Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
TECHNIQUES AND APPARATUS FOR GENERALIZED TRISOUP GEOMETRY CODING
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2021/046038
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
There is included a method and apparatus comprising computer code configured to cause a processor or processors to perform obtaining a leaf node of geometry based point cloud compression (G-PCC) data, splitting the leaf node into a plurality of cuboids, deriving separate triangle soups for each of the cuboids, and coding a plurality of flags respectively for each of the edges of each of the cuboids, where the plurality of flags indicate whether vertices of the separate triangle soups are present on ones of the edges.

Inventors:
VOSOUGHI ARASH (US)
YEA SEHOON (US)
WENGER STEPHAN (US)
LIU SHAN (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2020/048913
Publication Date:
March 11, 2021
Filing Date:
September 01, 2020
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
TENCENT AMERICA LLC (US)
International Classes:
H04N19/96
Domestic Patent References:
WO2019011637A12019-01-17
Foreign References:
US10192353B12019-01-29
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
RABENA, John F. et al. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A method for video coding performed by at least one processor, the method comprising: obtaining a leaf node of geometry based point cloud compression (G-PCC) data; splitting the leaf node into a plurality of cuboids; deriving separate triangle soups for each of the cuboids; and coding a plurality of flags respectively for each of the edges of each of the cuboids, wherein the plurality of flags indicate whether vertices of the separate triangle soups are present on ones of the edges.

2. The method according to claim 1, further comprising: entropy coding a signaling of a splitting pattern of the leaf node by two bits, wherein the two bits indicate whether the leaf node is split into the cuboids in half along one of an x-axis, a y-axis, and a z-axis.

3. The method according to claim 2, wherein a location, at which the leaf node is split and along at least one of the x-axis and the y-axis is signaled for each of the cuboids.

4. The method according to claim 1, further comprising: deriving the triangle soups recursively at the leaf node among a plurality of lead nodes of the G-PCC data.

5. The method according to claim 4, further comprising: entropy coding a signaling of a splitting pattern of the leaf node by three bits, wherein the three bits indicate whether the leaf node is split into the cuboids in half along one of an x-axis, a y-axis, a z-axis, a combination of the x-axis and the y-axis, a combination of the x-axis and the z-axis, a combination of the y-axis and the z-axis, and a combination of the x- axis, the y-axis, and the z-axis.

6. The method according to claim 5, wherein a location, at which the leaf node is split and along at least one of the x-axis, the y-axis, and the z-axis, is signaled for each of the cuboids.

7. The method according to claim 6, further comprising: determining whether a flag is set to the leaf node limiting at least one direction along which the leaf node may not be split.

8. The method according to claim 1, further comprising: determining the splitting pattern according to a rate-distortion optimization (RDO) scheme

9. The method according to claim 1, wherein splitting the leaf node into the plurality of cuboids comprises splitting the leaf node in half.

10. The method according to claim 1, wherein splitting the leaf node into the plurality of cuboids comprises splitting the leaf node into non-equal sized portions.

11. An apparatus for video decoding, the apparatus comprising: at least one memory configured to store computer program code; at least one processor configured to access the computer program code and operate as instructed by the computer program code, the computer program code including: obtaining code configured to cause the at least one processor to obtain a leaf node of geometry based point cloud compression (G-PCC) data; splitting code configured to cause the at least one processor to split the leaf node into a plurality of cuboids; deriving code configured to cause the at least one processor to derive separate triangle soups for each of the cuboids; and coding code configured to cause the at least one processor to code a plurality of flags respectively for each of the edges of each of the cuboids, wherein the plurality of flags indicate whether vertices of the separate triangle soups are present on ones of the edges.

12. The apparatus according to claim 11, wherein the coding code is further configured to cause the at least one processor to entropy code a signaling of a splitting pattern of the leaf node by two bits, wherein the two bits indicate whether the leaf node is split into the cuboids in half along one of an x-axis, a y-axis, and a z-axis.

13. The apparatus according to claim 12, wherein a location, at which the leaf node is split and along at least one of the x-axis and the y-axis is signaled for each of the cuboids.

14. The apparatus according to claim 11, wherein the deriving code is further configured to cause the at least one processor to derive the triangle soups recursively at the leaf node among a plurality of lead nodes of the G-PCC data.

15. The apparatus according to claim 14, wherein the coding code is further configured to cause the at least one processor to entropy code a signaling of a splitting pattern of the leaf node by three bits, wherein the three bits indicate whether the leaf node is split into the cuboids in half along one of an x-axis, a y-axis, a z-axis, a combination of the x-axis and the y-axis, a combination of the x-axis and the z-axis, a combination of the y-axis and the z-axis, and a combination of the x- axis, the y-axis, and the z-axis.

16. The apparatus according to claim 15, wherein a location, at which the leaf node is split and along at least one of the x-axis, the y-axis, and the z-axis, is signaled for each of the cuboids.

17. The apparatus according to claim 16, wherein the computer program code further includes determining code configured to cause the at least one processor to determine whether a flag is set to the leaf node limiting at least one direction along which the leaf node may not be split.

18. The apparatus according to claim 11, wherein the computer program code further includes determining code configured to cause the at least one processor to determine the splitting pattern according to a rate-distortion optimization (RDO) scheme

19. The apparatus according to claim 11, wherein splitting the leaf node into the plurality of cuboids comprises splitting the leaf node in half.

20. A non-transitory computer readable medium storing a program configured to cause a computer to: obtain a leaf node of geometry based point cloud compression (G-PCC) data; split the leaf node into a plurality of cuboids; derive separate triangle soups for each of the cuboids; and code a plurality of flags respectively for each of the edges of each of the cuboids, wherein the plurality of flags indicate whether vertices of the separate triangle soups are present on ones of the edges.

Description:
TECHNIQUES AND APPARATUS FOR GENERALIZED TRISOUP GEOMETRY

CODING

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

[1] The present application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/895,339, filed on September 3, 2019, and U.S. Application No. 17/004,616, filed August 27, 2020, the entirety of which are incorporated herein.

BACKGROUND

1. Field

[2] The present disclosure is directed to point cloud coding technologies more specifically to point cloud geometry compression including generalizing the Trisoup lossy compression of MPEG/G-PCC and including a fast RDO scheme.

2. Description of Related Art

[3] Advanced 3D representations of the world are enabling more immersive forms of interaction and communication. They also allow machines to understand, interpret and navigate our world. Point clouds have been widely used as a 3D representation of the world. Several use cases associated with point cloud data have been identified, and corresponding requirements for point cloud representation and compression have been developed.

[4] A point cloud is a set of points in a 3D space, each with associated attributes, e.g. color, material properties, etc. Point clouds can be used to reconstruct an object or a scene as a composition of such points. They can be captured using multiple cameras and depth sensors in various setups and may be made up of thousands up to billions of points in order to realistically represent reconstructed scenes. [5] Compression technologies are needed to reduce the amount of data required to represent a point cloud. As such, technologies are needed for lossy compression of point clouds for use in real-time communications and six Degrees of Freedom (6 DoF) virtual reality. In addition, technology is sought for lossless point cloud compression in the context of dynamic mapping for autonomous driving and cultural heritage applications, etc. MPEG has started working on a standard to address compression of geometry and attributes such as colors and reflectance, scalable/progressive coding, coding of sequences of point clouds captured over time, and random access to subsets of the point cloud.

[6] In lossy G-PCC Trisoup geometry coding, it may happen that a manifold, for example, is too complicated to model using a limited number of free parameters.

[7] Therefore, there is a desire for a technical solution to such problems.

SUMMARY

[8] To address one or more different technical problems, this disclosure generalizes the Trisoup technology adopted in the MPEG/G-PCC to tackle this problem, and a rate-distortion optimization (RDO) scheme is also anticipated for the proposed generalized Trisoup.

[9] There is included a method and apparatus comprising memory configured to store computer program code and a processor or processors configured to access the computer program code and operate as instructed by the computer program code. The computer program code includes obtaining code configured to cause the at least one processor to obtain a leaf node of geometry based point cloud compression (G-PCC) data, splitting code configured to cause the at least one processor to split the leaf node into a plurality of cuboids, deriving code configured to cause the at least one processor to derive separate triangle soups for each of the cuboids, and coding code configured to cause the at least one processor to code a plurality of flags respectively for each of the edges of each of the cuboids, where the plurality of flags indicate whether vertices of the separate triangle soups are present on ones of the edges.

[10] According to exemplary embodiments, the coding code is further configured to cause the at least one processor to entropy code a signaling of a splitting pattern of the leaf node by two bits, and the two bits indicate whether the leaf node is split into the cuboids in half along one of an x-axis, a y-axis, and a z-axis.

[11] According to exemplary embodiments, a location, at which the leaf node is split and along at least one of the x-axis and the y-axis is signaled for each of the cuboids.

[12] According to exemplary embodiments, the the deriving code is further configured to cause the at least one processor to derive the triangle soups recursively at the leaf node among a plurality of lead nodes of the G-PCC data.

[13] According to exemplary embodiments, the coding code is further configured to cause the at least one processor to entropy code a signaling of a splitting pattern of the leaf node by three bits, and the three bits indicate whether the leaf node is split into the cuboids in half along one of an x-axis, a y-axis, a z-axis, a combination of the x-axis and the y-axis, a combination of the x- axis and the z-axis, a combination of the y-axis and the z-axis, and a combination of the x-axis, the y-axis, and the z-axis.

[14] According to exemplary embodiments, the location, at which the leaf node is split and along at least one of the x-axis, the y-axis, and the z-axis, is signaled for each of the cuboids

[15] According to exemplary embodiments, the computer program code further includes determining code configured to cause the at least one processor to determine whether a flag is set to the leaf node limiting at least one direction along which the leaf node may not be split. [16] According to exemplary embodiments, the computer program code further includes determining code configured to cause the at least one processor to determine the splitting pattern according to a rate-distortion optimization (RDO) scheme

[17] According to exemplary embodiments, splitting the leaf node into the plurality of cuboids comprises splitting the leaf node in half.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[18] Further features, nature, and various advantages of the disclosed subject matter will be more apparent from the following detailed description and the accompanying drawings in which:

[19] Figs. 1-9B are schematic illustrations of diagrams in accordance with embodiments.

[20] Figs. 10 and 11 are simplified block diagrams in accordance with embodiments.

[21] Fig. 12 is a simplified illustration in accordance with embodiments.

[22] Fig. 13 is a simplified flow illustration in accordance with embodiments.

[23] Fig. 14 is a schematic illustration of a diagram in accordance with embodiments.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[24] The proposed features discussed below may be used separately or combined in any order. Further, the embodiments may be implemented by processing circuitry (e.g., one or more processors or one or more integrated circuits). In one example, the one or more processors execute a program that is stored in a non-transitory computer-readable medium.

[25] Fig. 1 illustrates a simplified block diagram of a communication system 100 according to an embodiment of the present disclosure. The communication system 100 may include at least two terminals 102 and 103 interconnected via a network 105. For unidirectional transmission of data, a first terminal 103 may code video data at a local location for transmission to the other terminal 102 via the network 105. The second terminal 102 may receive the coded video data of the other terminal from the network 105, decode the coded data and display the recovered video data. Unidirectional data transmission may be common in media serving applications and the like.

[26] Fig. 1 illustrates a second pair of terminals 101 and 104 provided to support bidirectional transmission of coded video that may occur, for example, during videoconferencing. For bidirectional transmission of data, each terminal 101 and 104 may code video data captured at a local location for transmission to the other terminal via the network 105. Each terminal 101 and 104 also may receive the coded video data transmitted by the other terminal, may decode the coded data and may display the recovered video data at a local display device.

[27] In Fig. 1, the terminals 101, 102, 103 and 104 may be illustrated as servers, personal computers and smart phones but the principles of the present disclosure are not so limited. Embodiments of the present disclosure find application with laptop computers, tablet computers, media players and/or dedicated video conferencing equipment. The network 105 represents any number of networks that convey coded video data among the terminals 101, 102, 103 and 104, including for example wireline and/or wireless communication networks. The communication network 105 may exchange data in circuit-switched and/or packet-switched channels. Representative networks include telecommunications networks, local area networks, wide area networks and/or the Internet. For the purposes of the present discussion, the architecture and topology of the network 105 may be immaterial to the operation of the present disclosure unless explained herein below. [28] Fig. 2 illustrates, as an example for an application for the disclosed subject matter, the placement of a video encoder and decoder in a streaming environment. The disclosed subject matter can be equally applicable to other video enabled applications, including, for example, video conferencing, digital TV, storing of compressed video on digital media including CD, DVD, memory stick and the like, and so on.

[29] A streaming system may include a capture subsystem 203, that can include a video source 201, for example a digital camera, creating, for example, an uncompressed video sample stream 213. That sample stream 213 may be emphasized as a high data volume when compared to encoded video bitstreams and can be processed by an encoder 202 coupled to the camera 201. The encoder 202 can include hardware, software, or a combination thereof to enable or implement aspects of the disclosed subject matter as described in more detail below. The encoded video bitstream 204, which may be emphasized as a lower data volume when compared to the sample stream, can be stored on a streaming server 205 for future use. One or more streaming clients 212 and 207 can access the streaming server 205 to retrieve copies 208 and 206 of the encoded video bitstream 204. A client 212 can include a video decoder 211 which decodes the incoming copy of the encoded video bitstream 208 and creates an outgoing video sample stream 210 that can be rendered on a display 209 or other rendering device (not depicted). In some streaming systems, the video bitstreams 204, 206 and 208 can be encoded according to certain video coding/compression standards. Examples of those standards are noted above and described further herein.

[30] Fig. 3 may be a functional block diagram of a video decoder 300 according to an embodiment of the present invention. [31] A receiver 302 may receive one or more codec video sequences to be decoded by the decoder 300; in the same or another embodiment, one coded video sequence at a time, where the decoding of each coded video sequence is independent from other coded video sequences. The coded video sequence may be received from a channel 301, which may be a hardware/software link to a storage device which stores the encoded video data. The receiver 302 may receive the encoded video data with other data, for example, coded audio data and/or ancillary data streams, that may be forwarded to their respective using entities (not depicted). The receiver 302 may separate the coded video sequence from the other data. To combat network jitter, a buffer memory 303 may be coupled in between receiver 302 and entropy decoder / parser 304 (“parser” henceforth). When receiver 302 is receiving data from a store/forward device of sufficient bandwidth and controllability, or from an isosychronous network, the buffer 303 may not be needed, or can be small. For use on best effort packet networks such as the Internet, the buffer 303 may be required, can be comparatively large and can advantageously of adaptive size.

[32] The video decoder 300 may include a parser 304 to reconstruct symbols 313 from the entropy coded video sequence. Categories of those symbols include information used to manage operation of the decoder 300, and potentially information to control a rendering device such as a display 312 that is not an integral part of the decoder but can be coupled to it. The control information for the rendering device(s) may be in the form of Supplementary Enhancement Information (SEI messages) or Video Usability Information parameter set fragments (not depicted). The parser 304 may parse / entropy-decode the coded video sequence received. The coding of the coded video sequence can be in accordance with a video coding technology or standard, and can follow principles well known to a person skilled in the art, including variable length coding, Huffman coding, arithmetic coding with or without context sensitivity, and so forth. The parser 304 may extract from the coded video sequence, a set of subgroup parameters for at least one of the subgroups of pixels in the video decoder, based upon at least one parameters corresponding to the group. Subgroups can include Groups of Pictures (GOPs), pictures, tiles, slices, macroblocks, Coding Units (CUs), blocks, Transform Units (TUs), Prediction Units (PUs) and so forth. The entropy decoder / parser may also extract from the coded video sequence information such as transform coefficients, quantizer parameter values, motion vectors, and so forth.

[33] The parser 304 may perform entropy decoding / parsing operation on the video sequence received from the buffer 303, so to create symbols 313. The parser 304 may receive encoded data, and selectively decode particular symbols 313. Further, the parser 304 may determine whether the particular symbols 313 are to be provided to a Motion Compensation Prediction unit 306, a scaler / inverse transform unit 305, an Intra Prediction Unit 307, or a loop filter 311.

[34] Reconstruction of the symbols 313 can involve multiple different units depending on the type of the coded video picture or parts thereof (such as: inter and intra picture, inter and intra block), and other factors. Which units are involved, and how, can be controlled by the subgroup control information that was parsed from the coded video sequence by the parser 304. The flow of such subgroup control information between the parser 304 and the multiple units below is not depicted for clarity.

[35] Beyond the functional blocks already mentioned, decoder 300 can be conceptually subdivided into a number of functional units as described below. In a practical implementation operating under commercial constraints, many of these units interact closely with each other and can, at least partly, be integrated into each other. However, for the purpose of describing the disclosed subject matter, the conceptual subdivision into the functional units below is appropriate.

[36] A first unit is the scaler / inverse transform unit 305. The scaler / inverse transform unit 305 receives quantized transform coefficient as well as control information, including which transform to use, block size, quantization factor, quantization scaling matrices, etc. as symbol(s) 313 from the parser 304. It can output blocks comprising sample values, that can be input into aggregator 310.

[37] In some cases, the output samples of the scaler / inverse transform 305 can pertain to an intra coded block; that is: a block that is not using predictive information from previously reconstructed pictures, but can use predictive information from previously reconstructed parts of the current picture. Such predictive information can be provided by an intra picture prediction unit 307. In some cases, the intra picture prediction unit 307 generates a block of the same size and shape of the block under reconstruction, using surrounding already reconstructed information fetched from the current (partly reconstructed) picture 309. The aggregator 310, in some cases, adds, on a per sample basis, the prediction information the intra prediction unit 307 has generated to the output sample information as provided by the scaler / inverse transform unit 305.

[38] In other cases, the output samples of the scaler / inverse transform unit 305 can pertain to an inter coded, and potentially motion compensated block. In such a case, a Motion Compensation Prediction unit 306 can access reference picture memory 308 to fetch samples used for prediction. After motion compensating the fetched samples in accordance with the symbols 313 pertaining to the block, these samples can be added by the aggregator 310 to the output of the scaler / inverse transform unit (in this case called the residual samples or residual signal) so to generate output sample information. The addresses within the reference picture memory form where the motion compensation unit fetches prediction samples can be controlled by motion vectors, available to the motion compensation unit in the form of symbols 313 that can have, for example X, Y, and reference picture components. Motion compensation also can include interpolation of sample values as fetched from the reference picture memory when sub sample exact motion vectors are in use, motion vector prediction mechanisms, and so forth.

[39] The output samples of the aggregator 310 can be subject to various loop filtering techniques in the loop filter unit 311. Video compression technologies can include in-loop filter technologies that are controlled by parameters included in the coded video bitstream and made available to the loop filter unit 311 as symbols 313 from the parser 304, but can also be responsive to meta-information obtained during the decoding of previous (in decoding order) parts of the coded picture or coded video sequence, as well as responsive to previously reconstructed and loop-filtered sample values.

[40] The output of the loop filter unit 311 can be a sample stream that can be output to the render device 312 as well as stored in the reference picture memory 557 for use in future inter picture prediction.

[41] Certain coded pictures, once fully reconstructed, can be used as reference pictures for future prediction. Once a coded picture is fully reconstructed and the coded picture has been identified as a reference picture (by, for example, parser 304), the current reference picture 309 can become part of the reference picture buffer 308, and a fresh current picture memory can be reallocated before commencing the reconstruction of the following coded picture.

[42] The video decoder 300 may perform decoding operations according to a predetermined video compression technology that may be documented in a standard, such as ITU-T Rec. H.265. The coded video sequence may conform to a syntax specified by the video compression technology or standard being used, in the sense that it adheres to the syntax of the video compression technology or standard, as specified in the video compression technology document or standard and specifically in the profiles document therein. Also necessary for compliance can be that the complexity of the coded video sequence is within bounds as defined by the level of the video compression technology or standard. In some cases, levels restrict the maximum picture size, maximum frame rate, maximum reconstruction sample rate (measured in, for example megasamples per second), maximum reference picture size, and so on. Limits set by levels can, in some cases, be further restricted through Hypothetical Reference Decoder (HRD) specifications and metadata for HRD buffer management signaled in the coded video sequence.

[43] In an embodiment, the receiver 302 may receive additional (redundant) data with the encoded video. The additional data may be included as part of the coded video sequence(s). The additional data may be used by the video decoder 300 to properly decode the data and/or to more accurately reconstruct the original video data. Additional data can be in the form of, for example, temporal, spatial, or signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement layers, redundant slices, redundant pictures, forward error correction codes, and so on.

[44] Fig. 4 may be a functional block diagram of a video encoder 400 according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[45] The encoder 400 may receive video samples from a video source 401 (that is not part of the encoder) that may capture video image(s) to be coded by the encoder 400.

[46] The video source 401 may provide the source video sequence to be coded by the encoder (303) in the form of a digital video sample stream that can be of any suitable bit depth (for example: 8 bit, 10 bit, 12 bit, ...), any colorspace (for example, BT.601 Y CrCB, RGB, ...) and any suitable sampling structure (for example Y CrCb 4:2:0, Y CrCb 4:4:4). In a media serving system, the video source 401 may be a storage device storing previously prepared video. In a videoconferencing system, the video source 401 may be a camera that captures local image information as a video sequence. Video data may be provided as a plurality of individual pictures that impart motion when viewed in sequence. The pictures themselves may be organized as a spatial array of pixels, wherein each pixel can comprise one or more samples depending on the sampling structure, color space, etc. in use. A person skilled in the art can readily understand the relationship between pixels and samples. The description below focuses on samples.

[47] According to an embodiment, the encoder 400 may code and compress the pictures of the source video sequence into a coded video sequence 410 in real time or under any other time constraints as required by the application. Enforcing appropriate coding speed is one function of Controller 402. Controller controls other functional units as described below and is functionally coupled to these units. The coupling is not depicted for clarity. Parameters set by controller can include rate control related parameters (picture skip, quantizer, lambda value of rate-distortion optimization techniques, ...), picture size, group of pictures (GOP) layout, maximum motion vector search range, and so forth. A person skilled in the art can readily identify other functions of controller 402 as they may pertain to video encoder 400 optimized for a certain system design.

[48] Some video encoders operate in what a person skilled in the art readily recognizes as a “coding loop.” As an oversimplified description, a coding loop can consist of the encoding part of an encoder 402 (“source coder” henceforth) (responsible for creating symbols based on an input picture to be coded, and a reference picture(s)), and a (local) decoder 406 embedded in the encoder 400 that reconstructs the symbols to create the sample data that a (remote) decoder also would create (as any compression between symbols and coded video bitstream is lossless in the video compression technologies considered in the disclosed subject matter). That reconstructed sample stream is input to the reference picture memory 405. As the decoding of a symbol stream leads to bit-exact results independent of decoder location (local or remote), the reference picture buffer content is also bit exact between local encoder and remote encoder. In other words, the prediction part of an encoder “sees” as reference picture samples exactly the same sample values as a decoder would “see” when using prediction during decoding. This fundamental principle of reference picture synchronicity (and resulting drift, if synchronicity cannot be maintained, for example because of channel errors) is well known to a person skilled in the art.

[49] The operation of the “local” decoder 406 can be the same as of a “remote” decoder 300, which has already been described in detail above in conjunction with Fig. 3. Briefly referring also to Fig. 4, however, as symbols are available and en/decoding of symbols to a coded video sequence by entropy coder 408 and parser 304 can be lossless, the entropy decoding parts of decoder 300, including channel 301, receiver 302, buffer 303, and parser 304 may not be fully implemented in local decoder 406.

[50] An observation that can be made at this point is that any decoder technology except the parsing/entropy decoding that is present in a decoder also necessarily needs to be present, in substantially identical functional form, in a corresponding encoder. The description of encoder technologies can be abbreviated as they are the inverse of the comprehensively described decoder technologies. Only in certain areas a more detail description is required and provided below.

[51] As part of its operation, the source coder 403 may perform motion compensated predictive coding, which codes an input frame predictively with reference to one or more previously-coded frames from the video sequence that were designated as “reference frames.” In this manner, the coding engine 407 codes differences between pixel blocks of an input frame and pixel blocks of reference frame(s) that may be selected as prediction reference(s) to the input frame.

[52] The local video decoder 406 may decode coded video data of frames that may be designated as reference frames, based on symbols created by the source coder 403. Operations of the coding engine 407 may advantageously be lossy processes. When the coded video data may be decoded at a video decoder (not shown in Fig. 4), the reconstructed video sequence typically may be a replica of the source video sequence with some errors. The local video decoder 406 replicates decoding processes that may be performed by the video decoder on reference frames and may cause reconstructed reference frames to be stored in the reference picture cache 405. In this manner, the encoder 400 may store copies of reconstructed reference frames locally that have common content as the reconstructed reference frames that will be obtained by a far-end video decoder (absent transmission errors).

[53] The predictor 404 may perform prediction searches for the coding engine 407. That is, for a new frame to be coded, the predictor 404 may search the reference picture memory 405 for sample data (as candidate reference pixel blocks) or certain metadata such as reference picture motion vectors, block shapes, and so on, that may serve as an appropriate prediction reference for the new pictures. The predictor 404 may operate on a sample block-by-pixel block basis to find appropriate prediction references. In some cases, as determined by search results obtained by the predictor 404, an input picture may have prediction references drawn from multiple reference pictures stored in the reference picture memory 405. [54] The controller 402 may manage coding operations of the video coder 403, including, for example, setting of parameters and subgroup parameters used for encoding the video data.

[55] Output of all aforementioned functional units may be subjected to entropy coding in the entropy coder 408. The entropy coder translates the symbols as generated by the various functional units into a coded video sequence, by lossdess compressing the symbols according to technologies known to a person skilled in the art as, for example Huffman coding, variable length coding, arithmetic coding, and so forth.

[56] The transmitter 409 may buffer the coded video sequence(s) as created by the entropy coder 408 to prepare it for transmission via a communication channel 411, which may be a hardware/software link to a storage device which would store the encoded video data. The transmitter 409 may merge coded video data from the video coder 403 with other data to be transmitted, for example, coded audio data and/or ancillary data streams (sources not shown).

[57] The controller 402 may manage operation of the encoder 400. During coding, the controller 405 may assign to each coded picture a certain coded picture type, which may affect the coding techniques that may be applied to the respective picture. For example, pictures often may be assigned as one of the following frame types:

[58] An Intra Picture (I picture) may be one that may be coded and decoded without using any other frame in the sequence as a source of prediction. Some video codecs allow for different types of Intra pictures, including, for example Independent Decoder Refresh Pictures. A person skilled in the art is aware of those variants of I pictures and their respective applications and features. [59] A Predictive picture (P picture) may be one that may be coded and decoded using intra prediction or inter prediction using at most one motion vector and reference index to predict the sample values of each block.

[60] A Bi-directionally Predictive Picture (B Picture) may be one that may be coded and decoded using intra prediction or inter prediction using at most two motion vectors and reference indices to predict the sample values of each block. Similarly, multiple-predictive pictures can use more than two reference pictures and associated metadata for the reconstruction of a single block.

[61] Source pictures commonly may be subdivided spatially into a plurality of sample blocks (for example, blocks of 4 x 4, 8 x 8, 4 x 8, or 16 x 16 samples each) and coded on a block-by block basis. Blocks may be coded predictively with reference to other (already coded) blocks as determined by the coding assignment applied to the blocks’ respective pictures. For example, blocks of I pictures may be coded non-predictively or they may be coded predictively with reference to already coded blocks of the same picture (spatial prediction or intra prediction).

Pixel blocks of P pictures may be coded non-predictively, via spatial prediction or via temporal prediction with reference to one previously coded reference pictures. Blocks of B pictures may be coded non-predictively, via spatial prediction or via temporal prediction with reference to one or two previously coded reference pictures.

[62] The video coder 400 may perform coding operations according to a predetermined video coding technology or standard, such as ITU-T Rec. H.265. In its operation, the video coder 400 may perform various compression operations, including predictive coding operations that exploit temporal and spatial redundancies in the input video sequence. The coded video data, therefore, may conform to a syntax specified by the video coding technology or standard being used. [63] In an embodiment, the transmitter 409 may transmit additional data with the encoded video. The source coder 403 may include such data as part of the coded video sequence. Additional data may comprise temporal/spatial/SNR enhancement layers, other forms of redundant data such as redundant pictures and slices, Supplementary Enhancement Information (SEI) messages, Visual Usability Information (VUI) parameter set fragments, and so on.

[64] Fig. 5 illustrates intra prediction modes used in HEVC and JEM. To capture the arbitrary edge directions presented in natural video, the number of directional intra modes is extended from 33, as used in HEVC, to 65. The additional directional modes in JEM on top of HEVC are depicted as dotted arrows in Figure 1 (b), and the planar and DC modes remain the same. These denser directional intra prediction modes apply for all block sizes and for both luma and chroma intra predictions. As shown in Fig. 5, the directional intra prediction modes as identified by dotted arrows, which is associated with an odd intra prediction mode index, are called odd intra prediction modes. The directional intra prediction modes as identified by solid arrows, which are associated with an even intra prediction mode index, are called even intra prediction modes. In this document, the directional intra prediction modes, as indicated by solid or dotted arrows in Fig. 5 are also referred as angular modes.

[65] In JEM, a total of 67 intra prediction modes are used for luma intra prediction. To code an intra mode, an most probable mode (MPM) list of size 6 is built based on the intra modes of the neighboring blocks. If intra mode is not from the MPM list, a flag is signaled to indicate whether intra mode belongs to the selected modes. In JEM-3.0, there are 16 selected modes, which are chosen uniformly as every fourth angular mode. In JVET-D0114 and JVET-G0060,

16 secondary MPMs are derived to replace the uniformly selected modes. [66] Fig. 6 illustrates N reference tiers exploited for intra directional modes. There is a block unit 611, a segment A 601, a segment B 602, a segment C 603, a segment D 604, a segment E 605, a segment F 606, a first reference tier 610, a second reference tier 609, a third reference tier 608 and a fourth reference tier 607.

[67] In both HEVC and JEM, as well as some other standards such as H.264/AVC, the reference samples used for predicting the current block are restricted to a nearest reference line (row or column). In the method of multiple reference line intra prediction, the number of candidate reference lines (row or columns) are increased from one (i.e. the nearest) to N for the intra directional modes, where N is an integer greater than or equal to one. Fig. 2 takes 4x4 prediction unit (PU) as an example to show the concept of the multiple line intra directional prediction method. An intra-directi onal mode could arbitrarily choose one of N reference tiers to generate the predictors. In other words, the predictor p(x,y) is generated from one of the reference samples SI, S2, ..., and SN. A flag is signaled to indicate which reference tier is chosen for an intra-directional mode. If N is set as 1, the intra directional prediction method is the same as the traditional method in JEM 2.0. In Fig. 6, the reference lines 610, 609, 608 and 607 are composed of six segments 601, 602, 603, 604, 605 and 606 together with the top-left reference sample. In this document, a reference tier is also called a reference line. The coordinate of the top-left pixel within current block unit is (0,0) and the top left pixel in the 1st reference line is (-1,-1).

[68] In JEM, for the luma component, the neighboring samples used for intra prediction sample generations are filtered before the generation process. The filtering is controlled by the given intra prediction mode and transform block size. If the intra prediction mode is DC or the transform block size is equal to 4x4, neighboring samples are not filtered. If the distance between the given intra prediction mode and vertical mode (or horizontal mode) is larger than predefined threshold, the filtering process is enabled. For neighboring sample filtering, [1, 2, 1] filter and bi-linear filters are used.

[69] A position dependent intra prediction combination (PDPC) method is an intra prediction method which invokes a combination of the un-filtered boundary reference samples and HEVC style intra prediction with filtered boundary reference samples. Each prediction sample pred[x\\y\ located at (x,y) is calculated as follows: where R x, -i,R-i ,y represent the unfiltered reference samples located at top and left of current sample (x, y), respectively, and R-i , -i represents the unfiltered reference sample located at the top-left corner of the current block. The weightings are calculated as below, wT = 32 » ((y « 1) » shift ) (Eq. 2-2) wL = 32 » ((x « 1) » shift ) (Eq. 2-3) wTL = —(yvL » 4) — (wT » 4) (Eq. 2-4) shift = Qog2(width ) + log2(height ) + 2) » 2 (Eq. 2-5).

[70] Fig. 7 illustrates a diagram 700 in which DC mode PDPC weights (wL, wT, wTL) for (0, 0) and (1, 0) positions inside one 4x4 block. If PDPC is applied to DC, planar, horizontal, and vertical intra modes, additional boundary filters are not needed, such as the HEVC DC mode boundary filter or horizontal/vertical mode edge filters. Fig. 7 illustrates the definition of reference samples Rx,-1, R-l,y and R-1,-1 for PDPC applied to the top-right diagonal mode. The prediction sample pred(x’, y’) is located at (x’, y’) within the prediction block. The coordinate x of the reference sample Rx,-1 is given by: x = x’ + y’ + 1, and the coordinate y of the reference sample R-l,y is similarly given by: y = x’ + y’ + 1. [71] Fig. 8 illustrates a Local Illumination Compensation (LIC) diagram 800 and is based on a linear model for illumination changes, using a scaling factor a and an offset b. And it is enabled or disabled adaptively for each inter-mode coded coding unit (CU).

[72] When LIC applies for a CU, a least square error method is employed to derive the parameters a and b by using the neighboring samples of the current CU and their corresponding reference samples. More specifically, as illustrated in Figure 8, the subsampled (2:1 subsampling) neighboring samples of the CU and the corresponding samples (identified by motion information of the current CU or sub-CU) in the reference picture are used. The IC parameters are derived and applied for each prediction direction separately.

[73] When a CU is coded with merge mode, the LIC flag is copied from neighboring blocks, in a way similar to motion information copy in merge mode; otherwise, an LIC flag is signaled for the CU to indicate whether LIC applies or not.

[74] Fig. 9A illustrates intra prediction modes 900 used in HEVC. In HEVC, there are total 35 intra prediction modes, among which mode 10 is horizontal mode, mode 26 is vertical mode, and mode 2, mode 18 and mode 34 are diagonal modes. The intra prediction modes are signaled by three most probable modes (MPMs) and 32 remaining modes.

[75] Fig. 9B illustrates, in embodiments of VVC, there are total 87 intra prediction modes where mode 18 is horizontal mode, mode 50 is vertical mode, and mode 2, mode 34 and mode 66 are diagonal modes. Modes -1 ~ -10 and Modes 67 ~ 76 are called Wide-Angle Intra Prediction (WAIP) modes.

[76] The prediction sample pred(x,y) located at position (x, y) is predicted using an intra prediction mode (DC, planar, angular) and a linear combination of reference samples according to the PDPC expression: pred(x,y) = ( wL x R-l,y + wT x Rx,-1 - wTL x R-1,-1 + (64 - wL - wT + wTL) x pred(x,y) + 32 ) » 6 where Rx,-1, R-l,y represent the reference samples located at the top and left of current sample (x, y), respectively, and R-1,-1 represents the reference sample located at the top-left comer of the current block.

[77] For the DC mode the weights are calculated as follows for a block with dimensions width and height: wT = 32 » ( ( y«l ) » nScale ), wL = 32 » ( ( x«l ) » nScale ), wTL = ( wL»4 ) + ( wT»4 ), with nScale = ( log2( width ) - 2 + log2( height ) - 2 + 2 ) » 2, where wT denotes the weighting factor for the reference sample located in the above reference line with the same horizontal coordinate, wL denotes the weighting factor for the reference sample located in the left reference line with the same vertical coordinate, and wTL denotes the weighting factor for the top-left reference sample of the current block, nScale specifies how fast weighting factors decrease along the axis (wL decreasing from left to right or wT decreasing from top to bottom), namely weighting factor decrement rate, and it is the same along x-axis (from left to right) and y- axis (from top to bottom) in current design. And 32 denotes the initial weighting factors for the neighboring samples, and the initial weighting factor is also the top (left or top-left) weightings assigned to top-left sample in current CB, and the weighting factors of neighboring samples in PDPC process should be equal to or less than this initial weighting factor.

[78] For planar mode wTL = 0, while for horizontal mode wTL = wT and for vertical mode wTL = wL. The PDPC weights can be calculated with adds and shifts only. The value of pred(x,y) can be computed in a single step using Eq. 1. [79] Figs. 10 and 11 are simplified block diagrams 1000 and 1100 respectively in accordance with embodiments and provide a different overview of a geometry based point cloud compression (G-PCC) encoder and decoder. In both the encoder and decoder, point cloud positions are coded first. Attribute coding depends on the decoded geometry. In Figs. 10 and 11, region adaptive hierarchical transform (RAHT) and surface approximation modules are options typically used for Category 1 data. Generate level of detail (LOD) and lifting modules are options typically used for Category 3 data. All the other modules are common between Categories 1 and 3.

[80] For Category 3 data, the compressed geometry may be represented as an octree from the root all the way down to a leaf level of individual voxels. For Category 1 data, the compressed geometry may be represented by a pruned octree (i.e., an octree from the root down to a leaf level of blocks larger than voxels) plus a model that approximates the surface within each leaf of the pruned octree. In this way, both Category 1 and 3 data share the octree coding mechanism, while Category 1 data may in addition approximate the voxels within each leaf with a surface model. The surface model used is a triangulation comprising 1-10 triangles per block, resulting in a triangle soup. The Category 1 geometry codec is therefore known as the Trisoup geometry codec, while the Category 3 geometry codec is known as the Octree geometry codec.

[81] There are three attribute coding methods in G-PCC: RAHT coding, interpolation-based hierarchical nearest-neighbor prediction (Predicting Transform), and interpolation-based hierarchical nearest-neighbor prediction with an update/lifting step (Lifting Transform). RAHT and Lifting are typically used for Category 1 data, while Predicting is typically used for Category 3 data. However, either method may be used for any data, and, just like with the geometry codecs in G-PCC, the user has the option to choose which of the 3 attribute codecs they would like to use.

[82] According to exemplary embodiments, the geometry may be first coded losslessly up to a user-specified level using octree coding. Finer geometry details may then be then approximated in a lossy manner using a set (a.k.a soup) of triangles. A separate set of triangles may be derived at each leaf node of the octree that collectively approximate a surface (manifold) passing through the corresponding cube. To create the soup, a single vertex may be derived for each edge of the cube which implies that we have at most 12 vertices at our disposal to approximate the surface. Smooth surfaces can be modeled sufficiently well using the 12 available free parameters; however, it may happen that the manifold is too complicated to model using this limited number of free parameters. As such, exemplary embodiments generalize the Trisoup technology adopted in the MPEG/G-PCC to tackle this problem, and a rate-distortion optimization (RDO) scheme is also anticipated for the proposed generalized Trisoup.

[83] The proposed methods may be used separately or combined in any order. Further, each of the methods (or embodiments), encoder, and decoder may be implemented by processing circuitry (e.g., one or more processors or one or more integrated circuits). In one example, the one or more processors execute a program that is stored in a non-transitory computer-readable medium.

[84] Fig. 12 is a simplified illustration 1200 in accordance with embodiments and shows examples 1201 of created Trisoups at leaves. For each unique edge, such as exemplary edge 1202 among others shown among the examples 1201, a flag may be coded indicating that whether it has a vertex, such as the exemplary vertex 1203 among others, or not. If an edge has a vertex, the location of vertex along that edge may also be coded. Each edge may be allowed to have at most one vertex according to exemplary embodiments.

[85] Fig. 13 is a simplified flow illustration 1300 in accordance with embodiments and it will be understood that one or more of the features could be used separately from one or more other features illustrated and/or in a different order than illustrated.

[86] According to exemplary embodiments, as S1301 there is obtained a one or more leaf nodes, and at S1302 there is created two or more triangle soups at each leaf node. This would be helpful to better model a manifold that is too complicated to be modeled using only one soup of triangles. To this end, there is, at S1302 first splitting of each leaf node into two or more smaller rectangular/square cuboids. A separate triangle soup may then be derived at S1303 for each generated cuboid. Splitting the leaf node into smaller cuboids introduces a new set of comer points as well as a new set of edges. For example, an edge of a leaf node could be broken in half which consequently generates one new corner point between the end points of that edge, and also replaces the edge with two shorter new ones according to exemplary embodiments, and also a fixed splitting pattern could be used for all the leaves and/or, as described further below, the splitting pattern could be derived adaptively for each leaf node and signaled accordingly.

[87] According to exemplary embodiments, as illustrated in Fig. 13, the SI 302 may include one or more of the steps S1304-S1310. For example, at S1306, there may be a signally of the splitting pattern of each leaf node, and according to embodiments, a strategy may be to signal only 2 bits per leaf node to indicate the splitting pattern:

00 => no split (1 Trisoup)

01 => split leaf node in half along x axis (2 Trisoups)

10 => split leaf node in half along y axis (2 Trisoups) 11 => split leaf node in half along z axis (2 Trisoups)

[88] Such splitting pattern may be entropy coded and written at SI 321 to the final bit stream. Various splitting patterns could be designed and adopted. If the number of adopted splitting patterns is N, [logi N ] bits are needed to signal the pattern per leaf node.

[89] Also according to one or more exemplary embodiments, the triangle soups may be derived recursively at SI 309 at each leaf node. For each cuboid, three bits, denoted by xyz, may be signaled at each split level. For example, at split level 0, the leaf node may be split in eight ways: xyz = 000 => no split (1 Trisoups) xyz = 001 => split leaf node in half along x axis (2 Trisoups) xyz = 010 => split leaf node in half along y axis (2 Trisoups) xyz = 011 => split leaf node in half along z axis (2 Trisoups) xyz = 100 => split leaf node in half along x and y axis (4 Trisoups) xyz = 101 => split leaf node in half along x and z axis (4 Trisoups) xyz = 110 => split leaf node in half along y and z axis (4 Trisoups) xyz = 111 => split leaf node in half along x, y, and z axis (8 Trisoups)

[90] Likewise, at split level 1, three additional bits may be needed to signal the splitting pattern at each cuboid generated at level 0. These bits may be entropy coded and written to the bit stream at SI 321.

[91] Also according to one or more exemplary embodiments, splitting in embodiments with respect to S1306 and S1309 may be done at an arbitrary location along a particular axis. In such case(s), for each cuboid, there may also be a signal for the splitting location per axis. At any splitting level, if the number of voxels along a particular axis is L, [log2 L ] bits are needed to signal the splitting location along that axis. These bits are entropy coded and written to the bit stream at SI 321.

[92] Also according to one or more exemplary embodiments, a set of splitting flags corresponding to the set of unique segments may be signaled at S1304. For example, each leaf node, or one or more thereof, may be allowed to be split only along one direction (i.e., x, y, or z), or not split at all according to the flags. Such examples may be readily generalized to arbitrary splitting patterns, along arbitrary number of axes, at arbitrary locations, in a recursive manner. For example, if splitting is allowed only at the middle of a segment, a flag is signaled for each unique segment to indicate whether that segment is split or not. If the flag is off, at most one vertex is signaled for that unique segment. If the flag in on, two vertices are signaled for that unique segment. Knowing the set of split and non-split segments of a leaf node, the decoder, such as at S1331, can easily derive the axis along which that leaf node is split and generate either 1 or, 2 or 0 Trisoups.

[93] Also, according to one or more exemplary embodiments, at S1321, an RDO (rate- distortion optimization) scheme may be used at the encoder to determine an optimal splitting pattern. Such encoder may take any of multiple strategies to find an optimal splitting choice. Exemplary embodiments, for example, denote the set of splitting options to be checked by the encoder by W. For each option w E W, the encoder derives a surface which is the union of all the triangle Trisoups generated by that splitting option denoted by T(w). Given T(w), encoder can compute the distortion, W(w), between the uncoded points and the reconstructed points (reconstructed points are generated using T(w) and a triangulation step followed by an up- sampling step). The optimal splitting option is then computed by: where Z?(w) is the coding rate, and l is the Lagrangian multiplier.

Further, computing the distortion (for each splitting option) using common geometry metrics could be computationally expensive. Less complex methods may be used by the encoder at the expense of reduced coding gain. Examples may be, according to exemplary embodiments, to: compute the distortion O(w) as the average distance of uncoded points from the surface T(w), use early termination to stop splitting if the number of points included in a cuboid drops below a certain threshold, and/or favor splits that generate cuboids with larger point densities.

[94] According to exemplary embodiments, a particular splitting pattern (derived either recursively or non-recursively), among a set of available splitting patterns, may be signaled for each leaf node, where each split divides a cuboid edge always in half, and in Table 4.3.1 below, however, splits may be done at arbitrary locations as in Table 4.3.2.

Table 4.3.1 Signaling at leaf node level: split edges always in half Table 4.3.2 Signaling at leaf node level: split edges at arbitrary locations

Table 4.3.3 Signaling at unique segment level for the example mentioned in embodiment e

[95] According to exemplary embodiments in view of the above tables, semantically: generalized trisoup present flag indicates whether the generalized Trisoup is used or not, split_pattem[ i ] indicates a bit pattern that determines the splitting pattern of a leaf node i, and if splitting is done recursively, spl i t pattern [i ] is a multiple of 3 corresponding to x, y, and z axes, and/or split location [ i ] indications the split location. Corresponding to each 1 in spl it pattern [i ], a split location of size \log 2 L] bits is signaled, where L denotes the number of voxels.

Further, at SI 331, there may be a decoding process including signaling at a lead node level in which inputs to this process may be: a splitting pattern corresponding to a leaf node, and/or a split location per splitting pattern (if edges are allowed to get split at arbitrary locations).

[96] Whereby, if edges are only allowed to get split in half, decoder decodes the split pattern for each leaf node and creates a separate Trisoup for each cuboid using the decoded vertexes, and if edges are allowed to get split at arbitrary locations, split pattern and split locations are decoded for each leaf node. Given the split pattern and split locations, decoder thereby creates a set of triangle soups.

[97] Further according to exemplary embodiments, at SI 331, with respect to the unique segment flag features of S1304, there may be, according to exemplary embodiments, inputs to a process of signaling at one or more unique segment levels as: a stream of split flags per unique segment, and/or a stream of vertices.

[98] Whereby, for each unique segment, the decoder may decode a split flag, and if the split flag is 1, the decoder may then decodes two vertices from the stream of vertices, and for a leaf node, once the set of split and non-split segments are determined, the decoder may derive the axis along which the leaf node is split. The decoder may then either create 1 or 2 Trisoups for that node or may not generate a Trisoup at all.

[99] Accordingly, by exemplary embodiments described herein, the technical problems noted above may be advantageously improved upon by one or more of these technical solutions.

[100] The techniques described above, can be implemented as computer software using computer-readable instructions and physically stored in one or more computer-readable media or by a specifically configured one or more hardware processors. For example, FIG. 14 shows a computer system 1400 suitable for implementing certain embodiments of the disclosed subject matter.

[101] The computer software can be coded using any suitable machine code or computer language, that may be subject to assembly, compilation, linking, or like mechanisms to create code comprising instructions that can be executed directly, or through interpretation, micro-code execution, and the like, by computer central processing units (CPUs), Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), and the like.

[102] The instructions can be executed on various types of computers or components thereof, including, for example, personal computers, tablet computers, servers, smartphones, gaming devices, internet of things devices, and the like. [103] The components shown in FIG. 14 for computer system 1400 are exemplary in nature and are not intended to suggest any limitation as to the scope of use or functionality of the computer software implementing embodiments of the present disclosure. Neither should the configuration of components be interpreted as having any dependency or requirement relating to any one or combination of components illustrated in the exemplary embodiment of a computer system 1400.

[104] Computer system 1400 may include certain human interface input devices. Such a human interface input device may be responsive to input by one or more human users through, for example, tactile input (such as: keystrokes, swipes, data glove movements), audio input (such as: voice, clapping), visual input (such as: gestures), olfactory input (not depicted). The human interface devices can also be used to capture certain media not necessarily directly related to conscious input by a human, such as audio (such as: speech, music, ambient sound), images (such as: scanned images, photographic images obtain from a still image camera), video (such as two-dimensional video, three-dimensional video including stereoscopic video).

[105] Input human interface devices may include one or more of (only one of each depicted): keyboard 1401, mouse 1402, trackpad 1403, touch screen 1410, joystick 1405, microphone 1406, scanner 1408, camera 1407.

[106] Computer system 1400 may also include certain human interface output devices. Such human interface output devices may be stimulating the senses of one or more human users through, for example, tactile output, sound, light, and smell/taste. Such human interface output devices may include tactile output devices (for example tactile feedback by the touch-screen 1410, or joystick 1405, but there can also be tactile feedback devices that do not serve as input devices), audio output devices (such as: speakers 1409, headphones (not depicted)), visual output devices (such as screens 1410 to include CRT screens, LCD screens, plasma screens, OLED screens, each with or without touch-screen input capability, each with or without tactile feedback capability — some of which may be capable to output two dimensional visual output or more than three dimensional output through means such as stereographic output; virtual-reality glasses (not depicted), holographic displays and smoke tanks (not depicted)), and printers (not depicted).

[107] Computer system 1400 can also include human accessible storage devices and their associated media such as optical media including CD/DVD ROM/RW 1420 with CD/DVD 1411 or the like media, thumb-drive 1422, removable hard drive or solid state drive 1423, legacy magnetic media such as tape and floppy disc (not depicted), specialized ROM/ASIC/PLD based devices such as security dongles (not depicted), and the like.

[108] Those skilled in the art should also understand that term “computer readable media” as used in connection with the presently disclosed subject matter does not encompass transmission media, carrier waves, or other transitory signals.

[109] Computer system 1400 can also include interface 1499 to one or more communication networks 1498. Networks 1498 can for example be wireless, wireline, optical. Networks 1498 can further be local, wide-area, metropolitan, vehicular and industrial, real-time, delay-tolerant, and so on. Examples of networks 1498 include local area networks such as Ethernet, wireless LANs, cellular networks to include GSM, 3G, 4G, 5G, LTE and the like, TV wireline or wireless wide area digital networks to include cable TV, satellite TV, and terrestrial broadcast TV, vehicular and industrial to include CANBus, and so forth. Certain networks 1498 commonly require external network interface adapters that attached to certain general-purpose data ports or peripheral buses (1450 and 1451) (such as, for example USB ports of the computer system 1400; others are commonly integrated into the core of the computer system 1400 by attachment to a system bus as described below (for example Ethernet interface into a PC computer system or cellular network interface into a smartphone computer system). Using any of these networks 1498, computer system 1400 can communicate with other entities. Such communication can be uni-directional, receive only (for example, broadcast TV), uni-directional send-only (for example CANbusto certain CANbus devices), or bi-directional, for example to other computer systems using local or wide area digital networks. Certain protocols and protocol stacks can be used on each of those networks and network interfaces as described above.

[110] Aforementioned human interface devices, human-accessible storage devices, and network interfaces can be attached to a core 1440 of the computer system 1400.

[111] The core 1440 can include one or more Central Processing Units (CPU) 1441, Graphics Processing Units (GPU) 1442, a graphics adapter 1417, specialized programmable processing units in the form of Field Programmable Gate Areas (FPGA) 1443, hardware accelerators for certain tasks 1444, and so forth. These devices, along with Read-only memory (ROM) 1445, Random-access memory 1446, internal mass storage such as internal non-user accessible hard drives, SSDs, and the like 1447, may be connected through a system bus 1448. In some computer systems, the system bus 1448 can be accessible in the form of one or more physical plugs to enable extensions by additional CPUs, GPU, and the like. The peripheral devices can be attached either directly to the core’s system bus 1448, or through a peripheral bus 1451. Architectures for a peripheral bus include PCI, USB, and the like.

[112] CPUs 1441, GPUs 1442, FPGAs 1443, and accelerators 1444 can execute certain instructions that, in combination, can make up the aforementioned computer code. That computer code can be stored in ROM 1445 or RAM 1446. Transitional data can be also be stored in RAM 1446, whereas permanent data can be stored for example, in the internal mass storage 1447. Fast storage and retrieval to any of the memory devices can be enabled through the use of cache memory, that can be closely associated with one or more CPU 1441, GPU 1442, mass storage 1447, ROM 1445, RAM 1446, and the like.

[113] The computer readable media can have computer code thereon for performing various computer-implemented operations. The media and computer code can be those specially designed and constructed for the purposes of the present disclosure, or they can be of the kind well known and available to those having skill in the computer software arts.

[114] As an example and not by way of limitation, the computer system having architecture 1400, and specifically the core 1440 can provide functionality as a result of processor(s) (including CPUs, GPUs, FPGA, accelerators, and the like) executing software embodied in one or more tangible, computer-readable media. Such computer-readable media can be media associated with user-accessible mass storage as introduced above, as well as certain storage of the core 1440 that are of non-transitory nature, such as core-internal mass storage 1447 or ROM 1445. The software implementing various embodiments of the present disclosure can be stored in such devices and executed by core 1440. A computer-readable medium can include one or more memory devices or chips, according to particular needs. The software can cause the core 1440 and specifically the processors therein (including CPU, GPU, FPGA, and the like) to execute particular processes or particular parts of particular processes described herein, including defining data structures stored in RAM 1446 and modifying such data structures according to the processes defined by the software. In addition or as an alternative, the computer system can provide functionality as a result of logic hardwired or otherwise embodied in a circuit (for example: accelerator 1444), which can operate in place of or together with software to execute particular processes or particular parts of particular processes described herein. Reference to software can encompass logic, and vice versa, where appropriate. Reference to a computer- readable media can encompass a circuit (such as an integrated circuit (IC)) storing software for execution, a circuit embodying logic for execution, or both, where appropriate. The present disclosure encompasses any suitable combination of hardware and software.

[115] While this disclosure has described several exemplary embodiments, there are alterations, permutations, and various substitute equivalents, which fall within the scope of the disclosure. It will thus be appreciated that those skilled in the art will be able to devise numerous systems and methods which, although not explicitly shown or described herein, embody the principles of the disclosure and are thus within the spirit and scope thereof.