such, OLS 625 provides sufficient data to enable a representation of multiview video. As with other types of video, multiview video may be encoded into several representations to allow for different display devices, different network conditions, etc. Accordingly, OLS 626 is substantially similar to OLS 625, but contains video coded to achieve a different characteristic. For example, layer 633 may be substantially similar to layer 631 and layer 634 may be substantially similar to layer 632. However, layers 633 and 634 may have a different characteristic than layers 631 and 632. As specific examples, layers 633 and 634 may be encoded at different resolutions, frame rates, screen sizes, etc. than layers 631 and 632. As a specific example, OLS 625 can be transmitted to a decoder if a first picture resolution is desired and OLS 626 can be transmitted to a decoder if a second picture resolution is desired.

[00101] In some instances, scalability is not employed. A layer that does not employ inter layer prediction is referred to as a simulcast layer. A simulcast layer can be completely decoded without reference to another layer. For example, layers 631-634 as shown are all simulcast layers as they do not depend on any reference layer. This configuration may cause errors in some video coding systems.

[00102] For example, some video coding systems may be configured to infer that each OLS contains a single layer when all layers are simulcast. Such an inference is reasonable in some instances. For example, when scalability is not used for standard video, a system can assume that each simulcast layer can be displayed without any other layer, and hence an OLS should contain only one layer. This inference may prevent multiview from operating properly. As shown OLS 625 and 626 each include two layers 631 and 632 and layers 633 and 634, respectively. In such a case, a decoder may be unsure which layer to decode and may not decode and display both layers as only one layer is expected.

[00103] The present disclosure addresses this issue by employing a each_layer_is_an_ols_flag in the bitstream. Specifically, when all layers 631-634 are simulcast, as indicated by a vps_all_independent_layers_flag, the each_layer_is_an_ols_flag is signaled. The each layer is an ols flag indicates whether each OLS contains a single layer or whether any OLS, such as OLS 625 and 626, includes more than one layer. This allows multiview sequence 600 to be decoded properly. Further, an ols mode idc may be set to indicate that the number of OLSs 625-626 as well as information related to the layers 631-634 should be explicitly signaled (e.g., indications of which layers 631-634 are output layers). These flags provide sufficient information for a decoder to correctly decode and display OLS 625 and/or 626 using multiview. It should be noted that each_layer_is_an_ols_flag, vps all independent layers flag, and ols mode idc are named based on nomenclature employed by VVC standardization. Such names are included here for consistency and clarity of discussion. However, such syntax elements may be called by other names without departing from the scope of the present disclosure.

[00104] FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram illustrating an example bitstream 700 including OLS with simulcast layers for use in multiview. For example, the bitstream 700 can be generated by a codec system 200 and/or an encoder 300 for decoding by a codec system 200 and/or a decoder 400 according to method 100. Further, the bitstream 700 may include a coded multi layer video sequence 500 and/or multiview sequence 600.

[00105] The bitstream 700 includes a VPS 711, one or more Sequence Parameter Sets (SPSs) 713, a plurality of picture parameter sets (PPSs) 715, a plurality of slice headers 717, and image data 720. A VPS 711 contains data related to the entire bitstream 700. For example, the VPS 711 may contain data related OLSs, layers, and/or sublayers used in the bitstream 700. An SPS 713 contains sequence data common to all pictures in a coded video sequence contained in the bitstream 700. For example, each layer may contain one or more coded video sequences, and each coded video sequence may reference a SPS 713 for corresponding parameters. The parameters in a SPS 713 can include picture sizing, bit depth, coding tool parameters, bit rate restrictions, etc. It should be noted that, while each sequence refers to a SPS 713, a single SPS 713 can contain data for multiple sequences in some examples. The PPS 715 contains parameters that apply to an entire picture. Hence, each picture in the video sequence may refer to a PPS 715. It should be noted that, while each picture refers to a PPS 715, a single PPS 715 can contain data for multiple pictures in some examples. For example, multiple similar pictures may be coded according to similar parameters. In such a case, a single PPS 715 may contain data for such similar pictures. The PPS 715 can indicate coding tools available for slices in corresponding pictures, quantization parameters, offsets, etc.

[00106] The slice header 717 contains parameters that are specific to each slice 727 in a picture 725. Hence, there may be one slice header 717 per slice 727 in the video sequence. The slice header 717 may contain slice type information, POCs, reference picture lists, prediction weights, tile entry points, deblocking parameters, etc. It should be noted that in some examples, a bitstream 700 may also include a picture header, which is a syntax structure that contains parameters that apply to all slices 727 in a single picture. For this reason, a picture header and a slice header 717 may be used interchangeably in some contexts. For example, certain parameters may be moved between the slice header 717 and a picture header depending on whether such parameters are common to all slices 727 in a picture 725. [00107] The image data 720 contains video data encoded according to inter-prediction and/or intra-prediction as well as corresponding transformed and quantized residual data. For example, the image data 720 may include layers 723 of pictures 725. The layers 723 may be organized into OLSs 721. An OLS 721 may be substantially similar to OLS 525, 625, and/or 626. Specifically, an OLS 721 is a set of layers 723 for which one or more layers 723 are specified as output layer(s). For example, a bitstream 700 may be coded to include several OLSs 721 with video coded at different resolutions, frame rates, picture 725 sizes, etc. Upon request by a decoder, a sub-bitstream extraction process can remove all but a requested OLS 721 from the bitstream 700. The encoder can then transmit the bitstream 700 containing only the requested OLS 721, and hence only video that meets requested criteria, to the decoder. [00108] A layer 723 may be substantially similar to a layer N 531, a layer N+l 532, and/or layers 631, 632, 633, and/or 634. A layer 723 is generally a set of encoded pictures 725. A layer 723 may be formally defined as a set of VCL NAL units that, when decoded, share a specified characteristic (e.g., a common resolution, frame rate, image size, etc.). A layer 723 also includes associated non-VCL NAL units to support decoding of the VCL NAL units. The VCL NAL units of a layer 723 may share particular value of nuh_layer_id. The layer 723 may be a simulcast layer that is coded without inter-layer prediction or a layer 723 that is coded according to inter-layer prediction as discussed with respect to FIGS. 6 and 5, respectively. [00109] A picture 725 is an array of luma samples and/or an array of chroma samples that create a frame or a field thereof. For example, a picture 725 may be a coded image that may be output for display or used to support coding of other picture(s) 725 for output. A picture 725 may include a set of VCL NAL units. A picture 725 contains one or more slices 727. A slice 727 may be defined as an integer number of complete tiles or an integer number of consecutive complete coding tree unit (CTU) rows (e.g., within a tile) of a picture 725 that are exclusively contained in a single NAL unit, specifically a VCL NAL unit. The slices 727 are further divided into CTUs and/or coding tree blocks (CTBs). A CTU is a group of samples of a predefined size that can be partitioned by a coding tree. A CTB is a subset of a CTU and contains luma components or chroma components of the CTU. The CTUs /CTBs are further divided into coding blocks based on coding trees. The coding blocks can then be encoded/decoded according to prediction mechanisms.

[00110] The present disclosure includes mechanisms to allow a video coding system to properly decode multiview video, such as multiview sequence 600, when all layers 723 in the video are simulcast and do not employ inter-layer prediction. For example, the VPS 711 can contain various data to indicate to the decoder that the layers 723 are all simulcast, and that the OLSs 721 contain more than one layer 723. A vps_all_independent_layers_flag 731 can be included in the bitstream 700 in a VPS 711. A vps_all_independent_layers_flag 731 is a syntax element that signals whether inter-layer prediction is used to code any of the layers 723 in a bitstream 700. For example, the vps_all_independent_layers_flag 731 can be set to one when none of the layers 723 use inter-layer prediction, and are therefore are all simulcast. In other examples, the vps_all_independent_layers_flag 731 can be set to zero to indicate that at least one of the layers 723 uses inter-layer prediction. When the vps_all_independent_layers_flag 731 is set to one to indicate that all layers 723 are simulcast, an each_layer_is_an_ols_flag 733 is signaled in the VPS 711. The each_layer_is_an_ols_flag 733 is a syntax element that signals whether each OLS 721 in a bitstream 700 contains a single layer 723. For example, each OLS 721 may contain a single simulcast layer in most cases. However, one or more OLSs 721 may contain two simulcast layers when multiview video is encoded into the bitstream 700. Accordingly, the each_layer_is_an_ols_flag 733 can be set (e.g., to one) to specify that each OLS 721 contains a single layer 723 or set (e.g., to zero) to specify that at least one OLS 721 contains more than one layer 723 to support multiview. As such, the vps_all_independent_layers_flag 731 and the each_layer_is_an_ols_flag 733 can be used to support multiview applications.

[00111] Further, a VPS 711 may contain an ols mode idc 735. The ols mode idc 735 is a syntax element that indicates information related to the number of OLSs 721, the layers 723 of the OLSs 721, and the output layers in the OLSs 721. An output layer 723 is any layer that is designated for output by a decoder as opposed to used solely for reference based coding. The ols mode idc 735 may be set to zero or one for coding other types of video. The ols_mode_idc 735 can be set to two to support multiview. For example, the ols_mode_idc 735 can be set to two when the vps_all_independent_layers_flag 731 is set to one (indicating simulcast layers) and when the each_layer_is_an_ols_flag 733 is set to zero indicating at least one OLS 721 contains more than one layer 723. When the ols_mode_idc 735 is set to two, the number of OLSs 721 and information related to the number of layers 723 and/or output layers contained in each OLS 721 is explicitly signaled.

[00112] The VPS 711 may also include a vps max layers minusl 737. The vps_max_layers_minusl 737 is a syntax element that signals the number of layers 723 specified by a VPS 711, and hence the maximum number of layers 723 allowed in a corresponding coded video sequence in the bitstream 700. The VPS 711 may also include a num output layer sets minusl 739. The num output layer sets minusl 739 is a syntax element that specifies the total number of OLSs 721 specified by the VPS 711. In an example, the vps max layers minusl 737 and the num output layer sets minusl 739 can be signaled in the VPS 711 when the ols_mode_idc 735 is set to two. This causes the number of OLSs 721 and the number of layers 723 to be signaled when the video includes multiview. Specifically, the vps max layers minusl 737 and the num output layer sets minusl 739 can be signaled when the vps_all_independent_layers_flag 731 is set to one (indicating simulcast layers) and when the each_layer_is_an_ols_flag 733 is set to zero indicating at least one OLS 721 contains more than one layer 723. The decoder can then use this information to correctly decode an OLS 721 containing multiview video. This approach supports coding efficiency while correcting errors. Specifically, multiview is supported. However, the number of OLSs 721 and/or layers 723 can still be inferred and omitted from the bitstream 700 when multiview is not employed. As such, the disclosed mechanisms increase the functionality of an encoder and/or a decoder by allowing such devices to properly code multiview video. Further, the disclosed mechanisms may maintain a decreased bitstream size, and hence reduce processor, memory, and/or network resource utilization at both the encoder and the decoder.

[00113] The preceding information is now described in more detail herein below. Layered video coding is also referred to as scalable video coding or video coding with scalability. Scalability in video coding may be supported by using multi-layer coding techniques. A multi layer bitstream comprises a base layer (BL) and one or more enhancement layers (ELs). Example of scalabilities includes spatial scalability, quality / signal to noise ratio (SNR) scalability, multi-view scalability, frame rate scalability, etc. When a multi-layer coding technique is used, a picture or a part thereof may be coded without using a reference picture (intra-prediction), may be coded by referencing reference pictures that are in the same layer (inter-prediction), and/or may be coded by referencing reference pictures that are in other layer(s) (inter-layer prediction). A reference picture used for inter-layer prediction of the current picture is referred to as an inter-layer reference picture (ILRP). FIG. 5 illustrates an example of multi-layer coding for spatial scalability in which pictures in different layers have different resolutions.

[00114] Some video coding families provide support for scalability in separated profile(s) from the profile(s) for single-layer coding. Scalable video coding (SVC) is a scalable extension of the advanced video coding (AVC) that provides supports for spatial, temporal, and quality scalabilities. For SVC, a flag is signaled in each macroblock (MB) in EL pictures to indicate whether the EL MB is predicted using the collocated block from a lower layer. The prediction from the collocated block may include texture, motion vectors, and/or coding modes. Implementations of SVC may not directly reuse unmodified AVC implementations in their design. The SVC EL macroblock syntax and decoding process differ from AVC syntax and decoding process.

[00115] Scalable HEVC (SHVC) is an extension of HEVC that provides support for spatial and quality scalabilities. Multiview HEVC (MV-HEVC) is an extension of HEVC that provides support for multi-view scalability. 3D HEVC (3D-HEVC) is an extension of HEVC that provides support for 3D video coding that is more advanced and more efficient than MV- HEVC. Temporal scalability may be included as an integral part of a single-layer HEVC codec. In the multi-layer extension of HEVC, decoded pictures used for inter-layer prediction come only from the same AU and are treated as long-term reference pictures (LTRPs). Such pictures are assigned reference indices in the reference picture list(s) along with other temporal reference pictures in the current layer. Inter-layer prediction (ILP) is achieved at the prediction unit (PU) level by setting the value of the reference index to refer to the inter-layer reference picture(s) in the reference picture list(s). Spatial scalability resamples a reference picture or part thereof when an ILRP has a different spatial resolution than the current picture being encoded or decoded. Reference picture resampling can be realized at either picture level or coding block level.

[00116] VVC may also support layered video coding. A VVC bitstream can include multiple layers. The layers can be all independent from each other. For example, each layer can be coded without using inter-layer prediction. In this case, the layers are also referred to as simulcast layers. In some cases, some of the layers are coded using ILP. A flag in the VPS can indicate whether the layers are simulcast layers or whether some layers use ILP. When some layers use ILP, the layer dependency relationship among layers is also signaled in the VPS. Unlike SHVC and MV-HEVC, VVC may not specify OLSs. An OLS includes a specified set of layers, where one or more layers in the set of layers are specified to be output layers. An output layer is a layer of an OLS that is output. In some implementations of WC, only one layer may be selected for decoding and output when the layers are simulcast layers. In some implementations of VVC, the entire bitstream including all layers is specified to be decoded when any layer uses ILP. Further, certain layers among the layers are specified to be output layers. The output layers may be indicated to be only the highest layer, all the layers, or the highest layer plus a set of indicated lower layers.

[00117] The preceding aspects contain certain problems. For example, when the layers are simulcast layers, only one layer may be selected for decoding and output. However, this approach does not support cases where more than one layer may be decoded and output, such as in multiview applications. [00118] In general, this disclosure describes approaches for support of operation points with more than one output layer for simulcast layers. The descriptions of the techniques are based on VVC by the JVET of ITU-T and ISO/IEC. However, the techniques also apply to layered video coding based on other video codec specifications.

[00119] One or more of the abovementioned problems may be solved as follows. Specifically, this disclosure includes a simple and efficient method for support of decoding and output of multiple layers of a bitstream containing simulcast layers, as summarized below. The VPS may include an indication of whether each layer is an OLS. When each layer is an OLS, only one layer can be decoded and output. In this case the number of OLSs is inferred to be equal to the number of layers. Further, each OLS includes one layer and that layer is an output layer. Otherwise, the number of OLSs is explicitly signaled. For each OLS, excluding the 0-th OLS, the layers included in the OLS may be explicitly signaled. Further, each layer in each OLS can be inferred to be an output layer. The 0-th OLS contains only the lowest layer, which is an output layer.

[00120] An example implementation of the preceding mechanisms is as follows. An example video parameter set syntax is as follows.

[00121] An example video parameter set semantics is as follows. A VPS RBSP should be available to the decoding process prior to being referenced, should be included in at least one access unit with a Temporalld equal to zero or provided through external mechanisms, and the VPS NAL unit containing the VPS RBSP should have nuh layer id equal to vps_layer_id[ 0 ]. All VPS NAL units with a particular value of vps_video_parameter_set_id in a CVS should have the same content. A vps_video_parameter_set_id provides an identifier for the VPS for reference by other syntax elements. A vps max layers minusl plus 1 specifies the maximum allowed number of layers in each CVS referring to the VPS. A vps max sub layers minusl plus 1 specifies the maximum number of temporal sub-layers that may be present in each CVS referring to the VPS. The value of vps max sub layers minusl should be in the range of zero to six, inclusive.

[00122] A vps all independent layers flag may be set equal to one to specify that all layers in the CVS are independently coded without using inter-layer prediction. A vps all independent layers flag may be set equal to zero to specify that one or more of the layers in the CVS may use inter-layer prediction. When not present, the value of vps_all_independent_layers_flag is inferred to be equal to one. When vps all independent layers flag is equal to one, the value of vps_independent_layer_flag[ i ] is inferred to be equal to one. When vps_all_independent_layers_flag is equal to zero, the value of vps_independent_layer_flag[ 0 ] is inferred to be equal to one. A vps_layer_id[ i ] specifies the nuh layer id value of the i-th layer. For any two non-negative integer values of m and n, when m is less than n, the value of vps_layer_id[ m ] should be less than vps_layer_id[ n ]. A vps_independent_layer_flag[ i ] may be set equal to one to specify that the layer with index i does not use inter-layer prediction. A vps_independent_layer_flag[ i ] may be set equal to zero to specify that the layer with index i may use inter-layer prediction and vps_layer_dependency_flag[ i ] is the present in VPS. When not present, the value of vps_independent_layer_flag[ i ] is inferred to be equal to one. [00123] A vps_direct_dependency_flag[ i ][ j ] may be set equal to zero to specify that the layer with index j is not a direct reference layer for the layer with index i. A vps direct dependency flag [ i ][ j ] may be set equal to one to specify that the layer with index j is a direct reference layer for the layer with index i. When vps_direct_dependency_flag[ i ][ j ] is not present for i and j in the range of zero to vps max layers minusl, inclusive, the vps_direct_dependency_flag[ i ][ j ] is inferred to be equal to 0. The variable DirectDependentLayerIdx[ i ][ j ], specifying the j-th direct dependent layer of the i-th layer, is derived as follows: for( i = 1; i < vps_max_layers_minusl; i++ ) if( !vps_independent_layer_flag[ i ] ) for(j = i, k = 0; j >= 0;j- - ) if( vps_direct_dependency_flag[ i ][ j ] )

DirectDependentLayerIdx[ i ][ k++ ] = j

[00124] The variable General Layerld\| i ], specifying the layer index of the layer with nuh layer id equal to vps_layer_id[ i ], is derived as follows: for( i = 0; i <= vps_max_layers_minusl; i++ )

General Layerld\| vps_layer_id[ i ] ] = i

[00125] An each layer is an ols flag may be set equal to one to specify that each output layer set contains only one layer and each layer itself in the bitstream is an output layer set with the single included layer being the only output layer. The each layer is an ols flag may be set equal to zero to specify that an output layer set may contain more than one layer. If vps max layers minusl is equal to zero, the value of each layer is an ols flag is inferred to be equal to one. Otherwise, when vps all independent layers flag is equal to zero, the value of each_layer_is_an_ols_flag is inferred to be equal to zero.

[00126] An ols mode idc may be set equal to zero to specify that the total number of OLSs specified by the VPS is equal to vps max layers minusl + 1, the i-th OLS includes the layers with layer indices from zero to i, inclusive, and for each OLS only the highest layer in the OLS is output. The ols mode idc may be set equal to one to specify that the total number of OLSs specified by the VPS is equal to vps max layers minusl + 1, the i-th OLS includes the layers with layer indices from zero to i, inclusive, and for each OLS all layers in the OLS are output. The ols mode idc may be set equal to two to specify that the total number of OLSs specified by the VPS is explicitly signaled and for each OLS the highest layer and an explicitly signaled set of lower layers in the OLS are output. The value of ols mode idc should be in the range of zero to two, inclusive. The value three of ols_mode_idc is reserved. When vps all independent layers flag is equal to one and each layer is an ols flag is equal to zero, the value of ols mode idc is inferred to be equal to two.

[00127] A num output layer sets minusl plus 1 specifies the total number of OLSs specified by the VPS when ols mode idc is equal to two. The variable TotalNumOlss, specifying the total number of OLSs specified by the VPS, is derived as follows: if( vps max layers minusl = = 0 )

TotalNumOlss = 1 else if( each_layer_is_an_ols_flag 1 1 ols_mode_idc = = 0 1 1 ols_mode_idc = = 1 ) TotalNumOlss = vps_max_layers_minusl + 1 else if( ols_mode_idc = = 2 )

TotalNumOlss = num_output_layer_sets_minusl + 1 [00128] A layer_included_flag[ i ][ j ] specifies whether the j-th layer (e.g., the layer with nuh layer id equal to vps_layer_id[ j ]) is included in the i-th OLS when ols mode idc is equal to two. The layer_included_flag[ i ][ j ] may be set equal to one to specify that the j-th layer is included in the i-th OLS. The layer_included_flag[ i ][ j ] may be set equal to zero to specify that the j-th layer is not included in the i-th OLS.

[00129] The variable NumLayersIn01s| i ], specifying the number of layers in the i-th OLS, and the variable Layerldln01s| i ][ j ], specifying the nuh layer id value of the j-th layer in the i-th OLS, may be derived as follows:

NumLayersInOlsl 0 ] = 1 LayerldlnOlsl 0 ][ 0 ] = vps_layer_id[ 0 ] for( i = 1, i < TotalNumOlss; i++ ) { if( each_layer_is_an_ols_flag ) {

NumLayersInOlsl i ] = 1 LayerldlnOlsl i ][ 0 ] = vps_layer_id[ i ]

} else if( ols_mode_idc = = 0 1 1 ols_mode_idc = = 1 ) {

NumLayersInOlsl i ] = i + 1 for( j = 0; j < NumLayersInOlsl i ]; j++ )

LayerldlnOlsl i ][ j ] = vps_layer_id[ j ]

} else if( ols_mode_idc = = 2 ) { for( k = 0, j = 0; k <= vps_max_layers_minusl; k++ ) if( layer_included_flag[ i ][ k ] )

LayerldlnOlsl i ][ j++ ] = vps_layer_id[ k ]

NumLayersInOlsl i ] = j }

}

[00130] The variable 01sLayeIdx[ i ][ j ], specifying the OLS layer index of the layer with nuh layer id equal to Layerldln01s[ i ][ j ], may be derived as follows: for( i = 0, i < TotalNumOlss; i++ ) for j = 0; j < NumLayersInOlsf i ]; j++ )

OlsLayeldxf i ][ LayerldlnOlsf i ][ j ] ] = j

[00131] The lowest layer in each OLS should be an independent layer. In other words, for each i in the range of zero to TotalNumOlss - 1, inclusive, the value of vps_independent_layer_nag| General Layerld\| Layerldln01s| i || 0 | | | should be equal to one. The highest layer, e.g., the layer with nuh layer id equal to vps_layer_id[ vps max layers minusl ], should be included in at least one OLS specified by the VPS. In other words, for at least one i in the range of zero to TotalNumOlss - 1, inclusive, the value of LayerldlnOlsf i ][ NumLayersInOlsf i ] - 1 ] should be equal to vps_layer_id[ vps max layers minusl ].

[00132] A vps_output_layer_flag[ i ][ j ] specifies whether the j-th layer in the i-th OLS is output when ols mode idc is equal to two. The vps_output_layer_flag[ i ] may be set equal to one to specify that the j-th layer in the i-th OLS is output. The vps_output_layer_flag[ i ] may be set equal to zero to specify that the j-th layer in the i-th OLS is not output. When vps all independent layers flag is equal to one and each layer is an ols flag is equal to zero, the value of vps_output_layer_flag[ i ] can be inferred to be equal to one.

[00133] The variable OutputLayerFlag[ i ] [ j ], for which the value one specifies that the j-th layer in the i-th OLS is output and the value zero specifies that the j-th layer in the i-th OLS is not output, may be derived as follows: for( i = 0, i < TotalNumOlss; i++ ) {

OutputLayerFlag[ i ][ NumLayersIn01s[ i ] - 1 ] = 1 for( j = 0; j < NumLayersIn01s[ i ] - 1 ; j++ ) if( ols_mode_idc[ i ] = = 0 )

OutputLayerFlag[ i ][ j ] = 0 else if( ols_mode_idc[ i ] = = 1 )

OutputLayerFlag[ i ][ j ] = 1 else if( ols_mode_idc[ i ] = = 2 )

OutputLayerFlag[ i ][ j ] = vps_output_layer_flag[ i ][ j ]

} [00134] Any layer in an OLS should be an output layer of the OLS or a (direct or indirect) reference layer of an output layer of the OLS. The 0-th OLS contains only the lowest layer (e.g., the layer with nuh layer id equal to vps_layer_id[ 0 ]) and for the 0-th OLS the only included layer is output. A vps_constraint_info_present_flag may be set equal to one to specify that the general_constraint_info( ) syntax structure is present in the VPS. The vps_constraint_info_present_flag may be set equal to zero to specify that the general_constraint_info( ) syntax structure is not present in the VPS. The vps_reserved_zero_7bits should be equal to zero in conforming bitstreams. Other values for vps_reserved_zero_7bits are reserved. Decoders should ignore the value of vps_reserved_zero_7bits.

[00135] A general_hrd_params_present_flag may be set equal to one to specify that the syntax elements num units in tick and time scale and the syntax structure general_hrd_parameters( ) are present in the SPS RBSP syntax structure. The general_hrd_params_present_flag may be set equal to zero to specify that the syntax elements num units in tick and time scale and the syntax structure general_hrd_parameters( ) are not present in the SPS RBSP syntax structure. A num units in tick is the number of time units of a clock operating at the frequency time scale hertz (Hz) that corresponds to one increment (called a clock tick) of a clock tick counter. The num units in tick should be greater than zero. A clock tick, in units of seconds, is equal to the quotient of num units in tick divided by time scale. For example, when the picture rate of a video signal is twenty five Hz, time scale may be equal to 27000000 and num_units_in_tick may be equal to 1080000, and consequently a clock tick may be equal to 0.04 seconds.

[00136] A time scale is the number of time units that pass in one second. For example, a time coordinate system that measures time using a twenty seven megahertz (MHz) clock has a time_scale of 27000000. The value of time_scale should be greater than zero. A vps_extension_flag may be set equal to zero to specify that no vps_extension_data_flag syntax elements are present in the VPS RBSP syntax structure. The vps extension flag may be set equal to one to specify that there are vps_extension_data_flag syntax elements present in the VPS RBSP syntax structure. A vps extension data flag may have any value. The presence and value of the vps extension data flag do not affect decoder conformance to profiles. Conforming decoders should ignore all vps_extension_data_flag syntax elements.

[00137] FIG. 8 is a schematic diagram of an example video coding device 800. The video coding device 800 is suitable for implementing the disclosed examples/embodiments as described herein. The video coding device 800 comprises downstream ports 820, upstream ports 850, and/or transceiver units (Tx/Rx) 810, including transmitters and/or receivers for communicating data upstream and/or downstream over a network. The video coding device 800 also includes a processor 830 including a logic unit and/or central processing unit (CPU) to process the data and a memory 832 for storing the data. The video coding device 800 may also comprise electrical, optical-to-electrical (OE) components, electrical-to-optical (EO) components, and/or wireless communication components coupled to the upstream ports 850 and/or downstream ports 820 for communication of data via electrical, optical, or wireless communication networks. The video coding device 800 may also include input and/or output (I/O) devices 860 for communicating data to and from a user. The I/O devices 860 may include output devices such as a display for displaying video data, speakers for outputting audio data, etc. The I/O devices 860 may also include input devices, such as a keyboard, mouse, trackball, etc., and/or corresponding interfaces for interacting with such output devices.

[00138] The processor 830 is implemented by hardware and software. The processor 830 may be implemented as one or more CPU chips, cores (e.g., as a multi-core processor), field- programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), application specific integrated circuits (ASICs), and digital signal processors (DSPs). The processor 830 is in communication with the downstream ports 820, Tx/Rx 810, upstream ports 850, and memory 832. The processor 830 comprises a coding module 814. The coding module 814 implements the disclosed embodiments described herein, such as methods 100, 900, and 1000, which may employ a multi-layer video sequence 500, a multiview sequence 600, and/or a bitstream 700. The coding module 814 may also implement any other method/mechanism described herein. Further, the coding module 814 may implement a codec system 200, an encoder 300, and/or a decoder 400. For example, the coding module 814 may be employed to code a each layer is an ols flag to indicate whether each OLS contains a single layer or whether at least one OLS contains more than one layer in order to support multiview when simulcast layers are employed. Hence, coding module 814 causes the video coding device 800 to provide additional functionality and/or coding efficiency when coding video data. As such, the coding module 814 improves the functionality of the video coding device 800 as well as addresses problems that are specific to the video coding arts. Further, the coding module 814 effects a transformation of the video coding device 800 to a different state. Alternatively, the coding module 814 can be implemented as instructions stored in the memory 832 and executed by the processor 830 (e.g., as a computer program product stored on a non-transitory medium). [00139] The memory 832 comprises one or more memory types such as disks, tape drives, solid-state drives, read only memory (ROM), random access memory (RAM), flash memory, ternary content-addressable memory (TCAM), static random-access memory (SRAM), etc. The memory 832 may be used as an over-flow data storage device, to store programs when such programs are selected for execution, and to store instructions and data that are read during program execution.

[00140] FIG. 9 is a flowchart of an example method 900 of encoding a video sequence, for example in bitstream 700, with OLSs of simulcast layers for use in multiview, such as in a multiview sequence 600. Method 900 may be employed by an encoder, such as a codec system 200, an encoder 300, and/or a video coding device 800 when performing method 100.

[00141] Method 900 may begin when an encoder receives a video sequence and determines to encode that video sequence into a set of simulcast layers for use in multiview, for example based on user input. At step 901, the encoder encodes a bitstream comprising one or more layers of coded pictures. For example, the layers may be simulcast layers and may not be coded according to inter-layer prediction. Further, the layers may be coded to support multiview video. Hence, the layers may be organized into OLSs where one or more OLSs contain two layers (e.g., one layer for display to each eye of the end user).

[00142] At step 903, the encoder can encode a VPS into the bitstream. The VPS may include various syntax elements to indicate layer/OLS configurations to the decoder for proper multiview decoding and display. For example, the VPS may include a vps all independent layers flag, which may be set to one to specify that all layers specified by the VPS are independently coded without inter-layer prediction. When the vps all independent layers flag is set to one, and hence when all layers specified by the VPS are independently coded without inter-layer prediction, the VPS may also include an each layer is an ols flag. The each layer is an ols flag can specify whether each OLS contains only one layer or whether at least one OLS contains more than one layer. For example, the each layer is an ols flag can be set to one when specifying that each OLS contains only one layer and/or each layer is an OLS with the single included layer being the only output layer. Hence, the each layer is an ols flag can be set to one when multiview is not in use. As another example, the each_layer_is_an_ols_flag can be set to zero when specifying that at least one OLS contains more than one layer, and hence the bitstream coded at step 901 contains multiview video.

[00143] The VPS may also include an ols mode idc syntax element. For example, when the each_layer_is_an_ols_flag is set to zero and the vps_all_independent_layers_flag is set to one, the ols_mode_idc may be set to two. When the ols_mode_idc is set/equal to two a total number of OLSs are explicitly signaled in the VPS. Further, when the ols mode idc is set/equal to two, a number of layers and/or a number of output layers associated with each OLS are explicitly signaled in the VPS. In a specific example, a vps max layers minusl syntax element may be included in the VPS to explicitly specify a number of layers specified by the VPS, and hence may specify the number of layers that may be included in the OLSs. In some examples, the vps all independent layers flag may be signaled when vps max layers minusl is greater than zero. In another specific example, a num output layer sets minusl may be included in the VPS when ols mode idc is equal to two. The num output layer sets minusl may specify a total number of OLSs specified by the VPS. As such, the vps max layers minusl and the num output layer sets minusl may be signaled in a VPS to indicate the number of layers and the number of OLSs, respectively, when such data is explicitly signaled (e.g., when the each_layer_is_an_ols_flag is set to zero, the vps_all_independent_layers_flag is set to one, and the ols_mode_idc is set and/or inferred to be equal to two). As a specific example, the ols mode idc can be inferred to be equal to two when a vps all independent layers flag is set to one and when the each_layer_is_an_ols_flag is set to zero.

[00144] At step 905, the bitstream is stored for communication toward a decoder.

[00145] FIG. 10 is a flowchart of an example method 1000 of decoding a video sequence, for example from bitstream 700, including an OLS of simulcast layers for use in multi view, such as in multiview sequence 600. Method 1000 may be employed by a decoder, such as a codec system 200, a decoder 400, and/or a video coding device 800 when performing method 100

[00146] Method 1000 may begin when a decoder begins receiving a bitstream containing an OLS of simulcast multiview layers, for example as a result of method 900. At step 1001, the decoder receives a bitstream. The bitstream may include one or more OLSs and one or more layers. For example, the layers may be simulcast layers and may not be coded according to inter-layer prediction. Further, the layers may be coded to support multiview video. Hence, the layers may be organized into OLSs where one or more OLSs contain two layers (e.g., one layer for display to each eye of the end user).

[00147] The bitstream may also include a VPS. The VPS may include various syntax elements to indicate layer/OLS configurations to the decoder for proper multiview decoding and display. For example, the VPS may include a vps all independent layers flag, which may be set to one to specify that all layers specified by the VPS are independently coded without inter-layer prediction. When the vps all independent layers flag is set to one, and hence when all layers specified by the VPS are independently coded without inter-layer prediction, the VPS may also include an each layer is an ols flag. The each layer is an ols flag can specify whether an OLS contains more than one layer. For example, the each layer is an ols flag can be set to one when specifying that each OLS contains only one layer and/or each layer is an OLS with the single included layer being the only output layer.. Hence, the each layer is an ols flag can be set to one when multiview is not in use. As another example, the each_layer_is_an_ols_flag can be set to zero when specifying that at least one OLS contains more than one layer, and hence the bitstream contains multiview video.

[00148] The VPS may also include an ols mode idc syntax element. For example, when the each_layer_is_an_ols_flag is set to zero and the vps_all_independent_layers_flag is set to one, the ols_mode_idc may be set equal to two. When the ols_mode_idc is set equal to two a total number of OLSs are explicitly signaled in the VPS. Further, when the ols mode idc is set/equal to two, a number of layers and/or a number of output layers associated with each OLS are explicitly signaled in the VPS. In a specific example, a vps max layers minusl syntax element may be included in the VPS to explicitly specify a number of layers specified by the VPS, and hence may specify the number of layers that may be included in the OLSs. In some examples, the vps all independent layers flag may be signaled when vps max layers minusl is greater than zero. In another specific example, a num output layer sets minusl may be included in the VPS when ols mode idc is equal to two. The num output layer sets minusl may specify a total number of OLSs specified by the VPS. As such, the vps max layers minusl and the num output layer sets minusl may be signaled in a VPS to indicate the number of layers and the number of OLSs, respectively, when such data is explicitly signaled (e.g., when the each_layer_is_an_ols_flag is set to zero, the vps_all_independent_layers_flag is set to one, and the ols_mode_idc is set and/or inferred to be equal to two). As a specific example, the ols mode idc can be inferred to be equal to two when a vps all independent layers flag is set to one and when the each_layer_is_an_ols_flag is set to zero.

[00149] At step 1003, a coded picture is decoded from an output layer of an OLS based on the each layer is an ols flag in the VPS to produce a decoded picture. For example, the decoder may read the vps all independent layers flag to determine that all layers are simulcast. The decoder may also read the each layer is an ols flag to determine that at least one OLS contains more than one layer. The decoder may also read the ols mode idc to determine that the number of OLSs and the number of layers are explicitly signaled. The decoder can then determine the number of OLSs and the number of layers by reading the num output layer sets minusl and vps max layers minusl, respectively. The decoder can then use this information to locate the correct multiview layers in the bitstream. The decoder can also locate the correct coded pictures from the layers. The decoder can then decode the pictures to generate decoded pictures.

[00150] At step 1005, the decoder can forward the decoded picture for display as part of a decoded video sequence.

[00151] FIG. 11 is a schematic diagram of an example system 1100 for coding a video sequence, for example in bitstream 700, with OLSs of simulcast layers for use in multi view, such as in multiview sequence 600. System 1100 may be implemented by an encoder and a decoder such as a codec system 200, an encoder 300, a decoder 400, and/or a video coding device 800. Further, the system 1100 may employ a multilayer video sequence 500. In addition, system 1100 may be employed when implementing method 100, 900, and/or 1000. [00152] The system 1100 includes a video encoder 1102. The video encoder 1102 comprises an encoding module 1105 for encoding a bitstream comprising one or more layers of coded pictures. The encoding module 1105 is further for encoding into the bitstream a VPS including an each layer is an ols flag when all layers specified by the VPS are independently coded without inter-layer prediction, the each layer is an ols flag specifying whether each OLS contains only one layer. The video encoder 1102 further comprises a storing module 1106 for storing the bitstream for communication toward a decoder. The video encoder 1102 further comprises a transmitting module 1107 for transmitting the bitstream toward a video decoder 1110. The video encoder 1102 may be further configured to perform any of the steps of method 900.

[00153] The system 1100 also includes a video decoder 1110. The video decoder 1110 comprises a receiving module 1111 for receiving a bitstream comprising one or more layers of coded pictures and a VPS, wherein an each layer is an ols flag is included in the VPS when all layers specified by the VPS are independently coded without inter-layer prediction, the each_layer_is_an_ols_flag specifying whether each OLS contains only one layer. The video decoder 1110 further comprises a decoding module 1113 for decoding a coded picture from an output layer of an OLS based on the each layer is an ols flag in the VPS to produce a decoded picture. The video decoder 1110 further comprises a forwarding module 1115 for forwarding the decoded picture for display as part of a decoded video sequence. The video decoder 1110 may be further configured to perform any of the steps of method 1000. [00154] A first component is directly coupled to a second component when there are no intervening components, except for a line, a trace, or another medium between the first component and the second component. The first component is indirectly coupled to the second component when there are intervening components other than a line, a trace, or another medium between the first component and the second component. The term “coupled” and its variants include both directly coupled and indirectly coupled. The use of the term “about” means a range including ±10% of the subsequent number unless otherwise stated.

[00155] It should also be understood that the steps of the exemplary methods set forth herein are not necessarily required to be performed in the order described, and the order of the steps of such methods should be understood to be merely exemplary. Likewise, additional steps may be included in such methods, and certain steps may be omitted or combined, in methods consistent with various embodiments of the present disclosure.

[00156] While several embodiments have been provided in the present disclosure, it may be understood that the disclosed systems and methods might be embodied in many other specific forms without departing from the spirit or scope of the present disclosure. The present examples are to be considered as illustrative and not restrictive, and the intention is not to be limited to the details given herein. For example, the various elements or components may be combined or integrated in another system or certain features may be omitted, or not implemented.

[00157] In addition, techniques, systems, subsystems, and methods described and illustrated in the various embodiments as discrete or separate may be combined or integrated with other systems, components, techniques, or methods without departing from the scope of the present disclosure. Other examples of changes, substitutions, and alterations are ascertainable by one skilled in the art and may be made without departing from the spirit and scope disclosed herein.