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Title:
SYSTEM FOR FORMING AND TESTING BATTERIES IN PARALLEL AND IN SERIES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2021/113161
Kind Code:
A4
Abstract:
A circuit assembly for forming and testing batteries connected in parallel and in series includes a parallel test management device (PTMD) that connects to each battery and includes a main relay and a current transducer in series and an auxiliary relay in series with a current limiting resistor, which are parallel to the main relay. Parallel battery groups are formed by connecting multiple PTMD-battery combinations and a voltage equalizer in parallel. Multiple parallel battery groups are connected in series. This smart battery tray replaces a bulky, complicated engagement system and reduces the requirement for BTS channels and cables substantially. An aging rack monitors battery voltage on the smart battery tray. The equalizers and BTS pass current through the batteries simultaneously. The current through batteries and the voltage drop across the current transducer are about zero at the end of charge and discharge.

Inventors:
ZHANG, Chaojiong (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2020/062548
Publication Date:
December 02, 2021
Filing Date:
November 30, 2020
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
ZHANG, Chaojiong (US)
International Classes:
G06F1/26; G01R31/36; H01M10/44; H02J1/10; H02J7/34
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
HODGSON, Stephen, S. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
AMENDED CLAIMS received by the International Bureau on 29 August 2021 (29.08.2021)

What is claimed is:

1. A circuit assembly for forming and testing batteries comprising: a battery testing system (BTS) having channels for testing multiple batteries simultaneously; a parallel test management device (PTMD) for each battery, wherein each PTMD connects to its respective battery serially to form a PTMD-battery combination, the PTMD comprising: a main relay or switch for connecting to a battery; a current transducer or shunt connected in series with the main relay; and an auxiliary relay connected in series with a current limiting resistor, wherein the auxiliary relay and the current limiting resistor are parallel to the main relay; and circuits for connecting PTMD-battery combinations in parallel to form parallel PTMD-battery groups and for connecting the parallel PTMD-battery groups to a BTS channel, wherein the BTS channel provides programmed current, voltage or power, -wherein current is distributed to each battery in a balanced manner, and wherein one BTS channel can test multiple batteries simultaneously.

2. The circuit assembly of claim 1 , further comprising means for maintaining voltage across each battery in the parallel PTMD-battery groups approximately equal within a desired precision range.

3. The circuit assembly of claim 1 , wherein the current transducer or shunt is capable of measuring equalization current and all other current through a battery for precise measurement of and calculation of current and charge/discharge capacity through the battery.

4. The circuit assembly of claim 1 , wherein the main relay or switch is capable of isolating a battery that has a problem such as a short, and wherein the main relay or switch is capable of connecting and disconnecting the current transducer for a current calibration process.

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5. The circuit assembly of claim 1 , further comprising means for maintaining voltage across each battery in the parallel PTMD-battery groups approximately equal within a desired precision range, wherein the current transducer or shunt is capable of measuring equalization current and all other current through a battery for precise measurement of and calculation of current and charge/discharge capacity through the battery, wherein the main relay or switch is capable of isolating a battery that has a problem such as a short, and wherein the main relay or switch is capable of connecting and disconnecting the current transducer for a current calibration process.

6. A parallel test management device (PTMD) for connecting to a battery terminal and useful for forming and testing batteries comprising: a main relay; a current transducer; an auxiliary relay; and a current limiting resistor, wherein the mam relay and the current transducer are connected in series, wherein the main relay has first and second terminals, wherein the first terminal of the main relay is for connecting to the battery terminal, wherein the second terminal of the main relay is connected to the current transducer, wherein the auxiliary relay and the current limiting resistor are in series with each other and in parallel with the main relay, wherein the auxiliary relay has first and second terminals, wherein the first terminal of the auxiliary is connected to the first terminal of the main relay, wherein the current limiting resistor has first and second terminals, wherein the second terminal of the auxiliary relay is connected to the first terminal of the current limiting resistor, and wherein the second terminal of the current limiting resistor is connected to the second terminal of the main relay.

7. The PTMD of claim 6, wherein the second terminal of the current limiting resistor is connected to a connector between the second terminal of the main relay and the current transducer.

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8. A method for equalizing voltage between a plurality of raw batteries connected in parallel for formation of the batteries, the method comprising the steps of: connecting a PTMD according to any one of claims 5 to 7 to each battery; connecting a regulator to the current transducer of each PTMD, wherein the regulator provides a current and voltage source for charging and discharging the batteries; and using the PTMDs to get batteries to reach a pre-balanced status, wherein the PTMDs limit current during a starting stage of pre-balancing the batteries.

9. A method for equalizing voltage between a plurality of batteries connected in parallel for formation and testing of the batteries, the method comprising the steps of: connecting a PTMD according to any one of claims 5 to 7 to each battery to form a PTMD-battery combination; connecting the PTMD-battery combinations in parallel to form a parallel PTMD- battery group; connecting a regulator to the PTMD-battery group, wherein the regulator provides a current and voltage source for charging and discharging the batteries; connecting a voltage equalizer to the parallel PTMD-battery groups; connecting an equalizer power supply to the voltage equalizer; and running current from the regulator and from the equalizer through the plurality of batteries simultaneously.

10. The method of claim 9, further comprising connecting in series two or more of the parallel PTMD-battery groups, thereby forming a parallel-serial battery group.

11. The method of claim 10, further comprising connecting a battery testing system channel or a charge/discharge current source to the parallel-serial battery group for forming, testing and charging all of the batteries simultaneously under the same voltage and under a balanced-current distribution.

12. A method for forming and testing a plurality of batteries connected in parallel and in series, the method comprising the steps of:

73 connecting a PTMD according to any one of claims 5 to 7 to each battery to form a PTMD-battery combination; connecting the PTMD-battery combinations in parallel to form a parallel battery group; connecting two or more parallel battery groups in series, thereby forming a parallel- serial battery group; connecting a voltage equalizer to each parallel battery group; connecting an equalizer power supply to the voltage equalizers; connecting a regulator to the parallel-serial battery group, wherein the regulator provides a current and voltage source for charging and discharging the batteries; and forming and/or testing the batteries by running current from the regulator and from the equalizer through the plurality of batteries simultaneously.

13. A parallel serial test management device or PSTMD for forming and testing a plurality of batteries connected in parallel and in series, the PSTMD comprising: a PTMD according to any one of claims 5 to 7 for connecting to a battery to form a PTMD-battery combination; a parallel battery group formed by connecting the PTMD-battery combinations in parallel; a series of parallel battery groups formed by connecting two or more parallel battery groups in series; a voltage equalizer connected to each parallel battery group; an equalizer power supply connected to the voltage equalizers; and a regulator connected to the parallel-serial battery group, wherein the PSTMD is capable of forming and/or testing batteries by running current from the regulator and from the equalizer through the plurality of batteries simultaneously.

14. A parallel serial test management device or PSTMD for forming and testing a plurality of batteries connected in parallel and serial, the PSTMD comprising: a PTMD according to any one of claims 5 to 7 connected to each battery to form a PTMD-battery combination;

74 a parallel PTMD-battery group formed by connecting the PTMD-battery combinations in parallel; and a voltage equalizer connected to the parallel PTMD-battery groups.

15. A serial test management device or STMD for use in forming and testing a plurality of batteries, the STMD comprising: a current transducer for connecting to a battery in series; a voltage equalizer connected in parallel to the current transducer, wherein the voltage equalizer is connected to the current transducer through a battery

16. A device for forming, testing and charging a plurality of batteries comprising: two or more of the STMDs of claim 15 connected in series, thereby forming a serial battery group; and a battery testing system channel (BTS channel) or a regulator that provides a charge/discharge current source for testing, formation and charging of all batteries in the combination simultaneously under the same voltage and balanced-current distribution, wherein the BTS channel or the regulator is connected across the serial battery group.

17. A circuit assembly for forming and testing a plurality of batteries, the circuit assembly comprising: a battery testing system (BTS) having channels for testing multiple batteries simultaneously; a parallel test management device (PTMD) for each battery, wherein each PTMD connects to its respective battery serially to form a PTMD-battery combination, the PTMD comprising: a main relay or switch for connecting to a battery, wherein the main relay or switch is capable of isolating a battery that has a problem; a current transducer or shunt connected in series with the main relay, and wherein the current transducer or shunt is capable of measuring equalization current and all other current through a battery for precise measurement of and calculation of current and charge/discharge capacity through the battery; and an auxiliary relay connected in series with a current limiting resistor, wherein the auxiliary relay and the current limiting resistor are parallel to the main relay; circuits for connecting PTMD-battery combinations in parallel to form a parallel PTMD-battery group and for connecting the parallel PTMD-battery groups to a BTS channel, wherein the BTS channel provides programmed current, voltage or power, and wherein current is distributed to all batteries in a balanced manner; wherein a BTS channel is connected to the parallel PTMD-battery group, wherein the BTS channel provides a current and voltage source for charging and discharging the batteries.

18. The circuit assembly of claim 17, further comprising circuits for connecting two or more parallel PTMD-battery groups in series, thereby forming a parallel-serial battery group; and a voltage equalizer connected to each parallel PTMD-battery group.

19. The circuit assembly of claim 18, further comprising a regulator connected to the parallel-serial battery group.

20. A method for forming and testing a plurality of batteries connected in parallel and in series, the method comprising the steps of: assembling components and circuits according to claim 17, 18 or 19; connecting a PTMD to each battery to form a PTMD-battery combination; connecting the PTMD-battery combinations in parallel to form a parallel PTMD- battery group; connecting two or more parallel PTMD-battery groups in series to form a parallel- serial battery group; connecting a voltage equalizer to each parallel PTMD-battery group; connecting the equalizer power supply to the voltage equalizers; connecting a BTS channel to the parallel-serial battery group, wherein the BTS channel provides a current and voltage source for charging and discharging the batteries; and forming and/or testing the batteries by running current from the BTS and from the equalizer through the plurality of batteries simultaneously.

21. The method of claim 20, wherein the batteries are formed and tested using a current- control process, and wherein equalizer voltages are adjusted to a target in which the accumulated equalizer current reaches a value close to zero.

22. The method of claim 20, wherein the batteries are formed and tested using a constant- voltage-control process, and wherein the equalizer voltages are set to a desired value, and wherein the current in the BTS channel is adjusted to a target value in which the accumulated equalizer current reaches a value close to zero.

23. The method of claim 20, wherein the voltage equalizer has a control precision better than 0.1% of its full voltage range.

24. The method of claim 23, further comprising coordinating the BTS with the voltage equalizer during the formation and testing of the batteries over the full range of voltage under which the batteries are formed and tested.

25. The method of claim 20, wherein the voltage equalizer can realize constant current (CC), constant voltage (CV) and CC-CV functions without affecting smoothness during a CC-to-CV transition.

26. The method of claim 20, wherein the current required for the voltage equalizer is approximately less than one-tenth (1/lOth) of the current required for testing a battery or a parallel battery group.

27. The method of claim 20, further comprising electrically isolating the voltage equalizers from the equalizer power supply by a DC-to-DC converter.

28. A serial-parallel testing module (SPTM) for forming and testing a plurality of batteries, the SPTM comprising: a circuit board or an alternative means for receiving and connecting to the plurality of batteries and for receiving electrical components and for providing circuits among the electrical components and between the electrical components and the batteries;

77 a parallel test management device (PTMD) for each battery, wherein each PTMD connects to its respective battery serially to form a PTMD-battery combination, the PTMD comprising: a main relay or switch for connecting to a battery, wherein the main relay or switch is capable of isolating a battery that has a problem; a current transducer or shunt connected in series with the main relay, and wherein the current transducer or shunt is capable of measuring equalization current and all other current through a battery for precise measurement of and calculation of current and charge/discharge capacity through the battery; and an auxiliary relay connected in series with a current limiting resistor, wherein the auxiliary relay and the current limiting resistor are parallel to the main relay; circuits for connecting PTMD-battery combinations in parallel to form a parallel PTMD-battery group and for connecting the parallel PTMD-battery group to a BTS channel or to a regulated power source, wherein the BTS channel or the regulated power source provides programmed current, voltage or power, and wherein current is distributed to each battery in a balanced manner; a voltage equalizer connected to the parallel PTMD-battery group; and an equalizer power supply connected to the voltage equalizer, a power supply port for receiving an electrical current from an outside source, wherein the BTS or the regulator and the voltage equalizer power supply are connected to the power supply port, wherein a BTS channel or the regulator is connected to each PTMD, wherein the BTS or the regulator provides a current and voltage source for charging and discharging the batteries, and wherein the batteries are fonned and tested by running current from the BTS or the regulator and from the equalizer through the plurality of batteries simultaneously.

29. The SPTM of claim 28, further comprising a communication port connected to the circuit board or to the alternative means.

30. The SPTM of claim 28, further comprising connectors for connecting to the batteries.

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31. The SPTM of claim 28, further comprising circuits for connecting the parallel PTMD- battery groups in series, wherein a voltage equalizer is connected to each parallel PTMD- battery group.

32. The SPTM of claim 31 , further comprising connectors for connecting to the batteries, wherein a circuit board is used for receiving and connecting to the plurality of batteries and for receiving electrical components and for providing circuits among the electrical components and between the electrical components and the batteries, wherein the circuit board is rectangular and has a length and a width, wherein the circuit board has opposing first and second ends along the length, wherein the power supply port and temperature-sensitive electrical components are located at and near the first end of the circuit board, and wherein the connectors for connecting to the batteries are located at and near the second end of the circuit board; further comprising a thermal isolator between the temperature-sensitive electrical components and the connectors for connecting to the batteries.

33. A method for forming, testing and charging batteries comprising: connecting two or more SPTMs of claim 28 in series; connecting the SPTMs to a BTS channel; and passing an electrical current from the BTS through the batteries while simultaneously passing an electrical current through the batteries from the equalizers.

34. An integrated serial-parallel testing module (ISPTM) for forming and testing a plurality of batteries, the ISPTM comprising: a circuit board for receiving and connecting to the plurality of batteries and for receiving electrical components and for providing circuits among the electrical components and between the electrical components and the batteries; connectors for connecting to the batteries, wherein the connectors are connected to the circuit board;

79 a battery testing system (BTS) having a channel for testing multiple batteries simultaneously or a regulator for providing a current and voltage charge and discharge source; a parallel test management device (PTMD) for each battery, wherein each PTMD connects to its respective battery serially to form a PTMD-battery combination, the PTMD comprising: a main relay or switch for connecting to a battery, wherein the main relay or switch is capable of isolating a battery that has a problem; a current transducer or shunt connected in series with the main relay, and wherein the current transducer or shunt is capable of measuring equalization current and all other current through a battery for precise measurement of and calculation of current and charge/discharge capacity through the battery; and an auxiliary relay connected in series with a current limiting resistor, wherein the auxiliary relay and the current limiting resistor are parallel to the main relay; circuits for connecting PTMD-battery combinations in parallel to form parallel PTMD-battery groups; a voltage equalizer connected to the parallel PTMD-battery groups; circuits for connecting the parallel PTMD-battery groups in series, thereby forming a parallel-serial battery group, wherein a voltage equalizer is connected to each parallel PTMD- battery group; an equalizer power supply connected to the voltage equalizer; and a power supply port for receiving an electrical current from an outside source, wherein the BTS and the voltage equalizer are connected to the power supply port, wherein a BTS channel is connected to the parallel-serial battery group, wherein the BTS provides a current and voltage source for charging and discharging the batteries, and wherein the batteries are formed and tested by running current from the BTS and from the equalizer through the plurality of batteries simultaneously.

35. The ISPTM of claim 34, wherein the circuit board is rectangular and has a length and a width, wherein the circuit board has opposing first and second ends along the length, wherein the power supply port and temperature-sensitive electrical components are located at and near the first end of the circuit board, and

80 wherein the connectors for connecting to the batteries are located at and near the second end of the circuit board; further comprising a thermal isolator between the temperature-sensitive electrical components and the connectors for connecting to the batteries.

36. The 1SPTM of claim 34, further comprising a battery tray operatively connected to the circuit board for receiving and holding batteries.

37. A temperature chamber comprising a box having a front side, wherein the front side has a plurality of slots or openings for receiving, wherein each slot or opening can accommodate an SPTM according to claim 28.

38. The temperature chamber of claim 37, further comprising one or more blank plates for covering and sealing any slots or openings not filled by an SPTM.

39. A temperature chamber, comprising a box having a front side, wherein the front side has a plurality of slots or openings for receiving, wherein each slot or opening can accommodate an ISPTM according to claim 33.

40. A serial-parallel testing module (SPTM) for use with an energy storage device such as a super-capacitor or a battery pack, the SPTM comprising: a circuit board for receiving and connecting to the energy storage device and for receiving electrical components and for providing circuits among the electrical components and between the electrical components and the energy storage device; a parallel test management device (PTMD) connected to the energy storage device serially, thereby forming a PTMD-device combination, the PTMD comprising: a main relay or switch for connecting to the energy storage device; a current transducer or shunt connected in series with the main relay, and wherein the current transducer or shunt is capable of measuring equalization current and all other current through the energy storage device; and an auxiliary relay connected in series with a current limiting resistor, wherein the auxiliary relay and the current limiting resistor are parallel to the main relay;

81 circuits for connecting two or more PTMD-device combinations in parallel to form a parallel device group; a voltage equalizer connected to the parallel device group; and a power supply port for receiving external input and for providing a control power supply, an equalizer power supply for the voltage equalizer and a charge/discharge current source, wherein the power supply port is integrated with the circuit board, and wherein one or more energy storage devices are formed and tested by running current from the charge/discharge current source and from the equalizer through the one or more energy storage devices simultaneously, preferably wherein two or more parallel device groups are connected in series.

41 . A method for forming and testing a plurality of batteries connected in parallel and in series, the method comprising the steps of: connecting a PTMD according to any one of claims 5 to 7 to each battery to form a PTMD-battery combination; connecting the PTMD-battery combinations in parallel to form a parallel battery group; connecting two or more parallel battery group in series o form a parallel-serial battery group; connecting a voltage equalizer to each parallel battery group; connecting an equalizer power supply to the voltage equalizers; connecting a battery testing system (BTS) or a regulator to the parallel-serial battery group, wherein the BTS or the regulator provides a current and voltage source for charging and discharging the batteries; and forming and/or testing the batteries by running current from the regulator and from the equalizer through the plurality of batteries simultaneously.

42. The method of claim 41 , further comprising measuring battery capacity and coulombic efficiency using both CCCV charge and CCCV discharge, wherein CC stands for constant current and CV stands for constant voltage.

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43. The method of claim 42, wherein current through batteries is approximately zero at the end of charge and discharge, and wherein the voltage drop across a circuit resistance, such as a relay and a shunt, is approximately zero at the end of both charge and discharge.

44. The method of claim 43, wherein the voltage is approximately the same for all of the batteries at the end of CCC V, wherein the state of charge (SOC) is approximately the same at the end of CCCV, and wherein the SOC is expressed as a percentage of the maximum capacity of a battery.

45. An inductor module compris ing : a box; a distributed inductor received in the box; a printed circuit board received in the box and operatively connected to the distributed inductor; and an external connector engaged with the box and operatively connected to the distributed inductor through the printed circuit board, wherein the external connector is configured for high-current flow, and wherein the distributed inductor comprises at least two inductors connected together in series.

46. The inductor module of claim 45, further comprising a fan engaged with the box for passing air through the box.

47. The inductor module of claim 46, wherein more than one distributed inductor is received in the box, and wherein the distributed inductors are connected together in series.

48. The inductor module of claim 46, wherein more than one distributed inductor is received in the box, wherein the distributed inductors operate independently, and wherein each distributed inductor is operatively connected through the printed circuit board to a separate and independent external connector.

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49. The inductor module of claim 45, wherein at least two distributed inductors are received in the box, and wherein each distributed inductor comprises at least two inductors connected together in series, further comprising a fan engaged with the box for passing air through the box.

50. A power supply system comprising: a contactor for receiving electricity from a grid; a transformer connected to the contactor; a first inductor module according to any one of claims 45 to 49 connected to the transformer; and a first inverter module connected to the first inductor module.

51. The power supply system of claim 50, further comprising a cabinet and a printed circuit board (PCB), wherein the contactor, the transformer, the first inductor module and the first inverter module are received in the cabinet, wherein the PCB is received in the cabinet and in a vertical orientation, and wherein the first inverter module is connected to the PCB.

52. The power supply system of claim 51, further comprising connectors operatively engaged with the PCB, wherein the PCB has two opposing sides and is designed and sized to conduct over 300 amperes of current between connectors, wherein the connectors are located on each of the opposing sides of the PCB, and wherein the first inverter module is engaged with one of the connectors.

53. The power supply system of claim 52, further comprising: a second inductor module according to any one of claims 45 to 49 connected to the transformer; and a first DCDC module connected to the second inductor module, wherein the second inductor module and the first DCDC module are located on a side of the PCB that is opposite to the side of the PCB in which the first inductor module is located, and wherein the first DCDC module is plugged into one of the connectors engaged with the PCB.

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54. The power supply system of claim 53, wherein the first inductor module is located such that a person can plug the first inverter module into the first inductor module and into one of the connectors on the PCB simultaneously.

55. The power supply system of claim 54, wherein the DCDC module, the first and second inductor modules, the first inverter module, the connectors and the PCB are sized and designed to charge and discharge a plurality of batteries.

56. The power supply system of claim 55, wherein electricity can be passed to the grid during the discharge of the plurality of batteries.

57. The power supply system of claim 56, wherein the cabinet has two columns, further comprising additional inductor, inverter and DCDC modules and fans, wherein the fans draw air in approximately parallel to the PCB and exhaust the air approximately perpendicular to the PCB.

58. A high-current, double-polarity, edge-connector socket comprising: first and second outer isolators; first and second sheets of electrically-conductive material bent and cut to have a base portion and a plurality of spring fingers that extend from the base portion, wherein the base portions of the first and second sheets are between the first and second isolators; an inner isolator between the base portions of the first and second sheets, wherein each of the first and second outer isolators, the first and second sheets and the inner isolator have a hole; and a rivet, a screw or a bolt passed through the hole in the first and second outer isolators, the first and second sheets and the inner isolator for holding first and second outer isolators, the first and second sheets and the inner isolator together, wherein the first and second outer isolators, the inner isolator and the rivet, screw or bolt are selected and designed to prevent a normal operating electric current from flowing between the base portions of the first and second sheets of electrically-conductive material,

85 wherein the first and second sheets are oriented so that the plurality of spring fingers on the first sheet extend toward and are in contact with the plurality of spring fingers on the second sheet, and wherein the normal operating electric current can flow between the plurality of spring fingers on the first sheet and the plurality of spring fingers on the second sheet, but not between the base portion of the first sheet and the base portion of the second sheet of electrically-conductive material.

59. The edge-connector socket of claim 58, wherein the first and second sheets of electrically-conductive material are selected and designed to allow more than 100 amperes of electric current to flow between the plurality of spring fingers on the first sheet and the plurality of spring fingers on the second sheet.

60. An electrical assembly comprising: a first printed circuit board (PCB1 ); two or more edge-connector sockets according to claim 58; and a trace on or in the PCB 1 that provides electrical conductivity between the two or more edge-connector sockets.

61 . The electrical assembly of claim 60, wherein the PCB1 , the trace and the first and second sheets of electrically-conductive material are selected and designed to allow more than 100 amperes of electric current to flow between the plurality of spring fingers on the first sheet and the plurality of spring fingers on the second sheet.

62. The electrical assembly of claim 61, wherein the PCB1 has first and second opposing sides, wherein each of the first and second sides has two or more edge-connector sockets according to claim 14, traces on or in each of the first and second sides and vias between the first and second sides that connect the traces together for providing electrical conductivity between all of the edge-connector sockets on the first and second sides.

63. A battery formation and testing system comprising: a chassis;

86 an electrical assembly according to claim 62 received in the chassis; and a power supply system operatively connected to the PCB 1 that can charge and discharge a plurality of batteries.

64. The battery formation and testing system of claim 63, wherein the power supply system comprises: a contactor for receiving electricity from a grid; a transformer connected to the contactor; an inductor module according to claim 1 connected to the transformer; an inverter module connected to the inductor module; and a DCDC module connected to the inverter module.

65. The battery formation and testing system of claim 64, further comprising: a serial-parallel testing module (SPTM), wherein the SPTM comprises a second printed circuit board (PCB2), an edge connector on the PCB2, electronic devices and components on the PCB2 that provide control and measurement functions; and a plurality of battery connectors operatively engaged with the PCB2, wherein the SPTM is designed to accommodate a plurality of batteries that are connected together in series and in parallel for forming and testing the batteries, wherein the edge connector on the PCB2 is plugged into one of the edge-connector sockets, wherein the power supply system provides direct current having a positive polarity to the PCB2 and receives direct current having a negative polarity from the PCB2, wherein the SPTM provides control and safety monitoring for the plurality of batteries as the batteries are formed and tested.

66. A battery tray for holding a plurality of batteries during formation and testing of the batteries comprising: a printed circuit board (PCB) having opposing upper and lower sides and an edge; a plurality of battery holders on the upper side of the PCB;

87 electronic devices or components operatively engaged with the plurality of battery holders through traces on or in the PCB for determining measurements of parameters of the plurality of batteries during formation and testing; and an edge connector on the edge of the PCB, wherein the edge connector is operatively engaged with the plurality of battery holders and with the electronic devices or components through traces on or in the PCB, wherein each battery holder comprises two or more upright spring fingers designed and sized to engage and hold a battery and a positive terminal designed and sized for contact with one end of a battery, and wherein the spring fingers function as a negative terminal for forming and testing a battery held in the battery holder.

67. The battery tray of claim 66, wherein the edge connector has first and second opposing sides, wherein each positive terminal is operatively connected to the first side, and wherein each negative terminal is operatively connected to the second side.

68. The battery tray of claim 67, wherein each battery holder further comprises a ring- shaped magnet attached to the PCB between the spring fingers, wherein the spring fingers hold a battery in an upright position relative to the upper side of the PCB, wherein the ring- shaped magnet has a central opening, and wherein the positive terminal is located on the upper side of the PCB within the central opening.

69. The battery tray of claim 68, wherein each battery holder further comprises a cylindrical tube attached to the PCB surrounding the spring fingers and extending upright from the upper side of the PCB for guiding and supporting a battery.

70. A battery formation rack comprising: a cabinet having front, back, left and right sides and a plurality of pairs of guide rails, wherein one of each pair of guide rails is received in the cabinet of the left side and the other is received in the cabinet on the right side; a double-sided printed circuit board (PCB) received in the cabinet in a vertical orientation and dividing the cabinet into a front portion and a back portion;

88 a plurality of double-polarity, high-current edge-connector sockets on the PCB designed, sized and located to receive an edge connector on a battery tray received in a pair of guide rails in the front portion of the cabinet; and a control, measurement and equalizer (CME) module in the back portion of the cabinet for each pair of guide rails, wherein the PCB has an opening or a connector so that the battery tray can also connect to its respective CME module.

71. The battery formation rack of claim 70, wherein an edge connector on a battery tray received in one of the pairs of guide rails can be plugged into one of the edge-connector sockets while simultaneously connecting to one of the CME modules.

72. A battery aging rack comprising: the battery formation rack of claim 70; and a plurality of a measurement modules, wherein each measurement module is located in the cabinet near the back and adjacent to each pair of guide rails for receiving and connecting to a battery tray for monitoring batteries in the battery tray for a period of time after the batteries have been formed and tested, and wherein the battery aging rack does not have: a double-sided printed circuit board, double-polarity, high-current edge-connector sockets, or a control, measurement and equalizer (CME) module.

73. The battery aging rack of claim 72, wherein each measurement module is capable of periodically measuring the voltage of each battery connected to the measurement module.

74. A battery formation and testing system, comprising: a battery formation rack comprising: a cabinet having front, back, left and right sides and a plurality of pairs of guide rails, wherein one of each pair of guide rails is received in the cabinet of the left side and the other is received in the cabinet on the right side; a double-sided printed circuit board (PCB) received in the cabinet in a vertical orientation and dividing the cabinet into a front portion and a back portion;

89 a plurality of double-polarity, high-current edge-connector sockets on the PCB designed, sized and located to receive an edge connector on a battery tray received in a pair of guide rails in the front portion of the cabinet; and a control, measurement and equalizer (CME) module in the back portion of the cabinet for each pair of guide rails, wherein the PCB has an opening or a connector so that the battery tray can also connect to its respective CME module; and a power supply connected to the battery formation rack, wherein the power supply has a plurality of channels, and wherein each channel is designed and sized to provide an output of over 20 volts, of over 25 amps and of over 500 watts; and

75. The battery formation and testing system of claim 74, further comprising a battery tray received in one of the pairs of guide rails, wherein the battery tray comprises: a printed circuit board (PCB) having opposing upper and lower sides and an edge; a plurality of battery holders on the upper side of the PCB; electronic devices or components operatively engaged with the plurality of battery holders through traces on or in the PCB for determining measurements of parameters of the plurality of batteries during formation and testing; and an edge connector on the edge of the PCB, wherein the edge connector is operatively engaged with the plurality of battery holders and with the electronic devices or components through traces on or in the PCB, wherein the edge connector is plugged into the respective edge-connector socket for the shelf, wherein each battery holder comprises two or more upright spring fingers designed and sized to engage and hold a battery and a positive terminal designed and sized for contact with one end of a battery, and wherein the spring fingers function as a negative terminal for forming and testing a battery held in the battery holder.

76. The battery formation and testing system of claim 75, wherein only four wires are connected between the power supply channel and the battery fonnation rack in which the battery tray is received, and wherein the battery formation and testing system is capable of forming and testing a plurality of batteries received in the battery tray.

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77. The battery formation and testing system of claim 74, wherein the power supply comprises: a contactor for receiving electricity from a grid; a transformer connected to the contactor; a first inductor module connected to the transformer, wherein the first inductor module comprises a rectangular box holding at least two distributed inductors, wherein each distributed inductor comprises at least three individual inductors connected together in series and operatively connected to a printed circuit board and a high-current socket operatively connected to the printed circuit board; and a first inverter module connected to the first inductor module.

78. The battery formation and testing system of claim 77, further comprising a cabinet and a vertical printed circuit board (vPCB) having opposing sides received in the cabinet and vPCB sockets operatively engaged with the vPCB on each of the opposing sides of the vPCB, wherein the contactor, the transformer, the first inductor module and the first inverter module are received in the cabinet, and wherein the first inverter module is connected to the vPCB.

79. The battery formation and testing system of claim 78, further comprising: a second inductor module comprising distributed and individual inductors; and a first DCDC module connected to the second inductor module, wherein the second inductor module and the first DCDC module are located on a side of the vPCB that is opposite to the side of the vPCB in which the first inductor module is located, and wherein the first DCDC module is plugged into one of the vPCB sockets.

80. The battery formation and testing system of claim 79, wherein the first inductor module is located such that a person can plug the first inverter module into the first inductor module and into one of the vPCB sockets simultaneously.

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81. The batery formation and testing system of claim 79, wherein the DCDC module, the first and second inductor modules, the first inverter module, the vPCB and the vPCB sockets are sized and designed to charge and discharge a plurality of bateries, and wherein electricity can be passed to the grid during the discharge of the plurality of bateries.

82. The batery formation and testing system of claim 79, further comprising at least one batery aging rack for each battery formation rack, the battery aging rack comprising: a cabinet having front, back, left and right sides and a plurality of pairs of guide rails, wherein one of each pair of guide rails is received in the cabinet of the left side and the other is received in the cabinet on the right side; and a plurality of a measurement modules, wherein each measurement module is located in the cabinet near the back and adjacent to each pair of guide rails for receiving and connecting to a battery tray for monitoring bateries in the batery tray for a period of time after the batteries have been formed and tested, wherein each measurement module is capable of periodically measuring the voltage of each battery connected to the measurement module.

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