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Title:
USE OF CLEAN LABEL NATIVE BUCKWHEAT STARCH
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2020/053066
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to a cereal product dough comprising native buckwheat starch, the use thereof and to a process of fabricating a cereal product.

Inventors:
PORA BERNARD (CN)
TAO JINGLING (CN)
HASJIM JOVIN (CN)
Application Number:
PCT/EP2019/073718
Publication Date:
March 19, 2020
Filing Date:
September 05, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
ROQUETTE FRERES (FR)
International Classes:
A21D2/18; A21D2/38; A21D13/06; A21D13/80
Domestic Patent References:
WO2015051236A12015-04-09
WO2015051228A12015-04-09
WO2018210741A12018-11-22
WO2015051228A12015-04-09
WO2015051236A12015-04-09
Foreign References:
CN106417511A2017-02-22
CN103168812A2013-06-26
CN106417511A2017-02-22
CN103168812A2013-06-26
Other References:
KIYOKAZU IKEDA ET AL: "Endogenous Factors Responsible for the Textural Characteristics of Buckwheat Products.", JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE AND VITAMINOLOGY., vol. 43, no. 1, 1 January 1997 (1997-01-01), JP, pages 101 - 111, XP055629609, ISSN: 0301-4800, DOI: 10.3177/jnsv.43.101
LORENZ K ET AL: "Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) Starch - Physico-chemical Properties and Functional Characteristics", STARCH: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR THE INVESTIGATION, PROCESSING AND USE OF CARBOHYDRATES AND THEIR DERIVATIVES, WILEY-VCH VERLAG, WEINHEIM, DE, no. 7, January 1982 (1982-01-01), pages 217 - 220, XP009516511, ISSN: 0038-9056, DOI: 10.1002/STAR.19820340702
ANONYMOUS: "Batter (cooking) - Wikipedia", WIKIPEDIA, 26 August 2018 (2018-08-26), pages 1 - 3, XP055629984, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20191008]
GONG ET AL., FOOD HYDROCOLLOIDS, vol. 96, 2019, pages 634 - 643
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
PLASSERAUD IP (FR)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. Cereal product dough comprising native buckwheat starch.

2. Cereal product dough according to claim 1, wherein the native buckwheat starch represents from 5% to 60%, preferably from 10% to 40%, more preferably from 12% to 35%, in particular 15% to 32%, or more preferably from 15% to 25% by weight with respect to the total weight of the cereal product dough .

3. Cereal product dough according to claim 1 or 2, wherein it also comprises optionally sugars, sugar alcohols, fat and/or flour .

4. Cereal product dough according to claim 3, wherein the sugars and/or sugar alcohols represent from 0% to 40% by weight with respect to the total weight of the cereal product dough, the fat represents from 5% to 25% by weight with respect to the total weight of the cereal product dough, and/or the flour represents from 0% to 40% by weight with respect to the total weight of the cereal product dough.

5. Cereal product dough according to claim 3 or 4, wherein the native buckwheat starch replaces totally or at least partially the flour.

6. Use of the cereal product dough according to anyone of claims 1 to 5 for the preparation of a cereal product.

7. Use of the cereal product dough according to claim 6, wherein the native buckwheat starch improves the mouthfeel of the cereal product and/or slows the digestive rate of the cereal product and/or provides a cereal product with a high dietary fiber content and/or improves the feeling of satiety.

8. Use of the cereal product dough according to claim 6 or 7, wherein the cereal product is a biscuit.

9. Use of native buckwheat starch to replace partially or totally the flour in a cereal product dough.

10. Process of fabricating a cereal product comprising the steps of:

a) blending native buckwheat starch and other dry ingredients, such as optionally sugar and flour to form a uniform dry mixture,

b) adding fat and other wet ingredients to the uniform dry mixture and stirring to form the cereal product dough as claimed in anyone of claims 1 to 5, and

c) baking the cereal product dough.

11. Process of fabricating a cereal product comprising the steps of:

a) blending sugar, fat and other wet ingredients to form a uniform mixture,

b) adding native buckwheat starch and other dry ingredients, such as optionally flour to the uniform mixture and stirring to form the cereal product dough as claimed in anyone of claims 1 to 5, and

c) baking the cereal product dough.

12. Process of fabricating a cereal product comprising the steps of:

a) blending fat and other wet ingredients to form a uniform mixture, b) adding native buckwheat starch and other dry ingredients, such as optionally sugar and flour to the uniform mixture and stirring to form the cereal product dough as claimed in anyone of claims 1 to 5, and

c) baking the cereal product dough.

Description:
USE OF CLEAN LABEL NATIVE BUCKWHEAT STARCH

Field of the invention

The present invention relates to a cereal product dough comprising native buckwheat starch, the use thereof and to a process of fabricating a cereal product.

Background

In the food industry, starch is a very important ingredient. It is used, amongst other things, as a texturing agent, gelling agent, thickener and stabilizer.

Over the last ten years, consumers have become increasingly reluctant to purchase products with a list of chemical substances on the label or chemically modified ingredients. For that reason, food manufacturers are taking up the challenge to deliver "clean label" food products, i.e. non-chemically modified products. Consumers are also looking for slowly digestible carbohydrates which are healthier than rapidly digestible

and absorbable carbohydrates. In particular, it is known that slowly digestible carbohydrates increase the feeling of satiety and provide glucose to the brain over an extended period thereby improving the cognitive functions.

However, current functional clean-label starches, made from waxy based starches, can be in pre-gelatinized form or easily gelatinized during the heating process and thus rapidly digested .

There is thus a need for clean label starches which can be digested more slowly than usual clean labels.

It is known that raw native starch is digested more slowly than gelatinized starch. However, native starch like high- amylose starch, normally used to increase the feeling of satiety, contains mainly resistant starch, not slowly digestible starch. Furthermore, due to its poor functionalities, such as low swelling and low degree of gelatinization, it deteriorates the mouthfeel once incorporated in food products.

Since the cell wall materials can protect the starch from being rapidly hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes, whole wheat flour, buckwheat flour (including groats and cuts) , oat flour, and other cereal flours, which are disclosed in the patent applications WO 2015051228 A1 and WO 2015051236 Al, also known to provide high dietary fiber content, have been used as slow digestible carbohydrates source. However, the mouthfeel of biscuits made from these flours are not pleasant, biscuits normally having a very dense and hard texture. Low-sugar tartary buckwheat biscuits described in ON 106417511 A and ON 103168812 A have also been provided without addressing the afore-mentioned problems. In particular, additional components are required due to the bitter taste of the tartary buckwheat.

There is thus a need for slowly digestible carbohydrates which can be used for the manufacture of food products without deteriorating the mouthfeel of said products. In particular, it is important to find a clean label starch which simultaneously is good for health, is less or not processed, can improve the mouthfeel of biscuits and/or has slow digestion properties. The present inventors have surprisingly found that native buckwheat starch fulfils these criteria. In particular, buckwheat is an ancient grain which is perceived as a healthy ingredient by the consumers.

Summary of the invention

A first object of the present invention is cereal product dough comprising native buckwheat starch.

A second object of the present invention is the use of the cereal product dough. A third object of the present invention relates to the use of native buckwheat starch to replace partially or totally the flour in a cereal product dough.

A fourth object of the present invention is a process of fabricating a cereal product.

Detailed description

A first object of the present invention is cereal product dough comprising native buckwheat starch.

As used herein the expression "cereal product" refers to, but is not limited to, biscuits, cookies, sandwich cookies, iced cookies, cakes, breads, rolls, pastries, bars or other baked goods .

As used herein the expression "native buckwheat starch" refers to buckwheat starch coming from natural source. It does not result from enzymatic or chemical processing methods. Native buckwheat starch is recovered from buckwheat grain (Fagopyrum esculentum) by extraction processes. Buckwheat starch can be extracted directly from buckwheat groat or from buckwheat flour having high starch content (50-70% of starch in groat and flour) .

The native buckwheat starch useful for the present invention is recovered from native sources. It can be extracted from buckwheat groat or from buckwheat flour. An example of a first extraction process comprises the following steps :

1) preparing, at a temperature equal to or below 50°C, an aqueous suspension from the buckwheat flour (dry grinding) or from the buckwheat groat (wet grinding) ;

2) separating the fiber fraction from the starch and protein fraction by the difference in particle sizes at a temperature comprised between room temperature and 50 °C, preferably by filtration, by using sieves;

3) fractionating the aqueous suspension by density at pH between 7 and 9 so as to obtain a light fraction comprising proteins, soluble carbohydrates and salts, and a heavy fraction comprising starch, preferably by using a horizontal screw decanter, a centrifugal decanter or a hydrocyclone;

4) adding water to the heavy fraction at a temperature comprised between room temperature and 50 °C, so as to resuspend the heavy fraction;

5) treating the starch fraction at pH between 7 and 9 and at a temperature comprised between room temperature and 50 °C at least one time, so as to remove remaining proteins, preferably using a horizontal screw decanter, a centrifugal decanter or a hydrocyclone, more preferably hydrocylone;

6) neutralizing the pH of starch fraction to 5-7.

7) drying the starch fraction, preferably by using fluidized bed dryer or hot air dryer;

8) recovering the dried starch.

Another example of a second extraction process comprises the following steps:

1) preparing, at a temperature equal to or below 50°C, an aqueous suspension from the buckwheat flour (dry grinding) or from the buckwheat groat (wet grinding) with a pH between 7 and 9 ;

2) fractionating the aqueous suspension by density so as to obtain a light fraction comprising proteins, soluble carbohydrates and salts, and a heavy fraction comprising starch and fibers, preferably by using a horizontal screw decanter, a centrifugal decanter or a hydrocyclone;

3) adding water to the heavy fraction at a temperature comprised between room temperature and 50 °C, so as to resuspend the heavy fraction; 4) separating the fiber fraction from the starch fraction by the difference in particle sizes at a temperature comprised between room temperature and 50°C, preferably by filtration, by using sieves;

5) treating the starch fraction at pH between 7 and 9 and at a temperature comprised between room temperature and 50 °C at least one time, so as to remove remaining proteins, preferably using a horizontal screw decanter, a centrifugal decanter or a hydrocyclone, more preferably hydrocylone;

6) neutralizing the pH of starch fraction to 5-7.

7) drying the starch fraction, preferably by using fluidized bed dryer or hot air dryer;

8) recovering the dried starch.

Advantageously, the extraction process is free of organic solvents and free of chemical reactants. There is no chemical transformation. Thus, the products incorporating native buckwheat starch obtained from the extraction process are clean label products.

The native buckwheat starch useful for the present invention is not gelatinized but is under granular form.

In a preferred embodiment, the native buckwheat starch represents from 5% to 60%, preferably from 10% to 40%, more preferably from 12% to 35%, in particular 15% to 32%, or more preferably from 15% to 25% by weight with respect to the total weight of the cereal product dough.

The cereal product dough optionally further comprises sugars such as (glucose) syrups, sugar alcohols, fat such as oil and butter, and/or flour. The sugars and/or sugar alcohols represent from 0% to 40%, preferably from 10% to 25% and even more preferably from 12% to 20% by weight with respect to the total weight of the cereal product dough, the fat represents from 5% to 25%, preferably from 8% to 20% and even more preferably from 10% to 15% by weight with respect to the total weight of the cereal product dough, and the flour represents from 0% to 40%, preferably from 5% to 35%, more preferably from 10% to 25% and even more preferably from 15% to 20% by weight with respect to the total weight of the cereal product dough .

The flour can be from cereal origin, such as (whole) wheat flour, and other origins, such as buckwheat flour and any legume flour.

The native buckwheat starch replaces totally or at least partially the flour. In a preferred embodiment, the native buckwheat starch replaces at least partially the flour. In another preferred embodiment, the native buckwheat starch replaces the flour up to 50% by weight, preferably up to 35% by weight, and more preferably up to 20% by weight with respect to the total weight of the cereal product dough.

In another preferred embodiment, the native buckwheat starch replaces the flour up to 50% by flour weight, preferably up to 55% by flour weight, and more preferably up to 60% by flour weight.

The cereal product dough further optionally comprises whole grains such as oat, nuts, protein such as milk protein, pea protein and wheat protein, milk or milk powder and/or egg. The whole grains and/or nuts represent from 0% to 30%, preferably from 8% to 20% and even more preferably from 10% to 15% by weight with respect to the total weight of the cereal product dough, the protein represents from 0% to 30%, preferably from 1% to 25%, in particular 1.5% to 15%, more preferably from 2% to 15% or more preferably from 5% to 8% by weight with respect to the total weight of the cereal product dough, the milk represents from 0% to 45%, preferably from 10% to 35% and even more preferably from 20% to 25% by weight with respect to the total weight of the cereal product dough, the milk powder represents from 0% to 15%, preferably from 1% to 10% and even more preferably from 2% to 8% by weight with respect to the total weight of the cereal product dough, and the egg represents from 0% to 30%, preferably from 5% to 25% and even more preferably from 10% to 20% by weight with respect to the total weight of the cereal product dough.

The cereal product optionally comprises additives. Preferably, the additives are selected from baking powder, salt, phospholipids such as lecithin, and flavors such as milk flavor, and mixtures thereof. The additives represents from 0% to 10%, preferably from 0.1% to 5%, more preferably from 0.5% to 2.5% or more preferably from 0.5% to 2% by weight with respect to the total weight of the cereal product dough.

In a preferred embodiment, the cereal product dough comprises :

from 5% to 60%, preferably from 10% to 40%, more preferably from 12% to 35%, in particular 15% to 32%, or more preferably from 15% to 25% by weight of native buckwheat starch with respect to the total weight of the cereal product dough,

- from 0% to 40%, preferably from 10% to 25% and even more preferably from 12% to 20% by weight of sugars and/or sugar alcohols with respect to the total weight of the cereal product dough,

- from 5% to 25%, preferably from 8% to 20% and even more preferably from 10% to 15% by weight of fat with respect to the total weight of the cereal product dough, from 0% to 40%, preferably from 5% to 35%, more preferably from 10% to 25% and even more preferably from 15% to 20% by weight of flour with respect to the total weight of the cereal product dough,

from 0% to 30%, preferably from 8% to 20% and even more preferably from 10% to 15% by weight of whole grains and/or nuts with respect to the total weight of the cereal product dough,

- from 0% to 30%, preferably from 1% to 25%, in particular 1.5% to 15%, more preferably from 2% to 15% or more preferably from 5% to 8% by weight of protein with respect to the total weight of the cereal product dough,

- from 0% to 45%, preferably from 10% to 35% and even more preferably from 20% to 25% by weight of milk with respect to the total weight of the cereal product dough,

- from 0% to 15%, preferably from 1% to 10% and even more preferably from 2% to 8% by weight of milk powder with respect to the total weight of the cereal product dough,

- from 0% to 30%, preferably from 5% to 25% and even more preferably from 10% to 20% by weight of egg with respect to the total weight of the cereal product dough, and

from 0% to 10%, preferably from 0.1% to 5%, more preferably from 0.5% to 2.5% or more preferably from 0.5% to 2% by weight of additives with respect to the total weight of the cereal product dough.

Another object of the present invention is the use of the cereal product dough for the preparation of a cereal product.

In a preferred embodiment, the native buckwheat starch improves the mouthfeel of the cereal product and/or slows the digestive rate of the cereal product and/or provides a cereal product with a high dietary fiber content and/or improves the feeling of satiety. In particular, the native buckwheat starch is a clean label starch having higher pasting temperature than most commercial native starches. Thus, it is not completely swollen during heating and it will retain some of the slow digestion properties after being heated in a low moisture system such as cereal product. Such cereal product may therefore be used to prolong the feeling of satiety, such as meal replacement or meal to go. Furthermore, since it is partially swollen and/or gelatinized, it does not deteriorate and even can improve the mouthfeel of the cereal product.

Another object of the present invention relates to the use of native buckwheat starch to replace partially or totally the flour in a cereal product dough.

The use of native buckwheat starch to replace at least partially the flour in the cereal product dough provides products with appearance, texture (such as hardness and brittleness) , mouthfeel, moisture content and water activity similar and even improved in comparison to products without native buckwheat starch. Simultaneously, the use of native buckwheat starch to replace at least partially the flour in the cereal product dough provides products with lowered digestibility in comparison to products without native buckwheat starch.

The terms "hardness", "firmness" and "softness" refer to textural properties related to the resistance to deformation. A soft product has low resistance to deformation, while a firm or hard product has high resistance to deformation. These properties can be measured, for example, by a texture analyzer. For example, hardness can be determined as the maximum force that can be withstood by a material before it deforms . The term "brittleness" is related to the tendency of a cereal product to fracture, crumble, crack, shatter or fail when a relatively small amount of force or impact is applied on it. A brittle product usually has high degree of hardness and low degree of cohesiveness. The term "brittleness" encompasses fracturability, crispiness, crunchiness and crumbliness .

Another object of the present invention relates to a process of fabricating a cereal product comprising the steps of :

a) blending native buckwheat starch and other dry ingredients, such as optionally sugar and flour to form a uniform dry mixture,

b) adding fat and other wet ingredients to the uniform dry mixture and stirring to form the cereal product dough of the present invention, and

c) baking the cereal product dough.

In a preferred embodiment, step b) is performed before step a) . In this case, the process of fabricating a cereal product comprises the steps of:

a) blending fat and other wet ingredients to form a uniform mixture,

b) adding native buckwheat starch and other dry ingredients, such as optionally sugar and flour to the uniform mixture and stirring to form the cereal product dough of the present invention, and

c) baking the cereal product dough.

In a preferred embodiment, the process of fabricating a cereal product comprises the steps of: a) blending sugar, fat and other wet ingredients to form a uniform mixture,

b) adding native buckwheat starch and other dry ingredients, such as optionally flour to the uniform mixture and stirring to form the cereal product dough of the present invention, and c) baking the cereal product dough.

In a preferred embodiment, the step c) is performed at a temperature ranging from 150°C to 250°C, preferably at a temperature ranging from 160°C to 210°C and more preferably at a temperature ranging from 160°C to 190°C.

In a preferred embodiment, the step c) is performed during a time comprised between 5 and 45 minutes, preferably between 8 and 20 minutes, more preferably between 10 and 13, or more preferably 10 and 12 minutes.

The invention will now be illustrated by means of the following figures and examples, it being understood that these are intended to explain the invention, and in no way to limit its scope.

Brief description of the drawings :

Figure 1 shows the digestibility parameters of biscuits of Example 1, which were made from native buckwheat starch according to the present invention in comparison to biscuits made from wheat flour (control) , wheat starch or buckwheat flour .

Figure 2 shows the appearance of biscuits of Example 2 made from native buckwheat starch according to the present invention in comparison to biscuits made from cake flour, whole wheat flour or wheat starch.

Figure 3 shows the digestibility parameters of biscuits of Example 2 made from native buckwheat starch according to the present invention in comparison to biscuits made from cake flour, whole wheat flour or wheat starch.

EXAMPLES

Example 1 :

This example describes the preparation of biscuits samples containing a wheat flour (control) , a native buckwheat starch, a wheat starch or a buckwheat flour.

Buckwheat starch was extracted from buckwheat groats in a potato starch plant, typically similar to the first extraction process as described on page 3.

Wheat flour, wheat starch or buckwheat flour were purchased from a local grocery store in China.

Nutralys® is a concentrated and highly digestive wheat protein sold by Roquette.

Other ingredients were purchased from a local store in China . The ingredients for biscuits making in percentage by weight were as follows:

Table 12

The process followed for obtaining biscuits is as follows: i. Blending homogeneously all dry ingredients to form a uniform dry mixture; ii. Adding milk, milk flavor, lecithin, glucose syrup, and vegetable oil to the dry mixture and stirring to form a uniform dough; iii. Rolling the dough to 3 mm thickness and creating shapes, such as circle, using cookie cutters; iv. Baking the cut doughs in an oven with top temperature at 190°C and bottom temperature at 160°C for 10 min; v. Allowing biscuits to cool to room temperature and sealing them in a plastic or aluminum packages.

On the second day after the biscuits were produced, the texture of biscuits was measured using a texture analyzer TA- XT plus (Stable Micro Systems) by using the three point bending test (HDP/3PB) . The measurements parameters are listed in table 13 below:

Table 13

The digestibility test was performed according to the following protocol.

1) Weighing accurately 50 mg of each biscuit in a 15 mL centrifuge tube

2) Adding 2 mL deionized water into the tube and mixing

3) Adding 8.0 mL enzyme solution containing 0.33 mg pancreatin and 16.7 pL amyloglucosidase in acetate buffer (pH 6.0 containing 200 mM calcium chloride, 0.49 mM magnesium chloride and 0.02 % sodium azide) into the tube and incubating it in a shaking water bath at 37°C and the shaking speed of 300 rpm

4) After the time periods of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min, shaking the tube and quickly taking 0.1 mL aliquot and transferring it to a 1.5 mL micro centrifuge tube containing 0.9 mL absolute ethanol, and returning the tube for further time course digestion

5) Determining the glucose content using glucose oxidase- peroxidase (GOPOD) method (Megazyme assay kit)

The digestibility (%) is calculated according to Equation 1 -—xffxV 162

x— x 100% (Equation 1)

180

where :

DA =Absorbance (reaction) read against the reagent blank .

b = Intercept of the linear fitting equation for standard curve

k = Slope of the linear fitting equation for standard curve f = Diluting factor (0.1 mL taken from 1 mL)

V = Total volume of sample solution (2 mL deionized water + 8 mL enzyme solution)

W = The weight in milligrams of the starch powder sample analyzed

D = Dry matter content of the sample analyzed

162

— = Adjustment from free D-glucose to anhydro D-glucose (as occurs in starch) .

The starch content in the biscuits was determined using Megazyme Total Starch Assay Kit (AA/AMG) .

The digestibility parameters, including the calculation of digestion rate (k) and the total digestibility, were measured following the methods of Gong et al . (Food Hydrocolloids, 2019, 96:634-643) .

Results are shown on Figure 1.

The moisture content was measured using a moisture analyzer (MA45C, Sartorius) set at 105°C.

The water activity (a w ) was measured using an a w meter

(HygroLab2, Rotronic) . The results are summed up in the following table:

Table 14

The biscuits made with native buckwheat starch presented a better texture and appearance, lower total starch digestibility, and lower water activity than the control biscuits made with wheat flour and biscuits made with buckwheat flour. In addition, the biscuits made with native buckwheat starch had lower digestibility rate than those made with wheat flour (control) . Although the biscuits made with wheat starch were similar texture and appearance to those made with native buckwheat starch, biscuits made with wheat starch had higher digestion rate, total digestibility, and water activity than those made with native buckwheat starch.

Example 2 :

This example describes the properties of biscuits made from buckwheat starch in comparison to biscuits made from cake flour, whole wheat flour and wheat starch.

Buckwheat starch was extracted from buckwheat groats in a potato starch plant, typically similar to the first extraction process as described on page 3.

Cake (wheat) flour, whole wheat flour, wheat starch and wheat gluten were purchased from a local grocery store in China .

Other ingredients were also purchased from a local grocery store in China.

Pancreatin and amyloglucosidase used in the digestibility test were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich and Megazyme, respectively .

The ingredients for biscuits making in percentage by weight were as follows:

Table 15

The process followed for making biscuits is as follows:

1. Blending sugar, salt and egg for 10s,

2. Adding butter and mixing for 20s,

3. Adding vegetable oil and mixing for 40s,

4. Adding the flour, starch, wheat gluten, baking powder and milk powder to the mixture and blending until the dough is uniform,

5. Freezing the dough at -18 °C for one hour,

6. Rolling the dough to 5mm thickness and cutting into shapes,

7. Baking in an oven with top temperature at 190°C and bottom temperature at 180°C for 11-13 min.

The appearance, texture (hardness and brittleness) and digestibility have been studied for each biscuit according to the following protocols. Appearance :

The appearance of biscuits was evaluated using naked eyes based on their color and surface appearance.

The results are shown on figure 2. The biscuit samples made with buckwheat starch generally had lighter color than the controls made with cake flour, whole wheat flour, and wheat starch. The biscuits made with whole wheat flour had the darkest color and very coarse texture, whereas other biscuits had very smooth surface appearance.

Texture :

Biscuit samples were analyzed using a texture analyzer TA- XT plus (Stable Micro Systems) after 30- and 60-day storage.

The specific parameters and settings are as follows:

Detector number: HDP/3PB

Pre-test speed: 1 mm/s

Test speed: 1 mm/s

Post-test speed: 10 mm/s

Distance: 7 mm

Trigger force (auto) : 0.5 g

Hardness refers to the maximum force (g) that the texture analyzer detects before the biscuit is cracked.

Brittleness (mm) refers to the distance the probe moves downward before the biscuit is cracked. The more brittle the biscuit is, the shorter the distance the probe can move. Results are summarized in table 16.

Table 16 As shown in table 16, the biscuit samples made using wheat starch and buckwheat starch had lower hardness after 30- and 60-day storage and higher brittleness (as shorter distance to break) after 60-day storage. The low hardness and increased brittleness can be good for children, elderly people, and patients with chewing problems. The decrease in hardness after 30- and 60-day storage and the increase in brittleness after 60-day storage were more obvious at high starch content in the recipe. The firmness did not significantly change with the storage time, whereas the brittleness decreased (distance to break increased) for the controls made with cake flour and whole wheat flour, but increased (distance to break decreased) for those made with high level of wheat starch and buckwheat starch. The texture properties of the biscuit samples made with wheat starch and buckwheat starch were similar at the same level of starch addition.

Digestibility:

The digestibility test was performed according to the following protocol.

1) Weighing accurately 50 mg of each biscuit in a 15 mL centrifuge tube

2) Adding 2 mL deionized water into the tube and mixing

3) Adding 8.0 mL enzyme solution containing 0.33 mg pancreatin and 16.7 pL amyloglucosidase in acetate buffer (pH 6.0 containing 200 mM calcium chloride, 0.49 mM magnesium chloride and 0.02 % sodium azide) into the tube and incubating it in a shaking water bath at 37°C and the shaking speed of 300 rpm

4) After the time periods of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60,

90, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min, shaking the tube and quickly taking 0.1 mL aliquot and transferring it to a 1.5 mL micro centrifuge tube containing 0.9 mL absolute ethanol, and returning the tube for further time course digestion

5) Determining the glucose content using glucose oxidase- peroxidase (GOPOD) method (Megazyme assay kit)

The digestibility (%) is calculated according to Equation 1 (Equation 1)

where :

DA =Absorbance (reaction) read against the reagent blank. b = Intercept of the linear fitting equation for standard curve

k = Slope of the linear fitting equation for standard curve f = Diluting factor (0.1 mL taken from 1 mL)

V = Total volume of sample solution (2 mL deionized water + 8 mL enzyme solution)

W = The weight in milligrams of the starch powder sample analyzed

D = Dry matter content of the sample analyzed

162

— = Adjustment from free D-glucose to anhydro D-glucose (as occurs in starch) .

In the same manner as in example 1, the digestibility parameters, including the calculation of digestion rate (k) and the total digestibility, were measured following the methods of Gong et al . (Food Hydrocolloids, 2019, 96:634-643).

The maximum digestibility point of biscuits made with cake flour was set as 100% for easy comparison with other biscuit samples .

Results are shown on Figure 3 and in table 17 which summarizes the digestibility properties.

Table 17 As shown on figure 3 and in table 17, both biscuit samples made from buckwheat starch had the lowest total digestibility compared with the controls made with cake flour, whole wheat flour and wheat starch. Furthermore, the biscuit made with 30% buckwheat starch (high buckwheat starch biscuit) had the lowest digestion rate (k) , which was approximately 28% and 38% of the digestion rate of the controls made with cake flour and whole wheat flour, respectively.

Conclusion :

The biscuits made with native buckwheat starch presented a better texture and appearance and lower total digestibility than the control biscuits made from cake flour and whole wheat flour. The low hardness and increased brittleness can be good for children, elderly people, and patients with chewing problems. In addition, the biscuits made with high content of native buckwheat starch had lower total digestibility rate than the controls. Although the biscuits made with wheat starch had quite similar texture and appearance than those made with native buckwheat starch, biscuits made with wheat starch had higher digestion rate, total digestibility, than those made with native buckwheat starch at equivalent starch content .