Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
STABILIZATION METHOD OF A BLOCK OF STONE MATERIAL
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/180757
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to a method for stabilizing a block M of stone material comprising the use of a hardening material as a filling material for filling cavities and / or geometrical disconnections of a base surface of the block of stone material.

Inventors:
TONGIANI STEFANO (IT)
Application Number:
PCT/IT2019/050061
Publication Date:
September 26, 2019
Filing Date:
March 20, 2019
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
SFERA S R L S (IT)
International Classes:
B28D7/04; B28B23/00
Foreign References:
US20090241439A12009-10-01
EP1170271A12002-01-09
DE9300563U11993-07-22
DE3735529A11989-04-27
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BALZANO, Francesca et al. (IT)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. Method for stabilizing a block (M) of stone material comprising the steps of:

- positioning the block (M) of stone material to be stabilized at a removable containment structure, said structure having a substantially planar base platform (B) and a lateral containment casing (Q);

- placing the block (M) of stone material on said base platform (B); said method providing an interposing step for interposing a hardening material between said block (M) of stone material and said base platform (B), in order to allow a stabilization of the block (M) of stone material by means of a setting of the hardening material on the irregularities and / or protuberances located on a base of the block, obtaining a jacket (C) for the block (M).

2. Method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said interposing step for interposing the hardening material, precedes said placing step for placing the block (M) on said base platform (B).

3. Method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said interposing step comprises casting a hardening material having a fluid composition on said base platform (B).

4. Method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein during said interposing step for interposing a hardening material between said block (M) of stone material and said base platform (B), said base platform (B) has a resting surface substantially tilted with respect to the ground.

5. Method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said hardening material comprises a cementitious component and / or a polymeric component.

6. Method according to any one of the preceding claims, comprising a hardening step of said hardening material to obtain a stabilized block, said block comprising a jacket (C) having a substantially planar base.

7. Method according to the preceding claim, further comprising a removing step for removing said lateral containment casing (Q), said removing step being subsequent to said hardening step of said material.

8. Method according to the preceding claim, comprising a raising step of the block (M) stabilized by means of said base platform B.

9. Method according to any one of claims from 6 to 8, further comprising a step for realizing at least one moving slot (A) at a lateral surface of said jacket (C).

10. Method according to any one of the claims from 6 to 9, further comprising an obtaining step for obtaining at least one sliding track (S) at a base surface of said hardened matrix.

11. Method according to any one of the preceding claims, comprising a step for realizing a counterweight at at least one outer wall of the block M. 12. Method according to the preceding claim, wherein said step of realizing a counterweight comprises the realization of a jacket (C) having a stabilizing portion (G).

13. Method according to the preceding claim, comprising a housing step for housing counterweight elements (7) at said stabilizing portion (G).

14. Method according to claim 1 1 , wherein said step of realizing a counterweight comprises a coupling of a stabilizing element (G’) to a wall of the block (M) of stone material.

15. Method according to the preceding claim, comprising an applying step for applying at least one hooking element (70) at an outer wall of the block (M), optionally further comprising an interposing step for interposing a filling material (R) between said wall of the block (M) of stone material and said hooking element (70).

Description:
STABILIZATION METHOD OF A BLOCK OF STONE MATERIAL

Technical field of the invention

The present invention relates to a method for stabilizing a block of stone material.

The invention relates in particular to the processing methods field of stone blocks extracted from caves to obtain slabs to be used as semi finished products in any of the possible application fields.

State of the art

The extraction operations involve macro defects, cracks and structural discontinuities on the side faces as well as inside the extracted block.

Therefore, during the moving phases of the block and the sectioning in slabs, it is necessary to care about the fact that the blocks are neither perfectly squared - therefore not stable - nor structurally homogeneous, and therefore subject to breakages due to the vibrations generated by the sectioning operations .

In the known art, the moving of the block usually takes place by means of slinging ropes and cranes for the lifting and the translating and / or rotating of the block.

A disadvantage of the prior art operating methods is that the moving of a block of large dimensions by means of a crane does not guarantee the precision that is instead required, in particular on reduced and precise movements required in mechanical processing.

Another problem of the known prior art is that, having the block a substantially discontinuous and non-planar lower placing surface, once raised and moved, the block will never be placed again in the same position respect to a cutting plane. Therefore, to guarantee a parallelism between the cutting plane and the external surface of the block that must still be machined, the block must be cut in a single positioning and in a single cutting operation. An extracted block of marble, of a substantially cubic shape, can weigh about 40-80 tons, therefore an unwanted movement, for example during a cutting operation of the block into slabs, as well as a processing damage on the lack of planarity of the cut slabs can be extremely risky and unsafe for the operators.

Therefore, to make the block of stone material structurally more homogeneous, this is inserted into a thin nylon bag in which a resin is casted / injected. This resin infiltrates the imperfections and "glues" the in order to make the block more resistant to the vibrations that will follow during processing. Any specification of planarity is given to the lower surface of the resin casted under the block.

In particular, to stabilize the block in order to reduce it into slabs, the same is positioned on a basic carriage and is blocked with respect to the walls with wooden shims used as spacer elements (so-called "wedges"). The block, being able no more to be placed again with accuracy, is completely cut.

The main technologies used for cutting blocks of stone material are mainly made up of single-blade and multi-blade machines and single-wire and multi-wire frame machines.

In both cases, the cutting element, blade or wire, is equipped with diamond concretions and is moved to incise the block under a constant spraying of water proceeding from an upper surface towards a lower surface of the block, at a given feed rate (for example 100 cm / hour).

In the known prior art, at a given cutting depth, the operator stops the machine and approaches the block in the space intended for the cutting operation to position a plurality of wedge-shaped wooden elements at the cutting surfaces.

The positioning of the wedge-shaped elements is needed to fill the open sections that are created between the slabs that are cut, reducing the risk of fan-shaped opening of the slabs once the cutting operations are completed.

The operation of the cutting machine is interrupted as soon as the cutting elements touch the supporting base on which the block is positioned.

To allow the getting out of the cutting elements from the block sectioned into slabs, the blade holder is moved upwards, so an operator must approach the block again in the space intended for cutting to remove the cuneiform elements previously positioned.

In this last operation, the risk for the operators is very high as the block is completely sectioned and therefore very unstable.

Therefore, before removing the filling elements between the slabs, additional external lateral containment elements are positioned.

The stabilization methods of a block of stone material therefore provide for a sequence of manual operations that are expensive and not without risks for the operators.

Summary of the invention

Therefore, the technical problem posed and solved by the present invention is that of providing a method, to stabilize the structure and to improve the positioning and repositioning of a marble block which allows to overcome the drawbacks mentioned above with reference to the prior art.

This problem is solved by a stabilization method according to claim

1 .

Preferred features of the present invention are provided in the dependent claims.

Advantageously, the object of the present invention allows preserving the integrity of the block of stone material through the possibility of creating a containment jacket made of hardening material.

The material used is in particular a ductile material, that is a material able to have a plastic deformation under load.

Preferably, a hardening material with a fluid composition is used, so as to allow it to be interposed by casting, as will be better described below.

In particular, the hardening material has a cementitious component and / or a polymeric component, for example having a thermoplastic or thermosetting matrix.

A further advantage is the possibility of facilitating the handling of the block of stone material by means of the realization of a plane resting base, making it possible a translation movement on rollers or belts, for example to perform sectioning or cutting operations of the block into slabs to be carried out in sequence to avoid realignment problems between plane faces.

A still further advantage of the object according to the present invention is that it allows the maintenance of the structural stability also when the block has a reduced thickness, for example during a cutting operation of the last slab left in a sequential sectioning process of the block.

Other advantages, features and methods of use of the present invention will be evident from the following detailed description of some embodiments, presented by way of a non-limiting example.

Brief description of the figures

The present invention will now be described for illustrative but not limitative purposes, with particular reference to the drawings of the attached figures, in which:

figure 1 shows an operator during a stabilization process of marble slabs according to the prior art;

figure 2 shows a known stabilization system of a block of marble cut into slabs;

figure 3 shows a schematic view of a step of forming a jacket C around a block of stone material, according to a preferred embodiment of the method according to the present invention;

figure 4 shows a schematic view of a block M of stone material inserted in a jacket C, realized according to the method shown schematically in figure 3;

figure 5 shows a schematic sectional view of a block M of stone material inserted in a jacket C, realized according to a further embodiment of the method according to the present invention;

figure 6 shows a schematic sectional view of a block M of stone material inserted in a jacket C, realized according to a still further embodiment of the method according to the present invention;

figure 7 shows a schematic sectional view of a block M of stone material provided with a counterweight according to an embodiment of the method according to the present invention;

figure 8 shows a schematic perspective view of a block M of stone material provided with a counterweight according to an alternative embodiment of the method according to the present invention;

figure 9 shows a schematic perspective view of a block M of stone material provided with a counterweight according to a further embodiment of the method according to the present invention;

figure 10 shows a schematic sectional view of a block M of stone material provided with a counterweight according to a still further embodiment of the method according to the present invention.

Detailed description of preferred embodiments.

With reference to the figures, a method of stabilizing a block M of stone material according to the present invention comprises a first step of positioning the block M to be stabilized at a removable containment structure, for example a formwork. The removable structure shown in Figure 3 has a base platform B and a side containment casing Q.

The lateral casing Q can be realized, for example, by a connection of a plurality of lateral walls.

The block M of stone material is then rested on the aforementioned base platform B which has a planar resting surface (in particular having an extremely planar smooth finishing), preferably tilted with respect to the ground.

Advantageously, the method according to the present invention provides an interposing step for interposing a hardening material between the block M of stone material and the base platform B.

The interposition of a hardening material, for example a cementitious material or a polymeric material such as a synthetic resin, allows the formation of a regular and inferiorly perfectly planar interface between an irregular base of the block M and the planar surface of the base platform.

In particular, a setting of the hardening material on the asperities located on the base of the block M ensures the filling of the structural irregularities and the formation of a substantially planar base at the base itself.

Advantageously, the formation of a planar base allows a stabilization of the block M of stone material which is no longer subject to vibrations and / or uncontrolled displacements due to a disconnected base surface, but can be maintained in a condition of equilibrium resting on a base substantially flat. It is also repositionable with precision.

In a first embodiment of the method according to the present invention, the aforesaid step of interposition of plastic material precedes the step of resting the block on the platform.

Therefore, the block is brought closer to the platform and is inserted, at least at a base portion thereof, in a matrix comprising the hardening material.

Depending on the specific dimensions of the block and also of the containment structure, a certain amount of hardening material may be sufficient to form the substantially planar base of the block M, or it may also cover a lateral portion of the block, as shown for example in figure 4.

The ability to withstand the weight of the block M, and therefore to create a more or less high basement thickness, depends not only on the quantity of material used, but also on the specific composition and density of the material itself.

In the first embodiment, which provides for the insertion of the block M in the matrix of material already located on the platform, it is preferable to use a cementitious material.

A second embodiment of the method according to the present invention provides for an interposition by means of a casting of a hardening material with a fluid composition on the base platform B. In particular, a plastic or cementitious material with a fluid composition is casted into the containment structure, for example at a base portion of the block M of stone material resting on the base platform B. Preferably, in the second embodiment, the material has a liquid or semi-liquid composition in such a way as to ensure a fluidity such as to allow the filling of the shape irregularities present at a base surface of the block M.

In particular, as described above with reference to the first embodiment, it is preferable to use a fluid material with a cementitious component, preferably partially hardened and / or having a high density value.

The presence of irregular concave portions on the basis of the block of stone material could lead to the incorporation of air bubbles during the casting phase of the hardening material.

Advantageously, the inclination with respect to the ground of the resting surface of the base platform B, in particular during the step of interposing the hardening material between the block M of stone material and the base platform B, allows the air bubbles to escape and therefore obtaining a planar resting base without any imperfections.

Preferably, the inclination of the resting surface with respect to the ground is less than 10 degrees.

As shown in figure 3, the formed jacket C has a greater height at a lower level of the resting surface with respect to the ground.

In particular, to reduce the effect of the aforementioned difference in height on the dimensional uniformity of the jacket, guaranteeing a leakage of the air bubbles, or at least a reduction of the formation of the air bubbles inside the jacket, the inclination of the resting surface is equal to about 2-3 degrees to the ground.

Once the coupling between a disconnected base surface of the block of stone material and the material has been achieved, a phase of hardening of the matrix, or jacket C, of material realized between the base of the block and the containment structure is provided.

The hardening phase has a time duration depending on the nature and / or consistency of the specific material used.

For example, in case of fast-setting cementitious material, hardening is achieved in a few hours. In case of cementitious mixtures without additives or accelerating components, a curing time of up to 30 days can be provided.

Once hardened, the matrix forms a resting base, the jacket C, of the block of stone material. The block is therefore stabilized, since it has a substantially planar resting base.

Following the hardening, the lateral containment casing Q is then removed so as to allow free movement of the block.

In particular, the stabilized block is lifted from the base platform to be repositioned. For example, the block can be positioned at a cutting station in slabs, and / or moved on guides or linear rails.

Furthermore, storage and transport movements of the block, are also optimized by stabilizing the block by means of the realization of a hardened matrix, or a jacket C, having a substantially planar base.

To facilitate the handling, and in particular the rotation of the stabilized block, at least one movement slot A is provided at a lateral surface of the hardened matrix, as shown for example in figure 5.

The slot A allows in particular the insertion of threaded inserts and / or handling rods, advantageously preserving the integrity of the stone material block.

As shown in figure 6, in addition or as an alternative to the realization of a slot A, the realization of sliding rails S at a base surface of the hardened matrix is also provided, to allow the insertion of block handling cables or ropes, both before and after cutting in slabs in a completely safe manner.

Preferably, in order to guarantee the maintenance of a predetermined distance between the walls of the marble block and the removable structure or the base, the positioning of base spacer elements and / or lateral spacers is provided before the step of casting the hardening material.

The spacer elements comprise, for example, wood shims or stones which are incorporated within the jacket C during the material hardening phase.

Preferably, to facilitate the operations of detaching the jacket C from the removable structure as well as from the base B and from Q, the method according to the present invention further comprises a step of applying a non-sticking coating element, for example a nylon sheet or a detaching liquid, before positioning the block M on the resting base B.

Depending on the hardening material used, the nylon sheet adheres more or less to the hardened C jacket.

In the case where hardening thermoplastic materials are used to realize the jacket C, the nylon sheet becomes an integral part of the hardened jacket C, but in any case it will facilitate the detachment of the block, both from the lateral walls Q of the formwork, and from the resting base B.

The stabilized block of stone material, according to an embodiment of the method according to the present invention, finds application in a machine for the simultaneous lateral cutting of a plurality of slabs from a block of stone material by means of a plurality of belt cutting blades.

In particular, the planar base of the hardened matrix allows a precise and safe movement to guarantee the parallelism between external surfaces of slabs already cut of the block of stone material, and external surfaces of slabs still to be cut. As shown in figure 7, the block can be translated (for example also by sliding) along a right direction towards the cutting machine, before and after the cut itself.

In particular, the planar base of the jacket C allows the block to slide with respect to a plane and / or rollers supporting the cutting machine.

Moreover, advantageously, the method according to the present invention further provides for the realization of a counterweight at at least one external wall of the block M made of stone material, in particular at a wall of the block M facing towards a direction opposite to that of advancement dx of the block, as shown in figures 7 and 10.

In particular, the realization of the counterweight provides for the realization of a jacket C having a stabilizing portion G.

The stabilization portion G is preferably shaped in such a way as to allow the maintenance of the gravity center of the partially cut block in a rearward position with respect to an advancement direction dx, and therefore optimize the operations of sectioning of the block, allowing cutting even in conditions of minimum block thickness, such as at a last slab to be cut.

In particular, the additional stabilization of the block given by the backing of the gravity center can be further implemented by positioning one or more counterweight elements 7 at said stabilizing portion G.

For example, as shown in figure 8, the stabilizing portion G of the jacket C is made in such a way as to have one or more housings configured to house one or more counterweight elements 7 respectively.

In an alternative embodiment, the realization of a counterweight at at least one external wall of the block M of stone material is carried out by coupling a stabilization element G' to the block M.

To facilitate the aforementioned coupling, at least one hooking element 70 is to be applied at an external wall of the block M of stone material, as shown in figure 9.

In particular, the hooking element 70 is shaped as a block or plate, for example made of cement, and the application step comprises a connection of the hooking element 70 to a wall of the block M of stone material, for example by means of interposition of an adhering or filling material R, between the wall of the block M and the hooking element 70, as shown in figure 9.

The adhering or filling material R, interposed to ensure adherence between the wall of the block M and the hooking element 70, is in particular a fluid material with a polymeric or cementitious base, for example an anti-shrinkage cement, bonding or adhesive filler.

Advantageously, the hooking element 70 has slots or housings T for fixing, for example by means of threaded connection elements, of a stabilization element G’ to the block M.

In particular, the interposition of the hooking element 70 facilitates the connection of the stabilizing element G’ to the block M.

The stabilization element G’, made for example in cementitious or metallic material, can be advantageously removed at the end of the cutting process in slabs.

In particular, by removing the threaded connection elements, the stabilization element G' can be disassembled and recovered.

This possibility makes it possible to minimize the waste of the material used to guarantee the counterweight needed during cutting operations in slabs of the M block of stone material.

Advantageously, in an alternative embodiment of the method according to the present invention, the application of the hooking element 70 to the block of stone material, may also be prior to the step of realizing the jacket C of the block M.

In this case, after the connection of one or more elements 70, and after the drying of the material R - in the case of the filler use - we proceed with the realization of the jacket C, or stabilization base, according to the above description.

In particular, the jacket C - or stabilization base - will be able to incorporate both the block M and the one or more hooking elements 70.

Advantageously, the method according to the present invention allows to increase the reliability of the workings and the machining safety in the handling operations of a block of stone material.

To optimize the quantity of additive material used in the stabilization operation of the block of stone material, in particular cementitious material, this can be recovered and reduced to pieces after a first use. The recovered material can advantageously be reused in a new mixture for the realization of a new matrix.

The present invention has been described for illustrative but not limitative purposes, according to its preferred embodiments, but it is to be understood that variations and / or modifications may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the relative scope of protection, as defined from the attached claims.