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Title:
USE OF IONIC LIQUIDS AS COOLANTS FOR VEHICLE ENGINES, MOTORS AND BATTERIES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2020/259894
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The invention relates to a process for cooling a power unit in a vehicle. The coolant is an ionic liquid that contains an imidazolium salt. The invention also relates to the coolant and the use of the coolant for cooling the power unit such as a battery or a motor in a vehicle.

Inventors:
WANG XINMING (JP)
AOKI TETSUJI (JP)
SCHNEIDER ROLF (DE)
KERL THOMAS (DE)
DÄSCHLEIN CHRISTIAN (DE)
Application Number:
PCT/EP2020/061411
Publication Date:
December 30, 2020
Filing Date:
April 24, 2020
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
EVONIK OPERATIONS GMBH (DE)
International Classes:
C09K5/10
Foreign References:
US20120021957A12012-01-26
US20160138876A12016-05-19
CN107163917A2017-09-15
US20130219949A12013-08-29
CN108659225A2018-10-16
JP2010235889A2010-10-21
US20130068994A12013-03-21
US5100571A1992-03-31
US20120021957A12012-01-26
US20160138876A12016-05-19
CN107163917A2017-09-15
US20130219949A12013-08-29
CN108659226A2018-10-16
JP2010235889A2010-10-21
US20130068994A12013-03-21
Other References:
D. G. SUBHEDARAB.M. RAMANIBA. GUPTACA, CASE STUDIES IN THERMAL ENGINEERING, vol. 11, 2018, pages 26 - 34
M. GOLLIND. BJORK, COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF ETHYLENE GLYCOL/ WATER AND PROPYLENE GLYCOL/WATER COOLANTS IN AUTOMOBILE RADIATORS
"International Congress & Exposition", SAE TECHNICAL PAPER SERIES, 26 February 1996 (1996-02-26), ISSN: 0148-7191
F. WANGL. HANZ. ZHANGX. FANGJ. SHIW. MA, NANOSCALE RESEARCH LETTERS, vol. 7, 2012, pages 314 - 320
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
EVONIK PATENT ASSOCIATION (DE)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1 . Process for cooling a power unit PU in a vehicle, wherein a coolant C is contacted with the power unit PU, so that heat is transferred from PU to C,

characterized in that

the coolant C comprises an ionic liquid IL wherein IL is selected from the group consisting of Q+(R10)2PC>2 , (Q+)2R2OPC>32 , Q+M+R3OPC>32 , wherein

Q+ is a dialkylimidazolium cation,

wherein R1 , R2, R3 are each independently of one another an alkyl group,

and wherein M+ is an alkali metal ion.

2. Process according to Claim 1 , wherein the power unit PU is selected from the group consisting of battery B, motor M.

3. Process according to Claim 1 or 2, wherein the power unit PU is contacted by the ionic liquid IL via a metal surface S so that heat is transferred from PU to C via S .

4. Process according to Claim 3, wherein the metal in the metal surface S is selected from aluminium, steel, copper, noble metals, titanium,

5. Process according to Claim 4, wherein the metal in the metal surface S is selected from aluminium, copper.

6. Process according to any of Claims 1 to 5, wherein the IL has the general formula Q+(R10)2P02_, and Q+ is selected from the group consisting of 1 ,3-dimethylimidazolium, 1 ,3-diethylimidazolium, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium; R1 is methyl or ethyl.

7. Process according to Claim 6, wherein the IL is 1 -ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate

8. Process according to any of Claims 1 to 7, wherein the coolant C further comprises at least one corrosion inhibitor A. 9. Process according to Claim 8, wherein the corrosion inhibitor A is selected from benzotriazole, thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, a fatty acid. 10. Process according to Claim 9, wherein the corrosion inhibitor A is benzotriazole.

11. Process according to Claim 10, wherein the coolant C further comprises a second corrosion inhibitor A2 selected from thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, fatty acid.

12. Process according to Claim 11 , wherein the second corrosion inhibitor A2 is thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide.

13. Coolant C for cooling a power unit PU in a vehicle comprising an ionic liquid IL wherein IL is selected from the group consisting of Q+(R10)2PC>2 , (Q+)2R2OPC>32 , Q+M+R3OPC>32 , wherein

Q+ is a dialkylimidazolium cation,

wherein R1, R2, R3 are each independently of one another an alkyl group,

and wherein M+ is an alkali metal ion,

wherein the coolant C further comprises benzotriazole as first corrosion inhibitor Ai and a second corrosion inhibitor A2 selected from thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, fatty acid.

14. Coolant C according to Claim 13, wherein the second corrosion inhibitor A2 is selected from thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide.

Description:
Use of ionic liquids as coolants for vehicle engines, motors and batteries

The invention relates to a process for cooling a power unit in a vehicle. The coolant is an ionic liquid that contains an imidazolium salt. The invention also relates to the coolant and the use of the coolant for cooling the power unit such as a battery or a motor in a vehicle.

Background of the invention

With the mega trend of electrical and electrical/engine hybrid vehicles, high efficiency cooling for batteries and motor is highly demanded. Critical parameters of coolants in this field of application are its operating temperature range, stability, safety, corrosion characteristics, and thermal conductivity.

In the context of coolants used for cars, ethylene glycol solutions (as described by D. G.

Subhedara, B.M. Ramanib, A. Guptaca, Case Studies in Thermal Engineering 2018, 11, 26 - 34), propylene glycol solutions (as described by M. Gollin, D. Bjork, Comparative Performance of Ethylene Glycol/ Water and Propylene Glycol/Water Coolants in Automobile Radiators,

International Congress & Exposition, Detroit, Michigan, February 26-29, 1996, SAE Technical Paper Series, ISSN 0148-7191 , DOI 10.4271/960372), or dimethylpolysiloxane (described for example in US 5,100,571 A) have been described.

For these metal materials, the mentioned vehicle coolants, however, have several disadvantages. For example, if a propylene glycol-based coolant is exposed to high temperature of 90 °C for a long time, aldehyde could be generated as a by-product. If such aldehyde is further oxidized, carboxylic acid may be generated, which causes corrosion to equipment.

Likewise, fluoride-containing ionic liquids as those described by F. Wang, L. Han, Z. Zhang, X. Fang, J. Shi, W. Ma, Nanoscale Research Letters 2012, 7, 314-320 have proven to be corrosive.

Furthermore, the fluorine containing chemicals need to be replaced or reduced because of their high global warming potential (GWP).

Therefore, development of more thermal and chemical stable coolants, that are more compatible with metal materials and more environment friendly, remains an important objective especially for the car industry.

US 2012/0021957 A1 describes ionic liquids as heat transfer media. It specifically mentions 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate. The ionic liquid can contain corrosion inhibitors.

US 2016/0138876 A1 describes ionic liquids as possible cooling media. It discloses a long list of cations and anions of these ionic liquids, among those 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium and diethylphosphate.

CN 107163917 A describes working fluids for absorption pumps. These can contain

1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate and an additive selected from carbon nanotubes. US 2013/0219949 A1 describes working media for heat pumps and specifically mentions

1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate. The ionic liquid can comprise corrosion inhibitors, among these fatty acids or benzotriazole. It also describes different metal work materials, among these copper and aluminium.

CN 108 659 226 A discloses a thermally conductive oil which can also be used in electric vehicle battery packs. The material of the oil is mainly silicon, but ionic liquids can be added. These ionic liquids can be 1 -butyl-3-methylimidazolium iron tetrachloride or 1 -hexyl-3 methylimidazolium iron tetrachloride. There is no mention of any metallic material.

JP 2010235889 A discloses a cooling fluid with less corrosivity to metals, especially aluminium. It can further contain a rust-preventive agent, such as an aliphatic monobasic acid or a triazole. A monobasic acid can be a stearic acid. Of the ionic liquid, the anion can be i.e. acetate, alkyl sulphate. The cation can be an imidazolium ion, which can carry alkyl groups.

US 2013/0068994 A1 describes heat transfer fluids that comprise nanofluids and ionic liquids. The ionic liquid cation can be selected from 1 butyl-3-methylimidazolium. The ionic liquid anion can be i.a. alkyl sulphates. Additives such as AI 2 O3 or carbon black nanoparticles can be added.

The purpose of this invention is therefore to create the best formulation comprising a non-corrosive ionic liquid, which in particular can be used as coolant in cars.

Moreover, there is still a demand in the art for other absorption media that provide better heat conductivity and thus better heat transfer.

The present invention accordingly has for its object to further provide coolants that ensure improved heat transfer compared with prior coolants when used in cooling systems in vehicles, in particular cars.

Absorption media have now been found which, surprisingly, fulfil this object.

Detailed description of the invention

The present invention accordingly relates in a first aspect to a process for cooling a power unit PU in a vehicle, wherein a coolant C is contacted with the power unit PU, so that heat is transferred from PU to C,

characterized in that

the coolant C comprises an ionic liquid IL, wherein IL is selected from the group consisting of Q + (R 1 0)2PC>2 , (Q + )2R 2 OPC>3 2 , Q + M + R 3 OPC>3 2 , wherein

Q + is a dialkylimidazolium cation,

wherein R 1 , R 2 , R 3 are each independently of one another an alkyl group,

and wherein M + is an alkali metal ion, preferably lithium, potassium or sodium. According to the invention, a“vehicle” is preferably selected from a car, a motorbicycle, ship or a plane, preferably a car.

A power unit PU is preferably selected from the group consisting of battery B, motor M, or engine, preferably consisting of a battery B, motor M, more preferably a battery B.

Such a power unit typically forms part of the vehicle and provides the energy for moving it.

Accordingly, due to the fact that energy is used, heat is created which has to be discharged. This is achieved by the coolant C.

As the heat is transferred from PU to C, this means that C has a lower temperature than PU when contacting it.

The process according to the first aspect of the invention is preferably carried out at a temperature of - 80 °C to 100 °C, more preferably at a temperature of - 70 °C to 100 °C, more preferably at a temperature of - 60 °C to 100 °C, more preferably at a temperature of - 50 °C to 100 °C, more preferably at a temperature of - 40 °C to 90 °C, more preferably at a temperature of - 30 °C to 90 °C, more preferably at a temperature of - 20 °C to 70 °C.

In a further preferred embodiment of the invention, the power unit PU is contacted by the ionic liquid IL via a metal surface S so that heat is transferred from PU to C via S . Even more preferably, the metal in the metal surface S is selected from aluminium, steel, copper, noble metals, titanium, even more preferably copper, aluminium, steel, even more preferably copper, aluminium, most preferably copper.

Noble metals a preferably selected from the group consisting of platinum, gold, silver.

“Aluminium” in the context of the present invention is to be understood as meaning both unalloyed aluminium and aluminium alloys where in particular the mass fraction of aluminium is greater than the mass fraction of the sum of all the other elements different from aluminium. The aluminium material is preferably unalloyed aluminium.

Unalloyed aluminium is in particular aluminium having a purity of > 80 wt.-%, more preferably

> 85 wt.-%, yet more preferably > 90 wt.-%, yet still more preferably > 95 wt.-%, yet still more preferably > 98 wt.-%. It is in particular highest purity aluminium having a purity of > 99.0 wt.-%, more preferably > 99.5 wt.-%, more preferably > 99.9 wt.-%.

Aluminium alloys comprise in addition to the aluminium in particular at least one alloying metal selected from the group consisting of magnesium, manganese, silicon, zinc, lead, copper, titanium, iron, more preferably selected from the group consisting of magnesium, manganese, silicon, zinc, lead, copper, titanium. The aluminium material of construction may then in particular be in the form of a wrought alloy or of a cast alloy.

"Steel” in the context of the present invention is to be understood as meaning in particular any iron alloy where the mass fraction of iron is greater than the mass fraction of the sum of all the other elements different from iron. The proportion of iron in the steel material of construction is preferably

> 50 wt.-%, more preferably > 60 wt.-%, yet more preferably > 70 wt.-%, yet more preferably > 80 wt.-%, yet more preferably > 99 wt.-%. In accordance with the invention in addition to iron the steel material of construction comprises in particular at least one alloying metal selected from the group consisting of nickel, chromium, vanadium, molybdenum, niobium, tungsten, cobalt, magnesium, manganese, silicon, zinc, lead, copper, titanium, more preferably selected from the group consisting of nickel, chromium, vanadium, molybdenum, niobium, tungsten, cobalt, magnesium, manganese, titanium, particularly chromium, wherein it is yet more preferably if the mass fraction of the sum of all other metals that are different from iron in the steel material of construction is greater than 10.5 wt.-% but smaller than 50 wt.-%. It is yet more preferable when at the same time the carbon content in the steel material of construction is then always < 2.06 wt.-%, yet more preferably < 1.2 wt.-%. It will be appreciated that the sum of the contents of iron, alloying metal (for example chromium) and carbon in the steel material of construction must not exceed 100 wt.-%. The steel material of construction may in particular be in the form of a wrought alloy or of a cast alloy.

“Platinum” in the context of the present invention is to be understood as meaning both unalloyed platinum and platinum alloys where in particular the mass fraction of platinum is greater than the mass fraction of the sum of every other element different from platinum. The platinum material is preferably unalloyed platinum.

Unalloyed platinum is in particular platinum having a purity of > 80 wt.-%, more preferably > 85 wt.- %, yet more preferably > 90 wt.-%, yet still more preferably > 95 wt.-%, yet still more preferably >

98 wt.-%. It is in particular highest purity platinum having a purity of > 99.0 wt.-%, more preferably > 99.5 wt.-%, more preferably > 99.9 wt.-%.

Platinum alloys comprise in addition to the platinum in particular at least one alloying metal selected from the group consisting of magnesium, manganese, silicon, zinc, lead, copper, titanium, iron, more preferably selected from the group consisting of magnesium, manganese, silicon, zinc, lead, copper, titanium.

“Copper” in the context of the present invention is to be understood as meaning both unalloyed copper and copper alloys where in particular the mass fraction of copper is greater than the mass fraction of the sum of every other element different from copper. The copper material is preferably unalloyed copper.

Unalloyed copper is in particular copper having a purity of > 80 wt.-%, more preferably > 85 wt.-%, yet more preferably > 90 wt.-%, yet still more preferably > 95 wt.-%, yet still more preferably

> 98 wt.-%. It is in particular highest purity copper having a purity of > 99.0 wt.-%, more preferably

> 99.5 wt.-%, more preferably > 99.9 wt.-%.

Copper alloys comprise in addition to the copper in particular at least one alloying metal selected from the group consisting of magnesium, manganese, silicon, zinc, lead, platinum, titanium, iron, more preferably selected from the group consisting of magnesium, manganese, silicon, zinc, lead, copper, titanium.

“Titanium” in the context of the present invention is to be understood as meaning both unalloyed titanium and titanium alloys where in particular the mass fraction of titanium is greater than the mass fraction of the sum of every other element different from titanium. The titanium material is preferably unalloyed titanium.

Unalloyed titanium is in particular titanium having a purity of > 80 wt.-%, more preferably

> 85 wt.-%, yet more preferably > 90 wt.-%, yet still more preferably > 95 wt.-%, yet still more preferably > 98 wt.-%. It is in particular highest purity titanium having a purity of > 99.0 wt.-%, more preferably > 99.5 wt.-%, more preferably > 99.9 wt.-%.

Titanium alloys comprise in addition to the titanium in particular at least one alloying metal selected from the group consisting of magnesium, manganese, silicon, zinc, lead, copper, platinum, iron, more preferably selected from the group consisting of magnesium, manganese, silicon, zinc, lead, copper, titanium.

“Gold” in the context of the present invention is to be understood as meaning both unalloyed gold and gold alloys where in particular the mass fraction of gold is greater than the mass fraction of the sum of every other element different from gold. The gold material is preferably unalloyed gold.

Unalloyed gold is in particular gold having a purity of > 80 wt.-%, more preferably > 85 wt.-%, yet more preferably > 90 wt.-%, yet still more preferably > 95 wt.-%, yet still more preferably

> 98 wt.-%. It is in particular highest purity gold having a purity of > 99.0 wt.-%, more preferably

> 99.5 wt.-%, more preferably > 99.9 wt.-%.

Gold alloys comprise in addition to the gold in particular at least one alloying metal selected from the group consisting of magnesium, manganese, silicon, zinc, lead, platinum, silver, copper, titanium, iron, more preferably selected from the group consisting of magnesium, manganese, silicon, zinc, lead, copper, titanium.

“Silver” in the context of the present invention is to be understood as meaning both unalloyed silver and silver alloys where in particular the mass fraction of silver is greater than the mass fraction of the sum of every other element different from silver. The silver material is preferably unalloyed silver.

Unalloyed silver is in particular silver having a purity of > 80 wt.-%, more preferably > 85 wt.-%, yet more preferably > 90 wt.-%, yet still more preferably > 95 wt.-%, yet still more preferably

> 98 wt.-%. It is in particular highest purity silver having a purity of > 99.0 wt.-%, more preferably

> 99.5 wt.-%, more preferably > 99.9 wt.-%.

Silver alloys comprise in addition to the silver in particular at least one alloying metal selected from the group consisting of magnesium, manganese, silicon, zinc, lead, copper, platinum, gold, titanium, iron, more preferably selected from the group consisting of magnesium, manganese, silicon, zinc, lead, copper, titanium.

A“dialkyl imidazolium” cation according to the invention is preferably a 1 ,3-dialkylimidazolium cation.

In a preferred embodiment of the process according to the invention the ionic liquid IL is

Q + (R 1 0) 2 P0 2 , and Q + is a dialkylimidazolium cation in which the alkyl groups each independently of one another have 1 to 6, preferably 1 or 4, more preferably 1 or 2 carbon atoms, wherein R 1 is an alkyl group having 1 to 6, preferably 1 to 4, more preferably 1 or 2, carbon atoms.

In a more preferred embodiment of the process according to the invention, the ionic liquid IL has the general formula Q + (R 1 0) 2 P0 2 _ , and Q + is a dialkylimidazolium cation in which the alkyl groups are each independently of one another selected from the group consisting of methyl, ethyl, butyl, even more preferably selected from the group consisting of methyl or ethyl, and R 1 is methyl or ethyl.

In a yet more preferred embodiment of the process according to the invention, the ionic liquid IL has the general formula Q + (R 1 0) 2 P0 2 _ , and Q + is selected from the group consisting of

1 ,3-dimethylimidazolium, 1 ,3-diethylimidazolium, 1 -ethyl-3-methylimidazolium; R 1 is methyl or ethyl.

Preferably, the ionic liquid IL is selected from 1 -ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate and 1 -ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate. Most preferably, the ionic liquid IL is

1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate.

In a further preferred embodiment, the coolant C contains at least one corrosion inhibitor A.

Preferably, the at least one corrosion inhibitor A is selected from benzotriazole, thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, a fatty acid. The fatty acid is more preferably stearic acid.

“Benzotriazole” (abbreviated as“BTA”; CAS-No.: 95-14-7),“thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide” (abbreviated as“MTT”; CAS-No.: 298-93-1) and fatty acids (abbreviated as“FAA”) have the following structures:

wherein in the case of the FAA, n is an integer between 6 and 30, preferably 8 and 28, more preferably 10 and 20, more preferably 14 and 18, more preferably 16. For n = 16, FAA is stearic acid, and stearic is the most preferred fatty acid.

It was surprisingly shown that the use of corrosion inhibitors reduces the corrosiveness against metals, especially copper.

The most preferable corrosion inhibitor A is benzotriazole. In a more preferred embodiment according to the present invention, the coolant C comprises at least one ionic liquid IL as described above, and at least two corrosion inhibitors Ai and A 2 , preferably at least three corrosion inhibitors Ai , A 2 , and A 3 , each selected from the group consisting of benzotriazole, thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, a fatty acid, which is preferably stearic acid. In a more preferred embodiment, the coolant C comprises at least one ionic liquid IL as described above, and benzotriazole as first corrosion inhibitor Ai and at least one second corrosion inhibitor A 2 selected from the group consisting of thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, a fatty acid, which is preferably stearic acid. Even more preferably, the second corrosion inhibitor A 2 is thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide.

When the coolant C comprises two corrosion inhibitors Ai and A 2 which are preferably selected from the group consisting of benzotriazole, thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, a fatty acid, which is preferably stearic acid, it is further preferred that the ratio of the total weight of the first corrosion inhibitor Ai , preferably BTA, to the total weight of the second corrosion inhibitor A 2 , preferably selected from MTT, fatty acid, and more preferably MTT, in the coolant C is in the range of 99 : 1 to 1 : 99, more preferably 9 : 1 to 1 : 9, preferably 8 : 2 to 2 : 8, more preferably 7 : 3 to 3 : 7, more preferably 6 : 4 to 4 : 6, most preferably 1 : 1 . When the coolant C comprises three corrosion inhibitors Ai , A 2 , and A 3 which are preferably selected from the group consisting of benzotriazole, thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, a fatty acid, which is preferably stearic acid, it is further preferred that the ratio of the total weight of all ionic liquids IL to the total weight of all compounds of the first corrosion inhibitor Ai , preferably BTA, to the total weight of the second corrosion inhibitor A 2 , preferably MTT, to the total weight of the third corrosion inhibitor A 3 , preferably a fatty acid and even more preferably stearic acid, is 100 : 1 : 1 : 1 .

In those cases in which the coolant C comprises two corrosion inhibitors Ai and A 2 , or three corrosion inhibitors Ai , A 2 , and A 3 , which are preferably selected from the group consisting of benzotriazole, thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, a fatty acid, which is preferably stearic acid, it is further preferred that the first of the corrosion inhibitors Ai is BTA, and more preferably the second of the corrosion inhibitors A 2 is MTT.

The coolant C may, in the process according to the invention, be employed in the form of the pure mixture of the ionic liquid IL with the corrosion inhibitor A. Alternatively and more preferably in the process according to the invention, the coolant C is an aqueous solution in which, in particular, the total weight of all corrosion inhibitors A which are in particular selected from the group consisting of benzotriazole, thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, a fatty acid, and all ionic liquids IL is in the range from 20.1 wt.-% to 92 wt.-% based on the total weight of the aqueous solution. It is yet more preferable when the total weight of all corrosion inhibitors A which are in particular selected from the group consisting of benzotriazole, thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, a fatty acid, and all ionic liquids IL in the coolant C is in the range from 20.5 wt.-% to 90.5 wt.-% based on the total weight of the aqueous solution, yet more preferably in the range from 30.5 wt.-% to 80.5 wt.-%, yet more preferably 40.0 wt.-% to 76 wt.-% % based on the total weight of the aqueous solution, yet more preferably 50.5 to 51 .0 wt.-% based on the total weight of the aqueous solution. In the process according to the invention the ratio of all compounds of all corrosion inhibitors A, particularly selected from the group consisting of benzotriazole, thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, a fatty acid, to the ionic liquids IL in the coolant C is not further restricted. However, it is preferable to employ in the process according to the invention an coolant C in which the ratio of the total weight of all corrosion inhibitors A which are in particular selected from the group consisting of benzotriazole, thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, a fatty acid, to the total weight of all ionic liquids IL is in the range 1 : 1000 to 1 : 10, more preferably 1 : 500 to 1 : 19, more preferably 1 : 180 to 1 : 39, yet more preferably 1 : 159 to 1 : 75, more preferably 1 : 150 to 1 : 79, even more preferably 1 : 119 to 1 : 100.

The process according to the invention can be carried out in an apparatus as shown in Figure 1 , which is a preferred embodiment of the invention. This shows a simplified version of the cooling cycle as can be found in a car containing a motor (upper part of Figure 1) or a battery (lower part of Figure 1).

In the upper system, the coolant C <5> is pumped through the system by an electric liquid pump <2>. The arrows indicate the flow of the coolant C. In the upper part of Figure 1 , the coolant C <5> passes a three-way valve <10> and is pumped to a motor M <3>. Here it takes up heat and thereafter optionally passes an invertor <4>. The invertor <4> is only an optional embodiment and can be omitted. The coolant C <5> then is pumped to a heat radiator <1 >, where the heat taken up from the motor M <3> is at least partially dissipated to the environment, and then the coolant C <5> can be used in a new cycle. In case no heat removal from the motor M <3> is necessary, the three- way valve <10> is oriented so the coolant C <5> does not contact the motor M <3>.

In the lower part of Figure 1 , a system containing a battery is shown. Here, the coolant C <5> is pumped through the system by an electric liquid pump <2>. The arrows indicate the flow of the coolant C. In the lower part of Figure 1 , the coolant C <5> passes a three-way valve <10> and is pumped to a battery B <6>. Here it takes up heat and optionally passes a battery charger <7> or a DC-DC convertor <8>. The battery charger <7> as well as the DC-DC convertor <8> are optional embodiments, and both can be omitted. The coolant C <5> then is pumped to a heat radiator <1 >, where the heat is dissipated to the environment, and then the coolant C <5> can be used in a new cycle. In case no heat removal from the battery B <6> is necessary, the three-way valve <10> is oriented so the coolant C <5> does not contact the motor M <3>.

The present invention also relates in a second aspect to a coolant C comprising an IL as described in the context of the first aspect, BTA as a first corrosion inhibitor A and at least a second corrosion inhibitor A selected from MTT, fatty acid, preferably MTT.

The present invention also relates in a third aspect to the use of such Coolant C according to the second aspect for cooling a power unit PU, wherein the power unit PU is preferably selected from the group consisting of battery B, motor M, in a vehicle, wherein the vehicle is preferably a car.

The examples which follow are intended to elucidate the present invention without limiting said invention in any way. Examples

1. Determination of operating temperature ranges

In this test series, the operating temperatures (namely, the solidification points and the decompositions points) of several prior art coolants were compared to those of the present invention.

The following formulations were used: Formulation A: 50 wt.-% ethylene glycol in water.

Formulation B: 50 wt.-% propylene glycol in water.

Formulation C: 50 wt.-% dimethylpolysiloxane.

Formulation D: 20 wt.-% EMIM DEP (= 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate) in water. Formulation E: 50 wt.-% EMIM DEP in water.

Formulation F: 80 wt.-% EMIM DEP in water.

Formulation G: 100 wt.-% EMIM DEP.

Formulation H: 80 wt.-% EMIM Cl in water.

Formulation J: 80 wt.-% EMIM OAc in water.

Formulation K: 100 wt.-% EMIM DMP.

From the comparison of inventive examples 11 to I5 with any of comparative examples C1 to C5, it follows that the coolant according to the invention has the largest operating temperature range while displaying low corrosiveness. The operating temperature range of formulation H in C4 is larger, but the chloride anion makes this ionic liquid unacceptable due to its high corrosiveness (as demonstrated hereinafter in comparative example C7). Therefore, the ionic liquid according to the invention is surprisingly well suited as a coolant in a vehicle. 2. Corrosion performance to aluminium At 70 °C and under air, aluminium plates (highest purity aluminium, purity > 99.0%) having dimensions of 3 cm x 7 cm and a thickness of 3 mm were immersed in 350 ml of the respective solution. The liquid was stirred during the test to ensure uniform flow of the liquid around the metal plates. Determination of the removal rates (removal rate = "loss due to corroded aluminium", reported in the following table in the unit mm/year) was carried out gravimetrically after chemical and mechanical removal of the corrosion products from the immersed aluminium plates. The results are shown in the table which follows. C6, C7 are comparative examples, I6 to 110 are inventive examples.

These results show that the corrosion rate on aluminium can be remarkedly reduced when the ionic liquids according to the invention and in particular EMIM DEP instead of water or EMIM Cl is used.

3. Corrosion performance to copper Formulation H described above was used in comparative example C8.

Formulation S was an aqueous solution of 80 wt.-% EMIM Cl in water and 0.5 weight-% BTA, used in comparative example C9. Formulation F described above was used in inventive example 111.

Formulation L was an aqueous solution of 50 weight-% EMIM DEP and 0.5 weight-% BTA, used in inventive example 112. Formulation M was an aqueous solution of 50 weight-% EMIM DEP and 0.5 weight-% stearic acid, used in inventive example 113.

Formulation N was an aqueous solution of 50 weight-% EMIM DEP and 0.5 weight-% MTT, used in inventive example 114. Formulation P was an aqueous solution of 50 weight-% EMIM DEP and 0.5 weight-% BTA and 0.5 weight-% stearic acid, used in inventive example 115.

Formulation Q was an aqueous solution of 50 weight-% EMIM DEP and 0.5 weight-% BTA and 0.5 weight-% MTT, used in inventive example 116.

Formulation R was an aqueous solution of 50 weight-% EMIM DEP and 0.5 weight-% stearic acid and 0.5 weight-% MTT, used in inventive example 117. Formulation K described above was used in inventive example 118.

Formulation T was a solution of 95.5 weight-% EMIM DMP and 0.5 weight-% BTA, used in inventive example 119. At 70 °C and under air, copper plates (highest purity copper, purity > 99.0%) having dimensions of 3 cm x 7 cm and a thickness of 3 mm were immersed in 350 ml of the respective solution. The liquid was stirred during the test to ensure uniform flow of the liquid around the metal plates. Determination of the removal rates (removal rate = "loss due to corroded copper", reported in the following table in the unit mm/year) was carried out gravimetrically after chemical and mechanical removal of the corrosion products from the immersed copper plates. The results are shown in the table which follows.

The results show that the absorption media according to the invention exhibit a much smaller corrosiveness towards copper (C8 and C9 viz. 111 to 119) and in addition the corrosion is even less when BTA is used in addition to another additive (115 and 116 as compared to 117), wherein the combination with both BTA and MTT (116) is the least corrosive and therefore most preferred. This combination shows a particularly high synergistic improvement in anti-corrosiveness, as becomes clear from the comparison of the values measured in 112 (EMIM DEP and BTA) and 114 (EMIM DEP and MTT) with 116 (EMIM DEP, BTA, MTT). 4. Improvement of heat transfer efficiency

The heat transfer efficiency was measured at 25 °C by standard methods and is shown in the following table.

The results show that the absorption media according to the invention exhibit a better (formulation D) or at least comparable (formulation E) thermal conductivity compared to the prior art formulations A, B, C.