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Title:
SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR STORING ENERGY
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/041035
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Disclosed is a method and system that compresses ionized gas is stored in at least one containment cell. The compressed ionized gas is transferred from the at least on containment cell to an expansion chamber in which a piston is situated; The piston moves based in part on a reaction between ionized gas in the expansion chamber and an electrical charge of a surface of a head of the piston. The movement of the piston drives a drive shaft. Movement of the drive shaft is converted to electrical energy.

Inventors:
BAZAZ GAURAV (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2016/050262
Publication Date:
March 09, 2017
Filing Date:
September 02, 2016
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
SPAR ENERGY LLC (US)
BAZAZ GAURAV (US)
International Classes:
H02K7/18; B01J19/12; G21D7/00; G21H1/00; H02K44/08
Foreign References:
US20150108765A12015-04-23
US20150020519A12015-01-22
US20110142185A12011-06-16
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
PERDOK, Monique M. et al. (& Woessner P.A.,P.O. Box 293, Minneapolis Minnesota, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS OF THE INVENTION What is claimed is:

1 . A method comprising:

storing compressed ionized gas in at least one containment cell;

transferring at least a portion of the compressed ionized gas from the at least on containment ceil to an expansion chamber in which a piston is situated; and moving the piston based in part on a reaction between ionized gas in the expansion

chamber and an electrical charge of a surface of a head of the piston.

2. The method as in claim 1 , wherein moving the piston based in part on a reaction between ionized gas in the expansion chamber and an electrical charge of a surface of a head of the piston comprises:

causing movement of a drive shaft in response to the moving of the piston; and capturing electrical energy produced as a result of the movement of the drive shaft operativeiy connected to a generator.

3. The method as in claim 1 , wherein storing compressed ionized gas in at least one containment cell comprises:

injecting a first amount of compressed ionized gas into an inner cavity of a first containment cell; and

injecting a second amount of compressed ionized gas into an inner cavity of a second containment cell, the first and second containment cells each comprising a corkscrew shaped tube.

4. The method as in claim 1 , wherein storing compressed ionized gas in at least one containment cell comprises:

injecting an amount of a first compressed ionized gas into an inner cavity of a first containment ceil, the first compressed ionized gas comprising a positive charge polarity; and

injecting an amount of a second compressed ionized gas into an inner cavity of a second containment ceil, the second compressed ionized gas comprising a negative charge polarity, the first and second containment cells each comprising a corkscrew shaped tube.

5. The method as in claim 1 , wherein the at least one containment ceil comprises: a construction material with a dielectric strength equal to or greater than a threshold dielectric strength of 0.1 MV/m (0.1 x 106 Volt/meter).

8. The method as in claim 1 , wherein the at least one containment ceil comprises: a vacuum level meeting or exceeding a threshold vacuum level substantially at 10~2 Pascals.

7. The method as in claim 1 , further comprising:

upon moving the piston, transferring the ionized gas from the expansion chamber

to a deionization chamber; and

converting the ionized gas, via precipitation, to a solid salt via a reaction between the ionized gas and a reactant in the deionization chamber,

8. A system comprising:

at least one containment ceil for storing compressed ionized gas in at least one containment cell;

an expansion chamber to receive at least a portion of the compressed ionized gas from the at least on containment cell; and

a piston, situated within the expansion chamber, for movement based in part on a

reaction between ionized gas in the expansion chamber and an electrical charge of a surface of a head of the piston.

9. The system as in claim 8, further comprising:

a drive shaft that moves in response to the movement of the piston; and a generator, operatively connected to the drive shaft, to produce electrical energy from movement of the drive shaft.

10. The system as in claim 8, wherein the at least one containment ceil comprises: an inner cavity of a first containment cell into which a first amount of compressed ionized gas is injected; and

an inner cavity of a second containment cell into which a second amount of the compressed ionized gas is injected;, the first and second containment ceils each comprising a corkscrew shaped tube.

1 1 . The system as in claim 8, wherein the at least one containment ceil comprises: an inner cavity of a first containment cell into which an amount of a first compressed ionized gas is injected, the first compressed ionized gas comprising a positive charge polarity; and

an inner cavity of a second containment cell into which an amount of a second compressed ionized gas is injected, the second compressed ionized gas comprising a negative charge polarity, the first and second containment cells each comprising a corkscrew shaped tube.

12. The system as in claim 8, wherein the at least one containment ceil comprises: a construction material with a dielectric strength equal to or greater than a threshold dielectric strength of 0.1 MV/m (0.1 x 106 Volt/meter).

13. The system as in claim 8, wherein the at least one containment ceil comprises: a vacuum level meeting or exceeding a threshold vacuum level substantially at 10~2 Pascals.

14. The system as in claim 8, further comprising:

a deionization chamber for receiving the ionized gas from the expansion chamber,

the deionization chamber comprising a reactant that converts the ionized gas, via precipitation, to a solid salt via a reaction between the ionized gas and the reactant.

Description:
SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR STORING ENERGY

CLAIM OF PRIORITY

[0001 ] This international application claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 14/845,241 , filed on September 3, 2015, the entire contents of which is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0002] The one or more embodiments disclosed herein generally relate to a system and method for storing energy, and more particularly relates to a system and method for storing energy using compressed electrically charged gas.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0003] Conventional models for energy storage suffer from poor energy densities and high cost of operation. Most common energy storage devices such as batteries use various types of designs but all eventually rely on separation of charges thereby creating an electric field or electromotive force between the positively and negatively charged regions wherein the energy is stored.

[0004] Additional conventional methods store energy in chemical bonds of substances while some others use mechanical set ups to store energy. Examples of Chemical Energy storage include Hydrogen Fuel as well as Fossil Fuels such as Gasoline. Mechanical energy storage is seen in Flywheels, Compressed Air Storage as well as Pumped Hydro. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0005] All convention systems suffer from various problems. High energy density options, such as fossil fuels, are environmentally destructive and can't feasibly be manufactured synthetically in an economical way. On the other hand, conventional systems that can be produced synthetically and manufactured economically generally have very low energy densities (Joules/kg or Jou!es/m 3 ) making them unviable for various commercial requirements. Besides, the cost in terms of Dollars per Kilo-watt- hour ($/kwhr) is usually too high to be practical.

[0006] Therefore, there is a need for a new method for storing energy with large energy densities, comparable to and possibly much higher than fossil fuels, while also being environmentally friendly, easy to manufacture, efficient, versatile, scalable and highly economical.

[0007] In accordance with the teachings of the one or more embodiments disclosed herein, a method and system for storing energy in a compressed charged gas is provided. In accordance with one or more embodiments, compressed ionized gas is stored in at least one containment ceil. The compressed ionized gas is transferred from the at least on containment cell to an expansion chamber in which a piston is situated; The piston moves based in part on a reaction between ionized gas in the expansion chamber and an electrical charge of a surface of a head of the piston. The movement of the piston drives a drive shaft. Movement of the drive shaft is converted to electrical energy. In addition, the ionized gas in the expansion chamber is transferred from the expansion chamber to a deionization chamber. The ionized gas received at the deionization chamber is converted, by precipitation, to a solid salt via a reaction between the ionized gas and a reactant in the deionization chamber.

[0008] An object of the methods and systems disclosed herein is to provide for energy storage with an electrically charged gas. An example embodiment is directed to a method that initiates with the step of compressing the electrically charged gas in a compression chamber using external force. The step is then followed by the step of storing the compressed charged gas received from the compression chamber in a containment chamber. [0009] The method further includes the steps of transferring a portion of the compressed charged gas into an energy recovery unit at a desired (i.e. pre-defined) high pressure and expanding the compressed electrically charged gas inside the energy recovery unit to recover stored energy. [0010] Another object of the one or more embodiments disclosed herein is to provide a method that includes the steps of creating homogenousiy electrically charged gas; and transmitting the homogenousiy electrically charged gas into the compression chamber. Another object of the one or more embodiments disclosed herein is to provide a system and method that allows compression of the homogenousiy electrically charged gas in the containment chamber itself.

[001 1 ] Another object of the one or more embodiments disclosed herein is to provide alternatives to the electrical battery and providing a more convenient and eco- friendiy solution to store energy. Another object of the one or more embodiments disclosed herein is to use xenon gas for storing energy. [001 1 .5] It is understood that the charged gas, as described here, can be referred to as Non-neutral Plasma in academic literature. Additionally, the charged gas described herein can be at a desired (i.e. pre-defined) relatively low temperature compared to usual fusion and industrial plasmas and is therefore a cold plasma, or room-temperature plasma.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

[0012] FIG. 1 illustrates a flowchart of a method for storing energy according to an example embodiment;

[0013] FIG. 2 illustrates another flowchart for a method for storing energy according to an example embodiment;

[0014] FIG. 3 illustrates a schematic view showing the compression chamber and the containment chamber according to an example embodiment; [0015] FIG. 4 illustrates a schematic view showing the transfer of the compressed charged gas from containment chamber to energy recovery unit according to an example embodiment;

[0016] FIG, 5 illustrates a schematic view showing the energy recovery unit according to an example embodiment;

[0017] F!G. 6 illustrates a schematic view showing the exhaust process of the charged gas from the energy recovery unit according to an example embodiment;

[0018] FIG. 7 illustrates a schematic view showing the step of creating and transmitting of the homogenously charged gas into the containment chamber according to an example embodiment;

[0019] FIG. 8 illustrates another schematic view showing the compressing of homogenously electrically charged gas in the containment chamber using external force according to an example embodiment;

[0019.3] FIG. 9 illustrates a schematic diagram of a containment system with separate containment cells according to an example embodiment;

[0019.6] FIG. 10A illustrates a schematic diagram of a containment cell according to an example embodiment and FIG. 10B illustrates a diagram of a containment cell according to an example embodiment;

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0020] The description that follows includes systems, methods,

techniques, and instruction sequences that embody illustrative embodiments of the disclosure. In the following description, for the purposes of explanation, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide an understanding of various embodiments of the inventive subject matter. It will be evident, however, to those skilled in the art, that embodiments of the inventive subject matter may be practiced without these specific details. In general, well-known instruction instances, protocols, structures, and techniques are not necessarily shown in detail. Ό021 ] Reference will now be made in detail to several example embodiments of the invention which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. Wherever feasible and convenient, the same reference numerals are used in the figures and the description to refer to the same or like parts. The drawings are in a simplified form and not to precise scale. For purposes of convenience and clarity only, directional terms, such as top, bottom, left, right, up, down, over, above, below, beneath, rear, and front may be used with respect to the accompanying drawings. In addition, words such as attached, affixed, coupled, connected and similar terms with their inflectional morphemes are used interchangeably, unless the difference is noted or made otherwise clear from the context. These words and expressions do not necessarily signify direct connections, but include connections through mediate components and devices.

[0022] FIG. 1 illustrates a flowchart of a method 100 for storing energy in accordance with a one or more embodiments disclosed herein. The method 100 initiates with a step 102 of compressing the electrically charged gas in a compression chamber using external force, such as at least a threshold amount of external force.

[0023] In one or more embodiments disclosed herein, the gas is composed of homogenousiy electrically charged particles. This means, substantially all gas particles have an electric charge and the electric charge is of the same polarity. Preferably, the electrically charged gas is Xenon. However, other types of electrically charged gases that can be used include, but are not limited to, the following possible elemental substances in their gaseous form: a Hydrogen

b Lithium

C. Sodium

d Potassium

e Rubidium

f. Caesium

g Francium

h Fluorine

Chlorine

J- Bromine

k. Iodine

Astatine m. Helium

n. Neon

o. Argon

p. Krypton

q. Xenon

r. Radon

Generally, any substance which can be ionized economically and maintained in an ionized form stably, can be utilized by an example embodiment. The step 102 of compression of electrically charged gas is explained in detail in conjunction with FIG. 3. In some embodiments the temperature of the charged gas is within a threshold range of 10-50 degree Celsius. In other embodiments, the threshold temperature range has a maximum of 2900 degree Celsius.

[0024] In accordance with one or more embodiments, the compression results in storage of energy in the gas. The compression is achieved by drawing energy from an external source, such as the electric grid, and using it to compress the electrically charged gas. As the gas is compressed, energy is stored in the increased pressure inside the gas. So the energy drawn by the compression system from the external source, is now stored as pressure energy inside the compressed charged gas. As would be apparent to one skilled in the art, electrically charged particles with the same charge polarity repel each other, therefore when they are forced close to each other, i.e. compressed, a significant amount of pressure energy is stored in their mutual repulsion. Relative to conventional neutral gas compression methods, the same number of particles will store dramatically larger amounts of energy when they are electrically charged with the same polarity, compared to when they are electrically neutral. Compressed electrically charged gas will store energy in the mechanical pressure and the electromagnetic pressure of the gas while conventional neutral gas compression stores energy only in the mechanical pressure of the gas.

[0025] The step 102 is then followed by a step 104 of injecting the compressed charged gas received from the compression chamber in a containment chamber. The compression results in storage of energy in the gas and thus the energy is stored in the containment chamber once the compressed charged gas is transferred into it. Unlike, conventional compressed air energy storage systems, which utilize electrically neutral gases as working fluids, the one or more embodiments disclosed herein utilize an electrically charged gas as the working fluid.

[0026] The transfer of compressed charged gas to the containment chamber, results in transfer of stored energy into the containment chamber, in the form of mechanical and electromagnetic pressure energy in the compressed charged gas. The process of storing the compressed charged gas in the containment chamber is explained in detail in conjunction with FIG. 3.

[0026.5] It is understood that the material used to construct the containment chamber(s) is of critical importance. Since the compressed charged gas is electrically non-neutral, it generates a significant electric field. The electric field will cause many types of materials to breakdown resulting in leakage of the compressed charged gas. Therefore, a containment material that has a threshold dielectric strength high enough to sustain the expected electric fields is included in one or more embodiments. Additionally, the containment material has a tensile strength high enough to sustain the physical pressure exerted by the contained compressed charged gas. Ideally, the containment material is economically accessible and meets or exceeds a threshold degree of malleability such that is easy to shape into required geometries. Various types of containment materials can be thus utilized. According to one or more embodiments, Fused Quartz, which is a form of Silica (S1O2), is used as the material for the containment chambers. Fused Quartz has a high dielectric strength that meets or exceeds a threshold dielectric strength and a high tensile strength that meets or exceeds a threshold tensile strength (such as a minimum tensile strength of 10 megapascals) - while also being economical and easily molded into desired geometries. Various other containment materials include, but are not limited to: a. Diamond

b. Diamond like carbon - tetrahedral amorphous carbon

c. Mica

d. Poiytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)

e. Carbon fiber reinforced polymer

It is understood that, according to various embodiments, a containment material comprises a property of a dielectric strength equal to or greater than a threshold dielectric strength of 0.1 MV/m (0.1 x 10 6 Volt/meter), while it matches other criteria such as tensile strength requirements.

[0027] The step 104 is then followed by a step 106 of transferring a portion of the compressed charged gas into the energy recovery unit at high pressure. In accordance with one or more embodiments disclosed herein, the high pressure compressed gas is transferred by controlling the flow of the compressed charged gas using valves. The process of transfer of compressed charged gas into the energy recovery unit is explained in detail in conjunction with FIG. 4,

[0028] The step 106 is then followed by the step 108 of expanding the compressed electrically charged gas to regenerate energy in the energy recovery unit. The expansion causes the compressed gas to release the pressure energy stored within for performing useful work. Both the mechanical pressure and electromagnetic pressure of the gas are released during the expansion process. The expansion of the compressed gas is explained in detail in conjunction with FIG. 5 of the one or more embodiments disclosed herein.

[0029] In another one or more embodiments disclosed herein, the method 100 further includes a step of creating homogenously electrically charged gas and is further followed by the step of transmitting the homogenously electrically charged gas into the compression chamber. The step of creating and transmitting homogenously electrically charged gas into the compression chamber is explained in detail in conjunction with FIG. 7 of the one or more embodiments disclosed herein.

[0030] In another one or more embodiments disclosed herein, the method 100 further includes a step of exhausting the charged gas for safe disposal from the energy recovery unit. The decompressed charged gas is released from the exhaust channel connected to the energy recovery unit. The step of exhausting the charged gas is explained in detail in conjunction with FIG. 6 of the one or more embodiments disclosed herein,

[0031 ] FIG. 2 illustrates another flowchart of a method 200 for storing energy using an electrically charged gas. The method 200 initiates with a step 202 of creating homogenously electrically charged gas. The step 202 is then followed by the step 204 of transmitting the homogenously electrically charged gas into the containment chamber. The step 202 and the step 204 are explained in detail in conjunction with F!G. 7 of the one or more embodiments disclosed herein.

[0032] The step 204 is then followed by a step 206 of compressing the homogenousiy electrically charged gas in the containment chamber using external force. The compression of the homogenousiy electrically charged gas in the containment chamber is explained in detail in conjunction with FIG. 8 of the one or more embodiments disclosed herein.

[0033] The step 206 is then followed by a step 208 of transferring a portion of compressed charged gas into the energy recovery unit at high pressure. The step 208 is explained in detail in conjunction with FIG. 4 of the one or more embodiments disclosed herein. The step 208 is then followed by a step 210 of expanding the compressed electrically charged gas to regenerate energy in the energy recovery unit. The step 210 is explained in detail in conjunction with F!G. 5 of the one or more embodiments disclosed herein. [0034] In another one or more embodiments disclosed herein, the method

200 further includes a step of exhausting the charged gas for safe disposal from the energy recovery unit. The step of exhausting the gases is explained in detail in conjunction with F!G. 6 of the one or more embodiments disclosed herein.

[0035] FIG. 3 illustrates a schematic view showing the compression chamber 302 and the containment chamber 304 in accordance with a one or more embodiments disclosed herein. The containment chamber 304 is securely placed inside the compression chamber 302. The total volume of the containment chamber 304 is less than the total volume of the compression chamber 302. Thus, a free space 306 is created in the compression chamber 302. [0036] Initially, the containment chamber 304 is locked inside the compression chamber 302. The containment chamber 304 has an open injection channel 076. The compression chamber 302 is further surrounded by the compression heat capture sink 308. The air inside the compression chamber 302 and the containment chamber 304 is evacuated to achieve near complete vacuum i.e. very low air pressure. In one or more embodiments, a vacuum level meeting or exceeding a threshold vacuum level substantially at 10 ~2 Pascals will be implemented. In other embodiments, the vacuum level comprises a volume density of neutral particles of at least half the volume density of charged gas in the containment chamber, !n another embodiment, the vacuum comprises 0.0001 neutral particles for 1 charged gas particle.

[0037] The compression chamber 302 is further attached with a compression piston 094. The compression piston 094 includes a piston head 091 and an injection channel seal 090 attached to the piston head 091 . Further, a charged gas injector 310 including a nozzle 312 securely injects the charged gas 314 into the compression chamber 302. The injected gas also enters the containment chamber 304 through the open injection channel 076. [0038] Thus, the free space 306 of the compression chamber 302 and the containment chamber 304 are filled with the charged gas 314. The charged gas injector 310 keeps injecting the charged gas fill a predetermined pressure is achieved inside the free space 306 and containment chamber 304. On achieving the predetermined pressure, the nozzle 312 is sealed. The nozzle is embedded within the walls of the containment chamber 302 so it doesn't interfere with the movements of the piston head 091 .

[0039] Thereafter, the compression piston 094 pushes the piston head 091 with the attached open channel seal 090 inwards towards the containment chamber 304. As the piston 094 moves, the piston head 091 compresses the charged gas in the free space 306 and the containment chamber 304. The piston head 091 is designed such that no gas from one side of it, in the compression chamber 302, can escape to the other side.

[0040] As the piston head 091 moves across the containment chamber 302, towards the containment chamber 304, it reduces the volume available to the charged gas 314, causing it to compress. As the piston head 091 moves towards the containment chamber 304, larger amounts of the charged gas move from the free space 306 into the containment chamber 304 through the open injection channel 076.

[0041 ] Eventually, substantially all the charged gas from the free space 306 is forced into the containment chamber 304, through the open injection channel 076. Since the volume of free space that the charged gas 314 occupies inside the containment chamber 304 is smaller than the volume of total free space among both the containment chamber 304 and compression chamber 302, the charged gas is now in a compressed state.

[0042] At this point, the injection channel seal 090 is firmly inside the containment chamber injection channel 076, and locks the open injection channel 076. The injection channel seal 090 is now sealed into the containment chamber 304 thus establishing a high pressure inside the containment chamber 304.

[0043] In this process, the compression piston 094 draws energy from an external energy source, and by compressing the charged gas 314, it does work on the charged gas 314 and stores energy in the pressure energy of the charged gas. The charged gas 314 has both mechanical and electromagnetic pressure energy, which increases in proportion to ratio of compression.

[0044] Examples of external energy source include but are not limited to the electric grid and fossil fuels. It would be readily apparent to those skilled in the art that various compression processes may be envisioned such as electric and magnetic compression methods without deviating from the scope of the one or more embodiments disclosed herein.

[0045] This method allows dramatically greater amounts of energy to be stored for the same level of compression. The energy is stored in both the mechanical pressure and electromagnetic pressure between charged gas particles. While in conventional compressed gas systems, the energy is stored only in the mechanical pressure of the gas.

[0046] Thus, the compression leads to the increase in pressure of the charged gas 314 inside the containment chamber 304. The charged gas 314 is now occupying a much smaller volume and thus considerable amount of pressure energy is stored in the containment chamber 304. The injection channel seal 090 is then permanently screwed on so that no compressed charged gas escapes from the containment chamber 304 through the open injection channel 076. The containment chamber 304 is now a carrier of stored energy, similar to an electric battery. When operatively connected to an energy recovery unit, the energy stored within the containment chamber can be extracted to do useful work. [0047] FIG. 4 illustrates a schematic view showing the transfer of some amount of the compressed charged gas from the containment chamber 304 to an energy recovery unit 402 in accordance with a one or more embodiments disclosed herein. The compressed charged gas enters into the energy recovery unit at a very high pressure. In this energy recovery unit 402, the pressure of compressed charged gas is reduced to its normal pressure i.e. at standard temperature and at atmospheric pressure, by allowing expansion of the compressed charged gas.

[0048] The containment chamber 304 is connected to the energy recovery unit 402 through a transfer channel 404. Further, plurality of valves such as an outflow valve 406a is operatively connected to the transfer channel 404 to control the outflow of the compressed charged gas from the containment chamber 304; and an inflow valve 406b connected to transfer channel 404 to control the inflow of the compressed charged gas into the energy recovery unit 402.

[0049] The transfer channel 404 is further composed of an outflow tube 410 and an inflow tube 412. The outflow valve 406a controls the flow of fluid through the outflow tube 410. When the valve 406a is opened, fluid flows between the outflow tube 410 and the containment chamber 304.

[0050] When valve 406a is closed, no fluid flows between outflow tube 410 and containment chamber 304. The valve 406b performs the same function with respect to the inflow tube 412. When valve 406b is opened, fluid flows between the inflow tube 412 and the energy recovery unit 402, when the valve is closed, no fluid flows between the two.

[0051 ] According to one or more embodiments, the outflow valve 406a opens for a very short duration of time to allow some of the very high pressure compressed charged gas to escape from the containment chamber 304 and enter a loading chamber 408 through the outflow tube 410. The loading chamber 408 is now loaded with compressed charged gas at a very high pressure. The outflow valve 406a is then sealed shut to prevent any further outflow or inflow from the containment chamber 304. [0052] Thereafter, the inflow valve 406b is opened to allow transfer of the compressed charged gas into the energy recovery unit 402 at a very high pressure from the loading chamber 408. The inflow valve 406b closes when a pre-determined amount of compressed charged gas is transferred into the energy recovery unit 402.

[0053] It would be readily apparent to those skilled in the art that various other systems may also be envisioned for transferring the compressed charged gas from the containment chamber 304 into the energy recovery unit 402 without deviating from the scope of the one or more embodiments disclosed herein.

[0054] FIG. 5 illustrates a schematic view showing the energy recovery unit 402 in accordance with one or more embodiments disclosed herein. The energy recovery unit 402 includes an expansion chamber 504, piston 506, drive shaft 508 and a cylinder 510. The inflow valve 406b injects the compressed charged gas received from the containment chamber 304 via the outflow valve 406a, the outflow tube 410, the loading chamber 408 and through the inflow tube 412 into the energy recovery unit 402. Once the compressed charged gas is injected into the cylinder 510, the inflow valve 406b is sealed shut. [0055] The compressed charged gas expands exponentially in the expansion chamber 504 of the cylinder 510 due to its internal pressure. The piston is movable and thus allows the compressed charged gas to expand. The compressed charged gas drives the piston downwards and releases its pressure energy which is used to do work. The amount of the compressed charged gas in the loading chamber 408 is directly proportional to the maximum size of the expansion chamber 504. The maximum size of the expansion chamber 504 is limited by the extent to which the piston 506 can move.

[0056] The ratio of volume of the loading chamber 408 and the maximum volume of the expansion chamber 504, which is when the piston is at its farthest position, is essentially equal to the compression ratio of the charged gas. The compression ratio of the charged gas is defined as the ratio of the volume occupied by the charged gas at standard temperature and atmospheric pressure, versus the volume occupied in the containment chamber 304 by the same mass of charged gas.

[0057] The pressure in the charged gas in the loading chamber 408 is essentially equal to the pressure in the containment chamber. [0058] Further, when the piston 508 has been moved to its farthest point then the compressed charged gas is fully expanded. The piston 506 drives the drive shaft 508. The drive shaft 508 in turn provides the mechanical work such as driving a generator to produce electricity. Thus, the expansion of the compressed charged gas is converted into mechanical work and thereafter electric energy.

[0059] Once the piston 506 reaches its farthest position in the cylinder 510, the exhaust valve 514 opens. Thereafter, the piston 506 moves upwards to move the expanded charged gas out of the expansion chamber 504 into the exhaust channel 512 through the exhaust valve 514. When the piston 506 moves to the peak position within the cylinder 510, the expanded charged gas is fully ejected from the cylinder 510 through the exhaust valve 514 into the exhaust channel 512.

[0060] The exhaust process is explained in detail in conjunction with FIG. 7. The exhaust valve 514 closes once the expanded charged gas is fully ejected from the cylinder 510. Now, the cycle explained above is repeated, with the inflow valve 406b opening again and allowing a pre-determined amount of compressed charged gas into the cylinder 510. As used herein, farthest position of the piston implies the position where it is at its maximum distance from the inflow valve 406b. And the peak position is when it is closest to the inflow valve 406b.

[0060.5] In another embodiment, the head of the piston 506 is electrically charged to maintain a desired net surface charge (such as a minimum net charge of 0.01 picocouiomb) on a surface of the head of the piston 506 facing the expanding charged compressed gas. The presence of the surface charge on the piston head 507 causes a reaction of desired intensity between the piston 506 and the compressed charged gas. As a result, a much smaller amount of charged gas can cause the same level of expansion, and therefore work, as a larger amount of compressed charged gas would with an electrically neutral piston head. This, in effect, increases the energy density of the system overall and increases the efficiency of the recovery cycle. It can also increase the power density of the recovery engine.

[0061 ] FIG. 6 illustrates a schematic view of the exhaust process of the expanded charged gas 701 from the energy recovery unit 402 in accordance with one or more embodiments disclosed herein. The exhaust channel 512 receives the expanded charged gas and transports the charged gas into the deionization chamber

702.

[0062] Here a set of deionization injectors such as 704a and 704b, inject particles of the reverse charge polarity into the deionization chamber 702. For instance, if the expanded charged gas 701 is positively ionized, the deionization injectors 704a and 704b inject electrons or other negatively charged particles to create electrically neutral particles 706. The exhaust outlet 708 safely disposes the electrically neutral gas particles 706 into the ambient environment.

[0062.5] In another embodiment, the deionization chamber is closed and the decompressed ionized gas is not ejected from the system. Instead, a reactant is placed inside the deionization chamber, such that it has high propensity to react with the charged gas and convert the ions of the charged gas into solid salts. In this embodiment, the decompressed charged gas is released into the deionization chamber where it reacts with the reactant and precipitates as a solid salt. Since the charged gas is now deionized, it does not require either compression or large space to be contained and also does not require ejection from the system.

[0063] FIG. 7 illustrates a schematic view of creating and transmitting of homogenousiy electrically charged gas into the containment chambers such as 028, 030 and 032 in another of the one or more embodiments disclosed herein. Empty containment chamber 028 moves across on the conveyor belt 026 and is positioned under the charged gas injection system 034.

[0064] As shown in FIG. 7, the containment chamber 030, which is already positioned under charged gas injection system 034 receives the electrically charged gas from the charged gas injection nozzle 035. Once a pre-determined amount of charged gas is injected into the containment chamber 030, the containment chamber 030 is sealed to prevent the escape of electrically charged gas. Thus, the containment chamber 030 is then moved for the compression stage.

[0065] It would be readily apparent to those skilled in the art that various methods for creating and transmitting the homogenousiy electrically charged gas into the containment chambers such as 028, 030 and 032 may be envisioned without deviating from the scope of the one or more embodiments disclosed herein. [0086] FIG. 8 illustrates another schematic view showing the compressing of homogenously electrically charged gas in the containment chamber 032, which already contains compressed charged gas, using external force in accordance with one or more embodiments disclosed herein. The electrically charged gas in the containment chamber 032 is compressed by using a compression system 802.

[0087] The compression system 802 includes a piston compressor 037, the piston head 038, the container holder 042 and the compression heat capture sink 044. The piston head compresses the electrically charged gas stored in the containment chamber 032 on receiving a force from the piston compressor 037. The containment chamber 032 is placed in the container holder 042 to prevent displacement during the compression.

[0088] The container holder 042 is made up of a heat conducting material, so any heat dissipated during the compression cycle by the electrically charged gas containment chamber 032 is captured and transmitted by it to the compression heat capture sink 044. The process of compression is explained in detail in conjunction with FIG. 3 of the one or more embodiments disclosed herein.

[0089] The one or more embodiments disclosed herein offer various advantages such as very high energy density, variable power density, rapid recharge, low cost of operation, versatile applications and very high scalability compared to conventional energy storage methods. The invention can be utilized for grid level energy storage, and possibly for transport as well, among other possible applications. The system is safe, environmentally friendly and easy to manufacture as well. But above all, it can carry vastly greater amounts of energy within the same volume and with much less mass than current commercial products such as electric batteries.

[0070] There has thus been shown and described a method for storing energy using an electrically charged gas. Many changes, modifications, variations and other uses and applications of the subject invention will, however, become apparent to those skilled in the art after considering this specification and the accompanying drawings which disclose the one or more embodiments thereof. All such changes, modifications, variations and other uses and applications which do not depart from the spirit and scope of the invention are deemed to be covered by the invention, which is to be limited only by the claims which follow,

[0071 ] FIG, 9 illustrates a system according to one or more embodiments disclosed herein. It consists of the containment system 810 consisting of multiple containment cells 812, each ceil 812 confining a mass of compressed charged gas. By splitting up the storage of charged gas across many ceils, we can lim it some problematic behaviors of the charged gas such as formation of currents, magnetic fields and waves within the gas. As the charged gas is a highly correlated system, such behaviors can cause formation of phenomena such as radiations and concentrated electric fields which can cause breakdown of the containment materials and result in leakage of the charged gas. By maintaining the charged gas in many small containment ceils 812, instead of a single pool, as in the containment chamber 304, we can limit the risk of containment breakdown due to such behaviors.

[0072] Additionally, the shape and form of the containment cells 812 are important in order to minimize the impinging electric field on the containment walls. This is done by implementing a design which maximizes the surface area of the containment walls per unit mass of the charged gas, while minimizing the volume occupied by the containment ceils. In addition, the design of the containment ceils should also be such that the correlated behavior of the charged gas is limited, and this is partly achieved by maximizing the average inter-particle distance between charged gas particles, while minimizing the volume of the system. FIGS. 10A and 10B illustrate example embodiments of the containment cells. FIG. 10A shows a view of a side of a containment ceil and FIG. 10B shows a view of a terminal portion of the containment cell. The form of the containment ceil is a corkscrew shaped tube with a cavity within which the charged gas is held.

[0073] In another embodiment, inheriting from FIG. 9, the different containment ceils 812 of containment system 810 contain be either of two different compressed charged gases, one with a positive charge polarity and the other with a negative charge polarity. The distribution of the two charged gases is such that in totality, across ail containment cells 812, equal amounts of positive and negative charge is distributed. This arrangement makes the containment system 810, net charge neutral, meaning it has net charge of zero. This also helps minimize the electric field emanating from within the containment system.

[0074] In another embodiment, the containment system 810 of FIG. 9 is enclosed within a Faraday Cage, which in turn is earthed. This enables the containment of electric fields emerging from the charged gas within as the Faraday Cage neutralizes the field in combination with the earthing.

LANGUAGE

[0075] Throughout this specification, plural instances may implement components, operations, or structures described as a single instance. Although individual steps of one or more methods are illustrated and described as separate steps, one or more of the individual steps may be performed concurrently, and nothing requires that the steps be performed in the order illustrated. Structures and functionality presented as separate components in example configurations may be implemented as a combined structure or component. Similarly, structures and functionality presented as a single component may be implemented as separate components. These and other variations, modifications, additions, and

improvements fall within the scope of the subject matter described herein.

[0076] Although an overview of the inventive subject matter has been described with reference to specific example embodiments, various modifications and changes may be made to these embodiments without departing from the broader scope of embodiments of the present disclosure. Such embodiments of the inventive subject matter may be referred to herein, individually or collectively, by the term "invention" merely for convenience and without intending to voluntarily lim it the scope of this application to any single disclosure or inventive concept if more than one is, in fact, disclosed.

[0077] The embodiments illustrated herein are described in sufficient detail to enable those skilled in the art to practice the teachings disclosed. Other embodiments may be used and derived therefrom, such that structural and logical substitutions and changes may be made without departing from the scope of this disclosure. The Detailed Description, therefore, is not to be taken in a limiting sense, and the scope of various embodiments is defined only by the appended claims, along with the full range of equivalents to which such claims are entitled.

[0078] As used herein, the term "or" may be construed in either an inclusive or exclusive sense. Moreover, plural instances may be provided for resources, operations, or structures described herein as a single instance.

Additionally, boundaries between various resources, operations, modules, engines are somewhat arbitrary, and particular operations are illustrated in a context of specific illustrative configurations. Other allocations of functionality are envisioned and may fail within a scope of various embodiments of the present disclosure. In general, structures and functionality presented as separate resources in the example configurations may be implemented as a combined structure or resource. Similarly, structures and functionality presented as a single resource may be implemented as separate resources. These and other variations, modifications, additions, and improvements fall within a scope of embodiments of the present disclosure as represented by the appended claims. The specification and drawings are, accordingly, to be regarded in an illustrative rather than a restrictive sense.