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Patent Searching and Data


Title:
SUBSTRATE CARRIER AND METHOD OF PROCESSING A SUBSTRATE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/141366
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A substrate carrier (100) for holding a substrate (10) during deposition is described. The substrate carrier includes an electrostatic chuck (120) configured for attracting a substrate toward a support surface (102) of the substrate carrier (100), and a magnetic chuck (130) configured for attracting a mask (20) and/or a maskframe (25) toward the support surface (102) of the substrate carrier, wherein the electrostatic chuck (120) and the magnetic chuck (130) are integrated in a carrier body (101) of the substrate carrier.

Inventors:
HEYMANNS MATTHIAS (DE)
HEIMEL OLIVER (DE)
Application Number:
PCT/EP2017/052049
Publication Date:
August 09, 2018
Filing Date:
January 31, 2017
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
APPLIED MATERIALS INC (US)
HEYMANNS MATTHIAS (DE)
HEIMEL OLIVER (DE)
International Classes:
H01L21/67; C23C14/04; C23C14/50; H01L21/677; H01L21/683
Foreign References:
US20150343580A12015-12-03
US20100080891A12010-04-01
US20160365269A12016-12-15
Other References:
None
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ZIMMERMANN & PARTNER PATENTANWÄLTE MBB (DE)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A substrate carrier (100) for holding a substrate (10) during deposition, comprising: an electrostatic chuck (120) configured for attracting a substrate toward a support surface (102) of the substrate carrier (100); and a magnetic chuck (130) configured for attracting a mask (20) and/or a maskframe

(25) toward the support surface (102) of the substrate carrier (100), wherein the electrostatic chuck (120) and the magnetic chuck (130) are integrated in a carrier body (101) of the substrate carrier (100).

2. The substrate carrier of claim 1, wherein one or more magnets of the magnetic chuck (130) are arranged at a first distance (Dl) from the support surface (102) in the carrier body (101), wherein the first distance (Dl) is 10 cm or less, particularly 5 cm or less, more particularly 2 cm or less.

3. The substrate carrier of claim 2, wherein one or more electrodes (210) of the electrostatic chuck (120) are arranged at a second distance (D2) from the support surface (102) in the carrier body (101), wherein the second distance (D2) is smaller than the first distance (Dl), particularly wherein a difference between the first distance (Dl) and the second distance (D2) is 2 cm or less.

4. The substrate carrier of any of claims 1 to 3, wherein the carrier body (101) is formed as a unitary plate structure in which both of the electrostatic chuck (120) and the magnetic chuck (130) are arranged.

5. The substrate carrier of any of claims 1 to 4, wherein the magnetic chuck (130) is an electromagnetic chuck comprising one or more electromagnets.

6. The substrate carrier of any of claims 1 to 5, wherein the magnetic chuck (130) comprises a first chucking zone (132) configured for generating a first magnetic field in a first region (131) of the support surface, and a second chucking zone (134) configured for generating a second magnetic field in a second region (133) of the support surface.

7. The substrate carrier of claim 6, further comprising a power supply (140) configured to power at least one first electromagnet of the first chucking zone (132) independently of at least one second electromagnet of the second chucking zone (134).

8. The substrate carrier of claim 6 or 7, wherein the first chucking zone (132) is configured to attract the mask (20) toward the first region (131) of the support surface, and the second chucking zone (134) is configured to attract an edge (22) of the mask and/or the maskframe (25) which holds the mask toward the second region (133) of the support surface which partially or entirely surrounds the first region (131).

9. The substrate carrier of any of claims 6 to 8, wherein the first chucking zone (132) comprises a plurality of first electromagnets arranged in an inner region of the carrier body

(101), and/or the second chucking zone (134) comprises a plurality of second electromagnets arranged in an outer region of the carrier body (101).

10. A deposition apparatus (400) for depositing a material on a substrate, comprising: a substrate carrier (100) according to any of the preceding claims; and a deposition source (150) configured for depositing a material (105) on a substrate

(10) held by the substrate carrier.

11. A method of processing a substrate, comprising: attracting a substrate (10) toward a support surface of a substrate carrier with an electrostatic chuck (120) integrated in a carrier body (101) of the substrate carrier; arranging a mask (20) in front of the substrate; and attracting the mask (20) and/or a maskframe (25) holding the mask toward the support surface with a magnetic chuck (130) integrated in the carrier body (101) of the substrate carrier.

12. The method of claim 11, wherein the mask (20) is attracted toward the support surface of the substrate carrier with a first chucking zone (132) of the magnetic chuck such that the mask at least partially contacts the substrate (10), and wherein an edge of the mask and/or the maskframe is attracted toward the support surface of the substrate carrier with a second chucking zone (134) of the magnetic chuck.

13. The method of claim 12, wherein the magnetic chuck is an electromagnetic chuck, and the first chucking zone (132) is powered with a first power and the second chucking zone (134) is powered with a second power different from the first power.

14. The method of claim 12 or 13, wherein the edge of the mask is fixed to the maskframe (25), and wherein a gap (450) between the edge of the mask and the substrate is reduced by activating the second chucking zone (134).

15. The method of any of claims 11 to 14, further comprising: depositing of a material on the substrate, wherein an angle (a) between a vertical direction and the substrate is between 0° and -10°, particularly between -1° and -5° during deposition.

Description:
SUBSTRATE CARRIER AND

METHOD OF PROCESSING A SUBSTRATE

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] Embodiments of the present disclosure relate to a substrate carrier for holding a substrate, and more particularly to a substrate carrier with an electrostatic chuck for attracting a substrate to a support surface during the deposition of a material on the substrate. Further embodiments relate to methods of processing a substrate, and more particularly to methods of depositing a material on a substrate, while the substrate is held by a substrate carrier, particularly in an essentially vertical orientation.

BACKGROUND

[0002] Opto-electronic devices that make use of organic materials are becoming increasingly popular for a number of reasons. Many of the materials used to make such devices are relatively inexpensive, so organic opto-electronic devices have the potential for cost advantages over inorganic devices. The inherent properties of organic materials, such as the flexibility of organic materials, may be advantageous for applications such as for the deposition on flexible or inflexible substrates. Examples of organic opto-electronic devices include organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), organic phototransistors, organic photovoltaic cells, and organic photodetectors.

[0003] For OLEDs, the organic materials may have performance advantages over conventional materials. For example, the wavelength at which an organic emissive layer emits light may be readily tuned with appropriate dopants. OLEDs make use of thin organic films that emit light when a voltage is applied across the device. OLEDs are becoming an increasingly interesting technology for use in applications such as flat panel displays, illumination, and backlighting.

[0004] The substrate as well as a mask which defines a pattern to be provided on the substrate are often held on a respective support using mechanical forces. Conventional mechanical contacts used to hold the substrate and the mask during processing may result in substrate damage due to the applied mechanical force. The mechanical force may be applied to hold the mask in place during processing. The conventional mechanical carriers may hold the substrate at the edges, thus resulting in a highly concentrated physical contact at the edges of the substrate so as to ensure a sufficient clamping force. This mechanical contact concentrated at the edges of the substrate may create contact contamination or physical damage, degrading the substrate.

[0005] Newer processing systems have incorporated alternative mechanisms for chucking the substrate to the substrate carrier that avoid the above described drawback. For example, the substrate is held in position by an electrostatic chuck using an electrostatic force. A contact force between components of the system and the substrate can be reduced.

[0006] However, a further mechanism is typically needed for holding the mask in front of the substrate during deposition, which may increase the handling complexity and may lead to positioning problems of the mask and/or of the substrate. For example, an accurate 3 -dimensional positioning of the mask in front of the substrate at a close distance to the substrate, without damaging the substrate, may be extremely challenging.

[0007] Accordingly, there is a need for a method and an apparatus for securely and exactly positioning a mask and a substrate in a processing system, while reducing the handling complexity. SUMMARY

[0008] In light of the above, a substrate carrier, a deposition apparatus as well as a method of processing a substrate are provided.

[0009] According to an aspect of the present disclosure, a substrate carrier for holding a substrate during deposition is provided. The substrate carrier includes an electrostatic chuck configured for attracting a substrate toward a support surface of the substrate carrier, and a magnetic chuck configured for attracting a mask and/or a maskframe toward the support surface of the substrate carrier, wherein the electrostatic chuck and the magnetic chuck are integrated in a carrier body of the substrate carrier. [0010] According to a further aspect of the present disclosure, a deposition apparatus for depositing a material on a substrate is provided. The deposition apparatus includes a substrate carrier and a deposition source configured for depositing a material on a substrate held by the substrate carrier. The substrate carrier includes an electrostatic chuck configured for attracting the substrate toward a support surface of the substrate carrier, and a magnetic chuck configured for attracting a mask and/or a maskframe toward the support surface of the substrate carrier, wherein the electrostatic chuck and the magnetic chuck are integrated in a carrier body of the substrate carrier.

[0011] According to a further aspect of the present disclosure, a method of processing a substrate is provided. The method includes attracting a substrate toward a support surface of a substrate carrier with an electrostatic chuck integrated in a carrier body of the substrate carrier, arranging a mask in front of the substrate, and attracting the mask and/or a maskframe holding the mask toward the support surface with a magnetic chuck integrated in the carrier body of the substrate carrier. [0012] Further aspects, advantages and features of the present disclosure are apparent from the description and the accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0013] So that the manner in which the above recited features of the present disclosure can be understood in detail, a more particular description of the present disclosure, briefly summarized above, may be had by reference to embodiments. The accompanying drawings relate to embodiments of the disclosure and are described in the following. Typical embodiments are depicted in the drawings and are detailed in the description which follows.

[0014] FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a substrate carrier according to some embodiments described herein;

[0015] FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a substrate carrier according to some embodiments described herein; [0016] FIG. 3 is a schematic view of a substrate carrier according to some embodiments described herein;

[0017] FIG. 4 is a schematic view of a deposition apparatus according to some embodiments described herein; and [0018] FIG. 5 is a flow diagram illustrating a method of processing a substrate according to embodiments described herein.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS

[0019] Reference will now be made in detail to the various embodiments, one or more examples of which are illustrated in the figures. Each example is provided by way of explanation and is not meant as a limitation. For example, features illustrated or described as part of one embodiment can be used on or in conjunction with any other embodiment to yield yet a further embodiment. It is intended that the present disclosure includes such modifications and variations.

[0020] Within the following description of the drawings, the same reference numbers refer to the same or to similar components. Generally, only the differences with respect to the individual embodiments are described. Unless specified otherwise, the description of a part or aspect in one embodiment applies to a corresponding part or aspect in another embodiment as well.

[0021] FIG. 1 is a schematic sectional view of a substrate carrier 100 configured for holding a substrate 10 during deposition of a material on the substrate. The substrate carrier 100 can be used to carry a substrate 10 through a vacuum processing system that is described in more detail below, and may therefore also be referred to as a "substrate support" or a "substrate holder" herein. In FIG. 1, the substrate 10 is schematically depicted as a rectangle that is held on a support surface 102 of the substrate carrier 100. [0022] In some embodiments, which may be combined with other embodiments described herein, the substrate 10 may be held in an essentially vertical orientation at the support surface 102 at least temporarily during processing. For example, the substrate may be held in a substantially vertical orientation during transport through a vacuum processing system and/or during a deposition process, wherein a material is deposited on the substrate.

[0023] "Essentially vertical" as used herein may be understood as an orientation of the substrate, wherein the main surface of the substrate and the vertical direction (the gravity vector) enclose an angle from 0° to +/-20 0 , particularly from 0° to +/-10 0 or less. The orientation of the substrate may not be (exactly) vertical during deposition, but slightly inclined with respect to the vertical axis, e.g. by an inclination angle between 0° and -5°. A negative angle refers to an orientation in which the substrate faces slightly downward. This deviation from the vertical direction may be beneficial because a substrate orientation with some deviation from the vertical orientation might result in a more stable substrate deposition, or a facing down substrate orientation might be suitable for reducing particles on the substrate during deposition. However, an (exactly) vertical orientation is also possible.

[0024] Accordingly, also the support surface 102 of the substrate carrier 100 may be essentially vertically oriented at least temporarily during the processing of the substrate. Holding a large area substrate in an essentially vertical orientation is challenging, because the substrate may bend due to the weight of the substrate, the substrate may slide down from the support surface in the case of an insufficient grip force, and/or the substrate may move with respect to a mask which may be held in front of the substrate. [0025] In some embodiments, the substrate may be held in an essentially horizontal orientation at least temporarily during processing, for example in a downward facing position. For example, the substrate may be held facing downward on an essentially horizontal support surface. A downward facing position of the substrate may be beneficial, in order to keep the particle uptake on the substrate surface at a minimum. [0026] In some embodiments, the substrate carrier 100 may be movable, e.g. pivotable, between a vertical orientation and a non-vertical orientation, e.g. a horizontal orientation. For example, the substrate may be put on and chucked to the support surface 102 in a non- vertical orientation, the substrate carrier 100 with the chucked substrate may subsequently be moved into an essentially vertical orientation, e.g. with a swing-up module, and the substrate may be transported and/or further processed in the essentially vertical orientation. In some embodiments, the substrate may be released and removed from the support surface in a non-vertical orientation, e.g. in a horizontal orientation.

[0027] In some cases there may be a hand-over of a substrate from one substrate carrier (e.g. staying in the system or under vacuum) to another substrate carrier during processing, e.g. for transporting the substrate into and out of a vacuum deposition system.

[0028] The substrate 10 may be supported on the substrate carrier 100 during transport and/or processing, e.g. during layer deposition, transport of the substrate through the vacuum processing system or loading into and un-loading from a vacuum chamber. One or more thin layers may be deposited on the substrate while the substrate is held at the substrate carrier. For example, a stack of layers, e.g. including at least one organic material, may be deposited on the substrate, e.g. by evaporation.

[0029] According to embodiments of the present disclosure, an in-line or batch-type processing system with one or more transport devices can be used for transporting one or more substrate carriers together with a respective substrate along a transport path. In some implementations, the transport devices may be provided as a magnetic levitation system for holding the substrate carriers in a suspended state. Optionally, the in-line processing system can use a magnetic drive system configured for moving or conveying the substrate carriers along the transport path in a transport direction. The magnetic drive system can be included in the magnetic levitation system or can be provided as a separate entity. [0030] In some implementations, a mechanical transport system may be provided. The transport system may include rollers for transporting the substrate carriers in the transport direction, wherein a drive for rotating the rollers may be provided. Mechanical transport systems may be easy to implement and robust, durable and maintenance friendly.

[0031] In some embodiments, the substrate 10 may be held at the support surface 102 of the substrate carrier 100 during deposition of a coating material on the substrate. For example, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) systems, physical vapor deposition (PVD) systems, e.g. sputter systems, and/or evaporation systems were developed to coat substrates, e.g. thin glass substrates, e.g. for display applications, in a vacuum processing chamber. In typical vacuum processing systems, each substrate may be held by a substrate carrier, and the substrate carriers may be transported through the vacuum processing chamber by respective transport devices. The substrate carriers may be moved by the transport devices such that at least a part of the main surfaces of the substrates are exposed toward coating devices, e.g. sputter devices or evaporator devices. The main surfaces of the substrates may be coated with a thin coating layer, while the substrates may be positioned in front of a coating device which may move past the substrate at a predetermined speed. Alternatively the substrate may be transported past the coating device at a predetermined speed.

[0032] The substrate 10 may be an inflexible substrate, e.g., a wafer, slices of transparent crystal such as sapphire or the like, a glass substrate, or a ceramic plate. However, the present disclosure is not limited thereto and the term substrate may also embrace flexible substrates such as a web or a foil, e.g. a metal foil or a plastic foil.

[0033] The substrate may be a large area substrate in some embodiments. A large area substrate may have a surface area of 0.5 m 2 or more. Specifically, a large area substrate may be used for display manufacturing and be a glass or plastic substrate. For example, substrates as described herein shall embrace substrates which are typically used for an LCD (Liquid Crystal Display), a PDP (Plasma Display Panel), and the like. For instance, a large area substrate can have a main surface with an area of 1 m 2 or larger. In some embodiments, a large area substrate can be GEN 4.5, which corresponds to about 0.67 m 2 substrates (0.73 x 0.92m), GEN 5, which corresponds to about 1.4 m 2 substrates (1.1 m x 1.3 m), or larger. A large area substrate can further be GEN 7.5, which corresponds to about 4.29 m 2 substrates (1.95 m x 2.2 m), GEN 8.5, which corresponds to about 5.7m 2 substrates (2.2 m x 2.5 m), or even GEN 10, which corresponds to about 8.7 m 2 substrates (2.85 m x 3.05 m). Even larger generations such as GEN 11 and GEN 12 and corresponding substrate areas can similarly be implemented. In some implementations, an array of smaller sized substrates with surface areas down to a few cm 2 , e.g. 2 cm x 4 cm and/or various individual shapes may be positioned on a single substrate carrier.

[0034] In some implementations, a thickness of the substrate in a direction perpendicular to the main surface of the substrate may be 1 mm or less, e.g. from 0.1 mm to 1 mm, particularly from 0.3 mm to 0.8 mm, e.g. 0.7 mm. Even thinner substrates are possible. The handling of thin substrates with a thickness of 0.5 mm or less may be challenging. [0035] It may be beneficial with view to a good coating result to hold the substrate at the support surface 102 of the substrate carrier 100 such that movements of the substrate and/or of the mask during the deposition are avoided. Accurate positioning of the substrate on the support surface and with respect to the mask, and an accurate positioning of the mask with respect to the substrate becomes increasingly challenging, as the substrate sizes are increasing and the coating structures are decreasing.

[0036] According to embodiments described herein, the substrate carrier 100 includes an electrostatic chuck 120 configured for attracting the substrate toward a support surface 102 of the substrate carrier 100, and a magnetic chuck 130 configured for attracting a mask 20 and/or a maskframe 25 toward the support surface 102 of the substrate carrier 100. The electrostatic chuck 120 and the magnetic chuck 130 are integrated in a carrier body 101 of the substrate carrier 100.

[0037] The electrostatic chuck 120 (also referred to herein as "e-chuck") may be used to attract the substrate 10 to the support surface 102 of the substrate carrier 100 during substrate processing. For example, the substrate may include a material, e.g. a dielectric material that can be pulled toward the support surface by electrostatic forces such that the substrate can be pulled into direct contact with the support surface 102. Holding of the substrate can also be enabled during high-temperature processes, coating processes and plasma processes also in a vacuum environment. [0038] The magnetic chuck 130 may be used to attract the mask 20 toward the substrate 10 which is held on the support surface 102. In particular, during deposition, a close distance between the substrate 10 and the mask 20 may be beneficial, in order to reduce or avoid shadowing effects of the mask. For example, the mask 20 can be attracted toward the support surface 102 with the magnetic chuck 130 during deposition such that at least a portion of the mask 20 is brought into direct contact with the substrate 10. Shadowing effects can be reduced. After deposition, the magnetic chuck 130 can release the mask 20 from the substrate 10 so that the mask and the substrate can be separated from each other without negatively affecting the material pattern deposited on the substrate.

[0039] In some embodiments, the mask 20 includes a magnetically attractable material, e.g. a metal, so that the mask can be attracted with magnetic forces which are generated by the magnetic chuck 130. For example, the mask 20 is a metal mask, particularly a fine metal mask. The mask 20 may be fixed to a maskframe 25, e.g. permanently fixed to the maskframe 25 by welding. For example, the maskframe 25 may be formed as a frame which surrounds the mask and holds the mask at a circumferential edge of the mask. In some embodiments, also the maskframe 25 may include a magnetically attractable material such as a metal so that also the maskframe can be attracted toward the support surface via the magnetic chuck 130.

[0040] The magnetic chuck 130 and the electrostatic chuck 120 are integrated in a common carrier body of the substrate carrier 100. For example, the electrostatic chuck 120 may be embedded in a first inner volume of the carrier body 101, and the magnetic chuck 130 may be embedded in a second inner volume of the carrier body 101. Alternatively or additionally, the electrostatic chuck 120 and the magnetic chuck 130 are firmly connected to the same carrier, e.g. by attaching or fixing both the electrostatic chuck 120 and the magnetic chuck 130 to the same carrier body, so that the electrostatic chuck 120 and the magnetic chuck 130 can be transported and moved as a single unit.

[0041] For example, in some embodiments, which may be combined with other embodiments described herein, the carrier body 101 may be formed as a unitary plate structure in which both of the electrostatic chuck 120 and the magnetic chuck 130 are arranged. [0042] In some embodiments, which may be combined with other embodiments disclosed herein, the carrier body 101 includes a first dielectric body, wherein one or more electrodes of the electrostatic chuck 120 are embedded in the first dielectric body. The first dielectric body can be fabricated from a dielectric material, e.g. a high thermal conductivity dielectric material such as pyrolytic boron nitride, aluminum nitride, silicon nitride, alumina or an equivalent material, e.g. a thermally resistant polymer based material such as a polyimide based material or other organic materials. The electrodes of the electrostatic chuck may be connected to a power supply, e.g. a voltage source, respectively, which may apply a predetermined voltage to the electrodes to generate a predetermined electrostatic grip force. [0043] In some embodiments, also one or more magnets of the magnetic chuck 130 may be embedded in the first dielectric body or in a second dielectric body which may be attached to the first dielectric body.

[0044] According to embodiments described herein, the magnetic chuck 130 including one or more magnets and the electrostatic chuck 120 including one or more electrodes may be configured as a single unit. Accordingly, it is not necessary to separately move a magnetic unit such as a magnetplate to the backside of the e-chuck for attracting the mask toward the substrate. Rather, according to the present disclosure, the substrate carrier can be moved as a single unit including both the electrostatic chuck 120 and the magnetic chuck 130 to a predetermined position. Thereupon, the mask can be chucked toward the substrate via the magnetic chuck 130 in the correct position, because the relative positions between the magnetic chuck 130 and the electrostatic chuck 120 are fixed and appropriately defined.

[0045] FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a substrate carrier 200 according to some embodiments described herein. The substrate carrier 200 of FIG. 2 is similar to the substrate carrier 100 of FIG. 1 such that reference can be made to the above embodiments which are not repeated here. The electrostatic chuck 120 and the magnetic chuck 130 which are integrated in the carrier body 101 of the substrate carrier 200 are illustrated in FIG. 2 in more detail. [0046] In some embodiments, the electrostatic chuck 120 may include one or more electrodes 210 which may be configured to generate a predetermined electrostatic grip force, which may be adjustable. The one or more electrodes 210 may be connected to a first power supply 212, e.g. a high voltage supply for applying a high voltage to the one or more electrodes 210. [0047] The electrostatic chuck 120 may be configured as a monopolar chuck, as a bipolar chuck or as a multi-pole chuck. A "monopolar chuck" may be understood as an electrostatic chuck including one or more electrodes connectable to a power supply, e.g. a high voltage source. The power supply is configured to provide an electric voltage of a single polarity to the one or more electrodes. For example, according to some embodiments which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, a positive voltage may be applied to the one or more electrodes of the electrostatic chuck such that a negative charge is induced on the support surface of the substrate carrier. Alternatively, a negative voltage may be applied to the one or more electrodes such that a positive charge is induced on the support surface of the substrate carrier. [0048] A "bipolar chuck assembly" as used herein may be understood as an electrostatic chuck including at least one first electrode and at least one second electrode connectable to the power supply, e.g. a high voltage source. The power supply is configured to provide an electric voltage of a first polarity to the first electrodes and an electric voltage of a second polarity to the second electrodes. For example, a negative voltage may be applied to the first electrodes, and a positive voltage may be applied to the second electrodes, or vice versa. Accordingly, corresponding negatively charged regions and corresponding positively charged regions may be generated at the support surface 102 by electrostatic induction. In some embodiments, a symmetric bipolar voltage is provided.

[0049] In a multi-pole chuck assembly, a plurality of electrodes may be provided which may be independently controllable.

[0050] The electrostatic chuck 120 of FIG. 2 includes at least one first electrode and at least one second electrode, wherein a positive voltage (+) is applied to the first electrode and a negative voltage (-) is applied to the second electrode via the first power supply 212, e.g. a high voltage source. The at least one first electrode may be interleaved with the at least one second electrode in some embodiments, in order to increase the grip force provided by the electrostatic chuck. Alternatively or additionally, first electrodes and second electrodes may be alternately arranged. For example, the electrostatic chuck 120 may include a plurality of wires which are positively and negatively charged in an alternate way. [0051] In some embodiments, the magnetic chuck 130 is an electromagnetic chuck comprising one or more magnets 231 which are configured as electromagnets, e.g. including coils, for generating a magnetic field. A second power supply 215 may be provided for powering the one or more magnets 231. Electric connection lines 232 may be provided for connecting the second power supply 215 with respective coil windings (not shown in FIG. 2) of the one or more electromagnets. The polarities of adjacent magnets directed toward the support surface may be opposite in some embodiments. In particular, the magnets may be arranged such that the polarities of respective neighboring magnets directed toward the support surface are opposite polarities. For example, the windings of adjacent electromagnets may be inverted, respectively, so that an alternate arrangement of windings is provided, as is depicted in FIG. 2.

[0052] The first power supply 212 and the second power supply 215 may be integrated as a single power supply with different output terminals for separately and independently powering the magnetic chuck 130 and the electrostatic chuck 120.

[0053] The electrostatic chuck 120 and the magnetic chuck 130 may be operated independently and/or may be controlled by a controller unit which may be configured to control the timings for chucking the mask, the timings for chucking the substrate, the timings for releasing the mask, the timings for releasing the substrate, a chucking force of the substrate and/or a chucking force of the mask.

[0054] In some embodiments, which may be combined with other embodiments described herein, the one or more magnets 231 of the magnetic chuck 130 may be arranged at a first distance Dl from the support surface 102. The first distance Dl between the one or more magnets 231 and the support surface 102 can be a small distance, when the one or more magnets 231 and the one or more electrodes 210 of the electrostatic chuck are integrated in the same carrier body. For example, the first distance Dl may be 10 cm or less, particularly 5 cm or less, more particularly 3 cm or less.

[0055] Arranging the magnetic chuck 130 at a close distance from the support surface 102 in the carrier body 101 of the substrate carrier may increase the magnetic force that is generated by the magnetic chuck at the position of the mask 20 so that the mask and/or the maskframe can be more reliably attracted toward the support surface. In particular, also an edge region of the mask 20 may be pulled into direct contact with or close to the substrate as a result of the increased magnetic force.

[0056] In some embodiments, the one or more electrodes 210 of the electrostatic chuck 120 are arranged at a second distance D2 from the support surface 102 in the carrier body 101. The second distance D2 between the one or more electrodes 210 and the support surface 102 may be a small distance, when the one or more electrodes 210 are integrated in the carrier body 101 at a position close to the support surface. For example, the second distance D2 may be 8 cm or less, particularly 4 cm or less, more particularly 1 cm or less.

[0057] The second distance D2 may be smaller than the first distance Dl . In particular, the one or more electrodes 210 may be arranged closer to the support surface than the one or more magnets 231. For example, a difference between the first distance Dl and the second distance D2 may be 5 cm or less, particularly 2 cm or less. In other words, the electrodes 210 may be arranged adjacent to the support surface 102, and the magnets 231 may be arranged behind the one or more electrodes 210 at a close distance of, e.g., 2 cm or less thereto. Accordingly, the substrate can be reliably attracted to the support surface 102, and the mask 20 can be reliably attracted toward the substrate 10.

[0058] In some embodiments, the second distance D2 may be essentially equal to the first distance Dl . For example, the electrodes of the electrostatic chuck and the magnets of the magnetic chuck may be provided at the same distance from the support surface in the carrier body, e.g. in an interleaved or alternating way. In some embodiments, the second distance D2 may be smaller than the first distance Dl . In other words, the magnets of the electrostatic chuck may be arranged closer to the support surface than the electrodes of the electrostatic chuck. The magnetic force at the position of the mask can be increased.

[0059] FIG. 3 is a schematic view of a substrate carrier 300 according to some embodiments described herein. The substrate carrier 300 of FIG. 3 may be similar to the substrate carriers of FIG. 1 and FIG. 2 so that reference can be made to the above embodiments which are not repeated here. The substrate carrier 300 includes a magnetic chuck 130 with two or more chucking zones. For example, the magnetic chuck 130 may include a plurality of chucking zones which may be independently controllable. [0060] The substrate carrier 300 includes an electrostatic chuck 120 with one or more electrodes for attracting the substrate 10 toward the support surface 102, and a magnetic chuck 130 with one or more magnets, particularly electromagnets, for attracting the mask 20 and/or a maskframe toward the substrate carrier. The electrostatic chuck 120 and the magnetic chuck 130 may be integrated in a carrier body 101 of the substrate carrier 100. [0061] In some embodiments, which may be combined with other embodiments described herein, the magnetic chuck 130 includes a first chucking zone 132 configured for generating a first magnetic field in a first region 131 of the support surface, and a second chucking zone 134 zone configured for generating a second magnetic field in a second region 133 of the support surface. For example, the first chucking zone 132 may be arranged in an inner region of the carrier body 101 and be configured for generating the first magnetic field in a center region of the support surface 102, and/or the second chucking zone 134 may be arranged in an outer region of the carrier body 101 and be configured for generating the second magnetic field in a peripheral region of the support surface 102 which may at least partially surround the center region.

[0062] In some embodiments, the first chucking zone 132 of the magnetic chuck 130 may be configured and arranged to attract a first part of the mask 20, e.g. a center part of the mask, toward the first region 131 of the support surface. The second chucking zone 134 of the magnetic chuck 130 may be configured and arranged to attract a second part of the mask, e.g. an outer part or an edge 22 of the mask, and/or the maskframe 25 toward the second region 133 of the support surface. In particular, the second region 133 of the support surface may partially or entirely surround the first region 131.

[0063] In some embodiments, the second chucking zone 134 may have the shape of a frame with a frame size that may be adapted to a size of the maskframe 25 which holds the mask or that may be adapted to a size of an edge region of the mask.

[0064] The first chucking zone 132 may include a plurality of first electromagnets arranged in the inner region of the carrier body 101, and/or the second chucking zone 134 may include a plurality of second electromagnets arranged in the outer region of the carrier body 101 which may partially or entirely surround the inner region. The plurality of second electromagnets may be arranged in an array having the shape of a frame which surrounds the plurality of first electromagnets.

[0065] In some embodiments, a power supply 140 may be provided for powering at least one first electromagnet of the first chucking zone 132 and at least one second electromagnet of the second chucking zone 134. In particular, the at least one electromagnet may be powered independently of the at least one second electromagnet by the power supply 140. Accordingly, a first magnetic force of the first chucking zone 132 may be set to a first value, and a second magnetic force of the second chucking zone may be set to a second value which may be different from the first value.

[0066] The power supply can be provided on the substrate carrier so that the power supply can be moved and transported together with the substrate carrier. Alternatively, the power supply can be provided as a separate unit, e.g. outside of the vacuum chamber of the deposition apparatus. For example, electrical contacts may be provided on the substrate carrier for electrically connecting the electromagnets of the magnetic chuck with an externally arranged power supply when the substrate carrier is located in a designated position for deposition.

[0067] An edge 22 of the mask 20 is typically fixed to the maskframe 25 which may surround the mask. Typically, the maskframe may have a greater mass than the mask, and the maskframe may bend due to gravity, particularly when the maskframe is arranged in an essentially vertical orientation (+/-10 0 ). The bending of the maskframe due to gravity may lead to a gap between the substrate and the mask. For example, the edge 22 of the mask which is fixed to the maskframe may be drawn away from the substrate together with the maskframe due to gravity. This gap between the mask and the substrate may result in a shadowing effect of the mask during deposition which negatively affects the pattern deposited on the substrate. [0068] Whereas the magnetic force of a magnetic chuck may be sufficient to attract a center part of the mask toward the substrate, the magnetic force of the magnetic chuck may be too low for attracting the maskframe 25 and/or the edge 22 of the mask to the substrate during deposition, e.g. due to the greater mass of the maskframe. According to embodiments described herein, the magnetic force of the magnetic chuck at the position of the mask can be increased by integrating the magnetic chuck together with the e-chuck.

[0069] According to a further aspect described herein, the edge 22 of the mask and/or the maskframe 25 may be attracted toward the support surface with a second magnetic force generated by the second chucking zone 134. The value of the second magnetic force may be different from the value of a first magnetic force generated by the first chucking zone 132. For example, whereas the first chucking zone 132 may generate a first magnetic force that is sufficient for attracting a center part of the mask toward the substrate, the second chucking zone 134 may generate a stronger second magnetic force that is sufficient for attracting the edge 22 of the mask and/or the maskframe 25 toward the substrate. A shadowing effect during deposition can be reduced or completely avoided. [0070] According to some embodiments, the first chucking zone 132 may be configured for attracting the mask, and the second chucking zone 134 may be configured for attracting the maskframe. The first chucking zone 132 and the second chucking zone 134 may be independently controllable. For example, the current that is guided through electromagnets of the first chucking zone may be set as appropriate, and the current that is guided through electromagnets of the second chucking zone may be set to a different value. Accordingly, the deposition pattern can be improved and shadowing effects can be reduced.

[0071] FIG. 4 is a schematic view of a deposition apparatus 400 for depositing a material on a substrate according to some embodiments described herein. The deposition apparatus may include a substrate carrier according to any of the embodiments described herein, e.g. the substrate carrier 100 of FIG. 1. The deposition apparatus 400 further includes a deposition source 150, e.g. an evaporation device, configured for depositing a material 105 on a substrate 10 which is held by the substrate carrier 100.

[0072] The deposition apparatus 400 may further include a vacuum chamber 410, wherein the deposition source 150 and the substrate carrier 100 are arranged in the vacuum chamber. The deposition source 150 may be an evaporation device including a crucible for housing a material that is to be evaporated and at least one distribution pipe for guiding the evaporated material toward a plurality of openings in the distribution pipe, which are directed toward the substrate 10.

[0073] The deposition source 150 may be provided on a movable support so that the deposition source 150 can be moved past the substrate 10 during evaporation.

[0074] The substrate carrier 100 may be arranged such that an angle a between the vertical direction and the substrate is between 0° and -10° when the substrate is held on the support surface of the substrate carrier. In particular, the substrate may be arranged such that the surface to be coated is slightly facing downward during deposition. Particle generation can be reduced.

[0075] The substrate is attracted to the support surface of the substrate carrier with the electrostatic chuck 120, and the mask is attracted toward the support surface with the magnetic chuck 130. The electrostatic chuck 120 and the magnetic chuck 130 are integrated in a carrier body of the substrate carrier.

[0076] The magnetic chuck 130 may include a plurality of chucking zones, wherein at least one outer chucking zone may be configured for attracting the maskframe and/or an outer part of the mask, and at least one inner chucking zone may be configured for attracting a center part of the mask. A gap 450 between an edge of the mask and the substrate can be reduced by setting the magnetic field of the outer chucking zone to an appropriate value.

[0077] FIG. 5 is a flow diagram for illustrating a method of processing a substrate according to a further aspect described herein. In box 510, a substrate is attracted toward a support surface of a substrate carrier with an electrostatic chuck 120 that is integrated in a carrier body of the substrate carrier.

[0078] For example, the substrate may be put onto to the support surface in a non- vertical orientation, whereupon the electrostatic chuck may be activated, and the substrate carrier may be rotated, e.g. to an essentially vertical orientation (+/- 20°). [0079] When the substrate is held at the support surface of the substrate carrier, the substrate carrier may be transported within a vacuum processing system, e.g. into a vacuum chamber of a deposition apparatus. For example, the substrate carrier may be moved with the substrate into the deposition apparatus, wherein a deposition source may be arranged in the deposition apparatus. [0080] In box 520, a mask 20 is arranged in front of the substrate. The mask may be aligned with respect to the substrate so that a predetermined relative position between the substrate and the mask is established. For example, a rough alignment and a subsequent fine alignment may ensure that a position deviation between the mask and the substrate in an up-down direction and/or in a left-right direction is 10 μηι or less, particularly 3 μηι or less, respectively.

[0081] Thereupon, in box 530, the mask 20 and/or a maskframe 25 that holds the mask may be attracted toward the support surface with a magnetic chuck 130 that is integrated in the carrier body of the substrate carrier. For example, at least a portion of the mask or the entire mask may be pulled toward the substrate such that the mask comes into direct contact with the substrate.

[0082] In box 540, a material may be deposited on the substrate, e.g. with an evaporation device. When the mask is arranged in front of the substrate, a material pattern according to an opening pattern of the mask may be formed on the substrate.

[0083] After deposition, the mask may be released from the substrate by at least partially deactivating the magnetic chuck. The mask and the substrate may be separated.

[0084] Thereupon, the substrate may be transferred out of the deposition apparatus and/or may be de-chucked and removed from the support surface by deactivating the electrostatic chuck.

[0085] Before deposition, the mask 20 may be attracted toward the support surface of the substrate carrier with a first chucking zone 132 of the magnetic chuck such that the mask at least partially contacts the substrate 10. In particular, a center part of the mask may be attracted toward the substrate by a magnetic field generated by the first chucking zone 132. An outer part or an edge of the mask and/or the maskframe 25 may be attracted toward the support surface of the substrate carrier with a second chucking zone 134 of the magnetic chuck. The second chucking zone 134 may be arranged in a peripheral region of the carrier body and/or may at least partially surround the first chucking zone 132.

[0086] In some embodiments, which may be combined with other embodiments described herein, the magnetic chuck is an electromagnetic chuck, and the first chucking zone is powered with a first power and the second chucking zone is powered with a second power different from the first power. [0087] In some embodiments, an edge of the mask 20 is fixed to the maskframe 25, and a gap 450 between the edge of the mask and the substrate is reduced by activating the second chucking zone 134 in addition to the first chucking zone 132.

[0088] The material may be deposited on the substrate, while an angle a between the vertical direction and the substrate is between 0° and -20°, particularly between -1° and -5° during deposition. In particular, the substrate may be arranged slightly inclined downward during deposition at a tilting angle between -1° and -5°. Particle generation can be reduced.

[0089] While the foregoing is directed to embodiments of the disclosure, other and further embodiments of the disclosure may be devised without departing from the basic scope thereof, and the scope thereof is determined by the claims that follow.