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Title:
SINGLE-SITE CATALYST ACTIVATORS, PROCESSES FOR MAKING SAME, AND USE THEREOF IN CATALYSTS AND POLYMERIZATION OF OLEFINS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2007/143328
Kind Code:
A3
Abstract:
Singie-site catalyst activator compositions are provided, said activator compositions comprising anion/cation ion pair wherein; (a) the anion comprises a metal atom bonded via hetero atoms to a chelating organic ligand, and (b) the cation comprises a Bronstecf acid.

Inventors:
LUO LUBIN (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2007/068664
Publication Date:
March 13, 2008
Filing Date:
May 10, 2007
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
ALBEMARLE CORP (US)
LUO LUBIN (US)
International Classes:
C08F10/00; C07F5/06; C08F4/659
Domestic Patent References:
WO2006004789A22006-01-12
Other References:
YANO A ET AL: "INFLUENCE OF ACTIVATORS ON ETHYLENE POLYMERIZATION WITH DIPHENYLMETHYLIDENE-(CYCLOPENTADIENYL)(FLUORENYL)ZIRCONIUM DICHLORIDE CATALYSTS AT HIGH TEMPERATURE", JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR CATALYSIS. A, CHEMICAL, ELSEVIER, AMSTERDAM, NL, vol. 148, no. 1/2, 1999, pages 77 - 86, XP001037764, ISSN: 1381-1169
BRAUNE, WIGAND ET AL: "Aluminum Complexes with Sulfide-Linked Bis(phenolato) Ligands: Unusual Structure and Reactivity of the Methyl Bis(phenolato) Complex "[Al(tbmp)Me]" (tbmp = 2,2'-Thiobis(6-tert-butyl-4- methylphenolato))", ORGANOMETALLICS , 24(8), 1953-1958 CODEN: ORGND7; ISSN: 0276-7333, 2005, XP008067158
HOLLECK, LUDWIG ET AL HOLLECK, LUDWIG ET AL: "Polarographic reduction of Solochrome Violet RS and the complex forming mechanism with aluminum in methanolic solution", JOURNAL OF ELECTROANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY AND INTERFACIAL ELECTROCHEMISTRY , 20(2), 287-96 CODEN: JEIEBC; ISSN: 0022-0728, 1969, XP008067132
JANAS, ZOFIA ET AL: "Homo- and Heterometallic Aluminum and Titanium Complexes of Tridentate (OSO) Ligand: Synthesis, Structure, and Catalytic Activity", ORGANOMETALLICS , 24(16), 3987-3994 CODEN: ORGND7; ISSN: 0276-7333, 2005, XP008067129
FOKKEN S ET AL: "NINE-MEMBERED TITANACYCLIC COMPLEXES BASED ON AN ETHYLENE-BRIDGED BIS(PHENOLATO) LIGAND: SYNTHESIS, STRUCTURE, AND OLEFIN POLYMERIZATION ACTIVITY", ORGANOMETALLICS, WASHINGTON, DC, US, vol. 16, no. 20, 1997, pages 4240 - 4242, XP000989574, ISSN: 0276-7333
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
HOEFLING, Marcy, M. et al. (451 Florida StreetBaton Rouge, LA, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
1 Activator composition comprising an anion/caϋon ion pair, wherein

(a) the anion comprises (i) a metal atom and (is) an organic ϊϊganά having at least two hefero atoms sπd being chelated to the metal atom through covalent bonding of at least the two hetero atoms with the metal atom, and

(b) the cation comprises a Bronstβd add.

2. The activator composition of ciaim 1 wherein the metal atom comprises a metal selected from Groups 2 - 10, Group 13, or the lanthanicie or actiπlde series of the Periodic Table of the Elements.

3. The activator composition of claim 2 wherein the metal atom comprises Ai.

4. The activator composition of claim 1 wherein the Broπsted acid comprises [HAj(J * . wherein H is a proton, A comprises a neutral Lewis base, x is 0, 1 or 2, and when x is 2, the A's are the same or different.

5. The activator composition of claim 1 derived from aϊ least

(a) M' m* Qrπ. where M is a metal selected from Groups 2-10, Group 13.

Lanthanide group, or Actinide group; m is the valence of the metal M 1 ; and each Q independently comprises &i least one or more of: nalide radical, dialkyiamido radical, aikσxkfe radical, aryloxide radical hydrocarbyi radical, substituted-hydrocarbyS radical and orgaπometaϋoid radicals; and

{&) Hy(Ch-L), wherein (i) y is 2, 3, or 4, (ii) Ch-L is an organic iigand comprising y hetero atoms, at least two of the y hetero atoms being capable of forming a covateπt bond with the metal M\ and (sii) H ¥ is y hydrogen radicals, each hydrogen radical being bonded to one of the y hetero atoms

8. The activator composition of claim 5, additionally derived from;

(c) neutral Lewis baβe,

7. The activator composition of eiaim 6 : additionally derived from;

{d} support.

8. The activator composition of claim 5, additionally derived from;

(d) support.

9. The activator composition of daim 1 derived from at least:

(a) M 'mí Q m> where M' is a metal selected from Groups 2-10, Group 13, Lanthanide group, or Actiπide group; m is the valence of the metal M: and each Q independently comprises at least one or more of; haϋde radical dialkyiamicSo radical, alkoxide radical, aryiαxide radical hydrocarfayl radical, substituted-hydrocarbyi radical and organomeiaϋoid radicals; and

(b) Hy(Ch-L), wherein (i) y is 2, 3, or 4; (ri) Ch-L ss an organic figand comprising (y+q) hetβro atoms, aϊ least two of the y hetero atoms being capable of forming a eovatenl bond with the metal M\ q is 0, 1 or 2, and, optionally, one or more of the q hetero atoms is capable of forming a coordinate covaleπt bond with the metal W. mά (iii) H y is y hydrogen radicals, each hydrogen radical being bonded to one of the y hetero atoms,

10. Activator composition comprising a metal atom, an organic ϋgand, and a Bronsted add. wherein:

i,a e organic igan comprses a eas y ne ero a oms an s c e a e o the metal atom through covalent bonding of at least two of the γ hetero atoms with the metal atom; and

(b) the Bronsted acid comprises {HA*] * , wherein H is a proton, A comprises a neutral Lewis base, and x is O, 1 or 2, and when x is 2, the A's are the same or different.

1 1. The activator composition of claim 10, wherein the neutral Lewis base comprises; a) one or more linear ethers, one or more cyclic ethers or mixtures thereof or b} one or more secondary amines ^ one or more tertiary amines, or mixtures thereof.

12. The activator composition of claim 10, additionally comprising a support.

13. The activator composition of claim 12, wherein the support comprises a metal-oxide support.

14. The activator composition of claim 13, wherein the metal-oxide support comprises silica, alumina, or sihca-alumiπa.

15 Catalyst comprising an activator composition of claim 1 and a metaHocene or non-rπetaiiocene single-site catalyst precursor.

16. Catalyst comprising an activator composition of claim 1. a πietallocene or πon- mβtaliocene single-site catalyst precursor, and a support.

Description:

IN LE- E , A IM AME, AHD USE THEREOF iN CATALYSTS AHD POLYMERIZATION OF GLERMS

FKLD OF THE INVEKTE'

JO081] The present invention relates to single-site catalyst activators, processes for making same, and their use in polymerization of olefin compounds.

[0002] Ziegler-NatSa type catalysts for the polymerization of olefins are well known. The traditional Ziegler-Natta type soluble systems comprise a metal halide activated to a catalyst species by reaction with a metal alky! cocatalysi particularly an aluminum alky! cocataiyst The activation of these traditional heterogeneous Ziegier-Naita catalysts generates a variety of different active sites. As a consequence of this notv uniformity of active sites, the catalysts produce polymer products having a brogd molecular weight distnbutϊon (MWD). Furthermore, the polymer products exhibit broad composition distribution (CD), poor comonσmer Incorporation and block sequence distribution.

ICKSfBJ Catalysts formed when a bis(cydopentadieπy3) compound of the Group 4 roeiate. including zirconium and hafnium, is activated by an alumoxane, i.e., metaiiocene-aiumoxane catalysts, whether homogeneous or supported, generally possess higher activity and are more versatile than conventional Zsegier-Natta type catalysts. These catalysts are part of a broader category of single-site catalysts, which have been used to produce a variety of polymer products including, for example, high density linear polyethylene (HOPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) 1 ethylene- propylene copolymer (EP) 1 non-crystalline polypropylene and crystalline polypropylene. JVietaSiαcene-aiumoxane and other single-site catalysis offer the advantage over traditional Ziegier-Natla catalysts of besng able to produce polymers with narrower WWD, Nonetheless, metal ioceπe-alumoxane catalysts have limitations in practical commercial applications. Alurπinoxaπe activators are relatively expensive because usually a substantial excess of aiυminoxaπe to metaiioceπe is required Alurnsnoxane is also air sensitive/water reactive and is challenging to handle ύue to tendency to gel. Furthermore, metallocsne-afumlnoxaπe catalyst, while producing a relatively narrow MVVD polymer product, has hmited capability to produce high molecular weight polymers or polymers having a high comonomer content.

P0ø4] European patent applications 88300898,3 &nύ 88300899.1 , published in 1988 under publication numbers 277,003 and 277,004, respectively, describe sonic single-site catalysts with non-aSuminoxane activators for activating bisfcydopeπtadieπyl)- substitυtec! Group 4 metal based metaliocenes. The activator is described in 277,003 as composing a cation capable of donating a proton and reacting irreversibly with a Hgand of the metalbeene to liberate a free, neutral by-product anύ a compatible noπcoordiπatiπg anion comprising a plurality of boron atoms, which compatible noncoordinatiπg anion is stable, bulky and labile The activator is described in 277,004 as an ion-exchange compound comprising a cation that will Irreversibly react with at least one ligand of the metallσeene artd an anion that is a single coordination complex comprising a plurality of lipophilic radicals covaiently coordinated to and shielding a central formally charge-bearing metal or metalloid atom, which anion is bulky, labile and stable to any reaction involving the cation of the second component. US Patent 5,153,157 describes similar catalyst systems with an additive that removes Impurities and gives examples of such systems based on perfiuoro groups. POGS] An article published in Organometallics 2000, 19, 1625 - 162?, "Al-, Nb-, and Ta-Basecf PerfSuαroaryioxide Anions as Cocatalysts for Metallocene-Mediated Zsegier-Matta Olefin Polymerization" by Yimiπ Sun, Matthew V Ueiz, Charlotte L, Stern, and Tobin J. Marks, reports on ionic activator compound based on the pentaflurophenoxide group CgF 5 O ' . This article also illustrates how single-site catalysts based on such activator compounds deactivate rather easily because peπtafiuorophenoxidθ group tends to be easily withdrawn from the activator άue to interaction with the meialiocene,

[øøøδl The systems based on perRuoro groups appear to rely on these groups as electron-withdrawing groups for stabilization. This has a stabilizing effect. As used herein, the term "electron-withdrawing" means capable of reducing electron density on a reaction center and the term "electron-donating" means capable of increasing electron density on a reaction center. Catalysts based on perfluoro groups tend to be relatively expensive. Another technique used for stabilization is cheating ligaπds. US Publication Number 2008/0009598 describes a borate with chelating ligands used for activating a single-site catalyst; yet the catalyst systems described must he fluorinsteά preferably perHυoπnated.

In spite of published descriptions of tonic single-site catalyst systems, it Is observed that most of these systems are still based on relatively expensive perfluoro groups. A need exists for commercially feasible ionic, single-site catalyst activators that permit suitable control of molecular weight and molecular weight distribution in polymers and at the same time remain intact, without significant deactivation, for commercially acceptable periods of time.

[0008] This invention provides activator compositions that fulfill the current need and are capable of activating metaiioceπe and n on-metal fooene single-site catalyst precursors. Activator compositions according to this invention are ion pairs in which the cation comprises a Bronsted add. An organic Hgand of the anion has at least two hβtero atoms chelated to a metal atom through covaleπt bonding. [0øδ91 It ss believed that the fact that the organic Hgand is chelated with the metal atom, adds stability to the activator composition and significantly decreases the tendency to deactivate, especially as to iigands bearing no electron-withdrawing group. A benefit of this invention is that typically expensive components having iigands with one or more electron-withdrawing groups are not required for stabilization of the activator composition. Activator compositions of this invention may contain one or more ligands with one or more electron-withdrawing groups, but an electron-withdrawing group bearing iigarsd is not required. As used herein, the term "hetero atom" means atoms other than carbon and hydrogen including atoms from Groups 15, 18, and 17, such as O, S, N, and P (as identified in a Periodic Table of the Elements using new IUPAG format (Le., current !UPAC format)); and the term 'Bronsted acidic" means: capable of donating a proton.

[0010] in somewhat greater detail, this invention provides activator compositions comprising an anion/cation ion pair, wherein (a) the anion comprises (i) a metal atom and (B) an organic iigand having at least two hetero atoms and being chelated to the metal atom through covalent bonding of at least the two hβtero atoms with the metal atom, and (b) the cation comprises a Bronsted acid. Also provided are such activator compositions wherein the metal atom comprises a metal selected from Groups 2 - 10, Group 13, or the ianihanidβ or aetinide series of ϊh® Periodic Table of the Elements, e.g., wherein the metsi atom comprises Al. Also provided are such activator compositions wherein the Sronsted acid comprises [HA K f t wherein H is a proton, A

* , , , , or different Also provided are such activator compositions derived from at least (a) IVf + Q n -,, where M h a metal selected from Groups 2-1O 1 Group 13, Laπthanide group, or Acfcjde group; m is the vatence of the metal M 1 ; and each Q independently comprises at least one or more of: hahde radical, diaikyiamido radical, alkoxide radical, aryloxide radical, hydrocarbyl radicai, substituiβd-hydrocarbyi radical, and organσmeϊalioid radicals; and (b) Hy(Ch-L), wherein (i) y is 2, 3, or 4; (H) Ch-L is an organic llgand comprising y hetero atoms, at least two of the y hetero atoms being capable of forming a covalent bond with the metal M\ and (iii) H y is y hydrogen radicals, each hydrogen radical being bonded to one of the y hetero atoms; additionally such activator compositions derived from: (c) neutral Lewis base and, optionally, (d) support. Also provided are activator compositions derived from at least; (a) M lfn+ Q mi where M' is a metal selected from Groups 2-10, Group 13, Laπthanide group, or Actonidβ group; m is the valence of the metal M'; &nύ each Q independently comprises at least one or more of: haϋde radical cJiaikylamido radicai, alkoxsde radicai, aryioxide radical, hydrocarbyl radical, substitυted-hydrocarbyl radical, and organometalloid radicals; and (b) Hy(Ch-L), wherein (i) y is 2, 3, or 4; (Ii) Ch-L ss an organic iigand comprising (y*q) hetero atoms, at feast two of the y hetero atoms being capable of forming a covalsnt bond with the metal M 1 , q is 0, 1 or 2, and, cptioπaiiy, one Όγ more of the q fietβro atoms ss capable of forming a coordinate covafent bond with the metal M', and {m} H ¥ is y hydrogen radicals, each hydrogen radicai being bonded to one of the y hetero atoms. Also provided are activator composition comprising a rnetal atom, an organic ^igand, and a Bronsted acid, wherein; {a} the organic ligaπd comprises at least y hetero atoms and is chelated to the metal atom through covaient bonding of at least two of the y hetero atoms with the metal atom; and (b) the Sroπsted acid comprises [HAJ\ wherein H is a proton, A eotrpises a neutral lewis base, and x is 0, 1 or 2, and when x is 2, the A's are the same or different; for example, wherein the neutral Lewis base comprises-, a) one or more linear ethers, one or more cyclic ethers or mixtures thereof or b) one or more secondary amines, one oτ more tertiary amines, or mixtures thereof. Also provided are such activator compositions additionally comprising a support, e.g., wherein the support comprises a metal-oxide support, and wherein the metal-oxide support comprises sifca, alumina, or syica-aiumina. Also provided are catalysts comprising an activator composition of this invention and a metallocene or πon- melalloceπe ssngi©-srte catalyst precursor. Aiso provided are catalysts comprising an

ac va or compos on o is nven on, a meta oceπe or noπ-me a oceπe s ng e-ste catalyst precursor, and a support,

[0011] Activator compositions of this invention can be used in a variety of catalysts, both supported and unsupported.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

£001 Zf This invention will be described in connection with specific embodiments. It is understood that this invention is not limited to any one of these specific embodiments.

[0013} Activator compositions of this invention comprise an aπioπ/catioπ ion pair wherein (a) the anion comprises (i) a metal atom and (Ii) an organic iigand having at least two hβtero atoms and being chelated to the metal atom through covalent bonding of at least the two ftetero atoms with the metal atom, and (b) the cation comprises a Bransted acid.

|00141 Anions of this invention comprise two key elements: (0 a metal atom and (si) an organic iigand having at least two hetero atoms and being chelated to the metal atom through covaieπi bonding of at ϊβast two of the hetero atoms with the metal atom. The metal atom typically comprises aluminum (Af) 1 but can comprise any metal in Groups 2 - 10, Group 13, or trie ianfharøde or actlnide series, as Identified in a Periodic Tabte of the Elements using the new !UPAC format (i.e., current iUPAC format}, [0015] The organic Iigand has at least two hetero atoms and is chelated to the metal atom through covateπt bonds of at least two of the hetero atoms with the metal atom, Optional^, one or more of the hetero atoms of the figand (not including the hetero atoms that are chelated to the metal atom through covalent bonding) can be bonded Io the metal atom through coordinate covalent bonding. Suitable organic iigand precursors are Hy(Ch-L) 1 wherein y is 2, 3, or 4, Ch-L is the organic iigand comprising (y+Q) hetero atoms, H y is y hydrogen radicals, each attaching to one of the y hetero atoms on the organic Iigand. and q is O 1 1, or 2, One or more of the q hetero atoms can optionally bond to the metal atom through coordinate covaieπt bonding.

100181 Examples with cpQ are as follows;

When y = 2 and

when = 2 and

[001 TJ Examples with q-1 are as follows:

by Hy(CH-L), then y = 2 and

is represented by Hy(CH-L). ih&n y - 2 and

I Suitable die! organic ϋgaπds include, but are not limited to. the føϋowing-. Catechol 3-roefhylcafechoi, 3-fluorocatechδl, 3-methoxycatechol, 3,5-di-tert- butylcatechol 3,5-ds-isopropytαatechoL SAS^-tetrafluorocatechoL 2 : 2 ' -biphenoi, 1 ,2-dihydroxynapbthaiene, 2,3-dihydroxynaphthsIeπe, 1-pheπyH ,2-ethaπdbl, 1 ,2-diphenyi-i ,2-ethanedsol 1.1 ^-triphenyi-i^-ethanedbi, benzαpmacole, hydrobeπzoiπ, 2.3-diphenyi-2,3-butanedbl i bis{2-hydroχyphβny!}methaπe r 2 [ 2 1 -methyiidnebis(4-ch[orophenoi). 2,2'-βthylidene-bis(4.δ-di-tert-bul>'fphenol) : 2 1 2 ! -methy!ldeπe-bis{4-methyl-6-tefi-buty!plieπoi} < a^'-melhyydeπe-b^^fiyoropheπol). hexachloropheπe. 1,2-benzenedimet^aπol, and the Hke,

[0019J Sustable diamsπe organic ϋgands mclude, but are not llrrated to, the following: 1 ; 2-ρheπyienβdsamine, N-methyl-N'-vmethyi-i ,2-ρheπylenediamine, N-phβπyl-N'-pheπyl- 1 : 2-pheπyienediamiπe. N-ρheπy!~N'-mβthy!-1 ,2-pheπyienedsδmsπθ, 2,3-diaminotoluerse, 4,5-dimethy]-1 ,2-phenyieπediamine. 1 , 1 '-binaphthy^^'-diamiπe, N-phenyi-N ! phenyi- I .V-bmaphthyl^^'-diamine, and ttie like.

[0δ2δJ Suitable aminoafcohol organic ligands include, but are not limited to, the following; 3~am}no-2~naphthoi t 2-amino « 1 ,2-diphenyieilianσi l N-pheπyf-1.1- diphenylgiyciπol and the like,

|0ø21| Anions of this invention can be represented as:

- , , ,

Actinide group; m+ ss the va l ence of the metal M'; γ = 2, 3, or 4;

Ch-L is an organic iigand composing (y+q) hetero atoms, Bi least two of which y ftetero atoms are (sometimes, each of which is) ccvalemiy bonded to the metal

M ' , wherein q is 0, 1, or 2 and when q is 1 or 2 one or more of which q hetero atoms are optionally bonded to the rnetai M' through coordinate covaient bonding; n = 1 , 2. or 3 and yn+1 < or - m: and each Q is selected, independently, from haiide radicals, diaikyiamidα radicals, aikoxide and aryioxide radicals, hydrocarby! and substituted-hydrocarbyi radicals and organometaiioid radicais,

(A)(Ii) Cations

[0022] Cations of this invention can comprise a proton [H] * or a neutral Lewis base stabilized proton, and can be represented by the genera! formula [HA x J + wherein H is a proton, A comprises a neutral Lews base, x is 0, 1 or 2. and when x ss 2, the A's are the same or different.

[0δ23] Broadly, ion pairs of activator compositions of this invention may be represented as follows:

[HA x ] * wherein

H is a profors;

A is a neutral lewis base; x ~ 0, 1 or 2, and when x is 2, the A's are the same or different;

M is a metal selected from Groups 2-10 « Group 13, tanthanϊde group, or

ActLnide group; m+ is the valence of tha metal M; y = 2, 3, or 4;

Cn-L is an organic ligaπd comprising (yíq) hetero atoms, at least two of which y hetero atoms are (sometimes, each of which is) cαvalentiy bonded to the metal

M', wherein q is O 1 1. or 2 and when q is 1 or 2 one or more of which q hetero

atoms are optiona y on ed to t e meta t roug coor nate cova eπt bonding; n - 1 , 2, or 3 and yn*i < or m: and each Q is selected, independently, from halsde radicals, dtalkyfamido radicals, afkoxidβ and aryloxide radicals, hydrocarfoyl and substituted-hycirocarby! radicals and organometaiioid radicals.

[DS241 Suitable starting materials for anion/catiύn ion pairs of this invention comprise:

a) a source of metal M', M'^Qv, where IW is a metal selected from Groups 2-10, Group 13, Lanthansde group, or Actinide group; m is the valence of the metal M; and each Q independently comprises at feast one or more of: halide radical, pseudo-halide radical, diaikySamido radical, aikoxide radical, aryloxide radical, hydrocarbyi radical, substituted- hydrocarbyi radical, and organometailoid radicals; and

b) a source of organic ligaπd Ch-L. Hy(Ch-L), wherein

(i) y ~ 2, 3, or 4;

(Ii) Ch-L is an organic iigaπd comprising (y-^-q) hetero atoms, at least two of which y hefero atoms are {sometimes, each of which Is) covaSeπtly bonded to the metal M, wherein q is 0, 1 ; or 2 and when q is 1 or 2, one or more of which q hetero atoms are optionally bonded to the metal IvI' through coordinate oovaleπt bonding; and

(sis) if Qj n comprises hydrocarby! radical, substitυted-hydrocarbyl radical, diaikyiamido radical, organometaitoid radical, eiectron-donating aryioxide radical (for βxampte, 2,6- dPBu^-methylpheπoxide radical), including mixtures thereof, when Hy(Ch-L) is combined with M crfV' Q the following reaction {Reaction (I )) can occur:

nHy(Ch-L) + y ifnτ Q ffi + (yn-1) HQ (I) 1

and if Q m comprises h&Wύe radical, pseudo-halide radical, alkoxsde radical electron- withdrawing aryloxide radical (for example, peπtafluorophenoxids radicaS). including mixtures thereof, M" (where M" comprises a Group 1 metal (alkali metai) cation or ammonium cation) can be combined with Hy(Ch-L) to convert Hy(Ch-L) to M 1 V(Ch-L) through the reaction of H y C.CrvL) with, for example, LiBu to form Uy(Ch-L), or W" (where

compr ses a roup me a a a ea meta can e com ne w t y - ) to convert Hy(Ch-L) to M " y /z(CH-L) through the reaction of Hy(Ch-L) with, for sxampit, MgEt 2 to form Mg^ 2 (CH-L) and JyT + Q n , can be converted to [Hf [NT* CWi] " through the reaction of HQ with M 111 ^Q,,,; such that Reaction (2) or (3) can occur:

nM " y{Ch-L) + + ynM * Q (2);

nM " yffi(Ch-l) + + (y/2)nM " Cfe (3)

to result sn formation of [H) + iM"" + (Ch-t) λ Q(nvy«+j>r;

and, optionally, c) a neutral Lewis base A, which is capable of interacting with [H] + generated in Reactions (I) 1 (2), or (3) to form a compound Suitable Lewis bases include, without limitation, Lewis bases based on N, O 1 P or S, including amines and ethers. Neutral Lewis base A can comprise a) one or more linear ethers, one or more cydsc ethers or mixtures of linear and cyclic ethers or b) one or more secondary amines, one or more tertiary amines, or mixtures of secondary and tertiary amines. For example, without y mating this invention, the Lewis base can comprise one or more of the following- a) ethers P 2 O, where P is a hydrocarfoy! group having 1 to about 20 carbon atoms, such as diethyiethsr EføG, and the like., or P\ is an organic diradicai having about 4 to about 12 carbon atoms to form cyclic ethers, such as tetrahyάrofuran (THF). and the like and b) amines HR' 2 or NRV wherein R 1 in each occurrence is selected independently from hydrocarbyl group having up to about 20 carbon atoms, or hydrogen, such as NMe 3 , NEt 3 , NMe 2 Ph 1 NMe 2 (CH 2 Ph), NEt 2 Ph, MEt 2 (CH 2 Ph), NMe 2 (QHq + O. and NEt 2 (QH≥ j+ iX where ] and k are each independently an integer from 3 to 20. £DQ25J Activator compositions of this invention can comprise a metal atom, an organic Hgaπd, and a Broπsted acid, wherein (a) the organic hgand composes at least y hetero atoms and is chelated to the rnetai atom through covaϊent bondmg of at [east two of the y hetero atoms witή the metai atom; and (b) the Bronsted add comprises [HAj * , wherein H is a proton, A comprises a neutral Lewis base, and x is 0, 1, or 2, and when x is 2, the A's are the same or different |0026] This invention provides methods for preparing activator composition comprising combining triethylgiuminum and 2,2'-ethyEidenebis(4,δ-di-t-buty!phenol).

comprising combining one equivalent of triethylaiumiπυm and two equivalents of 2,2- ethyiic!eπebis{4,6-di4-butylpheπoi).

[0028] This invention provides methods for preparing activator composition comprising combining Irietbyiaiuminυm, 2,2 l -ethyiidenebis(4,β-di~t-buty!pnenoi), and either N.N-dimelhylsniiine or N.N-dimethylbenzyiamiπe.

|002δ] MetaHocene and non-metallocene single-site catalyst precursors (B), suitable for activation by activator compositions of this invention, can comprise one or more alkylated transition metal component having olefin polymerization potential. The alky! hgand of trie precursor functions as a leaving group upon reaction of the precursor with the proton of the Bronsfed add of the activator composition. For example, without limiting this invention, hydrocarby! is a suitable alkylated transition metal iigand. Provided that suitable aϊkylation agent is provided in situ, halogen, afkoxy, aryioxy, and amide transition metal components are all suitable. [QO30] Catalyst precursors (B) can comprise catalyst precursor ML 3 X n-31 . [00313 M represents any transition metal catalyst compound Ln which the transition metal tnereof is in Group 3 to 1O 1 or in the ϊanthanide or actings series, of the Periodic Table of Elements using the new lϋPAC format, for example, the Periodic Table appearing on page 27 of the February 4, 1985 issue of Chemical & Engineering News, Suitable catalyst compounds can also be described as d- and f- block metal compounds. See, for example, the Periodic Tabte appearing on page 225 of Moelier, et al. Chemistry, Second Edition, Academic Press, copyright 1984, Metal constituent of M may comprise Fe, Co, Ni, and Pd, and may comprise metais of Groups 4-8 (Ti, Zr, Hf 1 V, Mb. Ta, Cr, Mo, and W.

[00321 Thys catalyst precursors (B) used in this invention can be one or more of any ZiegSsr-Natta catalyst compound, any metaiiocβne, any singte-site non-metaϋocenβ, any compound of constrained geometry, any late transition metal complex, and any other transition metal compound or complex reported in the literature or otherwise generally known in trie art to be an effective catalyst compound when suitably activated, including mixtures of at feast two different types of such transition meta! compounds or

comp exes, sucn as r examp e a m x ure o a me a ocβne an a eg er- at a o e n polymerization catalyst compound.

C0O33J L represents group having ϋgand suitable for either Ziegier-Natta type catalyst precursor, or metailccene type catalyst precursor, or non-metallocene single-site catalyst precursor, At least one L may be group having cyclopentadienyi skeleton, or may be noπ-cydopeπtdlenyl; and a plurality of L may be the same or different and may be crøsslmked to each other X represents Halogen, alkoxy, aryloxy, amide or hydrσcarfoyl group having 1 to about 20 carbon atoms; "a" represents a numeral satisfying the expression 0<a<n: and π represents valence of transition metal atom M. |0034J In L in catalyst precursors ^B) 1 group having cyclopentadienyi skeleton can comprise, for example, cyclopentadienyi group, substituted cydopentadieπyi group or polycychc group having cyclopentadienyi skeleton. Example substituted cyciopentadienyi groups include hydrocarbon group having 1 Io about 20 carbon atoms, halσgenated hydrocarbon group having 1 to about 20 carbon atoms, sityl group having 1 to about 20 carbon atoms and the like. Ssiyl group according to tins Invention can include SiMe 3 and the like. Examples of poiyeyciic group having cyciopentadieny! skeleton include iπdeπy! group, fluoreny! group and the like. Examples of heiero atom of the group having at least one hetero atom include nitrogen atom, oxygen atom, phosphorous atom, sulfur atom and the like,

[0035^ Example non-metallocene d-biock or f-biock metal compounds thai can be used in this invention include, but are not limited to, transition metal compounds suitable for olefin polymerization sυcH as Zϊegler-Matta type catalysts. Typically, transition metal of Ziegler-Matta catalysts comprises at least two hydrocarbyl slgands. Examples of Ziegter-Natta catalyst systems are disclosed in U-S, Patent Application Number 2004/0102312, and are described herein as follows. Representative traditional Ziegier-Natta transition metal compounds include, but are not limited to, tetrabenzy! zirconium, t8trakis{tfimethyisi!y!meu)yl)zirconium, oxotris(trimetbyisiiylmethyl)vanadium, tetrabenzyl hafnium, tetrabenzyt titanium, bis(hexamethyl disiiazido)dimethyl titanium. tπs(trimethyls5ly!methyDπiob?um dichioride, tris{tπmethyisiiy1rnethyf)tanta!υrn dich!oride, and combinations thereof. Other Ziegler-Natta type systems that can be used in this invention Include, but are not limited to, transition metal haisdes. oxyhalides or sikoxyhalides in the presence of an alkylating agent such as a diaikyiaiυminum aikoxtde or tπafkyl aluminum compound. Examples of this Zsegler-Natta type system include, but are not limited to, titanium and vanadium halides, oxyhaϋdes or alkoxyhaiides, such as

titanium tetrachloride TsCL), vanadium tetrac lo e 5 ) and vana um oxytr c or c e (VOCb), sπd titanium and vanadium alkoxides, wherein the aikoxide moiety has a branched or unbranched alkyl group from 1 to 20 carbon atoms, or from 1 to 8 carbon atoms. Any chloride-containing catalyst precursor is suitable once alkylated, including via in-sitυ alkyiatiøn, by methods weR-known to those skilled in the art, [QGSS] In still another aspect, useful d-block or f-biock metal compounds that can be used in this invention include, by! are not limited to, the Group 15-contaiπincf compounds, such as those disclosed in U.S. Patent Application Number 2004/0102312, and defined above. Examples of Group 15-containiπg compounds include, but are not limited to. Group 4 iminophenαi complexes, Group 4 bis(amido) complexes, and Group 4 pyπdyl-amide complexes that are active towards olefin polymerization to any extent In one aspect, the Group 15-containing catalyst component can be described by the following formula:

8 b (σ) a γ g !V!X r! ; wherein:

β and Y are groups that each comprise Bt least one Group 14 to Group 16 atom; and β (when present) and y are groups bonded to M through from 1 to 4 Group 14 to Group 16 atoms, wherein at least two atoms are Group 15-containiπg atoms; more particularly: β and v are groups selected from Group 14 and Group 15-containing (and their non- valent equivalents when not linked by a group α): aikyis, aryis, alkyiaryis, and heterocyclic hydrocarbons, and chemically bonded combinations thereof in one aspect; and selected from Group 14 and Group 15-contaiπing: C; to Cioafkyis, Cs to Ci2 aryis ; C§ to Cig aikylaryis, and C 4 to C 52 heterocyclic hydrocarbons, and chemically bonded combinations thereof in a further aspect; and selected from Ci to do aikylamines, C^ to Cis aikoxys, C 8 to C 20 aikyiarylamines, Ce to C^alKylaryioxys, and C 4 to Ci 2 nitrogen containing heterocyclic hydrocarbons, and C« to C 12 aikyl substituted nitrogen containing heterocyclic hydrocarbons and chemically bonded combinations thereof in still another aspect; and selected from aniiinyls, pyridyts, quinoiyls, pyrroiyis, pyrimidyls, purinyis, imidazyis, indoiyis, C 1 to Cg alkyi substituted groups selected from aniiinyls, pyridyls, quiπolyls, pyrro^yls, pyrimidyls, purinyis, imidazyls, indoiyls; Ci to C δ alky!amir>e substituted groups selected from aniiinyls. pyridyis, quinαiyls, pyrroiyis, pyrimidyls, puπnyls, imidazyis, indoiyls, amine substituted anilinyls, pyridyls, ςuinoSyls, pyrrotyls, pyrimidyls, puπnyls, imidazyis, and indoiyis; hydroxy substituted groups selected from

an ny s. pyr dys, quϊno yis, pyrrolyls, pyrimidyis, purirsyis, imidazyls, and indolyis; methyl-substituted phenyiamines, and chemically bonded combinations thereof in yet a further aspect; σ can be a linking (or ' bridging") moiety that, when present, forms a chemical bond to each of β and γ, or to two y moieties, thus forming a "yotY * or β yσβ '1 iigand bound to M; α can also include a Group 14 to Group 16 atom which can be bonded to M through the Group 14 to Group 16 atom In one aspect: and more particularly, α can be a divalent bridging group selected from alkyfenes, arylenes, aikenytenes, heterocyclic arylenes, alkylarylenes, heteroatom containing afkylenes, heteroatom containing alkenyferses and heterocyclic hydrocarboπylenes in another aspect; and selected from Ci to Cio alkyienes, C≥to Gioaikenylenes, Cs to Ci 2 arylenes, Ci to Cio divalent ethers, G 3 to C 12 O- or N-containing arylenes, C 2 to Ci 0 alkylenearnmes, C 5 Io Ci 2 aryieneamines. and substituted derivatives thereof in yet a further aspect; a is typically 0 or 1; b is typically an integer from O to 2; g is an integer from 1 to 2; wherein m one aspect, a is 1 , b is 0. and g is 2;

M is selected from Group 3 to Group 12 atoms in one aspect; and selected from

Group 3 to Group 10 atoms sn a further aspect: and selected from Group 3 to

Group 8 atoms in yet another aspect; and selected from Ni, Cr, Ti 1 Zr and Hf in still a further aspect; and selected from Zr and Hf Lq yet one other aspect; each X represents halogen, alkoxy. arylαxy, amide or hycSrocarbyl group having 1 to about 20 carbon atoms; and n ss an integer from 0 to 4 sπ one aspect; and an integer from 1 to 3 in another aspect; and an integer from 2 to 3 in still another aspect

[0037] As used in this description, "chemically bonded combinations thereof means that adjacent groups, (β and γ groups) can form a chemical bond between them; in one aspect, the β and y groups are chemically bonded through one or more α groups there between.

|δO38J As used heresn, the terms 'alkylenearnines", "aryieneamiπes", describe aikylamines and aryiamines (respectively) that are deficient by two hydrogens, thus capable of forming chemical bonds with two adjacent y groups, or adjacent β snά y groups. Thus, examples of an slkyleneamiπe include, but are not limited to, -

CH 3 CH 7 N(CH 3 )CH 2 CH 2 - and -CH 2 CH 2 N(H)CHaCH 2 -. Examples of a heterocyclic

y rocar y sne or ary eπ&am πe nc ude, u are not m te to, - 5 a - ( va ent pyridine). An "alkylene-aryiarnine" includes a group such as, for example, -

CH 2 CH 2 (CsH 3 N)CH 2 CH 2 -.

[0039] Examples of compounds having the general formula β b (α} a ygMX !1 include, but are not limited to, the following compounds:

1. , including compounds such as those disclosed m WO 99/02472, wherein examples of Ar include 2-MeCeH 4 , 2,4,6-MeSCeHa, 2-!-PCeH 4 , gπd the Hke; and examples of M include Fe αr U\] and examples of X include Cl, Br, or a Cj to Cia hydrocartjyi;

2. R S including compounds such as those disclosed in U.S. Patent Mo. 5,880,241 wherein examples of R 2 and R 5 (as used therein) include 2,6^-Pr 2 CeH 5 , 2,8- Me 2 C 6 H 3 , and 2,4.6-Me 3 C 8 H 2 ; examples of R 3 and R 4 (as used therein) Include methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, and benzyl; examples of M include Pd and Ni; and examples of X include CL Bf, and a C 1 to C 12 hydrocarby! such as

3. including compounds such as those disclosed in Nomura ei a/.,

Macromoiecυles, 2005, in press {Abstract published by the American Chemical Society, Macωmoiechies,. ASAP Article 10.1021 /ma050629s; 80024-8297(05)00529-7; Web Release Date June 15, 2006), wherein examples of Ar 1 include 2,6-Me 2 CsH 3 and 2,6-4- Pr 2 C 6 H 3 ; examples 0? Ar 2 include 2,6-Me 2 CeH 3 , 2,4,6-Me 3 CeH 2 , 2,64-Pr 2 CeH 3 , and 2,6- Ph 2 C 8 H 3 ; examples of M include V; and examples of X include Ci. Br, &nά a Ci to Ct 2 hydrocarbyl:

4. including compounds such as those disdαsed in Waymoυth &t a/., Mscmmolecules, 2005, 38, 2552-255S 1 wherein examples of M include Zr or HF; examples of X include a Cj to Cu hydrocarby! such as CH^C 6 H 5 ; examples of R (as used therein) include Me, Ph, or t-8u; and examples of D include NfVSe 2 , OiVIe, and the like; and

5, any combination of the above compounds,

[0040] In each of these compounds, if X is a hafide or aikoxide, these metal compounds typically are used in conjunction with an alkylating agent such as a trialkyi aluminum or aikoxyalumsπurø dialkyl reagent to convert these compounds to the corresponding dialkyl species,

|0041] Example substituted cyclopenfadienyf groups include methylcydαpeπtadienyl group, ethyicycfopentadienyi 0 røu P> n-propyicyclopentadieπyl group, n- butylcyciopentadlenyi group, isopropylcyciopeπtaclienyt group, isobutyicydopentadieπyl group, sec-butylcyclopentadienyj group, tertbutylcycfopentadienyl group, 1 ,2- dimethylcyciopentatlienyi group, 1,3-dimethyicyciopentadienyl group, 1,2,3- trirπethylcydopentadienyi group, 1,2,4-tπmethylcydopentadienyi group, teframethylcydopentadienyl group, peπtamethyicydopeπtadieπyl group and the like, [0042] Example potycyclie groups having cyclopeπtadieny! group iπdude sπdeπyl group, 4,5,8,7-tetrahydro^ndeπyi group, fluorenyl group and the like. [G043| Example groυps having st feast one hetero atom include methyiamiπo group, tert-bυtylamino groαp, benzyiamino group, methoxy group, tert-butoxy group, pheπoxy group, pyrrofyf group, thiomethoxy group and the like.

[00441 On<s or more groups having cydopentadienyi skeleton, or one or more group having cyctopentadienyl skeleton and one or more group having at feast one hetero atom,, may be crossiinked with (i) aikyfene group such as ethylene, propylene and the like; (ii) substituted alkylene group such as isoproρylidene t diphenylmethyleπe and the iike; or (iii) siiyfene group or substituted sOylene group such as climetfcyteϋylene group,

dφhenylsiylβne group, msthyisHyisϋyJene group and fnβ like.

|0045| Examples of transition metal component Ml $ X^ 8 , wherein M comprises zirconium, include bis^cydαpentatitenyiJzircαniumdicMoride, bis(mothyicycSoperstaciieπyl)zirconiumcl!chioπde, bis{pentametfiytcycioperstadieny[)z5rcoπ!umc[ichioride, bis{indeny!)zirconiumdichlcride, bis{4 % 5,8,7-tetrahydroindeny!)zirconiumdichioride ! bis(f!uoreny!)zirconiumdichioride, ethyienebisøndenyljztreonsumdsehionde, dimethyi5?!y!ene(cycbpentadieoy!fiuorenyi}zsrcon!umd!ch!θfi de, diphenyl$iiyteπebi$(indenyi)zirconiumdichloride, cycloperitadienyldsmethyiaminozirconiumdichloride, cyclopeπtadieπylphenoxyzirconium dichioride, dirnethy{{tert-buty!amino)(tetramethylcydopentadienyi) siiaπezircoπiumdichioride. !sapropy!idene(cyc!opentadienyl){3-tert-buty[-5-methyl-2- phenoxyjzirconiumdichbride, dimethyfsiiyiene(tetramethyicyclopentadt8nyi}(3~tertbutyi-

5-methyh2-pheπoxy) zirconiumdichloride and the like.

|0046| Additional exemplar^ 1 transition metal component MU X ri - a include components wherein zirconium is replaced with ilanium or hafnium in the above zirconium components. fG047] Alkylated catalyst precursors useful in this invention are: rac- dimeUiyisilylbis(2-methyi-4-pher\yl-indeπyi}zϊrconium dimethyl; rae-dirnethytsϊiy!feis{2- methyl-1-indenyl) zirconium dimethyl; fac-dimeihyisiiylbis{2-methyl-4,5-beπzoif>denyi} zirconium dϊmethyi; ethyϊeπebis{tetrahydroindenyi)zircoπlum dimethyl, and ethyienebis(sndeπyl) zirconium dimethyl. Alkylated catalyst precursor can be generated in-situ through reaction of alkyiation agent with the halogenated version of the catalyst precursor. For example, bis(cyciopeniadienyi)zircon!um dichbride can he treated with trlisobutyiaϊumiπum (TfBA) and then combined with activator composition (A) of this invention,

|δO48| Additional noπ-Nmitiπg and representative metaliocene compounds that can be used in the present invention include moπo-cyctepentadienyi compounds such as pentamethyicyciopentadsenyi titan iufn trimethy!, pentamethyicyciopentadienyl titanium tribenzyl, dimethylsiiyltetramethyS-cydopentadienyϊ-tert-butylamido titanium dimethyl, dsms^yisilyitetramethyjcycioperjtadienyi-tert-butylamido zirconium dimethyl, dimetiyisilyitetramethyicyclopeπtadieπyl-dodecylamido hafnium dihydride, dimetliylsiiyiteiramethyicyciopentadieπyi-dQdecyiamido hafnium dimethyl unbπdged biscyclopentadienyi compounds such as bis{1.3-butyimelhy(cyciopeπtadieπyi) zirconium

ime y , oιs , - u me y cy operc a eny z rcon um eπzy , peπtamethylcydopentadieπyi-cyclopentadieπy! zirconium cfimetnyl, {tetramethyl- cyciopentadienyi}{n-propyicyciopetadienyi)zirconium dimethyl; oridged bis- cydopentadienyj compounds such as dimethyisi!yibis(tetrahydroiπdenyi}zirconiLsm dimethyl and siiacydobutyi(tetrameU^yicydopentadienyi}(n-propyi-cydopenta dieny!) zirconium dimethyl; bridged bisindenyi compounds such as dimeihyisilySbis(indenyi) zirconium dimethyl, difneihylsilylbis{incieriyl}zircQnium dibenzyi, dimethyi$l!ylbis{indenyl) hafnium dimethyl dimetftyfciiylbis{2-methyibenzindenyi} zirconium dimethyl dimethy!siiylbis(2-methy!benzindeπy!)zirconiιιm dibenzyi; and fluorenyl iigaπcf- containing compounds, for example, diρhenyimethy!{f!uorenyl)(cydopentadieny!)z!rcontιιm dimethyl; and the additio al mono- and bis-cyciopeπtadienyl compounds such as those listed and described in U.S. Patent Nos. 5,017,714 and 5.324,800, and m EP-A-O 591 756,

(C) Catalyst Carrier/Support

|0049| Carrier/support (C) comprises m inorganic carrier or an organic carrier, A plurality of carriers can be used as a mixture, and support (C) may contain water, e.g.. as absorbed water or in hydrate form. Support {C) can comprise a metal-oxide support. A metal-oxide support (C) can comprise siiiea, alumina, or silica-aiumfπs. Support (C) can be porous and have a micro pore volume of not tess than 0.1 mi/g of silica, or not less than 0.3 ml/g. Support (C) can have a micro pore volume of about 1.8 mf/g of silica. The average particle diameter of support (C) can be from about 5 micrometers to about 1000 micrometers, or from about 10 micrometers to about 500 micrometers. [0050] A silica useful in this invention is porous and has a surface area in the range of from about 10 ro 2 /g silica to about 700 m 2 /g sJiica, a total pore volume in the range of from about 0.1 cc/g silica to about 4.0 cc/g silica, and an average particle diameter in the range of from about 10 micrometers to about 500 micrometers. The silica can have a surface area in the range of from about 50 m*/g to about 500 m 2 /g, a pore volume in the range of from about 0,5 cc/g to about 3.5 cc/g, and an average particle diameter in the range of from about 15 micrometers to about 150 micrometers. The silica can have a surface area m the range of from about 200 m*/g to about 350 m 2 /g, a pore volume in fne range of from about 1.0 cc/g to about 2,0 cc/g, artd an average particie diameter in the range of from about 10 micrometers to about 110 micrometers,

verage pore ame er o a porous s con ox e carr er can be in the range of from about 10 angstroms to about 1000 angstroms. Of can be from about 50 angstroms to about 500 angstroms, or from about 175 angstroms to about 350 angstroms. The content of hydroxy! groups can be from about 0.04 mmol OH/g silica to about 3.0 mrnol OH/g silica, with or without the presence of free hydroxy! groups, as determined »y the following Grignard reaction. Most of these active OH groups react readily with benzyimagπesium chloride Grignard to produce toSueπs, and this reaction can be used to quantify the concentration of active OH groups on a particular sslica. The content of hydroxy! groups can be from about 0.10 mmoi OH/g silica to about 2.0 mmol OH/g silica, or from about 0.4 rnmoi OH/g silica to about 1 5 mmol OH/g silica. |O0S2| Example inorganic carriers that may be useful in this invention include inorganic oxides, magnesium compounds, clay minerals &nύ the like. Example inorganic oxides useful in this invention include, without limitation, SiG 2 , AI 2 O 3 , MgO, ZtO 2 -. HO 2 , B 2 O 3 , CaO, ZnO 1 BaO, ThO 2 and double oxides thereof, e.g. SiO 2 -AbO 3 , SiO 2 -MgO, SiO 2 -IO 2 , SiO 2 -TiOa-MgO. Example magnesium compounds useful in this invention include MgCk, MgCi(OEt) and the like. Example clay minerals useful in this invention include kaolin, bentonite, kibushi day, geyloam clay, aϋophaπe, hisingerite. pyrσphylite, talc, micas, montmorionitβs, vermicuHte, cMorites, palygorskite, KaoNnste, nacrite, άickitβ, halioysite and the like.

[O0S3] Example organic carriers that may be useful in this invention include acrylic polymer, styrene polymer, ethylene polymer, propylene polymer and the like, Example acrylic polymers that may be useful in this invention include polymers of acrylic monomers such as acryloπitrile, methyl aoryfafe, methyl methacrylate, methacrylonitrite and the like, and copolymers of the monomers and crossKnkϊng poiymerizabie compounds having at feast two unsaturated bonds. Example styrene polymers that may be useful in this invention include polymers of styrene monomers such as styrene, vinyitolueπe, etnylvinyiben∑ene and the like, and copolymers of the monomers and cfossiinking poiymerizabie compounds having at least two unsaturated bonds. Example crossllnking poiymerizabie compound having at least two unsaturated bonds include divϊnyf benzene, trivinyib@n-.ene, divϊnyitoiueπe, divinylketone, diaiiyl phthaiate, ciiaily! maieate, N.N'-methyienebisacryiamicle. ethylene glycol dimettiacryiate, polyethylene giycol dimetftacryiate and the like. [9054] In this invention, organic carrier can have at least one poiar fuπotional group.

Examples of suitable polar functional groups include primary amino group, secondary

ammo group, ro no group, am e group, m e group, y rai de group, ami iπo group, hydroxy group, ftydrαperaxy-group, carboxyi group, formyl group, meihyloxycarbonyi group, carbamoyl group, suifo group, suffino group, stilfeno group, thiol group, thiocarboxy! group, thioformyi group, pyrrolyl group, imiekzojyl group, pipeπdyl group, indazoly! group and carbazolyi group. When the organic carrier originally has at feast one polar functional group, the organic carrier can be used as it is. One or more kinds of polar functional groups can also be Introduced by subjecting the organic carrier as s matrix to a suitable chemical treatment. The chemical treatment may be any method capable of introducing one or more polar functional groups into the organic carrier. For example, it may be a reaction between acrylic polymer and poSya!ky!enepGJyamine such as ethyienediamine, propaπedsamine, diethyienetriarninβ, tetraethyienepeπtamsne, dipropyleπetrlamirse or the like. As the specific method of such a reaction, for example, there is a method of treating an acrylic polymer (e.g. polyacrylonitrile) in a slurry state In a mixed solution of ethyienediamine and water at IGQX or more, for example from 120 0 C to 150 0 C. in this invention, the amount of polar functional group per unit gram in the organic carrier having a polar functional group can be from 0.01 to 50 mmol/g, or from 0, 1 to 20 mmol/g.

|0055| Catalysts according to this invention comprise/are derived from activator composition {A} and catalyst precursor (S) 1 and optionally, support (C).

POLYMERIZATION USING ACIWATQK COMPOSITION OF THIS IMVENTIO^I [OOSδj In the present invention, any olefin or dioelfiπ having 2 to 20 carbon atoms can be used as a monomer for polymerization. Specific examples thereof include ethylene, propylene, bute ne-1, pentene-1, hexenβ-1, heptene-1, octene-1 , nonene-1, decene-1, hexadscene-1 , eicσcene-1 , 4-msthySpeπtene-1 , 5-methyi-2-pentene-1, viπyicyciohexane, st^/reπe, dicyclopeπtadiene, norbomene, 5-ethyiidene-2-norborneπe and the Iske, but are not limited thereto. In the present invention, copolymenzation can be conducted using two or more monomers, simuitaneousiy. Specific exampϊes of the monomers constituting the copolymer include eϋiyfene/aπ α olefin such as ethylene/propylene, ethyleπθ/butene-1 , ethyiene/hexeπe~1 , ethyiene/propylene/buteπe-

1, 8thy!ene/propylene/S~ethyiidene-2-norbornene and the like. propyiens/biJteπe-1 , and

e e, u are no m e ereto. jtHJSTf The polymerization method is not limited, and both liquid phase polymerization method and gas phase polymerization method can be used. Examples of solvent used for liquid phase polymerization include aliphatic hydrocarbons such as butane, peπtane, heptane, octane and the like; aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene and the like; and hydrocarbon haiides such as methylene chloride and the like. It is also possible to use at least a portion of the olefin to be polymerized as a solvent The polymerization can be conducted in a batch-wise, semi batch-wise or continuous manner, and polymerization may be conducted In two or more stages which differ in reaction conditions. The polymerization temperature can be from about -SO 55 C to about 20O 0 C, or from O 0 C to about 100 D C. The polymerization pressure can be from atmospheric pressure to about 100 kg/cro 2 . or from atmospheric pressure to about 50 kg/cm 2 . Appropriate polymerization time can be determined by means known to those skilled in the art according to the desrred olefin polymer and reaction apparatus, and is typically within the range from about 1 minute to about 20 hours. In the present invention, a chain transfer agent such as hydrogen may be added to adjust the molecular weight of olefin polymer to be obtained in polymerization. [0058] In this invention, organoaiuminum compound can be added during polymerization to remove impurities, such as water. Organoaiuminum compound useful herein can comprise a variety of organoaiuminum compounds, including at least one currently known organoaiuminum compound, for example, organoaluminum compound R 3 C AhrVc (wherein R 3 represents a hydrocarbon group having 1 to about 20 carbon atoms, Y represents hydrogen atom and/or halogen atoms; and "c" represents an integer of 0 to 3). Specific examples of R 3 include methyl group, ethyl group, n- propyl group, n-butyi group, isobutyl group, rvhexyi group, n-octyi group, and tie like. Specific examples of the halogen atom for Y include fluorine atom, chlorine atom, bromine atom and iodine atom. Specific examples of the organoaiuminum compound R 3 C AIY 3 -C include triaikylaiurninums such as trimethylaluminum, triethylaluminum, tri-n- pfopyϊaluroinum, trisobutylaiufninurn, tri-n-ftexyialuminum, irioctylaluminum and the like; diatkylaluminum chloride such as dimetfriylaluminum chloride, diethylaiuminum chlonda, di-n-propyialurϊϊiπυm chloride, diisαbuiytalurninuπi chloride, d>n-hexyia!urrsfnuni chloride and the Nke; aikylaiuminum dichlorides such as methyiaiuminumdichloride, ethyiafurninum dichioride, n-propyialuminum dichforide, isooutyfaiαminum dichioride, n- hexySalurninum dichioride &nά the like: and dϊafkyiaSuminum hydrides such as

met y & um num y r e, e y a um num y r e, -n-propy urn num y π e : diisobutylaiυmiπum hydride, dt-π-hexySaiuminum hydride and the like.

[0G59] In the following examples, structures consistent with obtained HMH data are shown. However, this invention is not limited by the structures shown in the following examples.

£ 1: ion

1.14g (10 mrnof) triethyiaiuminum (TEA) and 2.5g dry isohexane were charged to a 20 ml vial. 8,77g (20 mrnol) 2 1 2 i -ethylideπe-bis(4,6-di-tert-butylpheno0 (Ll) and 23g isohexane were charged to an 8 oz wide-mouth bottle with a stirbar, White stirring, the TEA solution was slowly added to the 11 slurry over 15 minutes. The slurry eventually became a deep red transparent solution (H 1), 1.219 (10 mmoi) Ph N Meg was slowly added to the deep red solution. The mixture was allowed to stir at ambient for 2 hours. White precipitate formed. The white soisd was isolated by filtration, washed three times with 10 ml isohexane, and dried under vacuum. 6.4g white solid (63%) was obtained (EXIACj. EX1AC analysis results: 1H NIvIR (THF-dβ, 21 0 C): 51.2-1.5 (4 s, 72H. - 1 Bu); δ!6 {d, 3H. HC-CH 3 ); 52.6 <s, 8H 1 -Um 2 ]: 65.4 (q. 1H 1 H- CGH 3 ); 56.9-7.5 (m, 13H, aromatic H); S8.2 (s (br), 1H 1 N-H), ICP; Al, calculated: 2.64 wt%, found: 2.65 wt%. Grigπard titration for actr/e proton (CiMgCH 2 Ph): N-H calculated: 100%; found. 99,7%, Homogeneous polyethylene polymerization test according to procedure in Example 9; Ux 10 s g/g Zr/hr (2.15 micromoi rao~ ethySenebis{indenyl}z]rconocene dimet\y! {^1} , 4O 0 C, 50 PSl , 1,200 mL cydøhexaπe, 2 ml 25% (BHT) 2 AfMe in feohexane as scavenger. EX1AC:Zr = 1.1 :1, 10 minutes)

EXAMPLE 2: Preparation of activator composition EX2AC of this invention - [AI(LIJdIHNCH 2 PhMe 2 I +

0.114g (1 mrnof) triethyiaiuminυm (TEA) and 4g dry isohexane were charged to a 4 ml viai. 0.8?7g (2 rnmol) 2,2 1 -efhy!idene-bss(4,8-dl-t8τt-butylphenoi} (11) and 2g isohexane were charged to a 4 oz wide-mouth bottle with a stirfear. While stirring, the TEA solution was then added dropwise added to the L1 slurry. The slurry was stirred in a 60 0 C oil-bath for 15 min. White precipitate formed (Hi). 5g toluene was added The slurry became an orange solution. After cooling to room temperature, white precipitate was observed again. 0.135g (1 mrnci) PhCHgNMe 2 was added to the slurry. The slurry changed to colorless. The slurry was allowed to $ik overnight, yore solid formed, The mixture was filtered, washed two tsmes with 1OmL isohexane, and dried under vacuum overnight Yield: 0 38g (EX2ACy. EX2AC analysis results: 1H NMR (THF-d8, 21 0 C): 51.2-1.5 (4 s. 72H, - 5 Bu); 51.8 (d. 3H 1 HC-CH 3 ); δ2.6 {s, 6H, -MMe 2 ); δ5.4 (q, 1H 1 !+CCH 3 ); 54.0 (s, 2H > CH 2 ); 56.9-7.5 (m, 13H, aromatic H); δβ,2 (s (br), 1H, N-H). The materia! was able to activate rac-ethyleπeblsfiπdeπyOzirconocene dimethyl (MT) for 1- heκeπ© polymeπzatioπ, according to the following procedure; 10 mg (28.5 mscro mo!) M1 and 1g toluene were charged to a 4 ml vϊaL Then 28.8 mg (27,8 micro mo!) EX2AC in 0.5g toluene was added to the Mi so^utio?!, followed by vigorous shaking for 5 miπ to form a red brown soluljoπ. Then O.øg dry 1-hexene was added at once through a pipette. The red brown solution began to boil and resulted in a dark gel

b : repara on o sm ac va or compos on

1 ,14g (10 mmol) inβthyialurmnum (TEA) and 2.5g dry toluene were charged to a 20 ml vial. 6.81 g (20 mmol) methyiiden8-bis(4-methyi-δ-tert-buϊyipheπol) (12) and 25g toluene wer© charged to an 6 oz wide-mouth bottle with a stirbar. While stirring, the TEA solufeon was then slowly added to the 12 slurry. After 4/5 of the TEA solution was added, white solid formation was observed, The slurry was allowed to stir in a 75 0 C oil-bath for 1 hour and eventually became a deep brown transparent solution (H2). The reaction bottle was removed from the oil-bath and allowed Io cool to ambient temperature and stir overnight, 1.21g (10 mmol) PhNMe 2 m Zg toluene was slowly added to the deep brown solution. The mixture was allowed to stir at ?5°C for 1 hr. White precipitate formed, A large amount of white solids formed and prohibited the stirfoar from stirring. 3Og ϊsohexane was then added to allow for more precipitation. The white solid was isolated by filtration, washed three times with 10 mL isohexane, and dried under vacuum for 1,5 hr. δ.8g white solid (72%) was obtained, 2 αd and 3 rd crops were obtained by adding more ssohexane for the precipitation of the product, giving a total yield 7.2g {88%} (£XSAC). Pre-cortfaci of this activator (EX3AC) with a structurally more open metafocene such as rac-ethytenebis(indenyl)zirconocene dimethyl (Mf) yielded no stabie active species. Polymerization was observed only when the catalyst precursor was co-charged with 1-hexeπe before contact with the activator (EX3AC). The following polymerization procedure was used: 10 mg (26.5 micro mo!) PI and 1g toluene were charged to a 4 ml vial. Then O.Sg dry 1-hexeπe was added at once through a pipette. Then 23.0mg (27.8 micro mo!) EX3AC in O.Sg toluene was added to the Mi solution, followed by vigorous shaking for 5 miπ to form a red brown solution. The red brown solution began to boil, resulting in a dark gel.

Wl '

Attempt to synthesize EX4BHT did not succeed even at high temperatures (e.g., 100 0 C). Instead of the desired EX4BHT structure with four BHT units attached to Ai, a compound containing oπiy two BHT units attached to A! (SAB) was obtained. The niateπaf did not show any activity for metalioceπe d!a!ky! aciivaion and άϊύ not polymerize 1-hexeπe. The following polymerisation procedure was used: 10 mg (26.5 micro mo!) Mi and 1g toluene were charged to a 4 mL vial. Then 0,9g dry 1-hexeπe was added at once through a pipette. Then 0.5g of solution containing DBAS, amine and BHT was added to the Mi solution, followed by vigorous shaking for β min. No color change was observed The solution did not polymerize 1-hexane.

; repara ion © ac va or composi ion o is nven on - ( J BuAI(BHT){L1)πH3*

|00841 1 OS (1 -0 mmo!) DBAB solution (38% or 1 mrnol/g, made from TIBA with equal mole of 2,6-di-i-Bu-4-methyiphenσl (BHT)) was charged into a 20 ml vial 0.438g (1.0 mrnof) L1 was &dύeύ to the DBAB solution. Precipitation was immediately observed The mixture was tested for both r8c~dimethylsiiy!bϊs{2-methyS-4-phenyi- indeπyOzircoπiumdimethyi (M2) and rac-ethy!eπebis{iπdeπyi}zirconocene dimethyl {Mi} activation and both were activated for 1-hexeπe poiymerizatjors, according to the following procedure; 10 mg (28.5 micro mo!) Mi and 1g toluene were charged to a 4 ml vial. Then 0.9g dry 1-rtexeπe was added at once through a pipette. Then 0.5g solution containing EX5AC was added to the Mi solution, followed by vigorous shaking for 5 min to form a red brown solution. The reύ brown solution began to boil, resulting in a dark gel.

EXAMPLE δ: Preparation 1 of Silica Supported Catalysts Using Activator EX1AC of this Invention

[00S5] 1.34g IBAO (isobutyialurrύnoxarse, containing 5-7 wt% Al, made from the reaction of triisobutylalumtnum with 70-90 mo!% water based on AS) coated silica {made from SOO 0 C calcined Grace 952 silica treated with 18AO at 90 to100°C for 3 hr) was charged in a 2OmL vial. 34mg ϊtø2, 1g toluene, and 62.6mg EX 1AC obtained from Example 1 were added to another 20 ml vial to form a slurry. The slurry was mixed with the IBAO coaled silica solid and the mixture was stirred with a glass rod for 5 mm. The color changed from yellow to deep red. The wet red solid was then placed under vacuum to dry for 2 hr. Yield: 1,43g (pink red). Polypropylene polymerization test according to procedure in Example 11 : i0,300g/g cat/hr with TlBA as scavenger and

s g reactor ou ng was o serve ; , g g ca r w ou scavenger an no reac or fouling was observed,

10088] 2.Og E.AO (Ethylaluminoxane, containing 4-5 wt% Af 1 made from the reaction of tπethylaluminum with 70-80 mol% water based on Al) coated silica {made from 600 0 C calcined Grace 952 silica treated with EAO at 90-100 13 C for 3 hr < containing 7% Ai) was charged in a 2OmL vial. 69mg M2 t 3g toluene, and 12δmg EXIAC obtained from Example 1 were added to another 20 nil vial to form the slurry. The slurry was mixed with the EAO coaled silica solid and the mixture was shaken for 80 min. The color changed from yellow to ύe&p red. The wet reά solid was then placed under vacuum to dry for 3 hr. Yιe\ύ: 2.3g (brown orange). Polypropylene polymerization test according to procedure in Example 11 : 9,QQOgZg cat/Sir without scavenger and no reactor fouling was observed.

EXAMPLE 8: Preparation 3 of Silica Supported Catalysts Using Activator EX1 AC

[0087| 2.8g EAO (containing 4-5 wt% Al, made from the reaction of triethyialuminum with 70-80 moi% water based on Ai) coated silica (made from 8QO 0 C calcined Grace 952 silica treated with EAO at 90-10OX for 3 hr, containing 7% Al) and 135mg EXIAC obtained from Example 1 were charged into a 2OmL via! and mixed weii on a shaker for 30 min. 52mg Mi 1 0.33g 1-hexβne and 3g toluene were added to another 20 ml vial. The Ui ft -hexene solution was then added slowly to the mixture of EAO coated silica solid and the mixture was shaken on a shaker for 30 rπin. The color changed from yβifow to pink. The wet red solid was then placed under vacuum to dry for 2 hr. Yield: 3 Ig (pink). Polyethylene polymerization test according to procedure Ln Example 10; 300g/g cat/hr without scavenger and slight reactor fouling was observed.

A L : omogeneous - tan ard Polymerization Procedure

fOOSβJ Preparation of Stø1 solution in drvbox- mi solution was prepared in a drybox by weighing ? Q - 13,0 mg of sold Mi compound into a 2OmL vial. Dry toluene was added to make a solution with a concentration of

2.15 rnicrαmoi Ig. The vial was capped and shaken to form a solution.

[0O89J Reactor Pre-Set: The reactor temperature was set to dessred temperature.

M 2 was flushed from the reactor three times with ethylene, each time pressuring to 50 psi, then venting to 0 psi Added to the reactor was. total 1200ml isohexaπe with 2 mt

25% (BHT) 2 AiMe solution through the 800 mt solvent bomb. The reactor temperature was equilibrated with the agitator at a low speed.

[0070] Preparation of Active Catalyst Solution: A SmL dried syringe was tared without the needle on the balance in the dry box. A desired amount of activator solution was weighed into the syringe based on Ai:Zr - 1 , 1 ; 1 1.00 g HI solution was added into the synnge with the activator sample. A 12 inch 18 gauge needle was attached to the synnge, the needle was capped with a crimp-top vial, and the time that the pre- contact solution was completed was noted

10071] Addition of Active Catalyst Solution to Reactor: Active catalyst solution was removed from the drybox. The agitator was stopped; the pressure was vented down and the temperature of the solvent was noted. The injector port valve was opened, the crimp-top vial was removed from the needle iφ and the entϊre needle shaft was inserted into the injector port. The active catalyst solution was injected into the reactor, the needle was removed, the injector port was closed, the agitator was started to about 850 rpm, and then the ethylene valve was qusckry opened to begin pressuring the reactor with ethylene,

|0072] Reaction .. Conditions: Run time was 10 or 30 minutes; pressure and agitator speed were controlled at 50 psi and 800-825 rpm, respectively; starting temperature was 4O 0 C. but increased to 60 0 C in 10 minutes, at which time the reaction was stopped,

[O073J Reaction Quenching: Polymerization reactions were ended by closing the ethylene valve and stopping the agitator. f0G74J Polymer Treatment: Poiymer was dried to constant weight by filtering the slurry in methanol through a vacuum Hask with a filter funnel and drying in vacuum oven.

: upporte - tan ar o ymer za on rosecfym

|0δ7S] A4L reactor was dried by heatsng at 10O 0 C for 15 minutes minimum under low pressure nitrogen flow. After cooling to ambient the reactor was pressurized with lsobutane and vented three times to remove nitrogen. Isobutaπe (1000 ml) was charged into the reactor white adding 40 mi of dried 1-hexeπe with or without a scavenger. The reactor agitator was set at SOO rpm, After flushing the charging line with 700 mi of isobutaπe, the reactor was charged with ethylene up to 320 psi for supported f$1 white at the same time bringing the temperature of the reactor up to 8D 0 C. Then, 50-100 rng of soled catalyst was slurried in 2 m§ of hexane m the gbvebox and then i nfected into the reactor followed by 100 rni of isobυtane. The reaction pressure was maintained at 320 psi miά the polymerization was carried out for 1 hour at 80 0 C, The reaction was stopped by venting off the ethylene and isobutane. The polymer wa$ isolated, dried, and weighed

EXAMPLE 11 : Supported FP - Standard Polymerization Procedure

FSJ The genera! procedures for propylene polymerization were as follows. A 4-L autoclave reactor that had been dried under a nitrogen flow at a temperature of >100°C, was charged with 2 L of propylene and 25 mmoi of hydrogen. The reactor temperature was raised to 70 0 C, white the sample was stirred at 700 φrn In cases In which a scavenger was used, a 2 mL-sampJe of a 10wt% TiBA solution in hexane was injected into the reactor. Then 40 mg of catalyst was injected sπlo the reactor, ussng 300 ml as a flush. The reaction mixture was stirred at 7O 0 C for one hour. At the end of the test, the polymerization was stopped by venting the reactor and opening it to the atmosphere, and thθ resulting polypropylene was eofected.

Advantages ©f this Invention

[0077J Activator compositions of this invention are capable of activating catalysis with commercially reasonable rates of deactivation without requiring use of relatsve^y expensive perfluoro groups,

|007Sj WhRe the present invention has been described in terms of one or more preferred embodiments, it is to be understood that other modifications may be made without departing from the scope of the invention, which is set forth in ϊhe claims below.