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Patent Searching and Data


Title:
TRIAZOLE COMPOUNDS AND METHODS OF MAKING AND USING THE SAME
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2007/025098
Kind Code:
A3
Abstract:
International application No INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT PCT/US2006/03*3170 Box No. IV Text of the abstract (Continuation of item 5 of the first sheet) The present invention provides triazole macrocyclic compounds useful as therapeutic agents. More particularly, these compounds are useful as anti- infective, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, and prokinetic agents. These compounds are represented by the formula (I) wherein the radicals R1, R2, etc. are as defined in the description.

Inventors:
BHATTACHARJEE ASHOKE (US)
CHEN YI (US)
DU YANMING (US)
FARMER JAY J (US)
GOLDBERG JOEL A (US)
KANYO ZOLTAN F (US)
LOU RONGLIANG (US)
SHERER EDWARD C (US)
TANG YUANQING (US)
WU YUSHENG (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2006/033170
Publication Date:
April 26, 2007
Filing Date:
August 24, 2006
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
RIB X PHARMACEUTICALS INC (US)
BHATTACHARJEE ASHOKE (US)
CHEN YI (US)
DU YANMING (US)
FARMER JAY J (US)
GOLDBERG JOEL A (US)
KANYO ZOLTAN F (US)
LOU RONGLIANG (US)
SHERER EDWARD C (US)
TANG YUANQING (US)
WU YUSHENG (US)
International Classes:
C07H17/08; A61K31/7048; A61P31/04
Domestic Patent References:
WO2004029066A22004-04-08
WO2005085266A22005-09-15
WO2005019211A22005-03-03
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ELRIFI, Ivor, R. (Levin Cohn, Ferris,, Glovsky and Popeo PC, One Financial Cente, Boston MA, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:

What is claimed is:

1. A compound having the structure:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof, wherein

T is a 14- or 15-membered rnacrolide connected via a macrocyclic ring carbon atom;

X is selected from (a) H, (b) halogen, (c) a C 1-6 alkyl group, (d) a C 2-6 alkenyl group, (e) a C 2-6 alkynyl group, (f) -OH, (g) -OR 5 , (h) -NR 4 R 4 , (i) -C(O)R 5 , G) -C(O)OR 5 , (k) - C(O)-NR 4 R 4 , (1) -C(S)R 5 , (m) -C(S)OR 5 , (n) -C(O)SR 5 , (o) -C(S)-NR 4 R 4 , (p) -N 3 , (q) -CN, (r) -CF 3 , (s) -CF 2 H, (t) -CFH 2 , (u) -S(O) P H, (v) -SR 5 , (w) -S(O) P OH, (x) -S(O) P OR 5 , (y) - S(O)pNR 4 R 4 , (z) -S(O) p C 1-6 alkyl, (aa) -S(O) p aryl, (bb) a C 3-7 saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, and (cc) a 3-7 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur;

R a and R b independently are selected from: (a) H, (b) a

C 1-6 alkyl group, (c) a C 2-6 alkenyl group, (d) a C 2-6 alkynyl group, (e) -OH, (f) -OR 5 , (g) - NR 4 R 4 , (f) -C(O)R 5 , (g) -C(O)OR 5 , (h) -C(O)-NR 4 R 4 , (i) -C(S) P R 5 , O) -C(S) P OR 5 , (k) - C(O)SR 5 , (1) -C(8) P -NR 4 R 4 , or (m) halogen, (n) -SH, (o) - SR 5 ; or alternatively R a and R b are taken together with the carbon to which they are attached to form (a) -C(O)-, (b) -C(S)-, (c) -C=NR 4 , (d) -C=NOR 5 , wherein (b) -(d) are further optionally substituted with one or more R 5 ;

R c is selected from: (a) H, (b) a C 1-6 alkyl group, (c) a C 2-6 alkenyl group, (d) a C 2-6 alkynyl group, (e) -OH, (f) -OR 5 , (g) -NR 4 R 4 , (f) -C(O)R 5 , (g) -C(O)OR 5 , (h) -C(O)-

NR 4 R 4 , (i) -C(S)R 3 , (j) -C(S)OR 3 , (k) -C(O)SR 3 , (1) -C(S)-NR 4 R 4 , or (m) halogen;

R d and R e independently are selected from: (a) H, (b) a C 1-6 alkyl group, (c) a C 2-6 alkenyl group, (d) a C 2-6 alkynyl group, (e) -OH, (f) -OR 5 , (g) -NR 4 R 4 , (f) -C(O)R 5 , (g) -

C(O)OR 5 , (h) -C(O)-NR 4 R 4 , (i) -C(S)R 5 , (j) -C(S)OR 5 , (k) -C(O)SR 5 , (1) -C(S)-NR 4 R 4 , or (m) halogen, or alternatively, R c and R d or R c and R e are taken together to form a carbon-carbon double bond between the carbon atoms to which they are attached; alternatively R d and X are taken together to form =CR 5 R 5 ; or alternatively R d and R e are taken together with the carbon to which they are attached to form (a) -C(O)-, (b) -C(S)-, (c) -C=NR 4 , or (d) -C=NOR 5 , (e) =CH 2 , or (f) 3-10- membered carbocycle or heterocycle optionally substituted with one or more R ; R 1 and R 3 independently are selected from: (a) H, (b) a Ci- 6 alkyl group, (c) a C 2-6 alkenyl group, (d) a C 2-6 alkynyl group, (e) -C(O)R 5 , (f) -C(O)OR 5 , (g) -C(O)-NR 4 R 4 , (h) -C(S)R 5 , (i) -C(S)OR 5 , (j) -C(O)SR 5 , or (k) -C(S)- NR 4 R 4 ; alternatively R 1 and R 3 are taken together with the oxygen to which R 1 is attached, the nitrogen to which R 3 is attached and the two intervening carbons to form a 5 or 6 membered ring, said ring being optionally substituted with one or more R R 2 is hydrogen or -OR 12 ; G is selected from: (a) -B' and (b) -B'-Z-B", wherein i) each B' and B" is independently selected from (aa) an aryl group, (bb) a heteroaryl group, (cc) a biaryl group, (dd) a fused bicyclic or tricyclic saturated, unsaturated or aromatic ring system optionally containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, (ee) a 3-10 membered saturated or unsaturated heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, (ff) a 3-10 membered saturated, or unsaturated carbocycle, wherein each (aa)-(ff) optionally is substituted with one or more R 11 or R lla groups; and ii) Z is selected from (aa) a single bond, (bb) a Q.j alkyl group, (cc) a C 2-6 alkenyl group, (dd) a C 2-6 alkynyl group, (ee) -C(O)- (ff) -C(O)O-, (gg) -C(O)NR 4 - , (hh) -^(=NR 4 )-, (ii) -C(=NR 4 )0-, Gj) -C(=NR 4 )NR 4 - (kk) -S(0) p - (11) -OC(O)- ,(mm) -C(S)- (nn) -C(S)NR 4 -, (oo) -C(NR 4 )S- (pp) - C(O)S-, (qq) -O- (ir) -NR 4 -, (ss) -NR 4 C(O)- (tt) -OC(NR 4 )-, (uu)

-NC(NR 4 )-, (vv) -C(S)O-, (ww) -SC(O)- (xx) -OC(S)- or (yy) - S(O)p-; R 4 , at each occurrence, independently is selected from: (a) H, (b) a Ci-6 allcyl group, (c) a C 2-6 alkenyl group, (d) a C 2- 6 alkynyl group, (e) a Ce -1O saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, (f) a 3-12 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic lieterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, (g) -C(O)-C] -G allcyl, (h) -C(O)-C 2-6 alkenyl, (i) -C(O)-C 2-6 alkynyl, (j) -C(O)-C 6 -Io saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, (k) -C(O)-3-12 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, (1) -C(O)O-C 1 - O allcyl, (m) - C(O)O-C 2-6 alkenyl, (n) -C(O)O-C 2-6 alkynyl, (o) -C(O)O-C 6-IO saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, p) -C(O)O- 3-12 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic lieterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, and q) - C(O)NR 6 R 6 , wherein any of (b)-(p) optionally is substituted with one or more R 5 groups, alternatively, NR R forms a 3-7 membered saturated, unsaturated or aromatic ring including the nitrogen atom to which the R 4 groups are bonded, wherein said ring is optionally substituted at a position other than the nitrogen atom to which the R 4 groups are bonded, with one or more moieties selected from O, S(0) p , N, and NR 8 ; R 5 is selected from: (a) R 7 , (b) a C 1-8 alkyl group, (c) a C 2-8 alkenyl group, (d) a C 2-8 alkynyl group, (e) a C 3-I2 saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, and (f) a 3-12 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic lieterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, or alternatively two R 5 groups, when present on the same carbon atom can be taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form a spiro 3-6 membered carbocyclic ring or heterocyclic ring containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur; wherein any of (b)-(f) immediately above optionally is substituted with one or more R 7 groups;

91 R 6 , at each occurrence, independently is selected from:

92 (a) H, (b) a C i- 6 alkyl group, (c) a C 2-6 alkenyl group, (d) a C 2-6 alkynyl group,

93 (e) a C 3-I o saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, and (f) a 3-10

94 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or

95 more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur,

96 wherein any of (b)-(f) optionally is substituted with one or more

97 moieties selected from:

98 (aa) a carbonyl group, (bb) a formyl group, (cc) F, (dd) Cl, (ee)

99 Br, (ff) I, (gg) CN, (hli) NO 2 , (ii) -OR 8 , i oo OJ) -S(0) P R 8 , (kk) -C(O)R 8 , (ii) -C(O)OR 8 ,

101 (mm) -OC(O)R 8 , (nn) -C(O)NR 8 R 8 ,

102 (oo) -OC(O)NR 8 R 8 , (pp) -C(=NR 8 )R 8 ,

103 (qq) -C(R 8 )(R 8 )OR 8 , (rr) -C(R 8 ) 2 OC(O)R 8 ,

104 (ss) -C(R 8 )(OR 8 )(CH 2 ) r NR 8 R 8 , (tt) -NR 8 R 8 ,

105 (uu) -NR 8 OR 8 , (w) -NR 8 C(O)R 8 ,

106 (ww) -NR 8 C(O)OR 8 , (xx) -NR 8 C(O)NR 8 R 8 ,

107 (yy) -NR 8 S(O) 1 R 8 , (zz) -C(OR 8 )(OR 8 )R 8 ,

108 (ab) -C(R 8 ) 2 NR 8 R 8 , (ac) =NR 8 ,

109 (ad) -C(S)NR 8 R 8 , (ae) -NR 8 C(S)R 8 ,

110 (af) -OC(S)NR 8 R 8 , (ag) -NR 8 C(S)OR 8 ,

111 (ah) -NR 8 C(S)NR 8 R 8 , (ai) -SC(O)R 8 ,

112 (aj) a Ci -8 alkyl group, (ak) a C 2-8 alkenyl group, (al) a

113 C 2-8 alkynyl group, (am) a Ci -8 alkoxy group, (an) a Ci -8

114 alkylthio group, (ao) a Ci -8 acyl group, (ap) -CF 3 ,

115 (aq) -SCF 3 , (ar) a C 3-I o saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic

116 carbocycle, and (as) a 3-10 membered saturated, unsaturated, or

117 aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms

118 selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur,

119 alternatively, NR 6 R 6 forms a 3-10 membered saturated, unsaturated or aromatic ring

120 including the nitrogen atom to which the R 6 groups are attached wherein said ring is

121 optionally substituted at a position other than the nitrogen atom to which the R 6 groups are

122 bonded, with one or more moieties selected from O, S(O) P , N, and NR 8 ;

123 alternatively, CR 6 R 6 forms a carbonyl group;

124 R , at each occurrence, is selected from:

125 (a) H, (b) =0, (c) F, (d) Cl, (e) Br, (f) I, (g) -CF 3 ,

126 (h) -CN, (i) -N 3 (j) -NO 2 , (Ic) -NR 6 (CR 6 R 6 ) t R 9 , (1) -OR 9 , (m) -

127 S(O)pC(R 6 R 6 ) t R 9 , (n) -C(O)(CR 6 R 6 ) t R 9 , (o) -OC(O)(CR 6 R 6 ) t R 9 , (p) -

128 SC(O)(CR 6 R 6 ) t R 9 , (q) -C(O)O(CR 6 R 6 ) t R 9 , (r) -NR 6 C(O)(CR 6 R 6 ) t R 9 , (s) -

129 C(O)NR 6 (CR 6 R 6 )tR 9 , (t) -C(=NR 6 )(CR 6 R 6 )tR 9 , (u) -C(=NNR 6 R 6 )(CR 6 R 6 ) t R 9 ,

130 (v) -C(=NNR 6 C(O)R 6 )(CR 6 R 6 ) t R 9 , (w) -C(=NOR 9 )(CR 6 R 6 )tR 9 , (x) -

131 NR 6 C(O)O(CR 6 R 6 ) t R 9 , (y) -OC(O)NR 6 (CR 6 R 6 ) t R 9 , (z) -

132 NR 6 C(O)NR 6 (CR 6 R 6 ) t R 9 , (aa) -NR 6 S(O) p (CR 6 R 6 ) t R 9 , (bb) -

133 S(O)pNR 6 (CR 6 R 6 ) t R 9 , (cc) -NR 6 S(O) p NR 6 (CR 6 R 6 ) t R 9 , (dd) -NR 6 R 6 , (ee) -

134 NR 6 (CR 6 R 6 ), (ff) -OH, (gg) -NR 6 R 6 , (Mi) -OCH 3 , (ii) -S(O) p R 6 , Qj) -

135 NC(O)R 6 , (fck) a C μ6 alkyl group, (11) a C 2 . 6 alkenyl group, (mm) a

136 C 2 . 6 alkynyl group, (nn) -C 3-K ) saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle,

137 and (oo) 3-10 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle

138 containing one or more lieteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and

139 sulfur,

140 wherein any of (kk)-(oo) optionally is substituted with one or more R 9

141 groups;

142 alternatively, two R 7 groups can form -O(CH 2 ) U O-;

143 R is selected from:

144 (a) R 5 ,(b) H, (be) a C 1-6 alkyl group, (cd) a C 2-6 alkenyl group, (de) a

145 C 2.6 alkynyl group, (ef) a C 3-1O saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle,

146 (fg) a 3-10 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle

147 containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and

148 sulfur, (gh) -C(O)-C 1-6 alkyl, (hi) -C(O)-C 1-6 alkenyl, (ij) -C(O)-C 1-6

149 alkynyl, Qk) -C(O)-C 3-I o saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, and

150 (kl) -C(O)-3-10 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle

151 containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and

152 sulfur,

153 wherein any of (bc)-(k) optionally is substituted with one or more

154 moieties selected from : (aa) H, (bb) F, (cc) Cl, (dd) Br, (ee) I, (ff) CN,

155 (gg) NO 2 , (hh) OH, (ii) NH 2 , Oj) NH(C 1-6 alkyl), (kk) N(C 1-6 alkyl) 2 ,

156 (11) a Ci- 6 alkoxy group, (mm) an aryl group, (nn) a substituted aryl

157 group, (oo) a heteroaryl gi'oup, (pp) a substituted heteroaryl group, and

158 qq) a C 1-6 alkyl group optionally substituted with one or more moieties

159 selected from an aryl group, a substituted aiyl group, a heteroaryl

160 group, a substituted heteroaryl group, F, Cl, Br, I, CN, NO 2 , CF 3 , SCF 3 ,

161 and OH;

162 R 9 , at each occurrence, independently is selected from:

163 (a) R 10 , (b) a C 1-6 alkyl group, (c) a C 2 . 6 alkenyl group, (d) a C 2 . 6 alkynyl

164 group, e) a C 3- io saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, and f) a 3-10

165 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or

166 more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur,

167 wherein any of (b)-(f) optionally is substituted with one or more R 10

168 groups;

169 R 1 , at each occurrence, independently is selected from:

170 (a) H, (b) =0, (C) F, (d) Cl, (e) Br, (f) I, (g) -CF 3 , (h) -CN, (i) -NO 2 , (j) -

171 NR 6 R 6 , (k) -OR 6 , (1) -S(O) p R 6 , (m) -C(O)R 6 , (n) -C(O)OR 6 , (o) -OC(O)R 6 ,

172 (p) NR 6 C(O)R 6 , (q) -C(O)NR 6 R 6 , (r) -C(=NR 6 )R 6 , (s) -NR 6 C(O)NR 6 R 6 , (t) -

173 NR 6 S(O) p R 6 , (u) -S(O) p NR 6 R 6 , (v) -NR 6 S(O) p NR 6 R 6 , (w) a C u6 alkyl group,

174 (x) a C 2 . 6 alkenyl group, (y) a C 2 . 6 alkynyl group, (z) a C 3-I o saturated,

175 unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, and (aa) a 3-10 membered saturated,

176 unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms

177 selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur,

178 wherein any of (w)-(aa) optionally is substituted with one or more

179 moieties selected from R 6 , F, Cl, Br, I, CN, NO 2 , -OR 6 , -NH 2 , -

180 NH(C 1-6 alkyl), -N(C 1-6 alkyl) 2 , a C 1-6 alkoxy group, a C ]-6 alkylthio

181 group, and a C 1-6 acyl group;

182 R 1 ' and R l la at each occurrence, independently is selected from:

183 (a) a carbonyl group, (b) a formyl group, (c) F, (d) Cl, (e) Br, (f) I, (g) CN, (h)

184 NO 2 , (i) OR 8 , (j) -S(O) P R 8 , (k) -C(O)R 8 , (1) -C(O)OR 8 ,

185 (m) -OC(O)R 8 , (n) -C(O)NR 8 R 8 , (o) -OC(O)NR 8 R 8 ,

186 (p) -C(=NR 8 )R 8 , (q) -C(R 8 )(R 8 )OR 8 , (r) -C(R 8 ) 2 OC(O)R 8 ,

187 (s) -C(R 8 )(OR 8 )(CH 2 ) r NR 8 R 8 , (t) -NR 8 R 8 , (u) -NR 8 OR 8 ,

188 (v) -NR 8 C(O)R 8 , (w) -NR 8 C(O)OR 8 , (x) -NR 8 C(O)NR 8 R 8 , (y) -NR 8 S(O) P R 8 ,

189 (z) -C(OR 8 )(OR 8 )R 8 , (aa) -C(R 8 ) 2 NR 8 R 8 , (bb) =NR 8 , (cc) -C(S)NR 8 R 8 , (dd) -

190 NR 8 C(S)R 8 , (ee) -OC(S)NR 8 R 8 , (ff) -NR 8 C(S)OR 8 , (gg) -NR 8 C(S)NR 8 R 8 ,

191 (hh) -SC(O)R 8 , (ii) -N 3 , (Jj) -Si(R I3 ) 3 , (kkii) a C 1-8 alkyl group, (lljj) a

192 C 2-8 alkenyl group, (mmkk) a C 2-8 alkynyl group, (nnll) a Ci -8 alkoxy gi'oup,

193 (oomm) a Ci -8 alkylthio group, (ppnn) a C] -8 acyl group, (qqoo) a C 3- ]O

194 saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, and (rrpp) a 3-10 membered

195 saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more

196 heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, wherein (kkii)-

197 (mmkk) optionally are substituted with one or more R 5 groups;

198 R 12 is selected from:

199 (a) H, (b) a C 1-6 alkyl group, (c) a C 2-6 alkenyl group, (d) a C 2-6 alkynyl group,

200 (e) -C(O)R 5 , (f) -C(O)OR 5 , (g) -C(O)-NR 4 R 4 , (h) -C(S)R 5 , (i) -C(S)OR 5 , (j)

201 -C(O)SR 5 , (k) -C(S)-NR 4 R 4 , (1) a C 3-I0 saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic

202 carbocycle, or (m) a 3-10 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic

203 heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen,

204 oxygen, and sulfur, (n) a -(C 1-6 alkyl) -C 3- io saturated, unsaturated, or

205 aromatic carbocycle, or (o) a -(C 1-6 alkyl)-3-10 membered saturated,

206 unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms

207 selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur,

208 wherein (a)— (d) and (l)-(o) optionally are substituted with one or more

209 R 5 groups;

210 each R 13 is independently selected from (a) -C 1-6 alkyl and (b) -0-(C 1-6 alkyl):

211 p at each occurrence is 0, 1, or 2;

212 r at each occurrence is 0, 1, or 2;

213 t at each occurrence is 0, 1, or 2;

214 and u at each occurrence is 1, 2, 3, or 4.

215

1 2. A compound according to claim 1, having the structure:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof, wherein G, T, X, R , R 2 , R 3 , R a , R b , and R c , are as described in claim 1.

3. A compound according to claim 2, having the structure:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof wherein G, T, X, R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R a , R b , and R c , are as described in claim 1.

4. A compound according to claim 2, having the structure:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof wherein G, T, X, R 1 , R ~ * 2 , T Rt 'i% τ R-,a a , R r>b D , and R c , are as described in claim 1.

5. A compound according to any one of claims 1-4 wherein X is selected from (a) H, (b) Cl, (C) Br, (d) F, (e) -OH, (f) -CN, (g) -CF 3 , (h) -CF 2 H, (i) -CFH 2 , (j) -0(C 1-6 alkyl), (k) -N 3 , (1) -COOH, (m) -COO( C 1-6 alkyl), (n) -NH 2 , (o) -NH( C 1-6 alkyl), (p) -N(C 1-6 alkyl) 2 , (q) - C(O)NH 2 , (r) -C(O)NH( C 1-6 alkyl), (s) -C(O)N( C 1-6 alkyl) 2 , (t) -NHC(O)H, (u) -NHC(O)(Ci- ealkyl), (v) -N( C 1-6 alkyl)C(O)H, (w) -N( C 1-6 alkyl)C(O)N(Ci^alkyl).

6. A compound according to any one of claims 1-5 wherein X is selected from F and OH.

7. A compound according to any one of claims 1-6 wherein X is F.

8. A compound according to any one of claims 1-6 wherein X is OH.

9. A compound according to any one of claims 1-8 wherein R d and R e are selected from (a) Cl, (b) Br, (c) F, (d) H and (e) C 1-6 alkyl.

10. A compound according to any one of claims 1-9 wherein R d and R e are H.

11. A compound according to any one of claims 1-10 wherein R c is selected from (a) H, (b) Cl, (c) Br, (d) F, (e) C 1-6 alkyl, (f) -CF 3 , (g) -CF 2 H, and (li) -CFH 2 .

12. A compound according to any one of claims 1-11 wherein R c is H.

13. A compound according to any one of claims 1-12 wherein R a and R b are selected from (a) H, (b) Cl, (b) Br, (d) F, (g) -OH, (h) -0(C 1-6 alkyl), (i) -N 3 , C) -COOH, (k) -COO(C 1- 6 alkyl), (1) -CN, (m) -NH 2 , (n) -NH(C 1-6 alkyl), (o) -N(C 1-6 alkyl) 2 , (p)-C(O)NH 2 , (q) - C(O)NH(C 1-6 alkyl), (r) -C(O)N(C 1-6 alkyl) 2 , (s) -NHC(O)H, (t) -NHC(O)( C 1-6 alkyl), (u) - N(C 1-6 alkyl)C(O)H, (v) -N(C 1-6 alkyl)C(O)N(C 1-6 alkyl), or alternatively R a and R b are taken together with the carbon to which they are attached to form (aa) -CO or (bb) -CS.

14. A compound according to any one of claims 1-13 wherein R a and R b are selected from H, F, and OH.

15. A compound according to any one of claims 1-14 wherein R a is H and R b is F.

16. A compound according to any one of claims 1-14 wherein R a is H and R b is -OH.

17. A compound according to any one of claims 1-14 wherein R a and R b are taken together with the carbon to which they are attached to form -C=O.

18. A compound according to any one of claims 1-17 wherein R 1 is H.

19. A compound according to any one of claims 1-18 wherein R 2 is H.

20. A compound according to any one of claims 1-19 wherein R is C^alkyl.

21. A compound according to any one of claims 1-20 wherein R 3 is methyl.

22. A compound according to any one of claims 1-21, wherein G is B'.

23. A compound according to any one of claims 1-22, wherein B' is selected from: (a) an aryl group, (b) a heteroaryl group, (c) a biaryl group, and (d) a fused bicyclic or tricyclic unsaturated or aromatic ring system optionally containing one or more carbonyl groups and one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, wherein each (a)-(d) optionally is substituted with one or more R 11 groups.

24. A compound according to any one of claims 1-21, wherein G is -B'-Z-B".

25. A compound according to claim 24, wherein B' and B" are independently selected from: (a) an aryl group, (b) a heteroaryl group, (c) a biaryl group, and (d) a fused bicyclic or tricyclic unsaturated or aromatic ring system optionally containing one or more carbonyl groups and one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, wherein each (a)-(d) optionally is substituted with one or more R 1 1 groups, and Z is selected from (aa) a single bond, (bb) -O-, (cc) -NR 4 -, (dd) -C(O)-, (ee) -C(S)-, (fit) -S(O) P -, and (gg) a Ci- 6 allcyl.

26. A compound according to claim 3, having the structure:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof wherein G, T, X, R 1 , R 2 , and R 3 are as described in claim 1.

27. A compound according to claim 3, having the structure:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof wherein B", T, X, Z, R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , and R 1 ' are as described in claim 1.

28. A compound according to claim 3, having the structure:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof wherein B", T, X, Z, R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , and R 1 ' are as described in claim 1.

29. A compound according to claim 3, having the structure:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof wherein B", T, X, Z, R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , and R 1 λ are as described in claim 1.

30. A compound according to claim 3, having the structure:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof wherein B", T, X, Z, R , R 2 , R 3 , and R 1 are as described in claim 1.

31. A compound according to any of claims 1-30 wherein X is selected from F and OH.

32. A compound according to claim 31 wherein X is F.

33. A compound according to claim 31 wherein X is OH.

34. A compound according to any of claims 1-33 wherein R 11 is selected from H and F

35. A compound according to any of claims 34 wherein R 11 is H.

36. A compound according to any of claims 34 wherein R 11 is F.

37. A compound according to any of claims 1-36 wherein -ZB" is selected from:

wherein R I la is as described as in claim 1.

38. A compound according to any one of according to any one of claims 1-37, wherein T is:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof,

wherein: M is selected from: . (a) -C((0)- (b) -CHC-OR 114 )- (c) -NR 1 14 -CH 2 - (d) -CH 2 -NR 114 -, (e) - CH(NR 114 R 1 14 )- (f) -CC=NNR 1 14 R 1 14 )-, (g) -NR 114 -C(0)-, (h) -C(O)NR 1 14 - (i) -CC=NR 114 H (J) -CR 115 R 115 -, and (k) -C(=NOR 127 )-; R 100 is selected from (a) H, (b) F, (c) Cl, (d) Br, (e) -SR 114 , and (f) C ]-6 alkyl, wherein (f) optionally is substituted with one or more R 1 15 groups; R 101 is selected from: (a) H, (b) Cl, (C) F, (d) Br, (e) I, (f) -NR 1 14 R 1 14 , (g) -NR 114 C(O)R 114 , (h) -

OR 1 14 (i) -OC(O)R " 1 1 4 4 , W - /O"wC-i(/vO-v)ORD " 1 1 4 4 , (1) -0-C 1-6 alkyl, (m) -OC(O)-C 1-6 alkyl, (n) -OC(O)O-C -6 alkyl, (o) -OC(O)NR 114 -C. 6 alkyl, (p) C I -6 alkyl, (q) C 1-6 alkenyl, and (r) C 1-6 alkynyl, wherein any of (1) - (r) optionally is substituted with one or more R 115 groups; R 102 is H, O) F, (c) Cl, (d) Br, (e) -SR 1 14 , (f) C 1-6 alkyl, wherein (f) optionally is substituted with one or more R 115 groups; R 103 is selected from: (a) H, (b) -OR 1 14 , (c) -O-C 1-6 alkyl-R 115 , (d) -OC((O)R 114 , (e) -OC(O)-C -6 alkyl-R 115 , (f) -OC(O)OR 114 , (g) -OC(O)O-C -6 alkyl-R 1 (h) -OC(O)NR 114 R 114 , (i) -OC(O)NR 114 -C i -6 alkyl-R 115 , and

alternatively, R 102 and R 103 taken together with the carbon to which they are attached form (a) a carbonyl group or (b) a 3-7 membered saturated, unsaturated or aromatic carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring which can optionally be substituted with one or more R 114 groups; alternatively, R and R 1 taken together are a single bond between the respective carbons to which these two groups are attached thereby creating a double bond between the carbons to which R 100 and R 102 are attached;

altematively, R 101 and R 103 taken together with the carbons to which they are attached form a 3-membered saturated, unsaturated or aromatic carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring which can optionally be substituted with one or more R 1 14 groups ; R 104 is selected from:

(a) H, (b) R 1 14 , (c) -C(O)R 1 14 (d) -C(O)OR 114 (e) -C(O)NR 1 14 R 114 , (f) -C 1-6 alkyl-K-R 114 , (g) -C 2-6 alkenyl-K-R 114 , and (h) -C 2-6 alkynyl-K-R , 1 1 14. K is selected from:

(a) -C(O)- (b) -C(O)O-, (C) -C(O)NR 114 - (d) -Q=NR 1 14 )- (e)

C(=NR 1 14 )0-,

, 114

(f) -C(=NR 114 )NR 114 -, (g) -OC(O)-, (h) -OC(O)O-, (i) -OC(O)NR 1

G) -NR 114 C(O)-, (k) -NR 114 C(O)O-, (1) -NR 114 C(O)NR 1 14 -,

(m) -NR 114 C(=NR 114 )NR 114 -, and (o) -S(0) p -; alternatively R 103 and R 104 , taken together with the atoms to which they are bonded, form:

wherein R 135 and R 136 are selected from (a) hydrogen, (b) C 1-6 allcyl, (c) C 2-6 alkenyl, (d) C 2-6 alkynyl, (d) C 3-I4 saturated, unsaturated or aromatic carbocycle, (e) 3-14 membered saturated, unsaturated or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms, (F) F, (g) Br, (h) I, (i) OH, (j) -N 3 , wherein (b) through (e) are optionally substituted with one or more R 117 ; or alternatively, R 135 and R 136 are taken together to form

=0, =S and =-N M/ 0 λT R D H' 1 4 4 , „ a„nd,* wherein V is selected from(a) -(C 4 -alkyl)-, (b)-(C 4 -alkenyl)-, (c) O, (d) S 5 and (e) NR 114 , wherein (a) and (b) are optionally further substituted with one or more R 117 ;

R 105 is selected from:

(a) R , 1 1 1 1 4 4 , (b) -OR , 1 1 14 , (c) -NR > 1'1 '4 4 τR, 1 1 1 '4 4 , (d) -0-C 1-6 (e) -C(O)-R , 114 (f) -C(O)-C -6 alkyl-R 115 , (g) -OC(O)-R 114 , (h) -OC(O)-Cj -6 alkyl-R 115 , (i) -OC(O)O-R 114 , © -OC(O)O-C 1-6 alkyl-R 115 , (k) -OC(O)NR 114 R 114 , (1) -OC(O)NR 114 -C, -6 alkyl-R 115 , (m) -C(O)-C 2-6 alkenyl-R 115 , and (n) -C(O)-C 2-6 alkynyl-R 115 ;

alternatively, R 104 and R 105 , taken together with the atoms to which they are bonded, form

wherein

Q is CH or N, and R 126 is -OR 1 14 , -NR 114 or R 114 ; alternatively, R 104 and R 105 , taken together with the atoms to which they are bonded, form:

wherein i) R 101 is as defined above; ii) alternately, R 101 and R 109 can be taken together with the carbon to which they are attached to form a carbonyl group; iii) alternately, R 101 and R 109 can be taken together to form the group -O(CR 116 R 116 ) U O-; alternatively, R 104 and R 105 , taken together with the atoms to which they are bonded, form:

wherein in the preceding structure the dotted line indicates an optional double bond i) R 130 is -OH, or R 114 , ii) R 131 is -OH, or R 1 14 ,

81 iii) alternately, R 130 and R 131 together with the carbons to which

82 they are attached form a 3-7 membered saturated, unsaturated

83 or aromatic carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring which can

84 optionally be substituted with one or more R 114 groups;

85 iv) alternatively, R 130 and the carbon to which it is attached or R 131

86 and the carbon to which it is attached are each

87 independently -C(O)-;

88 alternatively, R 105 , R 132 and M, taken together with the atoms to which they are

89 attached, form:

91 R 106 is selected from:

92 (a) -OR 114 , (b) -C 1-6 alkoxy-R 1 15 , (c) -C(O)R 114 , (d) -OC(O)R 114 , (e) -

93 OC(O)OR 114 , (f) -OC(O)NR 1 14 R 114 , and (g) -NR 114 R 114 ,

94 alternatively, R 105 and R 106 taken together with the atoms to which they are attached

95 form a 5-membered ring by attachment to each other through a chemical moiety selected

96 from:

97 (a) -OC(R 115 ) 2 O- (b) -OC(O)O-, (c) -OC(O)NR 114 - (d) -NR 114 C(O)O-

98 (e) -OC(O)NOR 114 -, (f) -NOR 1 14 -C(0)0-, (g) -OC(O)NNR 114 R 1 14 -,

99 (h) -NNR 114 R 114 -C(0)0- (i) -OC(O)C(R 115 ) 2 - O) -C(R 115 ) 2 C(O)O- (k) - OO OC(S)O-, (1) -OC(CS)NR 114 - (m) -NR 114 C(S)O-, (n) -OC(S)NOR 114 -, (o) - 01 - NOR 114 -C(S)O- (p) -OC(S)NNR 114 R 114 - (q) -NNR 114 R 114 -C(S)O- (r) - 02 OC(S)C(R 115 ) 2 - and (s) -C(R 115 ) 2 C(S)O-; 03 alternatively, R 105 , R 106 , and R 133 taken together with the atoms to which they are attached 04 form:

106 alternatively, M, R , 1O 5 , and λ r R> 106 . taken together with the atoms to which they are attached

107 form:

109 wherein in the preceding structure the dotted line indicates an optional double bond,

110 or

112 wherein J 1 and J 2 are selected from hydrogen, Cl, F, Br, I, OH, -C 1 . 6 alkyl, and -0(Ci- 6 alkyl)

113 or are taken together to form =0, =S and =NR 1 14 , =NOR m , =NR 114 , and =N-

114 NR U4 ,R 114 ;

115 alternatively, M and R , 104 , taken together with the atoms to which they are attached form:

119 wherein U is selected from(a) -(C 4 -alkyl)- and (b)-(C 4 -alkenyl)- 5 wherein (a) and (b)

120 are optionally further substituted with one or more R 117.

121 alternatively, M and R , 1O 5 are taken together with the atoms to which they are attached 122 to form:

124 R 107 is selected from 125 (a) H, (b) -Q -4 alkyl, (c) -C 2-4 alkenyl, which can be further substituted with 126 C M2 alkyl or one or more halogens, (d) -C 2 - 4 alkynyl, which can be further 127 substituted with Ci -I2 alkyl or one or more halogens, (e) aryl or heteroaryl, 128 which can be further substituted with Ci -I2 alkyl or one or more halogens, (f) - 129 C(O)H, (g) -COOH, (h) -CN, (i) -COOR 114 , Q) -C(O)NR 114 R 114 , (k) - 130 C(O)R 114 , and (1) -C(O)SR 114 , wherein (b) is further substituted with one or 131 more substituents selected from (aa) -OR 114 , (bb) halogen, (cc) -SR 114 , (dd) 132 Ci -I2 alkyl, which can be further substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, 133 C 1-6 alkoxy, or amino, (ee) -OR 1 14 , (ff) -SR 114 , (gg) -NR 114 R 114 , (hh) -CN, 134 (U)-NO 2 , (u) -NC(O)R 114 , (fck) -COOR 114 , (11) -N 3 , (mm) =N-0-R 114 , (nn) 135 ^NR 114 , (oo) =N-NR 114 R 114 , (pp) =N-NH-C(O)R 114 , and (qq) =N-NH- 136 C(O)NR 114 R 114 ; 137 alternatively R 106 and R 107 are taken together with the atom to which they are attached 138 to form an epoxide, a carbonyl, an olefin, or a substituted olefin, or a C 3 -C 7 carbocyclic, 139 carbonate, or carbamate, wherein the nitrogen of said carbamate can be further substituted 140 with a Ci-C 6 alkyl;

141 R 108 is selected from:

142 (a) C i- 6 alkyl, (b) C 2 - 6 alkenyl, and (c) C 2-6 alkynyl,

143 wherein any of (a)-(c) optionally is substituted with one or more R 1 14

144 groups;

145 R 11 1 is selected from H and -C(O)R 1 14 ;

146 R 112 is selected from H, OH, and OR 114 ;

147 R 113 is selected from:

148 (a) H, (b) R 1 u , (c) -C 1-6 alkyl-K-R 114 , (d) -C 2-6 alkenyl-K-R 1 14 , and

149 (e) -C 2-6 alkynyl-K-R 1 14 ,

150 wherein any of (c)-(e) optionally is substituted with one or more R 1 15

151 groups;

152 R 114 , at each occurrence, independently is selected from:

153 (a) H, (b) C 1-6 alkyl, (c) C 2-6 alkenyl, (d) C 2-6 alkynyl, (e) C 6- I 0 saturated,

154 unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, (f) 3-12 membered saturated, unsaturated,

155 or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from

156 nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, (g) -C(O)-C 1-6 alkyl, (h) -C(O)-C 2-6 alkenyl,

157 (i) -C(O)-C 2-6 alkynyl, (j) -C(O)-C 6-I o saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic

158 carbocycle, (Ic) -C(O)-3-12 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic

159 heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen,

160 oxygen, and sulfur, (1) -C(O)O-C 1-6 alkyl, (m) -C(O)O-C 2-6 alkenyl, (n) -

161 C(O)O-C 2-6 alkynyl, (o) -C(O)O-C 6-I0 saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic

162 carbocycle, (p) -C(O)O- 3-12 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic

163 heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen,

164 oxygen, and sulfur, (q) -C(O)NR 116 R 116 , (r) -NR 1I6 CO-C2-6 alkyl, (s) -

165 NR 1 ' CO-C 6-I0 saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, and (t) —

166 NR 116 C(O)-3-12 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle

167 containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and

168 sulfur,

169 wherein any of (b)-(t) optionally is substituted with one or more R 1 ' 5

170 groups, wherein one or more non-terminal carbon moieties of any of

171 (b)-(d) optionally is replaced with oxygen, S(0) p , or -NR 116 ,

172 alternatively, NR 114 R 114 forms a 3-7 membered saturated, unsaturated or aromatic ring

173 including the nitrogen atom to which the R 11 groups are bonded and optionally one or more

174 moieties selected from O, S(O ) p , N, and NR 118 ;

175 R 115 is selected from:

176 (a) R 117 , (b) Ci -8 alkyl, (c) C 2-8 alkenyl, (d) C 2-8 alkynyl, (e) C 3-I2 saturated,

177 unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, (f) 3-12 membered saturated, unsaturated,

178 or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from

179 nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur,

180 wherein any of (b)-(f) optionally is substituted with one or more R 117

181 groups;

182 R 1 ' 6 , at each occurrence, independently is selected from:

183 (a) H, (b) C 1-6 alkyl, (c) C 2-6 alkenyl, (d) C 2-6 alkynyl, (e) C 3-I0 saturated,

184 unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, and (f) 3-10 membered saturated,

185 unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms

186 selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur,

187 wherein one or more non-terminal carbon moieties of any of (b)-(d)

188 optionally is replaced with oxygen, S(O) P , or -NR 114 , wherein any of

189 (b)- (f) optionally is substituted with one or more moieties selected

190 from:

191 (aa) carbonyl, (bb) formyl, (cc) F, (dd) Cl, (ee) Br, (ff) I, (gg)

192 CN, (hh) N 3 , (U)NO 2 , (jj) OR 1 18 , (kk) -S(O) P R' 18 , (11) -

193 C(O)R 118 , (mm) -C(O)OR 118 , (mi) -OC(O)R 118 , (oo) -

194 C(O)NR 1 18 R 118 , (pp) -OC(O)NR 118 R 118 , (qq) -C(=NR' 18 )R 118 ,

195 (rr) -C(R 1 18 )(R 118 )OR' 18 , (SS) -C(R 118 ^OC(O)R 118 , (tt) -

196 C(R 118 χθR 118 χCH 2 ) r NR' 18 R 118 , (uu) -NR 118 R 118 ; (w) -

197 NR 118 OR 118 , (ww) -NR 118 C(O)R 118 , (xx) -NR 118 C(O)OR 1 18 ,

198 (yy) -NR 118 C(O)NR 118 R 118 , (zz) -NR 118 S(O) r R 118 , (ab) -

199 C(OR 118 XOR 118 )R 1 18 , (ac) -C(R 118 J 2 NR 118 R 118 , (ad) =NR 118 ,

200 (ae) -C(S)NR 118 R 1 18 , (af) -NR 118 C(S)R 118 , (ag) -

201 OC(S)NR 118 R 118 , (ah) -NR 118 C(S)OR 118 , (ai) -

202 NR 1 18 C(S)NR 118 R 118 , (aj) -SC(O)R 118 , (ak) Ci -8 alkyl, (al)

203 C 2-8 alkenyl, (am) C 2-8 alkynyl, (an) Ci -8 alkoxy, (ao) Ci -8

204 alkylthio, (ap) Ci -8 acyl, (aq) saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic

205 C 3- ] O carbocycle, and (ar) saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic

206 3-10 membered heterocycle containing one or more

207 heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur,

208 alternatively, NR 116 R 116 forms a 3-10 membered saturated, unsaturated or aromatic

209 ring including the nitrogen atom to which the R 116 groups are attached and optionally one or

210 more moieties selected from O, S(O) P , N, and NR 1 ' 8 ;

211 alternatively, CR 116 R 116 forms a carbonyl group;

212 R 1 ' 7 , at each occurrence, is selected from:

213 (a) H, (b) =0, (c) F 3 (d) Cl, (e) Br, (f) I, (g) (CR 116 R 116 XCF 3 , (h)

214 (CR 116 R 116 ) r CN, (i) (CR l l6 R l l6 ) r NO2, (j) (CR 116 R 1 16 XNR 116 CCR 116 R 116 ) t R 1 19 ,

215 (k) (CR 116 R 116 ) r OR 119 , (1) (CR 116 R 116 ) r S(O) p (CR 116 R 116 ) t R 119 ,

216 (m) (CR 1 16 R 116 ) r C(O)( CR 116 R 116 ) t R' 19 , (n) (CR 116 R 116 ) r OC(O)(

217 CR 116 R 116 ^R 119 , (o) (CR 116 R 116 XSC(OX CR 1 ' 6 R 116 XR 119 ,

218 (p) (CR 1 16 R 1 16 XC(O)O(CR 116 R 1 16 XR 119 , (q) (CR 116 R 116 XNR 116 C(O)(

219 CR 116 R 116 XR 119 , (r) (CR 116 R 116 χC(O)NR U6 (CR 116 R 116 ) t R 119 , (s)

220 (CR 116 R 116 XC(^NR 116 X CR 116 R U6 ) t R 119 ,

221 (t) (CR 1 16 R 1 16 XC(=NNR 116 R' 16 )(CR 116 R 1 I6 XR 119 ,

222 (u) (CR 116 R 116 XC(=NNR 116 C(O)R I 16 )( CR 116 R 116 XR 119 ,

223 (v) (CR 116 R 116 XQ=NOR 119 X CR 1 16 R 116 ) t R 119 ,

224 (w) (CR 116 R 116 XNR 116 C(O)O(CR 116 R 116 XR" 9 ,

225 (x) (CR 116 R 116 χθC(O)NR n6 (CR 116 R π6 ) t R 119 ,

226 (y) (CR 116 R 1 16 XNR 116 C(O)NR n6 (CR 1 16 R 116 ) t R 119 ,

227 (z) (CR 116 R 1 16 XNR 116 S(O) P (CR 116 R 116 XR 1 19 ,

228 (aa) (CR 116 R 116 XS(O) P NR 11 ^CR 116 R 116 XR 119 ,

229 (bb) (CR 116 R n6 ) r NR 116 S(O)pNR 116 (CR 116 R 116 ) t R 119 ,

230 (cc) (CR 1 16 R 116 XNR 116 R 116 , (dd) C u6 alkyl, (ee) C 2 . 6 alkenyl, (ff) C 2 . 6 alkynyl,

231 (gg) (CR 116 R 116 )r-C 3- io saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, and

232 (hh) (CR 116 R 116 )r-3-10 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic

233 heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen,

234 oxygen, and sulfur,

235 wherein any of (dd)-(hh) optionally is substituted with one or more

236 R 1 19 groups;

237 alternatively, two R 117 groups can form -O(CH 2 ) U O-;

238 R 118 is selected from:

239 (a) H, (b) C 1-6 alkyl, (c) C 2 . 6 alkenyl, (d) C 2 . 6 allcynyl, (e) C 3 - I0 saturated,

240 unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, (f) 3-10 membered saturated, unsaturated,

241 or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more lieteroatoms selected from

242 nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, (g) -C(O)-C 1-6 alkyl, (li) -C(O)-C 1-6 alkenyl,

243 (g) -C(O)-C 1-6 alkynyl, (i) -C(O)-C 3-I o saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic

244 carbocycle, and (j) -C(O)-3-10 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic

245 heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen,

246 oxygen, and sulfur,

247 wherein any of (b)-(j) optionally is substituted with one or more

248 moieties selected from : (aa) H, (bb) F, (cc) Cl, (dd) Br, (ee) I, (ff) CN,

249 (gg) NO 2 , (hh) OH, (ii) NH 2 , Oj) NH(C 1-6 alky(l), (kk) N(C 1-6 alky(l) 2 ,

250 (11) C 1-6 alkoxy, (mm) aryl, (nn) substituted aryl, (oo) heteroaryl, (pp)

251 substituted heteroaryl, and (qq) C 1-6 alkyl, optionally substituted with

252 one or more moieties selected from aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl,

253 substituted heteroaryl, F, Cl, Br, I, CN, NO 2 , and OH;

254 R , at each occurrence, independently is selected from:

255 (a) R 120 , (b) Ci-6 alkyl, (c) C2-6 alkenyl, (d) C2-6 allcynyl, (e) C3-10 saturated,

256 ' unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, and (f) 3-10 membered saturated,

257 unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms

258 selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur,

259 wherein any of (b)-(f) optionally is substituted with one or more R

260 groups;

261 R 120 , at each occurrence, independently is selected from:

262 (a) H, (b) =0, (c) F, (d) Cl, (e) Br, (f) I, (g) (CR 116 R 116 ) r CF 3 , (h)

263 (CR 1 16 R n6 )rCN, (i) (CR 116 R 116 ) r NO2, (j) (CR 116 R 1 16 XNR 116 R 1 16 , (k)

264 (CR 1 16 R 11 V)R 114 , (1) (CR 116 R 116 ) r S(O)pR n6 , ( m ) (CR 1 16 R 116 X-C(O)R 116 ,

265 (n) (CR 116 R 116 XC(O)OR 116 , (o) (CR 1 16 R 116 X-OC(O)R 116 , (p)

266 (CR 116 R 116 ) r NR 116 C(O)R 116 , (q) (CR 116 R 116 XC(O)NR 1 16 R 116 , (r)

267 (CR 1 16 R 1 16 XC(=NR 116 )R 116 , (s) (CR 1 16 R 1 16 XNR 116 C(O)NR 116 R 1 16 ,

268 (t) (CR 116 R 116 ) r NR 116 S(O)pR 116 , (u) (CR 116 R 116 ) r S(O)pNR 116 R U6 , (v)

269 (CR 116 R 116 XNR 116 S(O) p NR' 16 R 116 , (w) C μ6 alkyl, (x) C 2 . 6 alkenyl, (y)

270 C 2 . 6 alkynyl, (z) (CR 116 R 116 )r-C 3- i 0 saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic

271 carbocycle, and (aa) (CR 116 R 116 )r- 3-10 membered saturated, unsaturated, or

272 aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from

273 nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur,

274 wherein any of (w)-(aa) optionally is substituted with one or more

275 moieties selected from R 1 16 , F, Cl, Br, I, CN, NO 2 , -OR 1 16 , -NH 2 , -

276 NH(C 1-6 alkyl), -N(C 1-6 alkyl) 2 , C 1-6 alkoxy, C 1-6 allcylthio, and

277 C 1-6 acyl;

278 R , at each occurrence, independently is selected from:

279 (a) H, (b) -OR 118 , (c) -0-C 1-6 alkyl-OC(O)R 118 , (d) -0-C 1-6 alkyl-

280 OC(O)OR 118 , (e) -0-C 1-6 alkyl-OC(O)NR 118 R 118 , (f) -O-C ]-6 alkyl-

281 C(O)NR 1 18 R 118 , (g) -0-C 1-6 alkyl-NR 118 C(O)R 118 , (h) -0-C 1-6 alkyl-

282 NR 1 18 C(O)OR 118 , (i) -0-C 1-6 alkyl-NR 118 C(O)NR 118 R 1 18 , (j) -0-C 1-6 alkyl-

283 NR 1 ' 8 Q=N(H)NR 118 R 1 18 , (k) -0-C 1-6 alkyl-S(O) p R 118 , (1) -O-C 2-6 alkenyl-

284 OC(O)R 118 , (m) -0-C 2-6 alkenyl-OC(O)OR' 18 , (n) -O-C 2 . 6 alkenyl-

285 OC(O)NR 1 18 R 118 , (o) -0-C 2-6 alkenyl-C(O)NR π8 R 118 , (p) -0-C 2-6 alkenyl-

286 NR 1 18 C(O)R 1 18 , (q) -0-C 2-6 alkenyl-NR 1 18 C(O)OR 118 , (r) -0-C 2-6 alkenyl-

287 NR 1 18 C(O)NR 118 R 118 , (s) -O-C 2-6 alkenyl-NR 1 18 C(=N(H)NR 118 R' 18 , (t) -O-

288 C 2-6 alkenyl-S(O)pR 118 ,

289 (u) -0-C 2-6 alkynyl-OC^R 118 , (v) -0-C 2-6 311CyHyI-OC(O)OR 1 18 ,

290 (w) -0-C 2-6 allcynyl-OC(O)NR 1 ' 8 R 11S , (x) -0-C 2-6 alkynyl-C^NR 1 ' 8 R 118 ,

291 (y) -0-C 2-6 alkynyl-NR 1 ' 8 C(O)R 1 ' 8 , (z) -0-C 2-6 alkynyl-NR 1 ' 8 C(O)OR 118 ,

292 (aa) -0-C 2-6 alkynyl-NR 118 C(O)NR 1 I8 R 118 ,

293 (bb) -0-C 2-6 allcynyl-NR 118 C(=N(H)NR 118 R 1 1S , (cc) -0-C 2-6 alkynyl-

294 S(O) P R 1 18 ; and (dd) -NR 118 R 118 ;

295 alternatively, two R 121 groups taken together form =0, =N0R ] 18 , or =NNR 1 18 R 118 ;

296 R 122 is R 115 ;

297 R 123 is selected from:

298 (a) R 116 , (b) F, (c) Cl, (d) Br, (e) I, (f) CN, (g) NO 2 , and (h) -OR 114 ;

299 alternatively, R 122 and R 123 taken together are -0(CH 2 ) u 0-;

300 R 124 , at each occurrence, independently is selected from:

301 (a) H, (b) F, (c) Cl, (d) Br, (e) I, (f) CN, (g) -OR 114 , (h) -NO 2 , (i) -NR 114 R 1 14 ,

302 (j) C 1-6 alkyl, (k) C 1-6 acyl, and (1) C 1-6 alkoxy;

303 R 125 is selected from:

304 (a) C -6 alkyl, (b) C 2 . 6 allcenyl, (c) C 2 . 6 alkynyl, (d) C 1-6 acyl, (e) C -6 alkoxy,

305 (f) Ci- 6 alkylthio, (g) saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic Cs -I0 carbocycle,

306 (h) saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic 5-10 membered heterocycle containing

307 one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, (i) -O-

308 Ci- 6 alkyl-saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic 5-10 membered heterocycle

309 containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and

310 sulfur, (j) -NR 114 -Ci- 6 alkyl-saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic 5-10

311 membered heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from

312 nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, (k) saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic 10-

313 membered bicyclic ring system optionally containing one or more heteroatoms

314 selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, (1) saturated, unsaturated, or

315 aromatic 13 -membered tricyclic ring system optionally containing one or more

316 heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, (m) -OR 1 14 ,

317 (n) -NR 114 R 114 , (o) -S(O) P R 1 14 , and (p) -R 124 ,

318 wherein any of (a)-(l) optionally is substituted with one or more R 1 ' 5

319 groups;

320 alternatively, R 125 and one R 124 group, taken together with the atoms to which they are

321 bonded, form a 5-7 membered saturated or unsaturated carbocycle, optionally substituted

322 with one or more R 115 groups; or a 5-7 membered saturated or unsaturated heterocycle

323 containing one or more atoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, and optionally

324 substituted with one or more R 115 groups;

325 R 126 at each occurrence, independently is selected from:

326 (a) hydrogen, (b) an electron-withdrawing group, (c) aryl, (d) substituted aryl,

327 (e) heteroaryl, (f) substituted heteroaryl, and (g) C 1-6 alkyl, optionally

328 substituted with one or more R 115 groups;

329 alternatively, any R 126 and any R 123 , taken together with the atoms to which they are

330 bonded, form a 5-7 membered saturated or unsaturated carbocycle, optionally substituted

331 with one or more R 115 groups; or a 5-7 membered saturated or unsaturated heterocycle

332 containing one or more atoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, and optionally

333 substituted with one or more R 115 groups;

334 R 109 is H or F;

335 R 127 is R 1 14 , a monosaccharide or disaccharide (including amino sugars and halo

336 sugar(s), -(CH 2 ) n -(O-CH 2 CH 2 -) m -O(CH 2 )pCH 3 or -(CH 2 ) n -(O-CH 2 CH 2 -) m -OH

337 R 128 Is R 114 ;

338 R 129 Is R 114 ;

339 R 110 Is R 1 14 ;

340 alternatively, R 109 and R 1 10 taken together with the carbons to which they are attached

341 form:

343 alternately, R 128 and R 129 together with the carbons to which they are attached form a

344 3-6 membered saturated, unsaturated or aromatic carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring

345 which can optionally be substituted with one or more R 114 groups;

346 R 132 , R 133 , and R 134 are each independently selected from (a) H, (b) F, (c) Cl, (d) Br,

347 (e) -OR 1 14 , (f) -SR 1 14 , (g) -NR 114 R 114 , and (h) C 1-6 alkyl, wherein (h) optionally is

348 substituted with one or more R 115 groups;

349 alternatively, R 132 and R 133 are taken together to form a carbon-carbon double;

350 alternatively, R 133 and R 134 are taken together to form =0, =S, =NOR 114 , =NR 114 , and

351 =N-NR 114 ,R 114 ;

352 alternatively, R 105 and R 134 are taken together with the carbons to which they are

353 attached to form a 3 -membered ring, said ring optionally containing an oxygen or

354 nitrogen atom, and said ring being optionally substituted with one or more R 114

355 groups;

356 alternatively when M is a carbon moiety, R 134 and M are taken together to form a

357 carbon-carbon double bond;

358 k, at each occurrence is 0, 1, or 2;

359 m, at each occurrence is 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5;

360 n, at each occurrence is 1, 2, or 3. 361

1 39. A compound according to any one of claims 1-38, wherein T is a macrolide selected

2 from:

, 100 or an N-oxide, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, or prodrug thereof, wherein M, R ιυu , R 101 , R 104 , R 105 , R 106 , R 107 , R 108 , R 109 , R 1 10 , and R 120 are as described in claim 38 and where the dotted lines indicate optional double bonds.

40. A compound according to any one of claims 1-39, wherein T is a macrolide selected from:

or an N-oxide, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, or prodrug thereof, wherein M, R 100 , R 101 , R 102 , R 104 , R 109 , R 1 u , R 126 and R 127 are as described in claim 38.

41. A compound according to any one of claims 1 -40, wherein T is a macrolide selected from:

or an N-oxide, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, or prodrug thereof, wherein M, R 1 , R 2 , R 104 , R 114 , R 109 and R 127 are as described in claim 38.

42. A compound according to any one of claims 1-41, wherein T is a macrolide selected from Tl through T33:

T17 T18

T19 T20

T21 T22

T29

T30

43. A compound having the structure corresponding to any one of the structures listed in Table 1 or IA, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof.

44. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound according to any one of claims 1-43, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

45. A method for treating or preventing a disease state in a mammal comprising administering to a mammal in need thereof an effective amount of a compound according to any one of claims 1-43, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof.

46. A method of treating a microbial infection in a mammal comprising administering to the mammal an effective amount of a compound according to any one of claims 1-43, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof.

47. A method according to claim 46 wherein said microbial infection is an uncomplicated skin or soft tissue infection (uSSTI).

48. A method according to claim 46 wherein said microbial infection is a community acquired or community associated infection.

49. A method according to claim 48 wherein said microbial infection is an uncomplicated skin or soft tissue infection (uSSTI).

50. A method of treating a fungal infection in a mammal comprising administering to the mammal an effective amount of a compound according to any one of claims 1-43, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof.

51. A method of treating a parasitic disease in a mammal comprising administering to the mammal an effective amount of a compound according to any one of claims 1-43, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof.

52. A method of treating a proliferative disease in a mammal comprising administering to the mammal an effective amount of a compound according to any one of claims 1-43, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof.

53. A method of treating a viral infection in a mammal comprising administering to the mammal an effective amount of a compound according to any one of claims 1-43, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof.

54. A method of treating an inflammatory disease in a mammal comprising administering to the mammal an effective amount of a compound according to any one of claims 1-43, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof.

55. A method of treating a gastrointestinal motility disorder in a mammal comprising administering to the mammal an effective amount of a compound according to any one of claims 1-43, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof.

56. A method of treating or preventing a disease state in a mammal caused or mediated by a nonsense or missense mutation comprising administering to a mammal in need thereof an effective amount of a compound according to any one of claims 1-43, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof, to suppress expression of the nonsense or missense mutation.

57. The method according to any one of claims 45-56 wherein the compound, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof, is administered orally, parentally, or topically.

58. A method of synthesizing a compound according to any of claims 1 -43, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof.

59. A medical device containing a compound according to any one of claims 1-43, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof.

60. The medical device according to claim 59, wherein the device is a stent.

Description:

TRIAZOLE COMPOUNDSAND METHODS OF MAKING AND USING THE SAME

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates generally to the field of anti-infective, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, and prokinetic agents. More particularly, the invention relates to a family of triazole macrocyclic compounds that are useful as such agents.

BACKGROUND

Since the discovery of penicillin in the 1920s and streptomycin in the 1940s, many new compounds have been discovered or specifically designed for use as antibiotic agents. It was once believed that infectious diseases could be completely controlled or eradicated with the use of such therapeutic agents. However, such beliefs have been shaken because strains of cells or microorganisms resistant to currently effective therapeutic agents continue to evolve. In fact, virtually every antibiotic agent developed for clinical use has ultimately encountered problems with the emergence of resistant bacteria. For example, resistant strains of Gram-positive bacteria such as methicillin-resistant staphylococci, penicillin-resistant streptococci, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci have developed. These resistant bacteria can cause serious and even fatal results for patients infected with such resistant bacteria. Bacteria that are resistant to macrolide antibiotics have emerged. Also, resistant strains of Gram-negative bacteria such as H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis have been identified. See, e.g., F.D. Lowry, " Antimicrobial Resistance: The Example of Staphylococcus aureus," J. Clin. Invest, vol. 111, no. 9, pp. 1265-1273 (2003); and Gold, H.S. and Moellering, R.C., Jr., "Antimicrobial-Drug Resistance," N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 335, pp. 1445-53 (1996).

The problem of resistance is not limited to the area of anti-infective agents. Resistance has also been encountered with anti-proliferative agents used in cancer chemotherapy. Therefore, the need exists for new anti-infective and anti-proliferative agents that are both effective against resistant bacteria and resistant strains of cancer cells.

Despite the problem of increasing antibiotic resistance, no new major classes of antibiotics have been developed for clinical use since the approval in the United States in 2000 of the oxazolidinone ring-containing antibiotic, linezolid, which is sold under the trade name Zyvox ® . See, R.C. Moellering, Jr., "Linezolid: The First Oxazolidinone

Anlimlcrobial," .4/jHαfe of Internal Medicine, vol. 138, no. 2, pp. 135-142 (2003). Linezolid was approved for use as an anti-bacterial agent active against Gram-positive organisms. However, linezolid-resistant strains of organisms are already being reported. See, Tsiodras et al, Lancet, vol. 358, p. 207 (2001); Gonzales et al, Lancet, vol 357, p. 1179 (2001); Zurenko et al., Proceedings Of The 39 th Annual Interscience Conference On Antibacterial Agents And Chemotherapy (ICAAC), San Francisco, CA, USA (September 26-29, 1999).

Another class of antibiotics is the macrolides, so named for their characteristic 14- to 16-membered ring. The macrolides also often have one or more 6-membered sugar- derived rings attached to the main macrolide ring. The first macrolide antibiotic to be developed was erythromycin, which was isolated from a soil sample from the Philippines in 1952. Even though erythromycin has been one of the most widely prescribed antibiotics, its disadvantages are relatively low bioavailability, gastrointestinal side effects, and a limited spectrum of activity. Another macrolide is the compound, azithromycin, which is an azolide derivative of erythromycin incorporating a methyl-substituted nitrogen in the macrolide ring. Azithromycin is sold under the trade name Zithromax ® . A more recently introduced macrolide is telithromycin, which is sold under the trade name Ketek ® . Telithromycin is a semisynthetic macrolide in which a hydroxyl group of the macrolide ring has been oxidized to a ketone group. See Yong-Ji Wu, Highlights of Semi-synthetic Developments from Erythromycin A, Current Ph arm. Design, vol. 6, pp. 181-223 (2000), and Yong-Ji Wu and Wei-uo Su, Recent Developments on Ketolides and Macrolides, Citrr. Med. Chem., vol. 8, no. 14, pp. 1727-1758 (2001).

In the search for new therapeutic agents, researchers have tried combining or linking various portions of antibiotic molecules to create multifunctional or hybrid compounds Other researches have tried making macrolide derivatives by adding further substituents to the large macrolide ring or associated sugar rings. However, this approach for making macrolide derivatives has also met with limited success.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, there is an ongoing need for new anti-infective and antiproliferative agents. Furthermore, because many anti-infective and antiproliferative agents have utility as anti-inflammatory agents and prokinetic agents, there is also an ongoing need for new compounds useful as anti-inflammatory and prokinetic agents. The present invention provides compounds that meet these needs.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The invention provides compounds usefi.il as anti-infective agents and/or antiproliferative agents, for example, anti-biotic agents, anti-microbial agents, anti-bacterial agents, anti-fungal agents, anti-parasitic agents, anti- viral agents, and chemotherapeutic agents. The present invention also provides compounds useful as anti-inflammatory agents, and/or prokinetic (gastrointestinal modulatory) agents. The present invention also provides pharmaceutically acceptable salts, esters, N-oxides, or prodrugs of these compounds.

The present invention provides compounds having the structure:

or a stereoisomer, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof. In the formula, variables G, T, X, R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R a , R b , R c , R d and R e can be selected from the respective groups of chemical moieties later defined in the detailed description. In addition, the invention provides methods of synthesizing the foregoing compounds. Following synthesis, a therapeutically effective amount of one or more of the compounds can be formulated with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier for administration to a mammal, particularly humans, for use as an anti-cancer, anti-biotic, anti-microbial, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-parasitic or anti-viral agent, or to treat a proliferative disease, an inflammatory disease or a gastrointestinal motility disorder, or to suppress disease states or conditions caused or mediated by nonsense or missense mutations. Accordingly, the compounds or the formulations can be administered, for example, via oral, parenteral, or topical routes, to provide an effective amount of the compound to the mammal.

The foregoing and other aspects and embodiments of the invention can be more fully understood by reference to the following detailed description and claims.

- A -

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention provides a family of compounds that can be used as antiproliferative agents and/or anti-infective agents. The compounds can be used without limitation, for example, as anti-cancer, anti-microbial, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti- parasitic and/or anti- viral agents. Further, the present invention provides a family of compounds that can be used without limitation as anti-inflammatory agents, for example, for use in treating chronic inflammatory airway diseases, and/or as prokinetic agents, for example, for use in treating gastrointestinal motility disorders such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastroparesis (diabetic and post surgical), irritable bowel syndrome, and constipation. Further, the compounds can be used to treat or prevent a disease state in a mammal caused or mediated by a nonsense or missense mutation.

The compounds described herein can have asymmetric centers. Compounds of the present invention containing an asymmetrically substituted atom can be isolated in optically active or racemic forms. It is well known in the art how to prepare optically active forms, such as by resolution of racemic forms or by synthesis from optically active starting materials. Many geometric isomers of olefins, C=N double bonds, and the like can also be present in the compounds described herein, and all such stable isomers are contemplated in the present invention. Cis and trans geometric isomers of the compounds of the present invention are described and can be isolated as a mixture of isomers or as separate isomeric forms. All chiral, diastereomeric, racemic, and geometric isomeric forms of a structure are intended, unless specific stereochemistry or isomeric form is specifically indicated. All processes used to pi'epare compounds of the present invention and intermediates made therein are considered to be part of the present invention. All tautomers of shown or described compounds are also considered to be part of the present invention.

1. Definitions

The term "substituted," as used herein, means that any one or more hydrogens on the designated atom is replaced with a selection from the indicated group, provided that the designated atom's normal valency is not exceeded, and that the substitution results in a stable compound. When a substituent is keto (i.e., =0), then 2 hydrogens on the atom are

replaced. Ring double bonds, as used herein, are double bonds that are formed between two adjacent ring atoms (e.g., C=C, C=N, or N=N).

The pi'esent invention is intended to include all isotopes of atoms occurring in the present compounds. Isotopes include those atoms having the same atomic number but different mass numbers. By way of general example and without limitation, isotopes of hydrogen include tritium and deuterium. Isotopes of carbon include C-13 and C-14. When any variable (e.g., R 2 ) occurs more than one time in any constituent or formula for a compound, its definition at each occurrence is independent of its definition at every other occurrence. Thus, for example, if a group is shown to be substituted with one or more R 2 moieties, then the group can optionally be substituted with one, two, three, four, five, or more R 2 moieties, and R 2 at each occurrence is selected independently from the definition of R 2 . Also, combinations of substituents and/or variables are permissible, but only if such combinations result in stable compounds.

A chemical structure showing a dotted line representation for a chemical bond indicates that the bond is optionally present. For example, a dotted line drawn next to a solid single bond indicates that the bond can be either a single bond or a double bond.

When a bond to a substituent is shown to cross a bond connecting two atoms in a ring, then such substituent can be bonded to any atom on the ring. When a substituent is listed without indicating the atom via which such substituent is bonded to the rest of the compound of a given formula, then such substituent can be bonded via any atom in such substituent. Combinations of substituents and/or variables are permissible, but only if such combinations result in stable compounds.

In cases wherein there are nitrogens in the compounds of the present invention, these can be converted to N-oxides by treatment with an oxidizing agent (e.g., MCPBA and/or hydrogen peroxides) to afford other compounds of the present invention. Thus, all shown and claimed nitrogens are considered to cover both the shown nitrogen and its N- oxide (N-^-O) derivative.

As used herein, the term "anomeric carbon" means the acetal carbon of a glycoside. As used herein, the term "glycoside" is a cyclic acetal. As used herein, "alkyl" is intended to include both branched and straight-chain saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon groups having the specified number of carbon atoms. Ci_6 alkyl is intended to include Ci, C 2 , C3, C4, C5, and Cg alkyl groups. Ci-S alkyl is intended

to include Ci, C2, C3, C4, C5, Cg, C 7 , and Cs alkyl groups. Examples of alkyl include, but are not limited to, methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, i-propyl, n-butyl, s-butyl, t-butyl, n-pentyl, s-pentyl, n-hexyl, n-heptyl, and n-octyl.

As used herein, "alkenyl" is intended to include hydrocarbon chains of either straight or branched configuration and one or more unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds that can occur in any stable point along the chain, such as ethenyl and propenyl. C2-6 alkenyl is intended to include C2, C3, C4, C5, and Ce alkenyl groups. C2-8 alkenyl is intended to include C2, C3, C4, C5, Ce, Cj, and Cs alkenyl groups.

As used herein, "alkynyl" is intended to include hydrocarbon chains of either straight or branched configuration and one or more triple carbon-carbon bonds that can occur in any stable point along the chain, such as ethynyl and propynyl. C2-6 alkynyl is intended to include C2, C3, C4, C5, and Cg alkynyl groups. C2-8 alkynyl is intended to include C2, C3, C4, C5, Ce, Cη, and Cs alkynyl groups.

Furthermore, "alkyl", "alkenyl", and "alkynyl" are intended to include moieties which are diradicals, i.e., having two points of attachment, an example of which in the present invention is when D is selected from these chemical groups. A nonlimiting example of such an alkyl moiety that is a diradical is -CH 2 CH 2 -, i.e., a C2 alkyl group that is covalently bonded via each terminal carbon atom to the remainder of the molecule. As used herein, the terms used to describe various carbon-containing moieties, including, for example, "alkyl," "alkenyl," "alkynyl," "phenyl," and any variations thereof, are intended to include univalent, bivalent, or multivalent species. For example, "Cχ_6 alkyl-R 3 " is intended to represent a univalent C \ .e alkyl group substituted with a R 3 group, and "O-Ci-6 alkyl-R 3 " is intended to represent a bivalent C\.e alkyl group, i.e., an "alkylene" group, substituted with an oxygen atom and a R 3 group. As used herein, "cycloalkyl" is intended to include saturated ring groups, such as cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or cyclopentyl. C3_8 cycloalkyl is intended to include C3, C4, C5, Cg, C 7 , and C% cycloalkyl groups.

As used herein, "halo" or "halogen" refers to fluoro, chloro, bromo, and iodo substients. "Counterion" is used to represent a small, negatively charged species such as chloride, bromide, hydroxide, acetate, and sulfate.

As used herein, "haloalkyl" is intended to include both branched and straight-chain saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon groups having the specified number of carbon atoms, substituted with 1 or more halogen (for example -C V F W where v = 1 to 3 and w = 1 to (2v+l)). Examples of haloalkyl include, but are not limited to, trifluoromethyl, trichloromethyl, pentafluoroethyl, and pentachloroethyl.

As used herein, "alkoxy" refers to an alkyl group as defined above with the indicated number of carbon atoms attached through an oxygen bridge. Ci -6 alkoxy, is intended to include Cj, C 2 , C3, C4, C5, and Cg alkoxy groups. C)-S alkoxy, is intended to include Ci, C 2 , C3, C4, C5, Ce, C 7 , and Cs alkoxy groups. Examples of alkoxy include, but are not limited to, methoxy, ethoxy, n-propoxy, i-propoxy, n-butoxy, s-butoxy, t-butoxy, n-pentoxy, s-pentoxy, n-heptoxy, and n-octoxy.

As used herein, "alkylthio" refers to an alkyl group as defined above with the indicated number of carbon atoms attached through an sulfur bridge. Q -6 alkylthio, is intended to include Ci, C 2 , C3, C4, C5, and C 6 alkylthio groups. Ci_8 alkylthio, is intended to include Ci, C 2 , C3, C 4 , C5, C 6 , C 7 , and Cs alkylthio groups.

As used herein, "carbocycle" or "carbocyclic ring" is intended to mean, unless otherwise specified, any stable 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12-membered monocyclic, bicyclic or tricyclic ring, any of which can be saturated, unsaturated (including partially and fully unsaturated), or aromatic, recognizing that rings with certain numbers of members cannot be bicyclic or tricyclic, e.g., a 3-membered ring can only be a monocyclic ring. Examples of such carbocycles include, but are not limited to, cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclobutenyl, cyclopentyl, cyclopentenyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptenyl, cycloheptyl, cycloheptenyl, adamantyl, cyclooctyl, cyclooctenyl, cyclooctadienyl, [3.3.0]bicyclooctane, [4.3.0]bicyclononane, [4.4.0]bicyclodecane, [2.2.2]bicyclooctane, fluorenyl, phenyl, naphthyl, indanyl, adamantyl, and tetrahydronaphthyl. As shown above, bridged rings are also included in the definition of carbocycle (e.g., [2.2.2]bicyclooctane). A bridged ring occurs when one or more carbon atoms link two non-adjacent carbon atoms. Preferred bridges are one or two carbon atoms. It is noted that a bridge always converts a monocyclic ring into a tricyclic ring. When a ring is bridged, the substituents recited for the ring can also be present on the bridge. Fused (e.g., naphthyl and tetrahydronaphthyl) and spiro rings are also included.

As used herein, the term "heterocycle" means, unless otherwise stated, a stable 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12-membered monocyclic, bicyclic or tricyclic ring (recognizing that rings with certain numbers of members cannot be bicyclic or tricyclic, e.g., a 3- membered ring can only be a monocyclic ring), which is saturated, unsaturated (including partially and fully unsaturated), or aromatic, and consists of carbon atoms and one or more ring heteroatoms, e.g., 1 or 1-2 or 1-3 or 1-4 or 1-5 or 1-6 heteroatoms, independently selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, and including any bicyclic or tricyclic group in which any of the above-defined heterocyclic rings is fused to a second ring (e.g., a benzene ring). The nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms can optionally be oxidized (i.e., N— >O and S(O) P , where p = 1 or 2). When a nitrogen atom is included in the ring it is either N or NH, depending on whether or not it is attached to a double bond in the ring (i.e., a hydrogen is present if needed to maintain the tri- valency of the nitrogen atom). The nitrogen atom can be substituted or unsubstituted (i.e., N or NR wherein R is H or another substituent, as defined). The heterocyclic ling can be attached to its pendant group at any heteroatom or carbon atom that results in a stable structure. The heterocyclic rings described herein can be substituted on carbon or on a nitrogen atom if the resulting compound is stable. A nitrogen in the heterocycle can optionally be quaternized. Bridged rings are also included in the definition of heterocycle. A bridged ring occurs when one or more atoms (i.e., C, O, N, or S) link two non-adjacent carbon or nitrogen atoms. Preferred bridges include, but are not limited to, one carbon atom, two carbon atoms, one nitrogen atom, two nitrogen atoms, and a carbon-nitrogen group. It is noted that a bridge always converts a monocyclic ring into a tricyclic ring. When a ring is bridged, the substituents recited for the ring can also be present on the bridge. Spiro and fused rings are also included. As used herein, the term "aromatic heterocycle" or "heteroaryl" is intended to mean a stable 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12-membered monocyclic or bicyclic aromatic ring (recognizing that rings with certain numbers of members cannot be a bicyclic aromatic, e.g., a 5-membered ring can only be a monocyclic aromatic ring),which consists of carbon atoms and one or more heteroatoms, e.g., 1 or 1-2 or 1-3 or 1-4 or 1-5 or 1-6 heteroatoms, independently selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. In the case of bicyclic heterocyclic aromatic rings, only one of the two rings needs to be aromatic (e.g., 2,3- dihydroindole), though both can be (e.g., quinoline). The second ring can also be fused or

bridged as defined above for heterocycles. The nitrogen atom can be substituted or unsubstituted (i.e., N or NR wherein R is H or another substituent, as defined). The nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms can optionally be oxidized (i.e., N— »0 and S(O) P , where p = 1 or 2). In certain compounds, the total number of S and O atoms in the aromatic heterocycle is not more than 1.

Examples of heterocycles include, but are not limited to, acridinyl, azocinyl, benzimidazolyl, benzofuranyl, benzothiofuranyl, benzothiophenyl, benzoxazolyl, benzoxazolinyl, benzthiazolyl, benztriazolyl, benztetrazolyl, benzisoxazolyl, benzisothiazolyl, benzimidazolinyl, carbazolyl, 4aH-carbazolyl, carbolinyl, chromanyl, chromenyl, cinnolinyl, decahydroquinolinyl, 2H,6H-l,5,2-dithiazinyl, dihydroforo[2,3-ό]tetrahydrofuran, furanyl, furazanyl, imidazolidinyl, iniidazolinyl, imidazolyl, lH-indazolyl, indolenyl, indolinyl, indolizinyl, indolyl, 3η-indolyl, isatinoyl, isobenzofuranyl, isochromanyl, isoindazolyl, isoindolinyl, isoindolyl, isoquinolinyl, isothiazolyl, isoxazolyl, methylenedioxyphenyl, morpholinyl, naplithyridinyl, octahydroisoquinolinyl, oxadiazolyl, 1,2,3-oxadiazolyl, 1,2,4-oxadiazolyl, 1,2,5- oxadiazolyl, 1,3,4-oxadiazolyl, oxazolidinyl, oxazolyl, oxindolyl, pyrimidinyl, phenantMdinyl, plienantlirolinyl, phenazinyl, phenothiazinyl, phenoxathinyl, phenoxazinyl, phthalazinyl, piperazinyl, piperidinyl, piperidonyl, 4-piperidonyl, piperonyl, pteridinyl, purinyl, pyranyl, pyrazinyl, pyrazolidinyl, pyrazolinyl, pyrazolyl, pyridazinyl, pyridooxazole, pyridoimidazole, pyridothiazole, pyridinyl, pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrrolidinyl, pyrrolinyl, 2H-pyrrolyl, pyrrolyl, quinazolinyl, quinolinyl, 4H-quinolizinyl, quinoxalinyl, quimiclidinyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, tetrahydroisoquinolinyl, tetrahydroquinolinyl, tetrazolyl, 6H-l,2,5-thiadiazinyl, 1,2,3-thiadiazolyl, 1,2,4- thiadiazolyl, 1,2,5-thiadiazolyl, 1,3,4-thiadiazolyl, thianthrenyl, thiazolyl, thienyl, thienothiazolyl, thienooxazolyl, thienoimidazolyl, thiophenyl, triazinyl, 1,2,3-triazolyl, 1,2,4-triazolyl, 1,2,5-triazolyl, 1,3,4-triazolyl, and xanthenyl.

As used herein, the phrase "pharmaceutically acceptable" refers to those compounds, materials, compositions, and/or dosage forms which are, within the scope of sound medical judgment, suitable for use in contact with the tissues of human beings and animals without excessive toxicity, irritation, allergic response, or other problem or complication, commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio.

As used herein, "pharmaceutically acceptable salts" refer to derivatives of the disclosed compounds wherein the parent compound is modified by making acid or base salts thereof. Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable salts include, but are not limited to, mineral or organic acid salts of basic residues such as amines; alkali or organic salts of acidic residues such as carboxylic acids; and the like. The pharmaceutically acceptable salts include the conventional non-toxic salts or the quaternary ammonium salts of the parent compound formed, for example, from non-toxic inorganic or organic acids. For example, such conventional non-toxic salts include, but are not limited to, those derived from inorganic and organic acids selected from 2-acetoxybenzoic, 2-hydroxyethane sulfonic, acetic, ascorbic, benzene sulfonic, benzoic, bicarbonic, carbonic, citric, edetic, ethane disulfonic, ethane sulfonic, fumaric, glucoheptonic, gluconic, glutamic, glycolic, glycollyarsanilic, hexylresorcinic, hydrabamic, hydrobromic, hydrochloric, hydroiodide, hydroxymaleic, hydroxynaphthoic, isethionic, lactic, lactobionic, lauryl sulfonic, maleic, malic, mandelic, methane sulfonic, napsylic, nitric, oxalic, pamoic, pantothenic, phenylacetic, phosphoric, polygalacturonic, propionic, salicylic, stearic, subacetic, succinic, sulfamic, sulfanilic, sulfuric, tannic, tartaric, and toluene sulfonic.

The pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the present invention can be synthesized from the parent compound that contains a basic or acidic moiety by conventional chemical methods. Generally, such salts can be prepared by reacting the free acid or base forms of these compounds with a stoichiometric amount of the appropriate base or acid in water or in an organic solvent, or in a mixture of the two; generally, non-aqueous media like ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol, isopropanol, or acetonitrile are preferred. Lists of suitable salts are found in Remington 's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 18th ed., Mack Publishing Company, Easton, PA, USA, p. 1445 (1990). Since prodrugs are known to enhance numerous desirable qualities of pharmaceuticals (e.g., solubility, bioavailability, manufacturing, etc.) the compounds of the present invention can be delivered in prodrug form. Thus, the present invention is intended to cover prodrugs of the presently claimed compounds, methods of delivering the same and compositions containing the same. "Prodrugs" are intended to include any covalently bonded carriers that release an active parent drug of the present invention in vivo when such prodrug is administered to a mammalian subject. Prodrugs the present invention are prepared by modifying functional groups present in the compound in such a

way that the modifications are cleaved, either in routine manipulation or in vivo, to the parent compound. Prodrugs include compounds of the present invention wherein a hydroxy, amino, or sulfhydryl group is bonded to any group that, when the prodrug of the present invention is administered to a mammalian subject, it cleaves to form a free hydroxyl, free amino, or free sulfhydryl group, respectively. Examples of prodrugs include, but are not limited to, acetate, formate, and benzoate derivatives of alcohol and amine functional groups in the compounds of the present invention.

"Stable compound" and "stable structure" are meant to indicate a compound that is sufficiently robust to survive isolation to a useful degree of purity from a reaction mixture, and formulation into an efficacious therapeutic agent.

As used herein, "treating" or "treatment" means the treatment of a disease-state in a mammal, particularly in a human, and include: (a) preventing the disease-state from occurring in a mammal, in particular, when such mammal is predisposed to the disease- state but has not yet been diagnosed as having it; (b) inhibiting the disease-state, i.e., arresting its development; and/or (c) relieving the disease-state, i.e., causing regression of the disease state.

As used herein, "mammal"' refers to human and non-human patients. As used herein, the term "therapeutically effective amount" refers to a compound, or a combination of compounds, of the present invention present in or on a recipient in an amount sufficient to elicit biological activity, for example, anti-microbial activity, antifungal activity, anti-viral activity, anti-parasitic activity, and/or anti-proliferative activity. The combination of compounds is preferably a synergistic combination. Synergy, as described, for example, by Chou and Talalay, Adv. Enzyme Regiil. vol. 22, pp. 27-55 (1984), occurs when the effect of the compounds when administered in combination is greater than the additive effect of the compounds when administered alone as a single agent. In general, a synergistic effect is most clearly demonstrated at sub-optimal concentrations of the compounds. Synergy can be in terms of lower cytotoxicity, increased anti-proliferative and/or anti-infective effect, or some other beneficial effect of the combination compared with the individual components. All percentages and ratios used herein, unless otherwise indicated, are by weight.

Throughout the description, where compositions are described as having, including, or comprising specific components, or where processes are described as having,

including, or comprising specific process steps, it is contemplated that compositions of the present invention also consist essentially of, or consist of, the recited components, and that the processes of the present invention also consist essentially of, or consist of, the recited processing steps. Further, it should be understood that the order of steps or order for performing certain actions are immaterial so long as the invention remains operable. Moreover, two or more steps or actions can be conducted simultaneously.

2. Compounds of the Invention

In one aspect, the invention relates to a compound having the structure:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof, wherein

T is a 14- or 15-membered macrolide connected via a macrocyclic ring carbon atom;

X is selected from (a) H, (b) halogen, (c) a C« alkyl group, (d) a C 2-6 alkenyl group, (e) a C 2-6 alkynyl group, (f) -OH, (g) -OR 5 , (h) -NR 4 R 4 , (i) -C(O)R 5 , Q) - C(O)OR 5 , (k) -C(O)-NR 4 R 4 , (1) -C(S)R 5 , (m) -C(S)OR 5 , (n) -C(O)SR 5 , (o) -C(S)- NR 4 R 4 , (P) -N 3 , (q) -CN, (r) -CF 3 , (s) -CF 2 H, (t) -CFH 2 , (u) -SH, (v) -SR 5 , (w) - S(O) P OH, (x) -S(O) P OR 5 , (y) -S(O) P NR 4 R 4 , (z) -S(O) p C 1-6 alkyl, (aa) -S(O) p aryl, (bb) a C 3-7 saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, and (cc) a 3-7 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur;

R a and R b independently are selected from: (a) H, (b) a C 1-6 alkyl group, (c) a C 2-6 alkenyl group, (d) a C 2-6 alkynyl group, (e) -OH, (f) -OR 5 , (g) -NR 4 R 4 , (f) -C(O)R 5 , (g) - C(O)OR 5 , (h) -C(O)-NR 4 R 4 , (i) -C(S)R 5 , (j) -C(S)OR 5 , (k) -C(O)SR 5 , (1) -C(S)-NR 4 R 4 , and (m) halogen, or alternatively R a and R b are taken together with the carbon to which they are attached to form (a) -C(O)-, (b) -C(S)-, (c) -C=NR 4 , (d) -C=NOR 5 ;

R c is selected from: (a) H, (b) a C 1 - 6 alkyl group, (c) a C 2-6 alkenyl group, (d) a C 2-6 alkynyl group, (e) -OH, (f) -OR 5 , (g) -NR 4 R 4 , (f) -C(O)R 5 , (g) -C(O)OR 5 , (h) -C(O)- NR 4 R 4 , (i) -C(S)R 5 , Q) -C(S)OR 5 , (k) -C(O)SR 5 , (1) -C(S)-NR 4 R 4 , and (m) halogen;

R d and R e independently are selected from: (a) H, (b) a C] -6 alkyl group, (c) a C 2-6 alkenyl group, (d) a C 2-6 alkynyl group, (e) -OH, (f) -OR 5 , (g) -NR 4 R 4 , (f) -C(O)R 5 , (g) - C(O)OR 5 , (h) -C(O)-NR 4 R 4 , (i) -C(S)R 5 , Q) -C(S)OR 5 , (k) -C(O)SR 5 , (1) -C(S)-NR 4 R 4 , and (m) halogen, or alternatively R and R e are taken together with the carbon to which they are attached to form (a) -C(O)-, (b) -C(S)-, (c) -C=NR 4 , or (d) -C=NOR 5 ;

R 1 and R 3 independently are selected from: (a) H, (b) a Ci- 6 alkyl group, (c) a C 2-6 alkenyl group, (d) a C 2-6 alkynyl group, (e) -C(O)R 5 ,

(f) -C(O)OR 5 , (g) -C(O)-NR 4 R 4 , (h) -C(S)R 5 , (i) -C(S)OR 5 , Q) -C(O)SR 5 , and (k) - C(S)-NR 4 R 4 ;

R 2 is hydrogen or -OR 12 ;

G is selected from: (a) -B' and (b) -B'-Z-B", wherein each B' and B" is independently selected from (aa) an aryl group, (bb) a heteroaryl group, (cc) a biaryl group, (dd) a fused bicyclic or tricyclic saturated, unsaturated or aromatic ring system optionally containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, (ee) a 3-10 membered saturated or unsaturated heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, and (ff) a 3-10 membered saturated, or unsaturated carbocycle, wherein each (aa)-(ff) optionally is substituted with one or more R 1 ' or R Ua groups;

Z is selected from (aa) a single bond, (bb) a C 1-6 alkyl group, (cc) a C 2-6 alkenyl group, (dd) a C 2-6 alkynyl group, (ee) -C(O)- (ff) -C(O)O-, (gg) -C(O)NR 4 - (hh) - C(=NR 4 )-, (ii) -C(=NR 4 )O- (jj) -C(=NR 4 )NR 4 -, (kk) -S(0) p - (11) -OC(O)- ,(mm) - C(S)- (nn) -C(S)NR 4 - (oo) -C(NR 4 )S-, (pp) -C(O)S-, (qq) -O- (rr) -NR 4 -, (ss) - NR 4 C(O)- (tt) -OC(NR 4 )-, (uu) -NC(NR 4 )-, (vv) -C(S)O-, (ww) -SC(O)- (xx) - OC(S)- and (yy) -S(O) p s

R 4 , at each occurrence, independently is selected from: (a) H, (b) a C 1-6 alkyl group, (c) a C 2-6 alkenyl group, (d) a C 2-6 alkynyl group, (e) a C 6-I o saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, (f) a 3-12 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, (g) -C(O)-C 1-6 alkyl, (h) -C(O)-C 2-6 alkenyl, (i) -C(O)-C 2-6 alkynyl, Q) -C(O)-

C 6-IO saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, (Ic) -C(O)-3-12 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, (1) -C(O)O-C 1-6 alkyl, (m) -C(O)O-C 2-6 alkenyl, (n) - C(O)O-C 2 - 6 alkynyl, (o) -C(O)O-C 6- I 0 saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, p) - C(O)O-3-12 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, and q) -C(O)NR 0 R 6 , wherein any of (b)-(p) optionally is substituted with one or more R groups, alternatively, NR R forms a 3-7 membered saturated, unsaturated or aromatic ring including the nitrogen atom to which the R 4 groups are bonded, wherein said ring is optionally substituted at a position other than the nitrogen atom to which the R groups are bonded, with one or more moieties selected from O, S(0) p , N, and NR 8 ;

R 5 is selected from: (a) R 7 , (b) a C] -8 alkyl group, (c) a C 2- 8 alkenyl group, (d) a C 2-S alkynyl group, (e) a C 3-I2 saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, and (f) a 3-12 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, or two R groups, when present on the same carbon atom can be taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to foπn a spiro 3^6 membered carbocyclic ring or heterocyclic ring containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur; wherein any of (b)- (f) immediately above optionally is substituted with one or more R 7 groups; R 6 , at each occurrence, independently is selected from: (a) H, (b) a C 1-6 alkyl group, (c) a C 2-6 alkenyl group, (d) a C 2-6 alkynyl group, (e) a C 3-I o saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, and (f) a 3-10 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, wherein any of (b)-(f) optionally is substituted with one or more moieties selected from: (aa) a carbonyl group, (bb) a formyl group, (cc) F, (dd) Cl, (ee) Br, (ff) I, (gg) CN, (hh) NO 2 , (ii) -OR 8 , (jj) -S(O) P R 8 , (kk) -C(O)R 8 , (U) -C(O)OR 8 , (mm) -OC(O)R 8 , (nn) - C(O)NR 8 R 8 , (00) -OC(O)NR 8 R 8 , (pp) -C(=NR 8 )R 8 , (qq) -C(R 8 )(R 8 )OR 8 , (rr) - C(R 8 ) 2 OC(O)R 8 , (ss) -C(R 8 )(OR s )(CH 2 ) r NR 8 R 8 , (tt) -NR 8 R 8 , (uu) -NR 8 OR 8 , (w) - NR 8 C(O)R 8 , (ww) -NR 8 C(O)OR 8 , (xx) -NR 8 C(O)NR 8 R 8 , (yy) -NR 8 S(O) 1 -R 8 , (zz) - C(OR 8 )(OR 8 )R 8 , (ab) -C(R 8 ) 2 NR 8 R 8 , (ac) =NR 8 , (ad) -C(S)NR 8 R 8 , (ae) -NR 8 C(S)R 8 , (af) -OC(S)NR 8 R 8 , (ag) -NR 8 C(S)OR 8 , (ah) -NR 8 C(S)NR 8 R 8 , (ai) -SC(O)R 8 , (aj) a Ci -8 alkyl group, (ak) a C 2-8 alkenyl group, (al) a C 2-8 alkynyl group, (am) a Ci -8 alkoxy group, (an) a

Ci -8 alkylthio group, (ao) a Ci-g acyl group, (ap) -CF3, (aq) -SCF 3 , (ar) a C 3-I o saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, and (as) a 3-10 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, alternatively, NR 6 R 6 forms a 3-10 membered saturated, unsaturated or aromatic ring including the nitrogen atom to which the R δ groups are attached wherein said ring is optionally substituted at a position other than the nitrogen atom to which the R 6 groups are bonded, with one or more moieties selected from O, S(O) P , N, and NR 8 ;altematively, CR 6 R 6 forms a carbonyl group;

R 7 , at each occurrence, is selected from: (a) H, (b) =0, (c) F, (d) Cl, (e) Br, (f) I, (g) -CF 3 , (h) -CN, (i) -N 3 Q) -NO 2 , (k) -NR 6 (CR 6 R 6 )tR 9 , (1) -OR 9 , (m) -S(O) p C(R 6 R 6 ) t R 9 , (n) -C(O)(CR 6 R 6 )tR 9 , (0) -OC(O)(CR 6 R 6 ) t R 9 , (p) -SC(O)(CR 6 R 6 ) t R 9 , (q) - C(O)O(CR 6 R 6 ) t R 9 , (r) -NR 6 C(O)(CR 6 R 6 ) t R 9 , (s) -C(O)NR 6 (CR 6 R 6 ) t R 9 , (t) - C(=NR 6 )(CR 6 R 6 )tR 9 , (u) -C(=NNR 6 R 6 )(CR 6 R 6 ) t R 9 , (v) -C(=NNR 6 C(O)R 6 )(CR 6 R 6 ) t R 9 , (w) -C(=NOR 9 )(CR 6 R 6 ) t R 9 , (x) -NR 6 C(O)O(CR 6 R 6 ) t R 9 , (y) -OC(O)NR 6 (CR 6 R 6 ) t R 9 , (z) -NR 6 C(O)NR 6 (CR 6 R 6 ) t R 9 , (aa) -NR 6 S(O) p (CR 6 Rδ) t R 9 , (bb) -S(O)pNR 6 (CR 6 R 6 ) t R 9 , (cc) -NR 6 S(O) p NR 6 (CR 6 R 6 )tR 9 , (dd) -NR 6 R 6 , (ee) -NR 6 (CR 6 R 6 ), (fit) -OH, (gg) -NR 6 R 6 , (Mi)-OCH 3 , (ii) -S(O) p R 6 , (Jj) -NC(O)R 6 , (Kk) a C 1-6 alkyl group, (11) a C 2.6 alkenyl group, (mm) a C 2.6 alkynyl group, (nn) -C 3- io saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, and (00) 3-10 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, wherein any of (kk)-(oo) optionally is substituted with one or more R 9 groups; alternatively, two R 7 groups can form -O(CH 2 ) U O- ;

R 8 is selected from: (a) R 5 ,(b) H, (c) a C 1-6 alkyl group, (d) a C 2-6 alkenyl group, (e) a C 2.6 alkynyl group, (f) a C 3-I0 saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, (g) a 3-10 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, (h) -C(O)-Ci -O alkyl, (i) -C(O)- C 1 -6 alkenyl, (j) -C(O)-C 1-6 alkynyl, (k) -C(O)-C 3-I o saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, and (1) -C(O)-3-10 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, wherein any of (c)-(k) optionally is substituted with one or more moieties selected from : (aa) H, (bb) F, (cc) Cl, (dd) Br, (ee) I, (ft) CN, (gg) NO 2 , (hh) OH, (ii) NH 2 , Qj) NH(C 1-6 alkyl),

(kk) N(C 1-6 alkyl) 2 , (11) a Ci -6 alkoxy group, (mm) an aryl group, (nn) a substituted aryl group, (oo) a heteroaryl group, (pp) a substituted heteroaryl group, and qq) a C 1-6 alkyl group optionally substituted with one or more moieties selected from an aryl group, a substituted aryl group, a heteroaryl group, a substituted heteroaryl group, F, Cl, Br, I, CN, NO 2 , CF 3 , SCF 3 , and OH;

R 9 , at each occurrence, independently is selected from: (a) R 10 , (b) a C 1-6 alkyl group, (c) a C 2-6 alkenyl group, (d) a C 2 . 6 alkynyl group, e) a C 3-I0 saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, and f) a 3-10 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, wherein any of (b)-(f) optionally is substituted with one or more R groups; R 10 , at each occurrence, independently is selected from: (a) H, (b) =0, (c) F, (d) Cl, (e) Br, (f) I, (g) -CF 3 , (h) -CN, (i) -NO 2 , Q) -NR 6 R 6 , (k) -OR 6 , (1) -S(O) p R 6 , (m) -C(O)R 6 , (n) -C(O)OR 6 , (o) -OC(O)R 6 , (p) NR 6 C(O)R 6 , (q) -C(O)NR 6 R 6 , (r) - C(=NR 6 )R 6 , (s) -NR 6 C(O)NR 6 R 6 , (t) -NR δ S(O) p R 6 , (u) -S(O) p NR 6 R 6 , (v) - NR 6 S(O) p NR 6 R 6 , (w) a C,. 6 alkyl group, (x) a C 2 . 6 alkenyl group, (y) a C 2 . 6 alkynyl group, (z) a C 3- ] O saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, and (aa) a 3-10 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, wherein any of (w)-(aa) optionally is substituted with one or more moieties selected from R 6 , F, Cl, Br, I, CN, NO 2 , -OR 6 , - NH 2 , -NH(C]-O alkyl), -N(CL 6 alkyl) 2 , a C 1-6 alkoxy group, a C] -6 alkylthio group, and a C 1-6 acyl group;

R 11 and R a each occurrence, independently is selected from: (a) a carbonyl group, (b) a formyl group, (c) F, (d) Cl, (e) Br, (f) I, (g) CN, (h) NO 2 , (i) OR 8 , Q) - S(O) P R 8 , (k) -C(O)R 8 , (1) -C(O)OR 8 , (m) -OC(O)R 8 , (n) -C(O)NR 8 R 8 , (o) - OC(O)NR 8 R 8 , (p) -C(=NR 8 )R 8 , (q) -C(R 8 )(R 8 )OR 8 , (r) -C(R 8 ) 2 OC(O)R 8 , (s) -

C(R 8 )(OR 8 )(CH 2 ) r NR 8 R 8 , (t) -NR 8 R 8 , (u) -NR 8 OR 8 , (v) -NR 8 C(O)R 8 , (w) - NR 8 C(O)OR 8 , (x) -NR 8 C(O)NR 8 R 8 , (y) -NR 8 S(O) P R 8 , (z) -C(OR 8 )(OR 8 )R 8 , (aa) -C(R 8 ) 2 NR 8 R 8 , (bb) =NR 8 , (cc) -C(S)NR 8 R 8 , (dd) -NR 8 C(S)R 8 , (ee) - OC(S)NR 8 R 8 , (ff) -NR 8 C(S)OR 8 , (gg) -NR 8 C(S)NR 8 R 8 , (hh) -SC(O)R 8 , (ii) a C us alkyl group, Q]) a C 2-8 alkenyl group, (kk) a C 2-S alkynyl group, (11) a C 1-8 alkoxy group, (mm) a Ci -8 alkylthio group, (nn) a Ci -8 acyl group, (oo) a C 3-I o saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, and (pp) a 3-10 membered

saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, wherein (ii)-(kk) optionally are substituted with one or more R 5 groups;

R 12 is selected from: (a) H, (b) a C 1-6 alkyl group, (c) a C 2-6 alkenyl group, (d) a C 2-6 alkynyl group, (e) -C(O)R 5 , (f) -C(O)OR 5 , (g) -C(O)-NR 4 R 4 , (h) -

C(S)R 5 , (i) -C(S)OR 5 , (j) -C(O)SR 5 , (k) -C(S)-NR 4 R 4 , (1) a C 3-10 saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, or (m) a 3-10 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, (n) a -(Ci-O alkyl) -C 3- io saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, or (o) a -(C 1-6 alkyl)-3-10 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, wherein (a)-(d) and (l)-(o) optionally are substituted with one or more R 5 groups; p at each occurrence is 0, 1, or 2; r at each occurrence is 0, 1 , or 2; t at each occurrence is 0, 1 , or 2; and u at each occurrence is 1, 2, 3, or 4.

In the present invention, the macrolide, "T" is defined to include various 14- and 15-membered ring systems, which can contain one or more heteroatoms. Also, as defined herein, the macrolide, "T" is connected via a macrocyclic ring carbon atom", which means that the connection or bond is made to a carbon atom on the 14- or 15- membered ring of the macrolide moiety. The macrolide can include further substituents, including ring substituents. For example, the substituent designated as R 103 can in certain embodiments be a sugar moiety, e.g. a cladinose sugar, or the substituents such as R 104 and R 105 are taken together in certain embodiments to form a bridged bicyclic ring system with the macrolide ring, or the substituents R 105 and R 106 ,are taken together in certain embodiments to form a fused bicyclic ring system with the macrolide ring, or the substituents or components M, R 105 , and R 106 are taken together to form a fused tricyclic ring system with the macrolide ring, etc. It is also recognized in the present invention that "T" is depicted as being connected to a 6-membered ring, for example in certain embodiments a desosamine sugar ring.

In one embodiment, a compound of the invention is:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof. In another embodiment, a compound of the invention is:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof. For example, a compound of the invention is

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof. In another embodiment, X is (a) H, (b) Cl, (c) Br, (d) F, (e) -OH, (f) -CN, (g) -CF 3 ,

(h) -CF 2 H, (i) -CFH 2 , (j) -0(C 1-6 alkyl), (k) -N 3 , (1) -COOH, (m) -COO(C i -6 alkyl), (n) - NH 2 , (o) -NH(C, -6 alkyl), (p) -N(C 1-6 alkyl) 2 , (q) -C(O)NH 2 , (r) -C(O)NH(C 1-6 alkyl), (s) -C(O)N(C 1-6 alkyl) 2 , (t) -NHC(O)H, (u) -NHC(O)(C i -6 alkyl), (v) -N(C, -6 alkyl)C(O)H,

or (w) -N(Ci- 6 alkyl)C(O)N(Ci- 6 alkyl). For example, in one embodiment, X is F or OFl. For example, X is F. In another embodiment, X is -OH.

In another embodiment, R d and R e are selected from (a) Cl, (b) Br, (c) F, (d) H and

(e) Ci- 6 alkyl. For example, in one embodiment, R d and R e are H. In another embodiment, R c is selected from (a) H, (b) Cl, (c) Br, (d) F, (e) Ci -() alkyl,

(f) -CF 3 , (g) -CF 2 H, and (h) -CFH 2 . For example, in one embodiment, R c is H.

In another embodiment, R a and R b are selected from (a) H, (b) Cl, (b) Br, (d) F, (g) -OH, (h) -0(C 1-6 alkyl), (i) -N 3 , G) -COOH, (k) -COO(C 1-6 alkyl), (1) -CN, (m) -NH 2 , (n) - NH(C 1-6 alkyl), (o) -N(Ci. 6 alkyl) 2 , (p)-C(O)NH 2 , (q) -C(O)NH(Ci. 6 alkyl), (r) -C(O)N(C 1 . 6 alkyl) 2 , (s) -NHC(O)H, (t) -NHC(O)(C 1 . 6 alkyl), (u) -N(C, -6 alkyl)C(O)H, (v) -N(C 1-

C aHCyI)C(O)N(C 1-O aIlCyI), or alternatively R a and R b are taken together with the carbon to which they are attached to form (aa) -CO or (bb) -CS. For example, in one embodiment, R a and R b are selected from H, F, and -OH.

In one embodiment, R a is H and R b is F. In another embodiment, R a is H and R b is -OH.

In one embodiment, R a and R b are taken together with the carbon to which they are attached to form -CO.

In one embodiment, R 1 is H. In one embodiment, R 2 is H. In one embodiment, R 3 is Ci- ό alkyl. For example, in one embodiment, R 3 is methyl.

In one embodiment, G is B'. For example, in one embodiment, B' is selected from: (a) an aryl group, (b) a heteroaryl group, (c) a biaryl group, and (d) a fused bicyclic or tricyclic unsaturated or aromatic ring system optionally containing one or more carbonyl groups and one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, wherein each (a)-(d) optionally is substituted with one or more R ' groups.

In another embodiment, G is -B'-Z-B". For example, B' and B" are independently selected from: (a) an aryl group, (b) a heteroaiyl group, (c) a biaryl group, and (d) a fused bicyclic or tricyclic unsaturated or aromatic ring system optionally containing one or more carbonyl groups and one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, wherein each (a)-(d) optionally is substituted with one or more R 1 ' groups, and Z is

selected from Z is selected from (aa) a single bond, (bb) -O-, (cc) -NR 4 -, (dd) -C(O)-, (ee) -C(S)-, (ff) -S(O)p-, and (gg) a C 1-6 alkyl.

In one embodiment, the invention relates to a compound having the structure:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof. In one embodiment, a compound of the invention is

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof. In one embodiment, a compound of the invention is

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof. In one embodiment, a compound of the invention is:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof. In one embodiment, a compound of the invention is:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodmg thereof.

In one embodiment, in compounds of the invention, X is selected from F and OH. For example, X is F. Further, in certain compounds of the invention, X is OH.

In one embodiment, R 11 is selected from H and F. For example, R 11 is H. Further, in certain compounds of the invention, R 11 is F. In one embodiment, -ZB" is selected from:

In another embodiment, T is:

-oxide, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester or prodrug thereof, wherein: M is selected from:

(a) -C((O)-, (b) -CHC-OR 1 1 V, (c) -NR 114 -CH 2 - (d) -CH 2 -NR 114 - (e) CH(NR 114 R 114 )- (f) -C(=NNR n4 R 114 )-, (g) -NR U4 -C(O)-, (h) - C(O)NR 114 -, (i) -C(=NR 114 )-, Q) -CR 115 R 115 -, and (k) -C(=NOR 127 )-;

R 100 is selected from H and C 1-6 alkyl;

R 101 is selected from: (a) H, (b) Cl, (c) F, (d) Br, (e) I, (f) -NR 114 R 1 14 , (g) - NR 1 14 C(O)R 114 , (h) -OR 114 , (i) -OC(O)R 1 14 , Q) -OC(O)OR 114 , (k) - OC(O)NR 114 R 1 14 , (1) -0-C 1-6 alkyl, (m) -OC(O)-C 1-6 alkyl, (n) -OC(O)O-C 1-6 alkyl, (o) -OC(O)NR 114 -C 1-6 alkyl, (p) C 1-6 alkyl, (q) C 1-6 alkenyl, and (r) C 1- 6 alkynyl, wherein any of (1) - (r) optionally is substituted with one or more R 1 15 groups; R 102 is H;

R 103 is selected from: (a) H, (b) -OR 1 14 , (c) -0-C )-6 alkyl-R 115 , (d) -OC((O)R ] 14 , (e) -OC(O)-C 1-6 alkyl-R 1 15 , (f) -OC(O)OR 114 , (g) -OC(O)O-C 1-6 alkyl-R 1 15 , Qx) -

OC(O)NR 114 R 114 , (i) -OC(O)NR 1 14 -C ]-6 alkyl-R 115 , and (j) alternatively, R 102 and R 103 taken together form a carbonyl group; or, alternatively, R 101 and R 103 taken together are a single bond between the respective carbons to which these two groups are attached thereby creating a double bond between the carbons to which R 100 and R 102 are attached; or, alternatively, R 101 and R 103 taken together are an epoxide moiety;

R 104 is selected from:' (a) H, (b) R 114 , (c) -C(O)R 1 14 (d) -C(O)OR 114 (e) - C(O)NR 114 R 114 , (f) -C 1-6 alkyl-K-R 114 , (g) -C 2-6 alkenyl-K-R 1 14 , and (h) -C 2-6 alkynyl- K-R 114 ; alternatively R 103 and R 104 , taken together with the atoms to which they are bonded, form:

K is selected from:(a) -C(O)- (b) -C(O)O-, (c) -C(O)NR 114 - (d) -C(=NR 114 )- (e) -C(=NR 114 )0- (f) -C(=NR 114 )NR 114 -, (g) -OC(O)-, (h) -OC(O)O- (i) - OC(O)NR 1 14 - Q) -NR 114 C(O)- (k) -NR 114 C(O)O- (1) -NR 114 C(O)NR 114 - (m) - NR 114 C(=NR U4 )NR 114 - and (o) -S(0) p -; R 105 is selected from: (a) R 114 , (b) -OR 114 , (c) -NR 114 R 114 , (d) -0-C 1-6 alkyl-R 115 ,

(e) -C(O)-R 114 , (f) -C(O)-C 1-6 alkyl-R 115 , (g) -OC(O)-R 114 , (h) -OC(O)-C 1-6 alkyl-R 115 , (i) -OC(O)O-R 114 , (J) -OC(O)O-C 1-6 alkyl-R 115 , (k) -OC(O)NR 114 R 114 , (1) -

OC(O)NR 1 l4 -C] -6 alkyl-R 115 , (m) -C(O)-C 2-6 alkenyl-R 115 , and (n) -C(O)-C 2-6 alkynyl- R 1 15 ; or, alternatively, R 104 and R 105 , taken together with the atoms to which they are bonded, form:

wherein Q is CH or N, and R 126 is -OR 114 , -NR 1 14 or R 114 ; or, alternatively, R 104 and R 105 , taken together with the atoms to which they are bonded, form:

wherein R 101 is as defined above; or, alternately, R 101 and R 109 can be taken together form a carbonyl group; or, alternately, R 101 and R 109 can be taken together to form the group -0(CR 1 16 R 116 ) U O-; or, alternatively, R 104 and R 105 , taken together with the atoms to which they are bonded, form:

wherein R 130 is -OH, =C(O), or R 114 , R 131 is -OH, =C(O), or R 114 , or, alternately, R 130 and R 131 together with the carbons to which they are attached form a 3-7 membered saturated, unsaturated or aromatic carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring which can optionally be substituted with one or more R 114 groups;

R 106 is selected from: (a) -OR 114 , (b) -C 1-6 alkoxy-R 115 , (c) -C(O)R 114 , (d) - OC(O)R 114 , (e) -OC(O)OR 114 , (f) -OC(O)NR 114 R 114 , and (g) -NR 114 R 114 ; or, alternatively, R 105 and R 106 taken together with the atoms to which they are attached form a 5-membered ring by attachment to each other through a chemical moiety selected from: (a) - OC(R H5 ) 2 O- (b) -OC(O)O-, (c) -OC(O)NR 114 -, (d) -NR 114 C(O)O-, (e) - OC(O)NOR 114 -, (f) -N0R 114 -C(0)0- (g) -OC(O)NNR 114 R 114 -, (h) -NNR 114 R 114 - C(O)O-, (i) -OC(O)C(R 11 V, (J) -C(R 115 ) 2 C(O)O- (k) -OC(S)O-, (1) -0C((S)NR 114 - (m) -NR 114 C(S)O-, (n) -OC(S)NOR 114 -, (o) -NOR I14 -C(S)O- (p) -OC(S)NNR 1 14 R 114 - (q) -NNR 114 R 1 14 -C(S)O- (r) -OC(S)C(R 115 ) 2 - and (s) -C(R 115 ) 2 C(S)O-; or,

R , 105 , 106 . alternatively, M, , and R taken together with the atoms to which they are attached form:

wherein J is selected from O, S and NR 114 ; or, alternatively, M and R 104 taken together with the atoms to which they are attached form:

R , 107 is selected from (a) H, (b) -Ci -4 alkyl, (c) -C 2 - 4 alkenyl, which can be further substituted with Ci -12 alkyl or one or more halogens, (d) -C 2-4 alkynyl, which can be further substituted with C] -I2 alkyl or one or more halogens, (e) aryl or heteroaryl, which can be further substituted with Ci -I2 alkyl or one or more halogens, (f) -C(O)H, (g) - COOH, (h) -CN, (i) -COOR 114 , (j) -C(O)NR 114 R 114 , (k) -C(O)R 114 , and (1) -C(O)SR 114 , wherein (b) is further substituted with one or more substituents selected from (aa) -OR 1 14 , (bb) halogen, (cc) -SR 1 14 , (dd) Ci -I2 alkyl, which can be further substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, Cj -6 alkoxy, or amino, (ee) -OR 114 , (ff) -SR 1 14 , (gg) -NR 114 R 114 , (hh) -CN, (ii)- NO 2 , Qj) -NC(O)R 114 , (kk) -COOR 114 , (11) -N 3 , (mm) =N-O-R 1 14 , (nn) =NR* 14 , (OO) =N- NR 1 14 R 1 14 , (pp) =N-NH-C(0)R I U , and (qq) =N-NH-C(0)NR' 14 R 114 ; or, alternatively R 106 and R 107 are taken together with the atom to which they are attached to form an epoxide, a carbonyl, an olefin, or a substituted olefin, or a C 3 -C 7 carbocyclic, carbonate, or carbamate, wherein the nitrogen of said carbamate can be further substituted with a Ci-C 6 alkyl;

R 108 is selected from: (a) C 1-6 alkyl, (b) C 2-6 alkenyl, and (c) C 2-6 alkynyl, wherein any of (a)-(c) optionally is substituted with one or more R 114 groups;

R , 1"1 1 l is selected from H and -C(O)R 114.

R , 1 u 12 / is selected from H, OH, and OR 114.

R 113 is selected from: (a) H, (b) R 1 14 , (c) -C] -6 alkyl-K-R 1 14 , (d) -C 2-6 alkenyl-K- R 114 , and (e) -C 2-6 alkynyl-K-R 1 14 , wherein any of (c)-(e) optionally is substituted with one or more R 115 groups;

R 1 14 , at each occurrence, independently is selected from: (a) H, (b) Ci . 6 alkyl, (c) C 2 - 6 alkenyl, (d) C 2-6 alkynyl, (e) Q,-io saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, (f) 3-12 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, (g) -C(O)-C 1-G alkyl, (h) -C(O)- C 2-6 alkenyl, (i) -C(O)-C 2- O alkynyl, (j) -C(O)-C 6- Io saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, (k) -C(O)- 3-12 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, (1) -

C(O)O-C 1-6 alkyl, (m) -C(O)O-C 2-6 alkenyl, (n) -C(O)O-C 2-6 alkynyl, (o) -C(O)O-C 6-10 saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, (p) -C(O)O-3-12 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, and (q) -C(O)NR 1 16 R 116 , wherein any of (b)-(p) optionally is substituted with one or more R 1 15 groups, wherein one or more non-terminal carbon moieties of any of (b)-(d) optionally is replaced with oxygen, S(0) p , or -NR 116 , or, alternatively, NR 114 R 114 fonns a 3-7 membered saturated, unsaturated or aromatic ring including the nitrogen atom to which the R 114 groups are bonded and optionally one or more moieties selected from O, S(0) p , N, and NR 118 ; R 115 is selected from: (a) R 117 , (b) C ]-8 alkyl, (c) C 2-8 alkenyl, (d) C 2-8 alkynyl, (e)

C 3-I2 saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, (f) 3-12 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, wherein any of (b)-(f) optionally is substituted with one or more R 117 groups; R 116 , at each occurrence, independently is selected from: (a) H, (b) C 1-6 alkyl, (c)

C 2-6 alkenyl, (d) C 2-6 alkynyl, (e) C 3-I0 saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, and (f) 3-10 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, wherein one or more nonterminal carbon moieties of any of (b)-(d) optionally is replaced with oxygen, S(0) p , or - NR 114 , wherein any of (b)- (f) optionally is substituted with one or more moieties selected from:(aa) carbonyl, (bb) formyl, (cc) F, (dd) Cl, (ee) Br, (ff) I, (gg) CN, (hh) N 3 , (U)NO 2, Gj) OR 118 , (kk) -S(O) P R 118 , (11) -C(O)R 1 18 , (mm) -C(O)OR 1 18 , (mi) -OC(O)R 1 18 , (00) -

C(O)NR 1 18 R 118 , (pp) -OC(O)NR 118 R 118 , (qq) -C(=NR ! 18 )R 1 18 , (IT) -C(R 118 XR 1 1 ^OR 11S , (ss) -C(R 1 18 ) 2 OC(O)R 118 , (tl) -C(R 1 18 )(OR 1 18 )(CH 2 ) r NR 118 R 1 18 , (uu) -NR 118 R 118 ; (w) - NR 1 18 OR 1 18 , (ww) -NR 118 C(O)R 118 , (xx) -NR 118 C(O)OR 1 18 , (yy) -NR 118 C(O)NR 118 R 1 18 , (Zz) -NR 1 18 S(O) 1 R 1 18 , (ab) -C(OR 118 XOR 118 )R 118 , (ac) -C(R 1 18 ^NR 118 R 1 18 , (ad) =NR 1 18 , (ac) -C(S)NR 118 R 1 18 , (af) -NR 118 C(S)R 118 , (ag) -OC(S)NR 118 R 118 , (ah) -NR 118 C(S)OR 118 , (ai) -NR 118 C(S)NR 118 R 118 , (aj) -SC(O)R 1 18 , (ak) Ci- 8 alkyl, (al) C 2-8 alkenyl, (am) C 2-8 alkynyl, (an) C|.g alkoxy, (ao) C 1-8 alkyl thio, (ap) Ci -8 acyl, (aq) saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic C 3-I0 carbocycle, and (ar) saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic 3-10 membered heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, or, alternatively, NR 116 R 116 forms a 3-10 membered saturated, unsaturated or aromatic ring including the nitrogen atom to which the R 1 16 groups are attached and optionally one or more moieties selected from O, S(0) p , N, and NR 118 ; or, alternatively, CR 1 16 R 1 16 forms a carbonyl group;

R 1 17 , at each occurrence, is selected from: (a) H, (b) =0, (c) F, (d) Cl, (e) Br, (f) I, (g) (CR 116 R 116 ) r CF 3 , (h) (CR 116 R 116 ), CN, (i) (CR 1 I6 R 116 ) r NO2, O) (CR 116 R 116 ) 1 NR 116 (CR 116 R 116 ) t R 119 , (k) (CR 116 R 1 ^) 1 OR 1 19 , (1) (CR 1 16 R 1 16 ^S(O) P (CR 1 16 R 116 ) t R 119 , (m) (CR 1 16 R 116 ) r C(O)( CR 1 16 R 1 16 XR 119 , (n) (CR 116 R 116 ),0C(0)( CR 116 R 116 ) t R 119 , (o) (CR 116 R u6 ) r SC(O)( CR 1 16 R 116 ) t R 119 , (p) (CR 116 R 1 16 ) r C(O)O(CR 116 R 116 ) t R 119 , (q) (CR 116 R 116 XNR 116 C(0)( CR 116 R 116 ) t R 119 , (r) (CR 116 R 116 ) r C(O)NR 116 (CR 116 R 116 ) t R 119 , (s) (CR 116 R 116 ) r C(=NR U6 )( CR 116 R 116 ) t R 119 , (t) (CR n6 R 116 ) r C(=NNR 116 R 116 )(CR U6 R 1 16 ) t R 119 , (u) (CR 1 16 R 116 ) r C(=NNR 116 C(O)R 116 )( CR 1 16 R 116 ) t R 119 , (V) (CR 116 R 116 ),C(=NOR 1I9 X CR 116 R 116 XR 119 , (W) (CR 116 R 116 XNR 116 C(O)O(CR 116 R 116 XR 1 19 , (x) (CR 116 R 1 16 XOC(O)NR 116 (CR 116 R 116 XR 1 19 , (y) (CR 1 16 R 1 16 XNR 116 C(O)NR 1 ^(CR 116 R 116 XR 119 ,

(z) (CR 1 I6 R 1 16 ) r NR 116 S(O)p(CR 116 R I 16 ) t R 119 , (aa) (CR 116 R 1 16 ) r S(O) p NR 1 16 (CR 116 R 116 χR 119 , (bb) (CR 116 R 116 ) r NR 1 I6 S(O) p NR I 16 (CR 116 R 116 XR 1 19 , (cc) (CR 116 R 1 16 XNR 116 R 116 , (dd) C u alkyl, (ee) C 2 . 6 alkenyl, (ff) C 2 . 6 alkynyl, (gg) (CR 116 R 1 ^) 1 -C 3-10 saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, and (hli) (CR 116 R 1 16 )r-3-10 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, wherein any of (dd)-(hh) optionally is substituted with one or more R 1 19 groups; or, alternatively, two R 117 groups can form -O(CH 2 ) U O-;

R 118 is selected from: (a) H, (b) C 1-6 alkyl, (c) C 2 . 6 alkenyl, (d) C 2 . 6 alkynyl, (e) C 3-I o saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, (f) 3-10 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic lieterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, (g) -C(O)-C 1-6 alkyl, (h) -C(O)-C 1-6 alkenyl, (g) -C(O)-C 1-6 alkynyl, (i) -C(O)-Cs -I o saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, and Q) -C(O)- 3-10 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic lieterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, wherein any of (b)-(j) optionally is substituted with one or more moieties selected from : (aa) H, (bb) F, (cc) Cl, (dd) Br, (ee) I, (ff) CN, (gg) NO 2 , (Mi) OH, (ϋ) NH 2 , Qj) NH(C 1-6 alky(l), (kk) N(C 1-6 alky(l) 2 , (H) C 1-6 alkoxy, (mm) aryl, (nn) substituted aryl, (oo) heteroaryl, (pp) substituted lieteroaryl, and (qq) C 1-6 alkyl, optionally substituted with one or more moieties selected from aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, substituted heteroaryl, F, Cl, Br, I, CN, NO 2 , and OH;

R 119 , at each occurrence, independently is selected from: (a) R 120 , (b) C\.β alkyl, (c) C2-6 alkenyl, (d) C2-6 alkynyl, (e) C 3 . 1 0 saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, and (f) 3-10 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, wherein any of (b)-(f) optionally is substituted with one or more R ' groups;

R 120 , at each occurrence, independently is selected from: (a) H, (b) =0, (c) F, (d) Cl, (e) Br, (f) I, (g) (CR 116 R n6 ) r CF 3 , (li) (CR 116 R U6 ) r CN, (i) (CR 116 R H6 ) r Nθ2, Q) (CR 116 R 116 ) r NR ! 16 R 116 , (k) (CR 116 R 116 ^OR 114 , (1) (CR 116 R 116 ) r S(O)pR' 16 , (m) (CR 116 R 116 ) r C(O)R 116 , (n) (CR 116 R 116 ^C(O)OR 116 , (o) (CR 116 R 116 ) r OC(O)R 116 , (p) (CR 116 R 1 1 VNR 116 C(O)R 1 16 , (q) (CR 1 16 R 1 16 ^C(O)NR 1 16 R 1 16 , (r) 16 R 116 , (t) (CR 1 16 R 1 16 ) r NR 116 S(O)pR 116 , (u) (CR 116 R 1 1 V(O)PNR 1 16 R 116 , (v) (CR 116 R 116 ) r NR 116 S(O)pNR U6 R 116 , (w) C,_ 6 alkyl, (x) C 2 . 6 alkenyl, (y) C 2 . 6 alkynyl, (z)

(CR 116 R 116 )r-C 3- io saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic carbocycle, and (aa) (CR 116 R 1 16 )r-3- 10 membered saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, wherein any of (w)-(aa) optionally is substituted with one or more moieties selected from R 116 , F, Cl, Br, I, CN, NO 2 , -OR 116 , -NH 2 , -NH(C -6 alkyl), -N(C -6 alkyl) 2 , C -6 alkoxy, C -6 alkylthio, and C 1-6 acyl;

R 121 , at each occurrence, independently is selected from: (a) H, (b) -OR 1 18 , (c) - 0-C 1-6 alkyl-OC(O)R 1 18 , (d) -0-C 1-6 alkyl-OC(O)OR 118 , (e) -0-C 1-6 alkyl- OC(O)NR 1 18 R 118 , (I) -O-C 1-6 alkyl-C(O)NR 118 R U8 , (g) -O-Ci. 6 alkyl-NR 118 C(O)R 1 18 , (h) -0-C 1-6 alkyl-NR 118 C(O)OR 118 , (i) -0-C 1-6 E^yI-NR 1 18 C(O)NR 118 R 1 18 , (j) -O- C 1-6 alkyl-NR 118 C(=N(H)NR l l8 R 1 18 , (k) -0-C 1-6 alkyl-S(O) p R 1 18 , (1) -0-C 2-6 alkenyl- OC(O)R 118 , (m) -0-C 2-6 alkenyl-OC(O)OR 118 , (n) -0-C 2-6 alkenyl-OC(O)NR ! 18 R 1 18 , (o) -0-C 2-6 alkenyl-C(O)NR 118 R 1 18 , (P) -O-C 2-6 alkenyl-NR 118 C(O)R 1 18 , (q) -O- C 2-6 alkenyl-NR 1 18 C(O)OR 1 18 , (r) -0-C 2-6 alkenyl-NR 118 C(O)NR 118 R 118 , (s) -O- C 2-6 alkenyl-NR 118 C(=N(H)NR 1 I 8 R 118 , (t) -0-C 2-6 alkenyl-S(O) p R 118 , (u) -O- C 2-6 allcynyl-OC(O)R 1 18 , (v) -0-C 2-6 alkynyl-OC(O)OR l 18 , (w) -0-C 2-6 alkynyl- OC(O)NR 118 R 118 , (x) -0-C 2-6 alkynyl-C(O)NR' 18 R 118 , (y) -0-C 2-6 alkynyl- NR 118 C(O)R 118 , (z) -0-C 2-6 alkynyl-NR 118 C(O)OR 118 , (aa) -0-C 2-6 alkynyl- NR 1 18 C(O)NR 118 R 1 18 , (bb) -0-C 2-6 alkynyl-NR 118 C(=N(H)NR' 18 R 118 , (CC) -O- C 2-6 alkynyl-S(O)pR 118 ; and (dd) -NR 118 R 1 18 ; or, alternatively, two R 121 groups taken together form =0, =N0R ! 18 , or =NNR ! 18 R 118 ; R 122 Is R 115 ;

R 123 is selected from: (a) R 1 16 , (b) F, (c) Cl, (d) Br, (e) I, (f) CN, (g) NO 2 , and (h) - OR 114 ; alternatively, R 122 and R 123 taken together are -O(CH 2 ) U O-; R 124 , at each occurrence, independently is selected from: (a) H, (b) F, (c) Cl, (d) Br,

(e) I, (f) CN, (g) -OR 114 , (h) -NO 2 , (i) -NR 114 R 114 , Q) C 1-6 alkyl, (k) C 1-6 acyl, and (1) C 1-6 alkoxy;

R 125 is selected from: (a) C 1-6 alkyl, (b) C 2 . 6 alkenyl, (c) C 2.6 alkynyl, (d) C 1-6 acyl, (e) C 1-6 alkoxy, (F) C 1-6 alkylthio, (g) saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic Cs-io carbocycle, (h) saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic 5-10 membered heterocycle containing one or more heteroatorns selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, (i) -0-C 1-6 alkyl-saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic 5-10 membered heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, (j) -NR 1 14 -C 1-6 alkyl-saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic 5-10 membered heterocycle containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, (k) saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic 10-membered bicyclic ling system optionally containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, (1) saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic 13 -membered tricyclic ring

system optionally containing one or more heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, (m) -OR 114 , (n) -NR 114 R 1 14 , (o) -S(O) P R' 14 , and (p) -R 124 , wherein any of (a)- (1) optionally is substituted with one or more R 1 15 groups; or, alternatively, R 125 and one R 124 group, taken together with the atoms to which they are bonded, form a 5-7 membered saturated or unsaturated carbocycle, optionally substituted with one or more R 1 15 groups; or a 5-7 membered saturated or unsaturated heterocycle containing one or more atoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, and optionally substituted with one or more R 1 15 groups;

R 126 at each occurrence, independently is selected from: (a) hydrogen, (b) an electron- withdrawing group, (c) aryl, (d) substituted aryl, (e) heteroaryl, (f) substituted heteroaryl, and (g) Cue alkyl, optionally substituted with one or more R 115 groups; or, alternatively, any R 126 and any R 123 , taken together with the atoms to which they are bonded, form a 5-7 membered saturated or unsaturated carbocycle, optionally substituted with one or more R groups; or a 5-7 membered saturated or unsaturated heterocycle containing one or more atoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, and optionally substituted with one or more R 115 groups; R 109 is H or F;

R 27 is R 1 , a monosaccharide or disaccharide (including amino sugars and halo sugar(s), -(CH 2 ) n -(O-CH 2 CH 2 -) m -O(CH 2 ) p CH 3 or -(CH 2 ) n -(O-CH 2 CH 2 -) m -OH; R 128 Is R 114

R 129 Is R 114

R 110 is R 1 14 , or, alternatively, R 109 and R 1 10 taken together with the carbons to which they are attached form:

or alternately, R 128 and R 129 together with the carbons to which they are attached form a 3-6 membered saturated, unsaturated or aromatic carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring which can optionally be substituted with one or more R 114 groups; m, at each occurrence is 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5; n, at each occurrence is 1, 2, or 3. In some embodiments, in compounds of the invention, T is a macrolide selected from:

and an N-oxide pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, or prodrug thereof.

In some embodiments, T is a macrolide selected from:

and an N-oxide pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, or prodrug thereof. In some embodiments, T is a macrolide selected from:

and an N-oxide pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, or prodrug thereof. In some embodiments, T is a macrolide selected from Tl through T33:

T16 T17 T18

T19 T20

T21 T22

T29

T30

As is seen from the foregoing, the macrolide component of the compounds of the present invention can comprise a wide range of structures. Examples of such macrolide components and their syntheses are provided in the following documents, all of which are incorporated by reference in their entirety: PCT application No. WO 2005/118610, published December 15, 2005, to Rib-X Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; PCT application No. WO 2005/085266, published September 15, 2005, to Rib-X Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; PCT application No. WO 2005/049632, published June 2, 2005, to Rib-X Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; PCT application No. WO 2005/042554, published May 12, 2005, to Rib-X Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; PCT application No. WO 2004/078770, published September 16, 2004, to Rib-X Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; PCT application No. WO 2004/029066, published April 8, 2004, to Rib-X Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; U.S. Patent No.; U.S. Patent No. 6,992,069, to Gu et al., issued January 31, 2006; U.S. Patent No. 6,953,782, to Phan et al., issued October 11, 2005; U.S. Patent No. 6,939,861, to Ashley et al., issued September 6, 2005; U.S. Patent No., 6,927,057, to Khosla et al., issued August 9, 2005; U.S. Patent No.

6,794,366, to Chu et al., issued September 21,. 2004; U.S. Patent No. 6,762,168, to Chu, issued July 13, 2004; U.S. Patent No. 6,756,359, to Chu et al, issued June 29, 2994; U.S. Patent No. 6,750,205, to Ashley et al, issued June 15, 2004; U.S. Patent No. 6,740,642, to Angehrn et al., issued May 25, 2004; U.S. Patent No. 6,727,352, to Cheng et al., issued April 27, 2004; U.S. Patent Application Publication No. US 2006/0154881, to Or et al., published July 13, 2006; U.S. Patent Application Publication No. US 2006/0142215, to Tang et al., published June 29, 2006; U.S. Patent Application Publication No. US 2006/0142214, to Or et al, published June 29, 2006; U.S. Patent Application Publication No. US 2006/0122128, to Or et al., published June 8, 2006; U.S Patent Application Publication No. US 2006/0069048, to Or et al. published March 30, 2006; U.S. Patent Application Publication No. US 2005/0272672, to Li et al., published December 8, 2005; U.S. Patent Application Publication No US 2005/0009764, to Burger et al, published January 13, 2005; PCT application No. WO 2006/067589, to Pfizer Products Inc., published June 29, 2006; PCT application No. WO 2004/096823, to Chiron Corporation, published November 11 , 2004; PCT application No. WO 2004/096822, to Chiron

Corporation, published November 11, 2004; PCT application No. WO 2004/080391, to Optimer Pharmaceuticals, Inc., published September 23, 2004; PCT application No. WO 2004/078771, to Taisho Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., published September 16, 2004; PCT application no. WO 03/061671, to Kosan Biosciences, Inc. published July 31, 2003; and European Patent Document EP 1 256 587 Bl, to the Kitasato Institute, granted March 29, 2006.

In another aspect, the invention relates to a compound having the structure corresponding to any one of the structures listed in Tables 1 or Table IA, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, N-oxide, or prodrug thereof. In another aspect, the invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of the invention and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

In another aspect, the invention relates to a method for treating or preventing a disease state in a mammal comprising administering to a mammal in need thereof an effective amount of a compound of the invention. In another aspect, the invention relates to a method of treating a microbial infection in a mammal comprising administering to the mammal an effective amount of a compound of the invention.

In another aspect, the invention relates to a method of treating a fungal infection in a mammal comprising administering to the mammal an effective amount of a compound of the invention.

In another aspect, the invention relates to a method of treating a parasitic disease in a mammal comprising administering to the mammal an effective amount of a compound of the invention.

In another aspect, the invention relates to a method of treating a proliferative disease in a mammal comprising administering to the mammal an effective amount of a compound of the invention. In another aspect, the invention relates to a method of treating a viral infection in a mammal comprising administering to the mammal an effective amount of a compound of the invention.

In another aspect, the invention relates to a method of treating an inflammatory disease in a mammal comprising administering to the mammal an effective amount of a compound of the invention.

In another aspect, the invention relates to a method of treating a gastrointestinal motility disorder in a mammal comprising administering to the mammal an effective amount of a compound of the invention.

In another aspect, the invention relates to a method of treating or preventing a disease state in a mammal caused or mediated by a nonsense or missense mutation comprising administering to a mammal in need thereof an effective amount of a compound of the invention to suppress expression of the nonsense or missense mutation.

In another aspect, the invention relates to a method of treating a disease or disorder by administering a compound of the invention orally, parentally, or topically. In another aspect, the invention relates to a method of synthesizing a compound of the invention.

In another aspect, the invention relates to a medical device containing a compound of the invention. For example, the medical device is a stent.

3. Synthesis of the Compounds of the Invention

The invention provides methods for making the compounds of the invention. The following schemes depict exemplary chemistries available for synthesizing the compounds of the invention.

Scheme 1 illustrates the synthesis of triazole compounds of type 5 and 6. Erythromycin can be N-demethylated as described in the art (U.S. Patent No. 3,725,385; Flynn et al. (1954) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76: 3121; Ku et al. (1997) Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 7: 1203; Stenmark et al. (2000) J. Org. Chem. 65: 3875) to afford secondary amine 1. Alkylation of 1 with electrophiles of type 2 yields alkynes of type 3 containing an alkyl chain of appropriate length, generally between one and about four carbon atoms between the nitrogen atom and the alkyne group. Cycloaddition of azides of type 4 with alkynes 3 generates two regioisomeric triazole products. The reaction can be thermally catalyzed, or a number of catalysts could be added to facilitate the reaction (such as, but not limited to, copper (I) iodide: see, Tornoe, CW. et al. (2002) J. Org. Chem. 67: 3057). The major isomer (for steric reasons) is the "anti" isomer 5, a 1,4 disubstituted triazole. The minor component is the "syn" isomer 6, a 1,5 disubstituted triazole. Scheme 1

5 (1,4 isomer) 6 (1,5 isomer)

It is to be understood that other macrolide compounds such as, but not limited to, azithromycin and clarithromycin, could be N-demethylated and serve as starting materials for the chemistry exemplified in Scheme 1. Target compounds derived from such

alteniate macrolide precursors are to be considered within the scope of the present invention.

An alternate approach to derivatives of type 5 and 6 is illustrated by Scheme 2. Acetylenic alcohols of type 14 can be treated with azides 4 to yield intermediate alcohol 15 (along with a minor amount of the regioisomeric triazole). Tosylation of 15 will provide tosylates 16 which can serve as alkylating agents for macrolide amines of type 1 to afford targets 5 (and its isomer 6). It will be appreciated that other sulfonate derivatives or halides could be formed from intermediate alcohol 15, and these would be useful as electrophiles for the alkylation of macrolide amines such as 1 to afford compounds of the invention. . Scheme 2

(+ isomer)

(+ 6)

Other starting materials for the synthesis of compounds of the present invention are readily synthesizable. For example, des-methyl macrolide amines 22 and 23 can be prepared from azithromycin and clarithromycin respectively, using the same procedure for the synthesis of 1 from erythromycin. Ketolide derivatives (C-3 keto compounds synthesized from macrolides) of the present invention can be prepared by chemistry such as that shown in Scheme 3. Claritlxromycin-derived amine 23 is alkylated with tosylate 24 to afford alkyne 25. The cladinose sugar at C-3 is hydrolyzed to afford the C-3 hydroxy intermediate 26, which is then selectively acetylated on the hydroxyl of the aminosaccharide group to yield 27. Oxidation of 27 yields C-3 keto derivative 28 which is then deacylated to provide alkyne 29. Alkyne 29 can be exposed to the chemistry of

Scheme 1 above Io deliver triazole and isoxazole compounds of the present invention that have C-3 keto claritliromycin-derived structures. It will be understood that alkylation of 23 with electrophiles of type 7, and then exposure of the product nitriles to the chemistry shown in Scheme 3, will yield tetrazoles that have C-3 keto clarithromycin-derived structures. Additionally, C-3 keto azithromycin and erythromycin intermediates could be prepared from 1 and 22 using the chemistry of Scheme 3, and subsequently serve as starting materials for compounds of the present invention.

Scheme 3

28 29

4. Characterization of Compounds of the Invention

Compounds designed, selected and/or optimized by methods described above, once produced, can be characterized using a variety of assays known to those skilled in the art to determine whether the compounds have biological activity. For example, the molecules can be characterized by conventional assays, including but not limited to those assays

described below, to determine whether they have a predicted activity, binding activity and/or binding specificity.

Furthermore, high-throughput screening can be used to speed up analysis using such assays. As a result, it can be possible to rapidly screen the molecules described herein for activity, for example, as anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-parasitic or anti- viral agents. Also, it can be possible to assay how the compounds interact with a ribosome or ribosomal subunit and/or are effective as modulators (for example, inhibitors) of protein synthesis using techniques known in the art. General methodologies for performing high-throughput screening are described, for example, in Devlin (1998) High Throughput Screening, Marcel Deklcer; and U.S. Patent No. 5,763,263. High-throughput assays can use one or more different assay techniques including, but not limited to, those described below.

(1) Surface Binding Studies. A variety of binding assays can be useful in screening new molecules for their binding activity. One approach includes surface plasmon resonance (SPR) that can be used to evaluate the binding properties of molecules of interest with respect to a ribosome, ribosomal subunit or a fragment thereof.

SPR methodologies measure the interaction between two or more macromolecules in real-time through the generation of a quantum-mechanical surface plasmon. One device, (BIAcore Biosensor RTM from Pharmacia Biosensor, Piscataway, NJ.) provides a focused beam of polychromatic light to the interface between a gold film (provided as a disposable biosensor "chip") and a buffer compartment that can be regulated by the user. A 100 nm thick "hydrogel" composed of carboxylated dextran that provides a matrix for the covalent immobilization of analytes of interest is attached to the gold film. When the focused light interacts with the free electron cloud of the gold film, plasmon resonance is enhanced. The resulting reflected light is spectrally depleted in wavelengths that optimally evolved the resonance. By separating the reflected polychromatic light into its component wavelengths (by means of a prism), and determining the frequencies that are depleted, the BIAcore establishes an optical interface which accurately reports the behavior of the generated surface plasmon resonance. When designed as above, the plasmon resonance (and thus the depletion spectrum) is sensitive to mass in the evanescent field (which corresponds roughly to the thickness of the hydrogel). If one component of an interacting pair is immobilized to the hydrogel, and the interacting partner is provided

through the buffer compartment, the interaction between the two components can be measured in real time based on the accumulation of mass in the evanescent field and its corresponding effects of the plasmon resonance as measured by the depletion spectrum. This system permits rapid and sensitive real-time measurement of the molecular interactions without the need to label either component.

(2) Fluorescence Polarization. Fluorescence polarization (FP) is a measurement technique that can readily be applied to protein-protein, protein-ligand, or RNA-ligand interactions in order to derive ICsos and Kds of the association reaction between two molecules. In this technique one of the molecules of interest is conjugated with a fluorophore. This is generally the smaller molecule in the system (in this case, the compound of interest). The sample mixture, containing both the ligand-probe conjugate and the ribosome, ribosomal subunit or fragment thereof, is excited with vertically polarized light. Light is absorbed by the probe fiuorophores, and re-emitted a short time later. The degree of polarization of the emitted light is measured. Polarization of the emitted light is dependent on several factors, but most importantly on viscosity of the solution and on the apparent molecular weight of the fluorophore. With proper controls, changes in the degree of polarization of the emitted light depends only on changes in the apparent molecular weight of the fluorophore, which in-tum depends on whether the probe-ligand conjugate is free in solution, or is bound to a receptor. Binding assays based on FP have a number of important advantages, including the measurement of ICs 0 S and Kds under true homogenous equilibrium conditions, speed of analysis and amenity to automation, and ability to screen in cloudy suspensions and colored solutions.

(3) Protein Synthesis. It is contemplated that, in addition to characterization by the foregoing biochemical assays, the compound of interest can also be characterized as a modulator (for example, an inhibitor of protein synthesis) of the functional activity of the ribosome or ribosomal subunit.

Furthermore, more specific protein synthesis inhibition assays can be performed by administering the compound to a whole organism, tissue, organ, organelle, cell, a cellular or subcellular extract, or a purified ribosome preparation and observing its pharmacological and inhibitory properties by determining, for example, its inhibition constant (IC 50 ) for inhibiting protein synthesis. Incorporation Of 3 H leucine or 35 S methionine, or similar experiments can be performed to investigate protein synthesis

activity. A change in the amount or the rate of protein synthesis in the cell in the presence of a molecule of interest indicates that the molecule is a modulator of protein synthesis. A decrease in the rate or the amount of protein synthesis indicates that the molecule is a inhibitor of protein synthesis. Furthermore, the compounds can be assayed for anti-proliferative or anti-infective properties on a cellular level. For example, where the target organism is a microorganism, the activity of compounds of interest can be assayed by growing the microorganisms of interest in media either containing or lacking the compound. Growth inhibition can be indicative that the molecule can be acting as a protein synthesis inhibitor. More specifically, the activity of the compounds of interest against bacterial pathogens can be demonstrated by the ability of the compound to inhibit growth of defined strains of human pathogens. For this purpose, a panel of bacterial strains can be assembled to include a variety of target pathogenic species, some containing resistance mechanisms that have been characterized. Use of such a panel of organisms permits the determination of structure-activity relationships not only in regards to potency and spectrum, but also with a view to obviating resistance mechanisms. The assays can be performed in microtiter trays according to conventional methodologies as published by The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) guidelines (NCCLS. M7-A5-Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically; Approved Standard-Fifth Edition. NCCLS Document M100-S12/M7 (ISBN 1-56238-394-9)).

5. Formulation and Administration

The compounds of the invention can be useful in the prevention or treatment of a variety of human or other animal, including mammalian and non mammalian, disorders, including for example, bacterial infection, fungal infections, viral infections, parasitic diseases, and cancer. It is contemplated that, once identified, the active molecules of the invention can be incorporated into any suitable carrier prior to use. The dose of active molecule, mode of administration and use of suitable carrier will depend upon the intended recipient and target organism. The formulations, both for veterinary and for human medical use, of compounds according to the present invention typically include such compounds in association with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

The carrier(s) should be "acceptable" in the sense of being compatible with the other ingredients of the formulations and not deleterious to the recipient.

Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, in this regard, are intended to include any and all solvents, dispersion media, coatings, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agents, isotonic and absorption delaying agents, and the like, compatible with pharmaceutical administration. The use of such media and agents for pharmaceutically active substances is known in the art. Except insofar as any conventional media or agent is incompatible with the active compound, use thereof in the compositions is contemplated. Supplementary active compounds (identified or designed according to the invention and/or known in the art) also can be incorporated into the compositions. The formulations can conveniently be presented in dosage unit form and can be prepared by any of the methods well known in the art of pharmacy/microbiology. In general, some formulations are prepared by bringing the compound into association with a liquid carrier or a finely divided solid carrier or both, and then, if necessary, shaping the product into the desired formulation.

A pharmaceutical composition of the invention should be formulated to be compatible with its intended route of administration. Examples of routes of administration include oral or parenteral, for example, intravenous, intradermal, inhalation, transdermal (topical), transmucosal, and rectal administration. Solutions or suspensions used for parenteral, intradermal, or subcutaneous application can include the following components: a sterile diluent such as water for injection, saline solution, fixed oils, polyethylene glycols, glycerine, propylene glycol or other synthetic solvents; antibacterial agents such as benzyl alcohol or methyl parabens; antioxidants such as ascorbic acid or sodium bisulfite; chelating agents such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; buffers such as acetates, citrates or phosphates and agents for the adjustment of tonicity such as sodium chloride or dextrose. pH can be adjusted with acids or bases, such as hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide. Useful solutions for oral or parenteral administration can be prepared by any of the methods well known in the pharmaceutical art, described, for example, in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, (Gennaro, A., ed.), Mack Pub., (1990). Formulations for parenteral administration can also include glycocholate for buccal administration, methoxysalicylate for rectal administration, or citric acid for vaginal administration. The parenteral preparation can be enclosed in ampoules, disposable syringes or multiple dose vials made of glass or plastic. Suppositories for rectal administration also can be prepared by mixing the drug with a non-irritating excipient such as cocoa butter, other glycerides,

or other compositions which are solid at room temperature and liquid at body temperatures. Formulations also can include, for example, polyalkylene glycols such as polyethylene glycol, oils of vegetable origin, and hydrogenated naphthalenes. Formulations for direct administration can include glycerol and other compositions of high viscosity. Other potentially useful parenteral carriers for these drugs include ethylene- vinyl acetate copolymer particles, osmotic pumps, implantable infusion systems, and liposomes. Formulations for inhalation administration can contain as excipients, for example, lactose, or can be aqueous solutions containing, for example, polyoxyethylene-9- lauryl ether, glycocholate and deoxycholate, or oily solutions for administration in the form of nasal drops, or as a gel to be applied intranasally. Retention enemas also can be used for rectal delivery.

Formulations of the present invention suitable for oral administration can be in the form of: discrete units such as capsules, gelatin capsules, sachets, tablets, troches, or lozenges, each containing a predetermined amount of the drug; a powder or granular composition; a solution or a suspension in an aqueous liquid or non-aqueous liquid; or an oil-in-water emulsion or a water-in-oil emulsion. The drug can also be administered in the form of a bolus, electuary or paste. A tablet can be made by compressing or moulding the drug optionally with one or more accessory ingredients. Compressed tablets can be prepared by compressing, in a suitable machine, the drug in a free-flowing form such as a powder or granules, optionally mixed by a binder, lubricant, inert diluent, surface active or dispersing agent. Moulded tablets can be made by moulding, in a suitable machine, a mixture of the powdered drug and suitable carrier moistened with an inert liquid diluent. Oral compositions generally include an inert diluent or an edible carrier. For the purpose of oral therapeutic administration, the active compound can be incorporated with excipients. Oral compositions prepared using a fluid carrier for use as a mouthwash include the compound in the fluid carrier and are applied orally and swished and expectorated or swallowed. Pharmaceutically compatible binding agents, and/or adjuvant materials can be included as part of the composition. The tablets, pills, capsules, troches and the like can contain any of the following ingredients, or compounds of a similar nature: a binder such as microcrystalline cellulose, gum tragacanth or gelatin; an excipient such as starch or lactose; a disintegrating agent such as alginic acid, Primogel, or corn starch; a lubricant such as magnesium stearate or Sterotes; a glidant such as colloidal

silicon dioxide; a sweetening agent such as sucrose or saccharin; or a flavoring agent such as peppermint, methyl salicylate, or orange flavoring.

Pharmaceutical compositions suitable for injectable use include sterile aqueous solutions (where water soluble) or dispersions and sterile powders for the extemporaneous preparation of sterile injectable solutions or dispersion. For intravenous administration, suitable carriers include physiological saline, bacteriostatic water, Cremophor ELTM (BASF, Parsippany, NJ) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS). It should be stable under the conditions of manufacture and storage and should be preserved against the contaminating action of microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi. The carrier can be a solvent or dispersion medium containing, for example, water, ethanol, polyol (for example, glycerol, propylene glycol, and liquid polyethylene glycol), and suitable mixtures thereof. The proper fluidity can be maintained, for example, by the use of a coating such as lecithin, by the maintenance of the required particle size in the case of dispersion and by the use of surfactants. In many cases, it will be preferable to include isotonic agents, for example, sugars, polyalcohols such as manitol, sorbitol, or sodium chloride in the composition.

Prolonged absorption of the injectable compositions can be brought about by including in the composition an agent which delays absorption, for example, aluminum monostearate and gelatin.

Sterile injectable solutions can be prepared by incorporating the active compound in the required amount in an appropriate solvent with one or a combination of ingredients enumerated above, as required, followed by filter sterilization. Generally, dispersions are prepared by incorporating the active compound into a sterile vehicle which contains a basic dispersion medium and the required other ingredients from those enumerated above. In the case of sterile powders for the preparation of sterile injectable solutions, methods of preparation include vacuum drying and freeze-drying which yields a powder of the active ingredient plus any additional desired ingredient from a previously sterile-filtered solution thereof.

Formulations suitable for intra-articular administration can be in the form of a sterile aqueous preparation of the drug that can be in microcrystalline form, for example, in the form of an aqueous microcrystalline suspension. Liposomal formulations or biodegradable polymer systems can also be used to present the drug for both intra-articular and ophthalmic administration.

Formulations suitable for topical administration, including eye treatment, include liquid or semi-liquid preparations such as liniments, lotions, gels, applicants, oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions such as creams, ointments or pastes; or solutions or suspensions such as drops. Formulations for topical administration to the skin surface can be prepared by dispersing the drug with a dermatologically acceptable carrier such as a lotion, cream, ointment or soap. Particularly useful are carriers capable of forming a film or layer over the skin to localize application and inhibit removal. For topical administration to internal tissue surfaces, the agent can be dispersed in a liquid tissue adhesive or other substance known to enhance adsorption to a tissue surface. For example, hydroxypropylcellulose or fibrinogen/thrombin solutions can be used to advantage. Alternatively, tissue-coating solutions, such as pectin-containing formulations can be used.

For inhalation treatments, inhalation of powder (self-propelling or spray formulations) dispensed with a spray can, a nebulizer, or an atomizer can be used. Such formulations can be in the form of a fine powder for pulmonary administration from a powder inhalation device or self-propelling powder-dispensing formulations. In the case of self-propelling solution and spray formulations, the effect can be achieved either by choice of a valve having the desired spray characteristics {i.e., being capable of producing a spray having the desired particle size) or by incorporating the active ingredient as a suspended powder in controlled particle size. For administration by inhalation, the compounds also can be delivered in the form of an aerosol spray from pressured container or dispenser which contains a suitable propellant, e.g., a gas such as carbon dioxide, or a nebulizer.

Systemic administration also can be by transmucosal or transdermal means. For transmucosal or transdermal administration, penetrants appropriate to the barrier to be permeated are used in the formulation. Such penetrants generally are known in the art, and include, for example, for transmucosal administration, detergents and bile salts. Transmucosal administration can be accomplished through the use of nasal sprays or suppositories. For transdermal administration, the active compounds typically are formulated into ointments, salves, gels, or creams as generally known in the art. The active compounds can be prepared with carriers that will protect the compound against rapid elimination from the body, such as a controlled release formulation, including implants and microencapsulated delivery systems. Biodegradable,

biocompatible polymers can be used, such as ethylene vinyl acetate, polyanhydrid.es, polyglycolic acid, collagen, polyorthoesters, and polylactic acid. Methods for preparation of such formulations will be apparent to those skilled in the art. Liposomal suspensions can also be used as pharmaceutically acceptable carriers. These can be prepared according to methods known to those skilled in the art, for example, as described in U.S. Patent No. 4,522,811.

Oral or parenteral compositions can be formulated in dosage unit form for ease of administration and uniformity of dosage. Dosage unit form refers to physically discrete units suited as unitary dosages for the subject to be treated; each unit containing a predetermined quantity of active compound calculated to produce the desired therapeutic effect in association with the required pharmaceutical carrier. The specification for the dosage unit forms of the invention are dictated by and directly dependent on the unique characteristics of the active compound and the particular therapeutic effect to be achieved, and the limitations inherent in the art of compounding such an active compound for the treatment of individuals. Furthermore, administration can be by periodic injections of a bolus, or can be made more continuous by intravenous, intramuscular or intraperitoneal administration from an external reservoir (e.g., an intravenous bag).

Where adhesion to a tissue surface is desired the composition can include the drug dispersed in a fibrinogen-thrombin composition or other bioadhesive. The compound then can be painted, sprayed or otherwise applied to the desired tissue surface. Alternatively, the drugs can be formulated for parenteral or oral administration to humans or other mammals, for example, in therapeutically effective amounts, e.g., amounts that provide appropriate concentrations of the drug to target tissue for a time sufficient to induce the desired effect. Where the active compound is to be used as part of a transplant procedure, it can be provided to the living tissue or organ to be transplanted prior to removal of tissue or organ from the donor. The compound can be provided to the donor host. Alternatively or, in addition, once removed from the donor, the organ or living tissue can be placed in a preservation solution containing the active compound. In all cases, the active compound can be administered directly to the desired tissue, as by injection to the tissue, or it can be provided systemically, either by oral or parenteral administration, using any of the methods and formulations described herein and/or known in the art. Where the drug

comprises part of a tissue or organ preservation solution, any commercially available preservation solution can be used to advantage. For example, useful solutions known in the art include Collins solution, Wisconsin solution, Belzer solution, Eurocollins solution and lactated Ringer's solution. The compounds of the present invention can be administered directly to a tissue locus by applying the compound to a medical device that is placed in contact with the tissue. An example of a medical device is a stent, which contains or is coated with one or more of the compounds of the present invention.

For example, an active compound can be applied to a stent at the site of vascular injury. Stents can be prepared by any of the methods well known in the pharmaceutical art. See, e.g., Fattori, R. and Piva, T., "Drug Eluting Stents in Vascular Intervention," Lancet, 2003, 361, 247-249; Morice, M. C, "A New Era in the Treatment of Coronary Disease?" European Heart Journal, 2003, 24, 209-211; and Toutouzas, K. et al., "Sirolimus-Eluting Stents: A Review of Experimental and Clinical Findings," Z. Kardiol, 2002, 91(3), 49-57. The stent can be fabricated from stainless steel or another biocompatible metal, or it can be made of a bio-compatible polymer. The active compound can be linked to the stent surface, embedded and released from polymer materials coated on the stent, or surrounded by and released through a carrier which coats or spans the stent. The stent can be used to administer single or multiple active compounds to tissues adjacent to the stent.

Active compound as identified or designed by the methods described herein can be administered to individuals to treat disorders (prophylactically or therapeutically). In conjunction with such treatment, pharmacogenomics (i.e., the study of the relationship between an individual's genotype and that individual's response to a foreign compound or drug) can be considered. Differences in metabolism of therapeutics can lead to severe toxicity or therapeutic failure by altering the relation between dose and blood concentration of the pharmacologically active drug. Thus, a physician or clinician can consider applying knowledge obtained in relevant pharmacogenomics studies in determining whether to administer a drug as well as tailoring the dosage and/or therapeutic regimen of treatment with the drug.

In therapeutic use for treating, or combating, bacterial infections in mammals, the compounds or pharmaceutical compositions thereof will be administered orally,

parenterally and/or topically at a dosage to obtain and maintain a concentration, that is, an amount, or blood-level or tissue level of active component in the animal undergoing treatment which will be anti-microbially effective. Generally, an effective amount of dosage of active component will be in the range of from about 0.1 to about 100, more preferably from about 1.0 to about 50 mg/kg of body weight/day. The amount administered will also likely depend on such variables as the type and extent of disease or indication to be treated, the overall health status of the particular patient, the relative biological efficacy of the compound delivered, the formulation of the drug, the presence and types of excipients in the formulation, and the route of administration. Also, it is to be understood that the initial dosage administered can be increased beyond the above upper level in order to rapidly achieve the desired blood-level or tissue level, or the initial dosage can be smaller than the optimum and the daily dosage can be progressively increased during the course of treatment depending on the particular situation. If desired, the daily dose can also be divided into multiple doses for administration, for example, two to four times per day.

Various disease states or conditions in humans and other mammals are found to be caused by or mediated by nonsense or missense mutations. These mutations cause or mediate the disease state or condition by adversely affecting, for example, protein synthesis, folding, trafficking and/or function. Examples of disease states or conditions in which an appreciable percentage of the disease or condition is believed to result from nonsense or missense mutations include hemophilia (factor VIII gene), neurofibromatosis (NFl and NF2 genes), retinitis pigmentosa (human USH2A gene), bullous skin diseases like Epidermolysis bullosa pruriginosa (COL7A1 gene), cystic fibrosis (cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene), breast and ovarian cancer (BRCAl and BRCA2 genes), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (dystrophin gene), colon cancer (mismatch repair genes, predominantly in MLHl and MSH2), and lysosomal storage disorders such as Neimann- Pick disease (acid sphingomyelinase gene). See Sanders CR, Myers JK. Disease-related misassembly of membrane proteins. Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct. 2004;33:25-51; National Center for Biotechnology Information (U.S.) Genes and disease Bethesda, MD : NCBI, NLM ID: 101138560; and Raskό, Istvan; Downes, C S Genes in medicine : molecular biology and human genetic disorders 1st ed. London ; New York : Chapman & Hall, 1995. NLM ID: 9502404. The compounds of the present invention can be used to

treat or prevent a disease state in a mammal caused or mediated by such nonsense or missense mutations by administering to a mammal in need thereof an effective amount of the present invention to suppress the nonsense or missense mutation involved in the disease state.

6. Examples

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were obtained on a Bruker Avance 300 or Avance 500 spectrometer, or in some cases a GE-Nicolet 300 spectrometer. Common reaction solvents were either high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) grade or American Chemical Society (ACS) grade, and anhydrous as obtained from the manufacturer unless otherwise noted. "Chromatography" or "purified by silica gel" refers to flash column chromatography using silica gel (EM Merck, Silica Gel 60, 230-400 mesh) unless otherwise noted.

Some of the abbreviations used in the following experimental details of the synthesis of the examples are defined below: hr = hour(s); min = minute(s); mol = mole(s); mmol = millimole(s); M = molar; μM = micromolar; g = gram(s); μg = microgram(s); rt - room temperature; L = liter(s); mL = milliliters); Et 2 O = diethyl ether; THF = tetrahydrofuran; DMSO = dimethyl sulfoxide; EtOAc = ethyl acetate; Et 3 N = tiϊethylamine; Z-Pr 2 NEt= diisopropylethylamine; CH 2 Cl 2 = methylene chloride; CHCl 3 = chloroform; CDCl 3 = deuterated chloroform; CCl 4 = carbon tetrachloride; MeOH = methanol; CD 3 OD= deuterated methanol; EtOH = ethanol; DMF = dimethylformamide; BOC = t- butoxycarbonyl; CBZ = benzyloxycarbonyl; TBS = t-butyldimethylsilyl; TBSCl = t- butyldimethylsilyl chloride; TEA = trifluoroacetic acid; DBU = diazabicycloundecene; TBDPSCl = t-butyldiphenylchlorosilane; Hunig's Base= N,N-diisopropylethylamine; DMAP = 4-dimethylaminopyridine; CuI = copper (I) iodide; MsCl = methanesulfonyl chloride; NaN 3 = sodium azide; Na 2 SO 4 = sodium sulfate; NaHCO 3 = sodium bicarbonate; NaOH = sodium hydroxide; MgSO 4 = magnesium sulfate; K 2 CO 3 = potassium carbonate; KOH = potassium hydroxide; NH 4 OH = ammonium hydroxide; NH 4 Cl = ammonium chloride; SiO 2 = silica; Pd-C = palladium on carbon; Pd(dppf)Cl 2 = dichloro[l, 1 "-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene] palladium (II).

Exemplary compounds synthesized in accordance with the invention are listed in Table 1. A bolded or dashed bond is shown to indicate a particular stereochemistry at a

chiral center, whereas a wavy bond indicates that the siϊbstituent can be in either orientation or that the compound is a mixture thereof. It should also be known that in the interest of space, the chemical structures have been condensed, for example the methyl and ethyl group substituents are designated with just a carbon backbone representation, and the unsaturated bonds in the triazole rings might not always be visible.

Other exemplaiy compounds synthesized in accordance with the invention are listed in Table IA.

The compounds of the present invention can be prepared, formulated, and delivered as salts, esters, and prodrugs. For convenience, the compounds are generally shown without indicating a particular salt, ester, or prodrug form.

2

-69-

- Ill -

Other exemplary compounds synthesized in accordance with the invention are listed in Table IA.

Table IA

1060

1061

1062

1063

1064

1065

1066

1067

1068

1069

1070

1071

W 2

-153-

1072

1073

1074

1075

1076

1077

1078

1079

1080

1087

1088

1089

1090

1091

1092

1096

1097

1098

1102

1103

1104

1105

1106

1107

1108

1109

1110

1111

1112

1113

1114

1115

1116

Example 1 - Synthesis of Compounds 101-311 and 812-814

Schemes 100 and 101 below depict the synthesis of compounds 101-311and 812- 814. Demethylation of azithromycin 1 selectively produced 3 '-N-desmethylazithromycin

2. Amine 2 was selectively alkylated with tosylate 11 to produce alkyne 3, respectively. As shown in Scheme 101 alkyne 3 is reacted with corresponding azides in the presence of copper(I) iodide to selectively afford the triazoles 101-311 and 812-814. The general structures for the macrolides in Tables 2 - 5 are shown below in Scheme 99. Scheme 99: Macrolide structures for Tables 2 -5.

Scheme 100: Synthesis of alkyne 3.

Synthesis of 3'-iV-desmethylazithromycin 2

Azithromycin 1 (0.80 g, 1.02 mmol) and sodium acetate (NaOAc) (0.712 g, 8.06 mmol) were dissolved in 80% aqueous MeOH (25 mL). The solution was heated to 5O 0 C followed by addition of iodine (I 2 ) (0.272 g, 1.07 mmol) in three batches within 3 minutes. The reaction was maintained at a pH between 8 and 9 by adding IN sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (1 mL) at 10 min and 45 minute intervals. The solution turned colorless within 45 minutes, however, stirring was continued for 2 hours. TLC (CH 2 Cl 2 MeOHZNH 4 OH 10:1 :0.05) after 2 hours showed a single major product (Rf= 0.66). The reaction was cooled to room temperature, poured into H 2 O (75 mL) containing NH 4 OH (1.5 mL) and extracted with CHCI 3 (3 x 30 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with H 2 O (30 mL) containing NH 4 OH (1.5 mL), dried over Na 2 SO 4 and the solvent evaporated to give a white residue. The crude was purified on a silica gel column eluting with CH 2 Cl 2 /MeOH/NH 4 OH 18:1 :0.05 to 10: 1 :0.05 to provide amine 2 (0.41 g, 55%). Synthesis of alkyne 3

A mixture of 3'-N~desmethylazithromycin 2 and tosylate 11 in Hunig's base was stirred. The reaction mixture was diluted to EtOAc and washed with NaHCO 3 (aq) and with brine. The organic layer was dried over K 2 CO 3 and the solvent was evaporated to give product. The crude product was purified on silica gel column to give 3 as a white solid.

Scheme 101: Synthesis of compounds of Table 2

Triazoles of Table 2 were produced from alkyne 3 using the corresponding azides using conditions closely analogous to those described in commonly-owned, previously-filed patent applications. The time required for each reaction to proceed to completion was variable and was dependent upon several factors including: the specific substrates; the amount of Cu(I) salt used; the presence or absence of Hunig's base; and the concentration of the reactants. Reactions were monitored for the disappearance of the starting materials by TLC and/or LCMS and were typically allowed to run for between about 2h to about

72h. Reactions were stopped when analysis demonstrated that the starting alkyne substrate _ had been substantially consumed. The workup and purification protocols are typical of those used previously. Slight modifications to the described workup procedures may have been used (such modifications include the use of different aqueous wash solutions, different organic solvents for extraction, the use of other anhydrous salts for the drying of organic extracts, and the employment of different solvent mixtures for the chromatographic purification of the compounds). In all cases, the methods used for the workup of the reaction mixtures, the extraction of products, the drying of organic extracts, and for the isolation and purification of the title compounds were typical of procedures familiar to those trained in the art of organic synthesis. There were no specific or unusual protocols employed in the isolation and purification of the reaction products that were

found to be critical in these processes. The isolated chemical yields for the synthesis of compounds 101-311, 813 and 814 were variable and are indicated in the penultimate column of Table 2.

Example 2 - Synthesis of Compounds 401-406

Schemes 103 and 104 below depict the synthesis of compounds 401-406. Demethylation of clarithromycin yielded 3'-N-desmethyl-claritliromycin 21. Amine 21 was selectively N-alkylated with tosylates 11 to produce alkyne 27. As shown in Scheme 104 alkyne 27 is reacted with corresponding azides in the presence of copper (I) iodide to selectively afford the triazoles 401-406. Scheme 103: Synthesis of alkyne 27.

Synthesis of 3'-N-desmethyl-clarithromycin 21

To a mixture of clarithromycin (1.00 g, 1.3 mmol) and NaOAc » 3H 2 0 (0.885 g, 6.5 mmol) was added MeOH-H 2 O (20 mL, 4:1), and the mixture heated to 55-6O 0 C. Iodine (0.330 g, 1.3 mmol) was added portion- wise and the reaction stirred at 55-6O 0 C for 3 h. The reaction mixture was poured into 50 mL CHCl 3 containing 1 mL ammonium hydroxide. It was extracted with CHCl 3 (4 x 50 mL), washed with water (70 mL) containing 5 mL ammonium hydroxide, dried (anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 ), concentrated, and purified by flash chromatography (silica gel, CHCIa=MeOHrNBUOH 100:10:0.1) to afford 21. Yield: 0.9g (92%). Synthesis of alkyne 27 A mixture of 3 '-N-desmethyl-clarithromycin 21 and tosylate 11 in anhydrous THF and Hunig's base was stirred. The reaction was poured into CH 2 Cl 2 , extracted with 2% aqueous NH 4 OH and saturated brine. The organic layer was dried over Na 2 SO 4 and the

solvent was evaporated away. The crude material was purified on a silica gel column to give 27.

Scheme 104: Synthesis of compounds of Table 3

Triazoles 401-406 were produced from alkyne 27 using the corresponding azides under reaction conditions as exemplified above for compounds 101-3119 in Example 1. The use of conditions that do not include the step of degassing the reaction mixture, resulted in the formation of iodinated side-products and generally lower yields. Additionally, reduction of the amount of copper salt used in the reaction to 0.5 molar equivalents or less resulted in reduced formation of iodinated by-products.

The compounds in Table 3 were synthesized using conditions closely analogous to conditions described above. The time required for each reaction to proceed to completion was again variable and was dependent upon the several variables noted above including: the specific substrates, the amount of Copper (I) salt used, the presence or absence of

Hunig's base, and the concentration of the reactants. Reactions were monitored for the disappearance of the starting materials by TLC and/or LCMS and were typically allowed to rim for between about 2h to about 72h with the majority being about 16h. Reactions were stopped when analysis demonstrated that the starting alkyne substrate had been substantially consumed. The workup and purification protocols are typical of those used for all products in Table 3. Slight modifications to the described workup procedures may have been used as set forth above for the compounds of Table 2.

Example 3: Synthesis of compounds 501-507 The oximes 501-507 of Table 4 were synthesized from alkynes 400a to 40Oi by copper(I)- promoted cycloaddition with azides 14a-14gm in a manner analogous to the procedures presented previously. Alkyne precursors 401a - 401i with substituted oxime functionality at the 9-position of the macrocyclic ring were prepared from alkynes 27, 24, and as shown below. Scheme 107

Synthesis of alcohol 27a

To the alkyne 27 (0.700 g) was added 10 mL 0.9N HCl and the mixture was stirred for 4 h at room temperature. The reaction mixture was saturated with sodium chloride and was

adjusted to pH 8 using aqueous NH 4 OH solution. ηαe solution was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 30 niL), dried (with Na 2 SO 4 ), and concentrated under reduced pressure. Purification of the crude reaction mixture by flash chromatography (silica gel, 60% ethyl acetate in hexane) afforded 0.200 g (35% yield) of the descladinose derivative 27. Data for 27: 1 HNMR (300 MHz, CDCl 3 , partial): δ 0.82 (t, 3H) 5 2.25 (s, 3H), 3.00 (s, 3H), 3.25 (dd, IH) 5 3.55 (m, 2H), 3.70 (s, IH), 3.85 (s, IH), 3.95 (s, IH) 5 4.40 (d, IH), 5.15 (dd, IH).

Synthesis of acetate 27b

To a solution of 27a (0.200 g, 0.32 mmol) in acetone (2 mL) was added acetic anhydride (0.050 mL, 0.5 mmol) and the mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. The reaction was quenched with water and extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic fractions were washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate (3 x 50 mL), diied (anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 ), and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude reaction mixture was purified by flash chromatography (silica gel, 50% ethyl acetate in hexane) to yield 0.100 g (50% yield) of acetate 27b. Data for 27b: ηNMR(300 MHZ, CDCl 3 , partial): δ 0.84 (t, 3H) 5 2.00 (s, 3H), 2.20 (s, 3H), 2.90 (s, 3H), 3.00 (q, IH), 3.25 (s, IH, 3.47 (m, 2H), 3.70 (bs, IH), 3.82 (bs, IH), 3.97 (s, IH), 4.60 (d, IH), 4.77 (dd, IH), 5.15 (dd, IH).

Synthesis of ketolide 27c

To a solution of acetate 27b (0.090 g, 0.134 mmol), EDCηC1 (0.172 g, 0.90 mmol), and DMSO (0.171 mL, 2.41 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (1.5 mL) was added dropwise a solution of pyridinium trifluoroacetate (0.174 g, 0.90 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (1 mL) at 15 0 C. The reaction mixture was slowly warmed up to room temperature and stirred for 3 h. The reaction was quenched with water (2 mL), and allowed to stir for 30 min. The mixture was then poured into CHCl 3 (50 mL), and the organic layer was washed with water (2 x 50 mL), dried (over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 ), and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude material was purified by flash chromatography (silica gel, 30% ethyl acetate in hexane) to yield 0.07Og (78%) of the ketolide 27c. Data for 27c: MS (ESI) m/e 668 (M+H) + ; 1 HNMR (300 MHz, CDCl 3 , partial): δ 0.86 (t, 3H) 3 2.00 (s, 3H), 2.24 (s, 3H), 2.70 (s, 3H), 2.95-3.10 (m, IH), 3.15-3.05 (m, IH), 3.45-3.65 (m, IH), 3.80 (q, IH), 3.90 (s, IH), 4.28 (d, IH), 4.40 (d, IH), 4.76 (dd, IH), 5.10 (dd, IH).

Synthesis of oxime 400a

To a solution of 27c (2.0 g, 2.9 mmol) in MeOH (10 mL) was added (R)-N-Piperidin-3- yl-hydroxylamine hydrobromide (1.26 g, 4.4 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 14h. The mixture was then poured into (50 mL) and water (50 mL) the pH was adjusted to 11 by addition OfNH 4 OH and the organic layer was separated and washed with biine (50 mL), dried (over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 ), and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude material was purified by flash chromatography (silica gel, 12:1 CH 2 Cl 2 and 2M methanolic ammonia) to yield 2g (78%) of the oxime 400a as a 1 :1 mixture of E/Z isomers. Data for 400a: MS (ESI) m/e 724.7 (M+H) + .

Synthesis of oxime 400b

Oxime 400b was synthesized from alkyne 27c and (R)-N-PyroUidin-3-yl-hydroxylamine hydrobromide using the conditions described above for the synthesis of oxime 400a. Data for 400b: MS (ESI) m/e 710.6 (M+H) + .

Synthesis of oxime triazoles 426 and 431

These triazoles were synthesized from the alkyne 400a and the azides indicated in Table 6 using the standard copper-promoted cycloaddition conditions as previously described.

Synthesis of oxime triazoles 433

These triazoles were synthesized from the alkyne 400b and the azides indicated in Table 6 using the standard copper-promoted cycloaddition conditions as previously described. Scheme 112 Synthesis of intermediate 40Oh

Roxithromycin

Synthesis of compound 27e

To a mixture of Roxithromycin (850mg, 0.914mmol, 90%) and NaOAc (828mg, lO.OOOmmol) in a mixture of MeOH (6.OmL) and water (1.5mL) at 48°C was added I 2 in

fonr portions (each portion: 63.5mg) over 30min, after each portion I 2 , followed by IN

NaOH (400μL). The reaction was continued for 30min. The solvent was removed and

EtOAc (10OmL) was added, followed by water (2OmL). The organic phase was washed with brine (40mLX2), dried with Na2SO4. The residue was separated by FC (6/94/0.2

MeOH/CH 2 Cl 2 /NH 4 OH), gave 600mg compound 27e in 80% yield. LCMS (ESI) m/e 824

(M+H) + .

Synthesis of compound 40Oh

A mixture of compound 27e (500mg, 0.608mmol) and toluene-4 -sulfonic acid but-3-ynyl ester in a mixture solvents of THF (5.4mL) and Hunig's base (1.6mL) was refluxed for 48hr. The reaction mixture was concentrated, then, EtOAc (10OmL) was added. The organic layer was washed with Sat. NaHCO 3 (2OmL), and brine (5OmL). Compound 40Oh was isolated by FC (3/100/0.2 MeOHZCH 2 Cl 2 ZNH 4 OH), gave 316mg in 59% yield. LCMS (ESI) mZe 876 (M+H) + . Synthesis of compound 447

This compound was synthesized from alkyne 40Oh and azide 14bt using the conditions described in Example 1.

Example 4 synthesis of compounds 601-607

Synthesis of compound 610

Scheme 155

A solution of acylimidazole 75 (0.74 g, 1.0 mrøol) in acetonitrile (20 mL) and H 2 O (3 mL) was treated with hydrazine monohydrate (0.50 mL, 10 mmol) and stirred at 50 0 C for 1 h. The reaction mixture was evaporated to yellow foam and redissolved in methanol (50 mL) and heated to reflux for 20 h. Solvent was evaporated purification by flash chromatography (SiO 2 , 50-100% ethyl acetate/hexanes) provide the alkyne carbazate 76 (0.50 g, 0.75 mmol) as a white powder. A solution of 76 (0.10 g, 0.15 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (3.0 mL) was treated with azide 14au (62 mg, 0.22 mmol), diisopropylethylamine (0.080 mL, 0.46 mmol), and copper (I) iodide (8.0 mg, 0.042 mmol) and stirred at 23 0 C for 24 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with ammonium hydroxide (30 mL) and extracted with dichloromethane (3 x 30 mL), dried (Na 2 SO 4 ), and evaporated. Preparative thin-layer chromatography (SiO 2 , 10% methanol/dichloromethane, then ethyl acetate) provided 610 (98 mg, 0.10 mmol) as a white solid: LCMS (ESI) mle 940 (M+H) + . Synthesis of compound 612

Compound 612 was synthesized from alkyne 27d and azide 14au using the copper catalyzed cycloaddition conditions of Example 1.

Example 5 - Synthesis of Compounds 702-706

Compounds 702-706 shown in Table 6 were derived from telithromycin, as well as additional macrolides. Using methodology analogous to that described above for the compounds of Tables 2 and 3, telithromycin was selectively N-demethylated and then alkylated with tosylate 11 as described for azithromycin, erythromycin and clarithromycin above. The resulting alkyne was elaborated to the corresponding triazoles using the same copper catalyzed [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction with azides discussed above.

Synthesis of 3'~7V-Desmethyl telithromycin 30:

To a solution of telithromycin 29 (3.0 g, 3.60 mmol) in anhydrous acetonitrile (70 mL) was added N-iodosuccinimide (NIS) (0.98 g, 4.32 mmol) in two portions within 30 min at O 0 C under argon atmosphere. The mixture was allowed to warm to it and stirred overnight. CH 2 Cl 2 (250 mL) and 5 % Na 2 S 2 O 3 (80 mL) were added and the two layers separated. The organic layer was extracted with 5 % Na 2 S 2 O 3 (1 X 80 mL), dilute NH 4 Cl (1 X 80 mL) and dried over Na 2 SO 4 . Solvent was evaporated and the crude was purified on silica gel eluting with 0 - 8 % methanolic ammonia (2N NH 3 ) in CH 2 Cl 2 to give compound 30 as white solid (1.95 g, 68 %). MS (ESI) M/E; M+H + 798.6. Scheme 105 Synthesis of alkyne 31.

Synthesis of 3'-iV-(but-3-ynyl) telithromycin 31:

Protocol A: A mixture of amine 30 (0.66 g, 0.83 mmol) and tosylate 11 (0.33 g, 1.49 mmol) in THF (15 mL) and Hunig's base (3 mL) was heated at 9O 0 C for 5 days. The solvent was evaporated; the residue was dissolved in IN HCl (50 mL) and kept stirring at room temperature for about Ih. CH 2 Cl 2 (30 mL) was added and the two layers were separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 (2 X 30 mL) and basifϊed with NaOH (IN) to form a whitish-suspension. The suspension was extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 (3 X 30 mL) and the organic layer was dried over Na 2 SO 4 . Solvent was evaporated and the crude was purified on silica gel eluting with 0 - 6 % methanolic ammonia (2N NH 3 ) in CH 2 Cl 2 to give compound 31 as white solid (0.12 g, 17 %). MS (ESI) m/e 850.8 (M+H) + . Synthesis of 3'~iV-(but-3-ynyl) telithromycin 31:

Protocol B: A mixture of amine 30 (0.66 g, 0.83 mmol), and tosylate 11 (0.40 g, 1.84 mmol) in acetonitrile (10 mL) and Hunig's base (0.18 mL, 1.0 mmol) was microwave heated to 9O 0 C within 10 min and maintained at 9O 0 C for 1.5h. The reaction was vented within 15 min and solvent was evaporated. The residue was dissolved in IN HCl (60 mL) and kept stirring at room temperature for about 2h. CH 2 Cl 2 (30 mL) was added and the

two layers were separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 (2 X 30 mL) and basified with 50 % KOH to form a whitish-suspension. The suspension was extracted with CH 2 Cl 2 (3 X 30 mL) and the organic layer was dried over Na 2 SO 4 . The solvent was evaporated and the crude was purified by preparative TLC (2000 micron plate) eluting with CHaCVmethanolic ammonia (2N NH 3 ) 12:1 to give compound 31 as white solid (0.19 g, 27 %). MS (ESI) m/e 850.8 (M+H) + .

Triazoles 702 -706 were produced from alkyne 31 using the corresponding azides under reaction conditions similar to those described above for tine compounds of Tables 4 and 5. As above, the use of conditions which did not include the step of degassing the

reaction mixture, resulted in the formation of iodinated side-products and generally lower yields. Additionally, reduction of the amount of copper salt used in the reaction to 0.5 molar equivalents or less resulted in reduced formation of iodinated by-products.

The procedure for the synthesis of the compounds in Table 6 is similar to that described in Example 1, the time required for each reaction to proceed to completion was again variable and was dependent upon the several variables noted above including: the specific substrates, the amount of Copper (I) salt used, the presence or absence of Hunig's base, and the concentration of the reactants. Reactions were monitored for the disappearance of the starting materials by TLC and/or LCMS and were typically allowed to run for between about 6h to about 24h and were stopped when analysis demonstrated that the starting allcyne substrate had been substantially consumed. The workup and purification protocols exemplified in conditions A-D in Example 1 are typical of those used for all products in Table 6. Slight modifications to the described workup procedures may have been used as described above in Example 1 for the synthesis of compounds of Table 4.

Example 6 - Synthesis of azides 14

The azides 14 shown in Table 7 were used to synthesize numerous compounds of the invention. The azides were readily synthesized by methods known from the literature. Exemplary azide syntheses are presented below. The remaining azides of Table 7 were synthesized in analogous fashion from appropriate commercial starting materials.

The majority of the azides in Table 7, and additional azides, were synthesized according to known procedures and the specific route used for each azide was determined by the available commercial starting materials. When possible, azides were produced from the corresponding substituted alkyl bromides by direct displacement with azide ion. When the required alkyl bromides were not readily available, the compounds were derived from substituted alkanols: to accomplish this, the alcohols were first activated as their sulfonyl ester derivatives and then substituted with azide ion. If neither the required bromides nor alkanols were commercially available, the azides were synthesized from the corresponding carboxylic acids by reduction with borohydride to the corresponding alcohols The resulting alkanols were then treated as above to yield the azides. Finally, some azides of Table 7 were synthesized from the corresponding substituted alkyl amines by reaction with triflic azide. In a few cases, azides were synthesized by modification of other azides that had been synthesized according to the methodologies above. Scheme 127. Synthesis of azide 14au

Synthesis of 14au

A solution of florfenicol (0.090 g, 0.25 mmol) in acetic acid (3.0 mL) was treated with sulfuric acid (10%, 15 mL) and heated to 1 10 0 C for 12 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, treated with 10 M aqueous sodium hydroxide to adjust the pH to 14, extracted with dichloromethane (3 x 30 mL), dried (Na 2 SO 4 ), and evaporated to provide florfenicol amine 60 (65 mg, 0.25 mmol) as a yellow oil.

A solution of florfenicol amine 60 (0.90 g, 3.6 mmol) in H 2 O (10 mL) and methanol (30 mL) was treated with triethylamine (1.5 mL, 10.8 mmol) and trifluoromethanesulfonyl azide (13.4 mmol dissolved in 20 mL of dichloromethane; solution prepared according to method described in J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 10773), and stirred at 0 0 C 3 h and then warmed to 23 0 C for 1 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with H 2 O (30 mL), extracted with dichloromethane (30 mL) and evaporated. Flash chromatography (SiO 2 , 50-100% ethyl acetate/hexanes) provided azide 14au (0.65 g, 2.4 mmol) as a yellow solid. Scheme 128. Synthesis of azide 14s

Synthesis of azide 14s

A solution of D-(-)-threo-2-amino-l-(4-nitrophenyl)- 1,3 -propanediol (0.42 g, 2.0 mmol) in H 2 O (5 mL) and methanol (17 mL) was treated with triethylamine (0.84 mL, 6.0 mmol) and trifluoromethanesulfonyl azide (3.0 mmol dissolved in 5 mL of dichloromethane; solution prepared according to method described in J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 10773), and stirred at 23 0 C for 3 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with H 2 O (30 mL), extracted with dichloromethane (30 mL) and evaporated. Flash chromatography (SiO 2 , 50-100% ethyl acetate/hexanes) provided azide 14s (0.28 g, 1.2 mmol) as a yellow solid.

Scheme 129. Synthesis of azide 14bq

OEt

Synthesis of azide 14bq

To a stirred O 0 C solution of 4-nitrophenylalanine (4.6g, 20 mmol) and NaBH 4 (3.2g, 84 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was added BF 3 OEt (14.8 mL, 106 mmol). The reaction was wanned to rt and stirred for 24h. The mixture was cooled to OoC and quenched with methanol. The reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate concentrated to give a solid residue. 10% of this residue was dissolved in water (5mL), methanol (2OmL) and triethyl amine (0.9 mL). Triflic azide solution (3.5 mmol dissolved in 7 mL of dichloromethane; solution prepared according to method described in J, Am. Client Soc. 2002, 124, 10773) was added and the mixture was stirred at rt for 14h. The reaction mixture was diluted with dichloromethane (3OmL) washed with saturated NaHCO3, and with brine. The organic extract was dried, filtered and concentrated to give 14bq as a white solid (150mg) Synthesis of azide 14ed Scheme 130

A solution of florfenicol (0.494 g, 1.38 mmol) in acetonitrile (15.0 mL) was treated with carbontetrabromide (0.594 g, 1.66 mmol) and triphenylphosphine (0.434 g, 1.66 mmol), - and stirred at 23 0 C for 12 h. The reaction mixture evaporated to a yellow residue and purified by flash chromatography (SiO 2 , 10% ethyl acetate/dichloromethane) to provide 61 (0.28 g, 0.67 mmol) as a white powder.

Scheme 131

A solution of 61 (0.20 g, 0.41 mmol) in methanol (5.0 niL) was treated with 10% palladium on charcoal (20 mg) and stirred at 23 0 C for 2 h under a balloon of hydrogen. The reaction mixture was filtered, evaporated and purified by preparative thin-layer chromatography (SiO 2 , 10% ethyl acetate/dichloromethane) to afford 62 (90 mg, 0.26 mmol) as a white film. Scheme 132

A solution of 62 (90 mg, 0.26 mmol) in acetic acid (3.0 mmol) was treated with

10% sulfuric acid (15 mL) and heated to 1 10 0 C for 12 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, treated with 10 M aqueous sodium hydroxide to adjust the pH to 14, extracted with dichloromethane (3 x 30 mL), dried (Na 2 SO 4 ), and evaporated to provide crude 63 as a yellow oil. A solution of this crude amine (83 mg) in methanol (3.6 mL) and dichloromethane (3.0 mL) was cooled to 0 0 C and treated with triethylamine (0.14 mL, 1 mmol) and trifiic azide (1.2 mL of a 0.3 M solution in dichloromethane) and allowed to warm to 23 0 C. After 2 h, the reaction mixture was evaporated and purified by preparative thin-layer chromatography (SiO 2 , 10% ethyl acetate/dichloromethane) to afford the 63 (60 mg, 0.23 mmol) as a colorless oil. Synthesis of azide 14ag

Azide 14ag was synthesized from IS, 2S 2-Amino-l-(4-methylsulfanyl-phenyl)-propane-

1,3-diol using the procedure described for the synthesis of azide 14bq.

Synthesis of azide 14bn from azide 14bk

Azide 14bn was prepared from 14bk according to the procedure described for the synthesis of azide 14bp.

Scheme 149

Synthesis of azide 14bt from azide 14bq

To a stirred -78 0 C solution of azide 14bt (111 mg, 0.5 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 was added (diethylamino)sulfur trifluoiide (DAST) (0.1 niL,. 0.82 mmol). The reaction was stirred at -78 0 C for 2h, then allowed to warm to rt and stirred for 14h. The reaction mixture was poured into water and extracted with CH 2 Cl 2. The organic extracts were dried, filtered, and concentrated to give 14bq as a solid (36mg, 0.16 mmol). Scheme 151

14ah 14ag

Synthesis of azide 14ah from 14ag

To a solution of azide 14ah (0.27 g, 1.1 mmol) in CH 2 Cl 2 (15 mL) was added mCPBA (1.10 g, 4.5 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. Solvent was evaporated and the crude was purified on silica gel eluting with CH 2 Cl 2 /Me0H 20:1 to 15:1 to 12:1 to give azide 14ag as colorless paste that solidified on standing (0.26 g, 87

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

The entire disclosure of each of the patent documents and scientific articles referred to herein is incorporated by reference for all purposes.

EQUIVALENTS

The invention can be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit or essential characteristics thereof. The foregoing embodiments are therefore to be considered in all respects illustrative rather than limiting on the invention described herein.

Scope of the invention is thus indicated by the appended claims rather than by the foregoing description, and all changes that come within the meaning and range of equivalency of the claims are intended to be embraced therein.




 
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