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Title:
USE OF VEGETABLE OIL TO STABILISE ESSENTIAL OILS AND PROMOTE ABSORPTION ACROSS SKIN
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2006/101409
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to essential oil compositions comprising a vegetable oil. The vegetable stabilises the essential oil in the composition and promotes absorption across the skin. In a preferred embodiment, the invention relates to a composition comprising bergamot oil and a high-boiling point vegetable oil.

Inventors:
AL-SHAKARCHI A MUNEM M D (NZ)
RASHAN LUAY JAMIL (JO)
BRADLEY MICHAEL JOHN (NZ)
VULETA GEOFFREY ALLEN JOHN (US)
Application Number:
PCT/NZ2006/000051
Publication Date:
September 28, 2006
Filing Date:
March 24, 2006
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
PRO PERSPIRANT LTD (NZ)
AL-SHAKARCHI A MUNEM M D (NZ)
RASHAN LUAY JAMIL (JO)
BRADLEY MICHAEL JOHN (NZ)
VULETA GEOFFREY ALLEN JOHN (US)
International Classes:
C11B9/00; A61K8/92; A61K8/97; A61K36/752; A61K47/44; C11B5/00
Foreign References:
US5620695A1997-04-15
US5552167A1996-09-03
Other References:
PIONEER THINKING COMPANY: "Aromatherapy", 16 February 2005 (2005-02-16), Retrieved from the Internet
"Carrier Oil Information", ONE PLANET, 21 October 2004 (2004-10-21), Retrieved from the Internet
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Baldwins (Wellesley Street Auckland, 1001, NZ)
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Claims:
CLAIMS
1. A composition including: bergamot oil; and a carrier agent.
2. A body product including: bergamot oil; and a carrier agent.
3. A method of stabilising an essential oil in a composition, the method including the steps of mixing the essential oil with one or more high boiling point vegetable oils.
4. A method of facilitating absorption of an essential oil on contact with skin of a mammal, the method including the step of mixing the essential oil with a carrier agent before application to the skin, the carrier agent being selected from any one or more high boiling point vegetable oils.
5. A vegetable oil to stabilise an essential oil facilitating absorption on the skin of a human.
6. A method of making a composition as described above including the steps of mixing bergamot oil with a carrier agent at room temperature.
7. According to a further aspect of this invention there is provided a use of bran rice oil or grapeseed oil to facilitate absorption of an essential oil on the skin of a mammal.
8. A vegetable oil to facilitate retention of an essential oil on skin of a human.
9. A composition having a therapeutic property, wherein the composition includes bergamot oil.
10. A composition substantially as herein described with reference to any one of the Examples.
11. A body product substantially as herein described with reference to any one of the Examples.
12. A method of stabilising an essential oil in a composition substantially as herein described with reference to any one of the Examples.
13. A method of facilitating absorption of an essential oil on contact with the skin of a mammal substantial as herein described with reference to any one of the examples.
Description:
USE OF VEGETABLE OIL TO STABILISE ESSENTIAL OILS AND PROMOTE ABSORPTION ACROSS SKIN

COMPOSITION CONTAINING ESSENTIAL OILS

Field of the Invention

The invention relates to a composition including an essential oil.

Background for the Invention

The term "body product" is intended to refer to a product applied topically to the skin, and/or generally a body surface of a mammal. Body products may include deodorants (roll-on, stick, spray-on), soaps, gels, sprays, cosmetics, powders, body washes, perfumes, body creams, face creams, shampoos, aftershaves, shaving oils, foot creams, hair gels, moisturising creams, makeup products, personal healthcare products, anti-aging products, aromatherapy oils, massage creams and oils and other bath and body compositions. Body products may in some cases also have a desirable therapeutic constituents which may be absorbed through the skin or inhaled by a user.

One in three North Americans will contract cancer, while only one in 800 contracted cancer prior to the industrial revolution. Fifty percent of women in the western world will die from cancer. Asthma has tripled in the last 30 years. Twenty five percent of college students are functionally sterile - and that is compared to just one half of a percent 20 years ago.

In the western world a variety of toxic compounds found in consumable and body products may be in part to blame for such disturbing statistics.

According to the Environmental Protection Industry (EPI), there are now over 75,000 chemicals in use and over 3,000 of those are very common - we are exposed to them every day.

Over 3,000 chemicals are used in common cosmetics and one third of these have been reported as toxic substances. Trace amounts of these chemicals can build up in fatty tissues of the body and may result in serious health problems.

Most fragrances in body products result from synthetic compounds and are composed from over 6,000 chemicals. Synthetic fragrances have been linked to asthma, depression and hormonal imbalance. Fragrances invade our body through ingestion, topical absorption and inhalation; examples of such chemicals are sodium laurel sulphate (SLS) and propylene glycol.

Greenpeace compiled the results of existing tests on consumer articles for known synthetic chemicals such as (organotins, phthalates, brominated flame retardants, musks, Bisphenol-A and alkyl phenols and its ethoxylates) (Peters 2003b and 2003c). The results are provided in Table 1 below.

Table 1 : summarising the hazardous chemicals detected in deodorant from various international producers. Test results from Okotest years 2000, 2002 and 2003. Concentrations are given in units of mg/kg. An 'x' in the column means the substance is present in the product. If in case of DMP/DEP or

Polycyclic musks/Nitro musks both parameters have an 'x', then Okotest did not discriminate between them. 1) Di-methyl phthalate; 2) Di-ethyl phthalate; 3) Other phthalates. Not specified; 4) Organic halogens are substances which contain Bromide, Chloride or Iodine; 5) Polyclyclic musks. Not specified; 6) Nitro musks. Not specified.

Other hazardous organic and inorganic chemicals known to be present in body products include the following compounds:

AETT (acetylethyltetramethyltetralin) Alcohol

Aluminium salts (found in many deodorants) e.g. aluminium chloride, aluminium zirconium polychlorohydrate complex, aluminium hydroxychloride

BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene)

DEA (diethanolomine) Hafnium salts

Lead acetate

Methylene chloride

Methyl isobutyl ketone

Methyl ethyl ketone Propylene glycol

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Laureth Sulfate

Zinc salts (found in many deodorants) e.g. Zinc Phensolsulphonate

Zirconium salts (found in many deodorants) e.g. zirconium hydroxychloride

Quaternary compounds such as: Benzalkonium chloride

Polyquartemarium 1-14

Quarternarium 1-29

There has been a push in recent years for more naturally based body products. A number of successful retail chains have emerged specialising in naturally based body products.

Essential oils have been used in the perfume industry as a natural alternative to synthetic fragrances. The main constituents of essential oils are volatile monoterpenes which contribute to the flavour and aroma.

The use of essential oils is desirable in body products, in part because essential oils may have therapeutic properties such as physiological or mood enhancing constituents. Essential oils are understood to work in three ways to deliver a therapeutic effect.

(1) When an essential oil is inhaled, responses are triggered in the brain that can affect hormones, moods and emotions. In this way essential oils can assist in relieving stress, insomnia, mood swings and fatigue.

(2) The vapours of an essential oil inhaled pass into the blood stream via the lungs, effecting underlying tissues and organs in a therapeutic way.

(3) When an essential oil is applied onto the skin, blended in a safe dilution with natural carrier oil, the oils rapidly absorb through the skin into the blood stream and lymphatic system, affecting underlying tissues and organs, and promoting general well being.

The practice of treatment known as ' aromatherapy' has developed during the last century.

In aromatherapy (Buchbauer, 1996; Buchbauer and Jirovetz, 1994) some essential oils have been used successfully in the treatment of depression, anxiety and some forms of cognitive disorders as well as in insomnia and stress-induced ailments. Recently other authors (Crowell et a!., 1992; Haag et al., 1992) have demonstrated that limonene exhibits both chemopreventive and therapeutic effects against chemically induced mammary tumours in rats. Carvone has also been associated with chemopreventive activity, since it has been found to induce the detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase in several mouse target tissues (Zheng et al., 1992). Yamada et al. (Yamada et al., 1994) reported on the biological activity of linalool. In their studies linalool was found to have anticonvulsant activity in mice.

Moreover, other groups (Buchbauer et al., 1993; Elisabetsky et al., 1995; Hardy et al., 1995) were able to show a sedative effect of linalool. 1 , 8-Cineole increased the cerebral blood supply upon inhalation (Nasel et al. 1994).

It is desirable to use essential oils in body products. Body products which are absent the toxic compounds listed on pages 3 to 6, expose the user to less toxicity and risk. A user of such a product may also have the added benefit of enhanced "wellness" (mood and general wellbeing) brought about by inhaling or absorbing the essential oils.

An important property of many body products is that they have deodorant, antiperspirant and/or astringent properties.

Currently cypress-blue (calistήs intratropica) is the only essential oil known to have deodorant, antiperspirant and/or astringent properties. However the cost and availability of cypress-blue has prohibited its commercial use in body products. Cypress-blue can cost as much as $1.00 per mil. Difficulties have also arisen in preserving the deodorant, antiperspirant and/or astringent properties of cypress- blue in compositions for topical use.

Manufacturers have struggled to develop stable body products which include essential oils.

Most essential oils are volatile compounds which have a low boiling point. In one sense this is advantageous as it allows oils to be easily inhaled thereby providing therapeutic or enhanced wellbeing effects. However, most essential oils readily evaporate or oxidise on contact with the skin, reducing their effectiveness as a perfume.

Another problem for manufacturers has been developing a shelf stable composition including essential oils.

Typically essential oils break down and/or lose any therapeutic effect relatively quickly after manufacture. Essential oils, with generally a monoterpene chemical structure, can react when combined with other agents in body products. This can cause a reduction in potency.

Furthermore current manufacturing processes can cause evaporation of essential oils when the body product is being made. The instability of essential oils in current body products can result in a product rapidly losing any essential oils it contained on manufacture.

Providing a stable composition including an essential oil for topical application is needed.

Object of the Invention

It is an object of the present invention to provide a composition which overcomes at least some of the above mentioned disadvantages and/or at least provides the public with a useful choice.

Summary of the Invention

According to one aspect of this invention there is provided a composition including:

- bergamot oil; and

- a carrier agent.

Preferably the composition provides deodorant, antiperspirant and/or anti-astringent properties.

Preferably the carrier agent includes a carrier oil.

Preferably the carrier oil is selected from a vegetable oil having a high boiling point, and more preferably a boiling point of about 200 0 C.

Preferably the vegetable oil contains unsaturated fatty acid.

Preferably the carrier oil is selected from grapeseed oil or bran rice oil.

Preferably the composition also includes a natural anti-ageing agent.

Preferably the anti-ageing agent is vitamin E.

Preferably the composition includes about 6%/wgt to about 10%/wgt of bergamot oil to about 15%/wgt to about 30%/wgt of the carrier agent.

Preferably, the composition includes about 7%/wgt of bergamot oil to about 20%/wgt of the carrier agent.

Preferably the composition includes an additional essential oil.

Preferably the additional essential oil is selected from any one or more of the following oils:

Angelica (Angelica archangelica), Balsam, Peru (Myroxylon balsamum var. pereirae), Basil (Ocimum basilicum), Bay (Laurus nobilis), Benzoin (Styrax

Benzoin), Black Pepper (Piper nigrum), Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum), Carrot Seed (Daucus carota), Cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana), Chamomile German (Matricaria chamomilla), Chamomile Roman (Anthemis nobilis), Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), Citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus/nardus), Clary Sage (Salvia sclarea), Clove (Eugenia caryophylata), Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens), Cypress -Blue-(Calistris intratropica), Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), Everlasting (Helichrysum angustifolium), Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), Frankincense (Boswellia carteri; Boswelia thurifera), Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), Ginger Root (Zingiber Officinale), Grapefruit, Pink (Pelargonium graveolents), Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), Jasmine (Jasminum grandiflorum), Juniper (Juniperus communis), Lavender (Lavender angustifolia) , Lemon (Citrus linomum), Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis), Lemon Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora), Lemongrass (Cumbopogon flexuosus), Lime (Citrus aurantifolia), Linden Blossom (Tilia vulgaris/ Tilia europeacea), Mandarin (Citrus reticulate), Marjoram (Marjorana hertensis), May Chang (Litsea cubeba), Mimosa

(Mimosa tenuiflora), Myrrh (Marjorana hertensis), Neroli (citrus aurantium), Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), Orange (Citratus aurentium, sinesis), Oregano (Oreganum compactum), Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), Parsley seed (Petroselinum savitum umbelliferae), Patchouli (Pogstemon cablin), Peppermint (Mentha piperita), Petitgrain (Citrus aurantium), Pimento Berry (Pimento officinalis/ Pimenta Dioica),

Pine (Pinus sylvestris), Rock Rose (Cistus ladaniferus), Rose (Raso demascena), Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora), Sage (Salvia officinalis), Sandalwood (Santalum album)' Spearmint (Mentha spicata/cardiaca), Spikenard (Nardostachys jatamansi), Spruce (Tsuga Canadensis), Tangerine (Citrus reticulata), Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), Thyme (Thymus vulgaris),

Tuberose (Polianthes tuberose), Valerian (Valeriana officinalis), Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanoides), Yarrow (Achillea millefolium), and Ylang-Ylang (Cananga odorata).

According to a further aspect of this invention there is provided a body product including:

- bergamot oil; and - a carrier agent.

According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided a method of stabilising an essential oil in a composition, the method including the steps of mixing the essential oil with one or more high boiling point vegetable oils.

Preferably the vegetable oil contains unsaturated fatty acids having a boiling point of about 200 0 C.

Preferably the vegetable oil is selected from grapeseed oil and bran rice oil.

Preferably the essential oil is bergamot oil.

Preferably the composition is adapted to provide deodorant, antiperspirant and/or astringent properties.

Preferably the composition is a body product.

According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided a method of facilitating absorption of an essential oil on contact with skin of a mammal, the method including the step of mixing the essential oil with a carrier agent before application to the skin, the carrier agent being selected from any one or more high boiling point vegetable oils.

Preferably the vegetable oil contains unsaturated fatty acids.

Preferably the vegetable oil has a boiling point of about 22O 0 C.

Preferably the essential oil has therapeutic properties.

Preferably the essential oil has deodorant, antiperspirant and/or astringent properties.

Preferably the vegetable oil is selected from grapeseed oil or bran rice oil.

Preferably the essential oil is bergamot oil.

According to a further aspect of this invention there is provided a use of a vegetable oil to stabilise an essential oil thereby facilitating absorption on contact with skin of a human.

Preferably the vegetable oil has a high boiling point.

Preferably the vegetable oil contains unsaturated fatty acids.

Preferably the vegetable oil is selected from bran rice oil and grapeseed oil.

According to a further aspect of this invention there is provided a method of making a composition as described above including the steps of mixing bergamot oil with a carrier agent at room temperature.

According to a further aspect of this invention there is provided a use of bran rice oil or grapeseed oil to facilitate retention and/or absorption of an essential oil on contact with skin of a human.

According to a further aspect of this invention there is provided a use of a vegetable oil to facilitate retention of an essential oil on skin of a human.

Preferably the essential oil provides a pleasant aroma and/or deodorant, antiperspirant and/or astringent properties.

According to a further aspect of this invention there is provided a composition having a therapeutic property, wherein the composition includes bergamot oil.

According to a further aspect of this invention there is provided a composition substantially as herein described with reference to any one of the Examples.

According to a further aspect of this invention there is provided a body product substantially as herein described with reference to any one of the Examples.

According to a further aspect of this invention there is provided a method of stabilising an essential oil in a composition substantially as herein described with reference to any one of the Examples.

According to a further aspect of this invention there is provided a method of facilitating absorption of an essential oil on contact with the skin of a mammal substantial as herein described with reference to any one of the examples.

Description of a Preferred Embodiment of the Invention

The present invention relates to a composition having deodorant, antiperspirant and/or astringent properties. The composition may be used in, or used as, a body product. The composition of the present invention may be used on its own as a body product or mixed with ingredients commonly used to manufacture a body product.

The present composition may, for example, be mixed together with known ingredients to form a roll-on, stick or spray-on deodorant, soap, bath ball/s or bath salt. Alternatively, the composition may be mixed with known ingredients to form a cosmetic such as a moisturiser, lotion, lip gloss, perfume, lipstick, foundation, consealer, or the like

Alternatively the composition may be provided as a solution which can be dabbed, dripped or otherwise applied topically to the skin of a mammal and more particularly a human.

The composition according to the present invention preferably includes bergamot oil and a carrier agent.

Preferably the composition includes about 7%/wgt of bergamot oil to about 20%/wgt of the carrier agent. The composition may be made up to 100%/wgt with distilled or purified water or other appropriate solvent known in the art, such as alcohol or an alcohol/water mixture. However, distilled water is commonly used to make up the solution. Alternatively optional constituents may be added to the composition (reducing the level of solvent required) as will become apparent from the following description of a preferred composition.

It has been surprisingly discovered by the inventors that bergamot oil provides deodorant, antiperspirant and/or astringent properties.

Throughout the specification, the term "deodorant" should be interpreted as a property, which removes or conceals, unwanted or unpleasant smells. The terms

"antiperspirant" should be interpreted as a property which prevents or reduces perspiration.

Astringents have a firming and healing action on the mucous membranes or exposed tissues. They bring about contraction, firms and dries up secretions and generally make tissues denser. Although primarily drying, astringents prevent moisture loss.

Most essential oils are not overly effective at providing deodorant, antiperspirant or astringent properties. As mentioned above, essential oils readily evaporate on contact with the skin, thereby reducing their effectiveness as a deodorant or antiperspirant in a body product or composition.

The inventors were surprised to discover that bergamot oil provides effective deodorant, antiperspirant and astringent properties which may be maintained in a composition for a length of time (generally up to 2 years). Bergamot oil (citrus bergamia) is extracted as a light or pale greenish-yellow liquid with a fresh sweet- fruity, slightly spicy-balsamic undertone. However, on aging bergamot oxides to a brownish-olive colour. Bergamot oil effectively looses its deodorant, antiperspirant and astringent properties on oxidising to the brownish-olive colour.

The inventors have discovered that the oxidation of bergamot oil can be delayed by suspending or mixing bergamot oil with a carrier agent as described below. Oxidation of bergamot oil can be delayed by up to 2 years which means that deodorant, antiperspirant and astringent properties can be extend by about 2 years.

Bergamot oil is also a anthelmintic, antidepressant, antiseptic (pulmonary, genitourinary), antispasmodic, antitoxic, carminative, digestive, diuretic, deodorant, febrifuge, laxative, parasiticide, rubefacient, stimulant, stomachic, tonic, vermifuge, and vulnerary.

The discovery that bergamot oil has deodorant, antiperspirant and astringent properties has allowed the inventors to develop a composition which may be used as a body product.

Preferably the composition includes about 7%/wgt of bergamot oil. However, it will be appreciated that more or less bergamot oil can be provided in a composition to enhance the deodorant, antiperspirant and/or astringent effects of the composition. Preferably the composition includes about 6%/wgt up to about 10%/wgt bergamot oil.

Bergamot oil is made from a tree (Citrus bergamia) that can grow up to four meters high, with star-shaped flowers, and smooth leaves, bearing citrus fruit resembling a cross between an orange and a grapefruit but in a pear-shape. The fruit ripens from green to yellow.

The inventors sourced supplies of bergamot oil as an essential oil from Active Organics, lnc 11230 Grader Street, Dallas, TX 75238 USA.

Alternatively, bergamot oil may be extracted by known methods, such as cold or hot process techniques. Bergamot oil is best extracted by cold press or steam distillation.

The inventors have discovered that a number of essential oils have deodorant and antiperspirant properties. However essential oils having deodorant, antiperspirant and astringent properties are limited to Bergamot, Clary Sage (Salvia sclarea),

Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens), Cypress-Blue-(Calistris intratropica), Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), and Lemongrass (Cumbopogon flexuosus.

Table 2: Properties of selected essential oils (effect of direct sun light on human skin)

While certain essential oils having deodorant, antiperspirant and astringent properties and may be used in place of bergamot oil in the composition, they have less an effect than bergamot oil and have a number of disadvantages.

As mentioned in the Background, cypress-blue is very expensive, costing about $1 per mil.

Clary Sage and Cypress require about three times as much oil to provide the same deodorant, antiperspirant and astringent effect as bergamot oil.

Geranium and Lemongrass have additional problems. A levels of about 6 to

8%/wgt of Geranium or Lemongrass is required in a composition. This level of

Geranium or Lemongrass can result in skin irritation. Furthermore, Geranium and Lemongrass are known to stain clothing or skin.

Bergamot oil provides a balance of deodorant, antiperspirant, and astringent properties as well as being a manufacturing friendly oil.

The composition of the present invention also includes a carrier agent. Preferably the carrier agent is a carrier oil.

In the preferred embodiment the carrier oil is a vegetable oil having a high boiling point (of about 200 0 C) and containing unsaturated fatty acids.

In the preferred embodiment, vegetable oils are selected from bran rice oil and grapeseed oil. Bran rice oil and grapeseed oil (Vitis vinifera) have both been found to possess a high boiling point (of about 200 0 C).

Preferably the carrier oil is provided at about 15%/wgt to about 30%/wgt, and more preferably about 20 %/wgt.

The inventors have found that when a composition of the present invention is applied to the skin of a human, the carrier agent maintains the deodorant, antiperspirant and astringent properties of bergamot oil, which would otherwise evaporated rapidly on contact with skin. Furthermore the carrier agent delays oxidation of bergamot oil by up to 2 years.

Bran rice oil and grapeseed oil have also been found to particularly enhance shelf life of the composition so that the composition maintains its deodorant, antiperspirant and astringent properties for longer. Thus, the invention provides a method of stabilising an essential oil in a composition so as to maintain its deodorant, antiperspirant and astringent properties, and/or therapeutic properties of the composition.

The carrier oil may be obtained in New Zealand from Old Fashioned Foods Ltd, P O Box 112-141 (160 Rockfield Road), Penrose, Auckland, New Zealand or NRM New Zealand, Private Bag 99-927, Newmarket, Auckland.

Without wishing to be bound by a particular hypothesis the inventors believe that the high boiling point (of about 200 0 C) of the bran rice oil and grapeseed oil stabilise bergamot oil (and any other essential oils) contained in the composition. The unsaturated fatty acids appear to suspend and stabilise bergamot oil without reducing its deodorant, antiperspirant and astringent properties. The bran rice oil or grapeseed oil also delays bergamot oil oxidation allowing it to be used in the present invention. Bergamot oil remains effective on the skin for longer because the carrier agent reduces immediate evaporation of bergamot oil. A composition may remain effective on the skin for 8 to 12 hours.

A composition of the present invention therefore improves the stability of bergamot oil by delaying its oxidation and thereby maintaining its deodorant, antiperspirant and astringent properties for up to 12 hours. This reduces the need for reapplication of the composition throughout the day.

Maintaining bergamot oil and other additional/optional essential oils on the skin also has the added advantage of facilitating the absorption and inhalation of the oil.

Alternative carrier oils may include Almond Oil- Sweet -(Prunus amygdalus var. dulcis), Apricot Kernel Oil (Prunus armeniaca), Avocado Oil (Persea americana),

Borage Oil (Borago officinalis), Coconut Oil (Cocos nucifera), Corn Oil (Zea mays), Evening Primrose Oil (Oenothera biennis), Hazelnut Oil (Corylus avellana), Jojoba Oil (Simmondsia chinensis), Kukui Nut (Aleurites moluccana), Macadamia Nut (Macadamia tetraphylla / integrifolia), Olive Oil (Olea europaea), Peanut Oil (Arachis hypogaea), Pecan Oil (Carya pecan), Rice oil, Rice Brane- Oil, Rosehip

Seed Oil (Rosa rubiginosa / mosqueta), Safflower Oil (Carthamus tinctorius), Sesame Seed Oil (Sesamum indicum), Shea Butter Oil (Butyrospermun parkii), Sunflower Oil (Helianthus annuus), and Wheat germ Oil (Triticum aestivum).

However, these carrier oils are not as successful at retaining the deodorant, antiperspirant and astringent properties of bergamot oil because these carrier oils may interfere with bergamot oils properties and/or odour. In addition these oils may not mix as well with bergamot oil as does bran rice oil or grapeseed oil. However, it is within the scope of the invention that in certain cases the abovementioned carrier oils could be acceptable as part of a preferred composition.

Typically bran rice oil and grapeseed oil are used in cooking.

This high-quality bran rice oil has a very neutral, delicate flavor, a high smoke point, making it perfect for an all-purpose cooking oil, and it has a long shelf life (does not turn rancid quickly). Bran rice oil is rich in unsaponifiable oil and gamma oryzanol which are correlated with improving liver function and providing antioxidative properties.

Bran rice oil is also rich in natural forms of vitamin E. The presence of vitamin E is believed to reduce the oxidation of bergamot oil. Gamma oryzanol has been shown to raise the levels of neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin.

The smoke point for bran rice oil is 490°F, higher than grapeseed oil (480ºF) or peanut oil (320 -450ºF).

The composition may be used to facilitate retention of an essential oil on the skin, and thereby improve absorption of the essential oil into the skin. Thus other essential oils could be included in the composition.

In the preferred embodiment the composition includes at least one additional essential oil which adds to the aroma and/or therapeutic effect of the composition. Preferably the essential oil is selected from one or more of the following:

Angelica (Angelica archangelica)

Balsam, Peru (Myroxylon balsamum var. pereirae)

Basil (Ocimum basilicum)

Bay (Laurus nobilis)

Benzoin (Styrax Benzoin) Black Pepper (Piper nigrum)

Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Carrot Seed (Daucus carota)

Cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana)

Chamomile German (Matricaria chamomilla) Chamomile Roman (Anthemis nobilis)

Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum)

Citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus/nardus)

Clary Sage (Salvia sclarea)

Clove (Eugenia caryophylata).

Coriander (Coriand.rum sativum) Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens)

Cypress-Blue-(Calistris intratropica)

Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus)

Everlasting (Helichrysum angustifolium)

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Frankincense (Boswellia carteri; Boswelia thurifera)

Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens)

Ginger Root (Zingiber Officinale)

Grapefruit, Pink (Pelargonium graveolents)

Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) Jasmine (Jasminum grandiflorum)

Juniper (Juniperus communis)

Lavender (Lavender angustifolia)

Lemon (Citrus linomum)

Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis) Lemon Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora).

Lemongrass (Cumbopogon flexuosus)

Lime (Citrus aurantifolia)

Linden Blossom (Tilia vulgaris/ Tilia europeacea)

Mandarin (Citrus reticulate) Marjoram (Marjorana hertensis)

May Chang (Litsea cubeba)

Mimosa (Mimosa tenuiflora)

Myrrh (Marjorana hertensis)

Neroli (citrus aurantium) Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans)

Orange (Citratus aurentium, sinesis)

Oregano (Oreganum compactum)

Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini)

Parsley seed (Petroselinum savitum umbelliferae) Patchouli (Pogstemon cablin)

Peppermint (Mentha piperita)

Petitgrain (Citrus aurantium)

Pimento Berry (Pimento officinalis/ Pimenta Dioica)

Pine (Pinus sylvestris)

Rock Rose (Cistus ladaniferus) Rose (Raso demascena)

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)

Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora)

Sage (Salvia officinalis)

Sandalwood (Santalum album) Spearmint (Mentha spicata/cardiaca)

Spikenard (Nardostachys jatamansi)

Spruce (Tsuga Canadensis)

Tangerine (Citrus reticulata)

Tea Tree (Melaleuca altemifolia) Thyme (Thymus vulgaris)

Tuberose (Polianthes tuberose)

Valerian (Valeriana officinalis)

Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanoides)

Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) Ylang-Ylang (Cananga odorata)

The preferred composition of the present invention also provides a method of facilitating retention on the skin and/or absorption of essential oils into the skin. A method of the present invention includes mixing an essential oil with a carrier agent before application to the skin.

The preferred composition improves the stability of essential oils and prevents their immediate evaporation on contact with the skin. In this way the invention provides a conduit for absorption by skin of essential oils.

In the preferred embodiment, the composition may also include a natural anti- ageing agent such as vitamin E. Vitamin E is particularly desirable for use because it may decrease some of the harmful effects of solar radiation on the skin. Vitamin E is also odourless, has an oily texture, mixes easily with other oils in the composition and is stainless on skin and cloths. However other natural or synthetic

anti-aging agents could be used such as vitamin A, vitamin C as oil soluble type only, and vitamin D.

A preferred composition may also include a hair growth retardant. The inventors have found that vitamin Bs provides particularly good hair growth retardant activities in the composition. A composition including a hair growth retardant is suitable for reducing the speed of hair growth which may be desirable for athletes and for the general public alike.

A preferred composition may include a number of additional agents to assist in the preservation of the composition. In a preferred embodiment, the composition includes additional preservatives, thickeners, emulsifiers, excipients, smoothing agents and the like. The preservatives, emulsifiers and excipients should be selected from natural sources to enhance and maintain the natural properties of the composition.

A natural preservative may be selected from citric acid, Farnesol, sorbic acid and/or benzoic acid or salts thereof. These agents have been found to be particularly good at preserving the composition. Preferably the preservative is in an amount of between about 0.01 %/wgt to about 5.0%/wgt. More preferably the preservative is provided in an amount of about 0.4%/wgt to about 1.5%/wgt of the composition. The salts of the natural preservatives are selected from sodium or potassium salts such as sodium citrate, potassium citrate, sodium sorbate, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate or potassium benzoate.

In the preferred composition one or more natural thickeners may be provided. The natural thickener may be selected from mineral clays, casein, alginates and carrageenates, including vegetable-based gums, such as Arabic gums, guar gum, locust bean gum, xanthan derivatives or karaya gum.

The natural thickeners may include one or more modified natural thickeners that use woody plants as their base, such as cellulose products including methyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, and carboxymethyl cellulose, starch and other starch derivatives. In the preferred embodiment, the natural thickener is provided in about 0.01 %/wgt to 1.2%/wgt by weight.

The composition may include one or more natural emulsifiers selected from lecithin oil, and/or castor oil (sulphated or sulfated), and or vegetable oils or derivatives thereof.

Preferably the emulsifier is provided in an amount of between about 0.5%/wgt to about 6.0%/wgt by weight of the composition.

The emulsifier improves the composition by providing a wetting agent, or surface active agent . The emulsifier improves the texture of the finished composition.

The composition may also include additional carrier agents such as glycine, and cooling agents. Additional astringents may also be provided. Smoothing agents such as aloe vera gel or allantoin may also be included to improve the application of the composition on the skin.

The invention also provides a preferred method of making the composition of the present invention.

A preferred composition may be initially manufactured by simply mixing bergamot oil with the carrier agent in predetermined volumes of course the particular level of bergamot to carrier agent will depend on the application or use for a composition of the present invention. Following initial mixing, additional essential oils, preservatives, emulsifiers, smoothing agents, excipients and the like may be provided in appropriate amounts. The mixing preferably occurs at room temperature or below. This ensures that there is less evaporation of the agents during the manufacture process.

The composition may then be used as a composition or a body product without further alteration.

Alternatively a composition of the present invention may be added to known ingredients to form an alternative form of consumable body product such as a stick, spray, bath oil or the like having properties provided by the present current composition.

Essential oils are a natural alternative to chemical-antiperspirants. They prevent unpleasant body odor, without interfering with the skin's natural functioning.

A preferred composition of the present invention may be adapted to particularly effect the following moods:

Anger

Anxiety

Fear - Grief

Irritability

Loneliness

Panic

Stress - Energy enabling

Muscle relaxant

Nerve reduction

Premenstrual syndrome

Relief - Sexual attraction

Stamina enhancements

Stress alleviation

Thought control

The preferred composition may be modified or varied by the inclusion of additional essential oils to tailor a composition for a feeling such as "stamina enhancement" for example. The preferred composition is adapted to facilitate absorption or inhalation of an essential oil thereby improving the wellbeing of the user.

These listed essential oils can be classified according to Aroma-psychology

(Emotional Healing Positive States) into 16 groups covering the following positive emotional characteristics:

1- Alertness 2- Assertiveness

3- Concentration

4- Confidence

5- Contentment

6- Creativity

7- Depression

8- Fatigue, Exhaustion and Burnout

9- Focus

10- Happiness 11- Joy

12- Peace

13- Performance

14- Positive

15- Restfulness

16- Self-awareness 17- Self-esteem

18- Self-image

The invention also envisages the predetermined selection of additional essential oils to provide a preferred composition of predetermined characteristics on the basis of the essential oil characteristics as outlined in Table 3. As mentioned, the present invention provides an improved method of facilitating absorption and/or retention on skin of essential oils. Thus the invention prevents immediate evaporation of essential oils on contact with the skin.

Table 3 representation of the positive emotional characteristics of the listed essential oils.

From Table 3 the combination of one or more essential oils, which have direct positively, effects on the emotional, mind and mood may be selected to tailor the composition to a particular user or class of users. The states effected by essential oils may include:

A- Anger B- Anxiety C- Fear D- Grief

E- Irritability F- Loneliness G- Panic H- Stress

Table 4: representation of the emotional, mind and mood approach states of the listed essential oils.

The present invention therefore provides a composition with the following benefits:

- No harsh and irritating chemicals like Aluminium, Zirconium, and Zinc Phensolsulphonate /Zinc Phensolsulfonate that can cause skin irritations, allergy and a rash.

- Totally Natural - All Natural Derived Ingredients

- Biodegradable

- No ammonium or hydrocarbon-based chemicals (Quarternarium, Polyquarternarium, and Benzalkonium chloride).

- No Sodium Lauryl Sulphate and Sodium Laureth Sulphate

- No Propylene glycol

- No Lead acetate, Methylene chloride, Methyl isobutyl ketone, Methyl ethyl ketone, AETT (acetylethyltetramethyltetralin), BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene), DEA (diethanolomine) and synthetic antioxidants.

Example 1

Preferred compositions were prepared by mixing all ingredients, according to Tables 5 to 7 at room temperature (up to 30ºC)

Table 5:

Example 2

The composition of Table 5 was trailed on 100 people.

The results:

were 2% felt no different.

98% said the aroma stayed with them all day (8 to 12 hours), that is until shower or sleep, that the mood enhancement was particularly strong not long after application.

• all noticed that under arm wetness did not transpire at all.

Example 3

This example shows the therapeutic effect which essential oils may have. The essential oils below may be used in the present invention.

The evolution of oil-blend number -1- from the stress alleviation (anxiety) essential oils blends group for stress alleviation (also can be used for anxiety, performance, and restfulness)

Blend of

Lavender 50%

Geranium 50%

Method

Subjective states were evaluated by self-rating scales. The anxiety induced by violent scenes was assessed by five dimensions selected from the Visual Analogue Mood Scales (Bond and Lader, 1974). The anxiety assessment included excitement, tension, sweating, trembling and palpitations. Each item was composed of two adjectives with opposite feelings, separated by a 10-cm line on which the subject had to mark the point that best described his feelings at that time. For example, a line measuring participant anxiety before the procedure would have "not at all anxious" at the left end and "very anxious" at the right end. The participant would then place a mark along the horizontal line to convey the magnitude of his or her anxiety. A mark in the middle, for instance, would indicate that the participant is moderately anxious. To convert the data into quantitative data, a ruler is used to measure the distance from the left end of the line; this value would indicate the amount of anxiety the participant expressed relative to an integer scale from 0 to 10. In addition, physiological measures were taken including heart rate and blood pressure.

Participants

Participants are anticipated to be composed of 66 male and 55 female undergraduate students ranging in age from 18-25.

Design

A 2 x 3 factorial design comprised of the independent variables routes and the amount of oil-blend will be used. As a result there will be 6 unique conditions in this experiment, four experimental and two control groups.

Procedure/materials

The first independent variable that will be examined is odour route. This variable will be operationalised through three groups; group one will receive oil-blend odour through air (smell), group two will receive oil blend through direct application to the skin (under the arms of each participant) and group three being the control group will receive no odour. The second independent variable will be odour amount and will be operationalised in a similar manner. One group will receive 0.2 ml of the oil- blend and the second 0.1 ml (direct application under the arms of each participant after diluted with carrier oil)

The dependent variable will be operationalised using the Bond-Lader visual analogue scales using the mood factor calm as the measure (excitement, tension, sweating, trembling and palpitations) greater numbers would represent increased relaxation and a decrease in anxiety.

Approximately 5 to 10 minutes prior to participants coming into the lab each oil- blend will begin to be introduced either into the designated room so they are properly dispersed in the air, or applied to their skin directly (under arms). As participants arrive they will be randomly assigned to a condition and led into the room that corresponds to that condition. All participants, regardless of condition, will view a video containing violent scenes to invoke anxiety. Prior to and after the viewing of the video participants will complete the Bond-Lader visual analogue scale of calm, as described above. After the participants leave the room and are debriefed each room will be ventilated to assure that the next round of participants will not receive more of the specified odour than the last round.

Analysis of Data

Data acquired from the VAS-format questionnaires were converted to numeric data and to an integer scale score ranging from Oto 10. Excel 5.0 (Microsoft, Redmond, Wash, USA), Word 6.0.1 (Microsoft), SystatFPV.5.2.1 (SPSS, Chicago, III, USA), and DeltaGraph 3.5 (SPSS) were used in conjunction with a Power Macintosh computer (Apple Computer, Cupertino, Calif, USA) to analyse and plot the data. CDR (CDR House, Gatehampton Road, Goring-on-Thames RG8 OEN, UK) has computerised the Bond & Lader visual analogue mood scale and this is used routinely in most Phase I trials. Data analysis was performed with the Student t test or the analogous nonparametric procedure (Wilcoxon test) where appropriate. The level of statistical significance was set at .05. The Tukey comparison test was used where appropriate (McNair et. al. 1988; Flandry et. al. 1991).

Result

A significant main effect of route of oil-blend odour is also predicted. Participants receiving 0.2 ml of oil-blend are anticipated to have higher scores than those receiving 0.1 ml, illustrated also in Table 5. A significant interaction is expected between amount and type of route of application. As Table 5 shows, participants receiving 0.2 ml and 0.1 ml are predicted to have nearly equal calm scores when there is no odour present. As the type of odour shifts from dispersed in the air

(smell) to direct application to the skin (under the arms of each participant) the amount of difference in calm scores is predicted to change significantly with consistently larger scores for 0.2 ml participants.

Table 5: Stress Alleviation test

Anticipated mean scores for type of route of administration of oil-blend and the amount of oil

Where in the foregoing description there has been made reference to specific components or integers of the invention having known equivalents then such equivalents are herein incorporated as is individually set forth.

Although this invention has been described by way of example only and with reference to possible embodiments thereof it is to be understood that modifications or improvements may be made without departing from the scope or spirit of the invention.