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Title:
WEARABLE DEVICE FOR NONINVASIVE BODY TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2021/189002
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A wearable device for a noninvasive measurement of a user's body temperature can include a housing, a first substrate coupled to the housing and having an opening, a second substrate coupled to the first substrate and configured to secure to skin of a user, a mounting frame enclosed by the housing and the first substrate, a circuit board secured by the mounting frame, a temperature sensor coupled to the circuit board and configured to determine a body temperature of the user, and a thermally conductive probe. The thermally conductive probe is secured by the mounting frame and positioned proximate to the first temperature sensor. The thermally conductive probe extends at least partially through the opening in the first substrate and transmits a thermal energy from a portion of the user's skin to the first temperature sensor.

Inventors:
FORREST KEVIN (US)
AL-ALI AMMAR (US)
TELFORT VALERY G (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2021/023331
Publication Date:
September 23, 2021
Filing Date:
March 19, 2021
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
MASIMO CORP (US)
International Classes:
A61B5/01; A61B5/00; G01K13/20; G16H10/00; G16H40/67
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ALTMAN, Daniel, E. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A wearable device configured for noninvasive measurement of a user’s body temperature, the wearable device comprising: a housing; a first substrate coupled to the housing and comprising an opening; a second substrate coupled to the first substrate and configured to secure to skin of a user when the wearable device is in use; a mounting frame enclosed by the housing and the first substrate; a circuit board secured by the mounting frame; a first temperature sensor coupled to the circuit board and configured to determine a body temperature of the user; and a thermally conductive probe secured by the mounting frame and positioned proximate to the first temperature sensor, the thermally conductive probe configured to extend at least partially through the opening in the first substrate and further configured to transmit a thermal energy from a portion of the user’s skin to the first temperature sensor when the wearable device is in use.

2. The wearable device of Claim 1 , wherein: the circuit board comprises a first surface, a second surface opposite the first surface, and one or more openings extending through the circuit board from the first surface to the second surface, the second surface positioned closer to the second substrate than the first surface; the thermally conductive probe is positioned adjacent the one or more openings and the second surface of the circuit board; the first temperature sensor is mounted to the first surface of the circuit board adjacent the one or more openings in the circuit board; and the one or more openings of the circuit board are configured to allow said thermal energy to pass through the circuit board to the first temperature sensor.

3. The wearable device of Claim 2, wherein the one or more openings of the circuit board are filled with a thermally conductive material.

4. The wearable device of Claim 2, wherein the one or more openings of the circuit board are not filled with a material.

5. The wearable device of any of Claims 2-4, wherein the one or more openings of the circuit board comprises a plurality of openings.

6. The wearable device of any of Claims 2-5, wherein each of the one or more openings of the circuit board is circular.

7. The wearable device of any of Claims 2-6, further comprising at least one thermally conductive material positioned between the one or more openings of the circuit board and the thermally conductive probe.

8. The wearable device of Claim 7, wherein the at least one thermally conductive material comprises a first thermally conductive material and a second thermally conductive material, the first thermally conductive material comprising a thermal paste and the second thermally conductive material comprising a metallic material.

9. The wearable device of Claim 8, wherein the thermal paste comprises zinc oxide.

10. The wearable device of Claim 8 or 9, wherein the metallic material comprises at least one of gold and copper.

11. The wearable device of any of Claims 1-10, wherein, when the wearable device is secured to the user’s skin via the second substrate, the second substrate is positioned between the user’ s skin and the thermally conductive probe.

12. The wearable device of any of Claims 1-11, wherein the thermally conductive probe does not contact the portion of the skin of the user when the wearable device is secured to the user’s skin during use.

13. The wearable device of any of Claims 1-12, wherein an axis extending through a center of a cross-section of the thermally conductive probe and along a height of the thermally conductive probe is oriented perpendicular with respect to a plane of the circuit board.

14. The wearable device of Claim 13, wherein the thermally conductive probe further comprises a width that is smaller than the height.

15. The wearable device of Claim any of Claims 1-14, wherein the thermally conductive probe comprises a first end, a second end opposite the first end, and a height extending between the first and second ends, and wherein the second end is configured to apply pressure to the portion of the skin of the user when the wearable device is secured to the user.

16. The wearable device of Claim 15, wherein, when the wearable device is secured to the user’s skin via the second substrate, the second substrate is positioned between the user’s skin and the second end of the thermally conductive probe.

17. The wearable device of any of Claims 1-16, wherein the mounting frame comprises one or more posts and the housing comprises one or more cavities, each of the one or more posts configured to secure within one of the one or more cavities.

18. The wearable device of Claim 17, wherein the one or more posts comprise two posts positioned on opposite sides of the mounting frame and the one or more cavities comprise two cavities.

19. The wearable device of Claim 17 or 18, wherein the circuit board comprises one or more notches along one or more sides of the circuit board, the one or more notches sized and shaped to receive a portion of the one or more posts.

20. The wearable device of any of Claims 1-19, wherein the mounting frame comprises a slot configured to receive and secure the thermally conductive probe.

21. The wearable device of Claim 20, wherein the slot is configured to surround a portion of a perimeter of a cross-section of the thermally conductive probe.

22. The wearable device of Claim 21, wherein the slot is configured to surround less than an entire perimeter of a cross-section of the thermally conductive probe.

23. The wearable device of any of Claims 1-22, wherein the thermally conductive probe comprises a metallic material.

24. The wearable device of Claim 23, wherein the thermally conductive probe comprises aluminum.

25. The wearable device of any of Claims 1-24, wherein the thermally conductive probe is rigid.

26. The wearable device of any of Claims 1-25, wherein the first substrate comprises foam.

27. The wearable device of any of Claims 1-26, wherein the second substrate comprises a fabric material and an adhesive material.

28. The wearable device of any of Claims 1-27, wherein the housing comprises a main body and a rim extending around a perimeter of the main body, wherein the wearable device further comprises a third substrate including an opening configured to receive the main body of the housing, wherein the third substrate is coupled to the first substrate, and wherein the rim of the housing is secured between the first and third substrates.

29. The wearable device of any of Claims 1-28, further comprising a release liner configured to removably secure to the second substrate.

30. The wearable device of any of Claims 1-29, wherein the opening in the first substrate is sized and shaped to correspond to a size and shape of a perimeter of a cross- section of the thermally conductive probe.

31. The wearable device of Claim 30, wherein the opening in the first substrate and the cross-section of the thermally conductive probe are circular.

32. The wearable device of any of Claims 1-31, further comprising a second temperature sensor coupled to the circuit board and spaced away from the first temperature sensor by a first distance, the second temperature sensor configured to measure an ambient temperature outside an interior of the housing.

33. The wearable device of Claim 32, further comprising a thermally conductive material extending between the second temperature sensor and an interior surface of the housing, wherein the thermally conductive material is configured to transfer ambient thermal energy from the interior surface of the housing to the second temperature sensor.

34. The wearable device of Claim 33, wherein the second thermally conductive material comprises a thermal putty configured to at least partially conform to a shape of a portion of the interior surface of the housing.

35. The wearable device of Claim 34, wherein the thermal putty comprises a ceramic filled silicone sheet.

36. The wearable device of any of Claims 1-35, further comprising a wireless transceiver coupled to the circuit board and configured to wirelessly transmit one or more signals responsive to the determined body temperature over a wireless communication protocol.

37. The wearable device of Claim 36, further comprising a third substrate positioned between the circuit board and the second substrate, wherein the third substrate is configured to reflect at least a portion of the one or more signals wirelessly transmitted from the wireless transceiver away from the user’s skin when the wearable device is in use.

38. The wearable device of Claim 37, wherein the third substrate comprises metallized polypropylene.

39. The wearable device of any of Claims 1-38, further comprising a near field communication (NFC) tag configured to communicate with an NFC reader of a separate computing device.

40. The wearable device of Claim 39, wherein the NFC tag is secured to an interior surface of the housing.

41. The wearable device of any of Claims 1-40, further comprising a battery configured to provide power to the circuit board.

42. The wearable device of Claim 41, further comprising a battery holder configured to couple the battery to the circuit board.

43. The wearable device of any of Claims 1-42, wherein the first temperature sensor is configured to determine the body temperature of the user in one minute intervals.

44. A wearable device configured for noninvasive measurement of a user’s body temperature, the wearable device comprising: a housing; a circuit board; a temperature sensor coupled to the circuit board and configured to generate one or more signals responsive to a thermal energy of a user; a battery configured to provide power to the circuit board; and a mounting frame configured to secure the circuit board to the housing, the mounting frame comprising a first end and a second end opposite the first end, the second end positioned adjacent the battery; wherein the mounting frame, the circuit board, the temperature sensor, and the battery are at least partially enclosed by the housing; and wherein the second end of the mounting frame is sized and shaped to conform to a size and shape of a portion of the battery, thereby maximizing a size of the battery at least partially enclosed by the housing of the wearable device.

45. The wearable device of Claim 44, wherein the second end of the mounting frame is sized and shaped to surround approximately half of a perimeter of the battery.

46. The wearable device of Claim 44, wherein the second end of the mounting frame is sized and shaped to surround less than half of a perimeter of the battery.

47. The wearable device of any of Claims 44-46, wherein the battery comprises a circular shape and wherein the second end of the mounting frame at least partially comprises a half-circle shape configured to surround a portion of a perimeter of the battery.

48. The wearable device of Claim 47, wherein the second end of the mounting frame is configured to surround approximately half of a perimeter of the battery.

49. The wearable device of Claim 47, wherein the second end of the mounting frame is sized and shaped to surround less than half of a perimeter of the battery.

50. The wearable device of any of Claims 44-49, further comprising a battery holder configured to couple the battery to the circuit board, the battery holder comprising opposing arms configured to electrically connect to electrical contacts of the circuit board, wherein the mounting frame comprises notches at comers of the second end, the notches configured to facilitate alignment of the battery holder and the mounting frame.

51. A wearable device configured for noninvasive measurement of a user’s body temperature, the wearable device comprising: a housing; a circuit board at least partially enclosed by the housing, the circuit board comprising a first surface, a second surface opposite the first surface, and at least one hole extending through the circuit board from the first surface to the second surface; a first temperature sensor electrically coupled with the circuit board and positioned adjacent the first surface and the at least one hole of the circuit board; a thermally conductive probe comprising a first end and a second end opposite the first end, wherein the first end is positioned adjacent the second surface of the circuit board proximate the at least one hole and aligned with the first temperature sensor; a mounting frame configured to secure the thermally conductive probe and the circuit board to the housing; and one or more substrates operatively connected to the housing and configured to be positioned proximate skin of a user when the wearable device is in use, wherein at least one of the one or more substrates comprises an opening configured to allow at least a portion of the thermally conductive probe to pass at least partially therethrough; wherein the second end of the thermally conductive probe is configured to be positioned proximate to a portion of the skin of the user when the wearable device is secured to the user, the thermally conductive probe configured to transmit a thermal energy of the user to the first temperature sensor via the at least one hole extending through the circuit board, the first temperature sensor configured to determine a body temperature of the user based on said transmitted thermal energy.

52. The wearable device of Claim 51, further comprising a first thermally conductive material positioned between the first end of the thermally conductive probe and the first temperature sensor.

53. The wearable device of Claim 52, wherein the first thermally conductive material comprises a thermal paste positioned between the first end of the thermally conductive probe and the second surface of the circuit board.

54. The wearable device of Claim 53, wherein the thermal paste comprises zinc oxide.

55. The wearable device of any of Claims 52-54, further comprising a second thermally conductive material positioned between the first end of the thermally conductive probe and the first temperature sensor, wherein the first thermally conductive material comprises a thermal paste positioned between the first end of the thermally conductive probe and the second surface of the circuit board, and wherein the second thermally conductive material comprises a metallic material.

56. The wearable device of Claim 55, wherein said thermal paste comprises zinc oxide and wherein said metallic material comprises at least one of gold and copper.

57. The wearable device of any of Claims 51-56, wherein the at least one hole of the circuit board is filled with a thermally conductive material.

58. The wearable device of any of Claims 51-56, wherein the at least one hole of the circuit board is not filled with a thermally conductive material.

59. The wearable device of any of Claims 51-58, wherein the at least one hole of the circuit board comprises a plurality of holes.

60. The wearable device any of Claims 51-59, wherein an axis extending through a center of a cross-section of the thermally conductive probe and along a height of the thermally conductive probe is oriented perpendicular with respect to a plane of the circuit board.

61. The wearable device of any of Claims 51-60, wherein the one or more substrates comprises a first substrate and a second substrate, said first substrate comprising said opening and coupled to the second substrate, said second substrate configured to secure to the skin of the user when the wearable device is in use.

62. The wearable device of Claim 61, wherein, when the wearable device is secured to the user’s skin via the second substrate, the second substrate is positioned between the user’s skin and the second end of the thermally conductive probe.

63. The wearable device of Claim 61 or 62, wherein the second end of the thermally conductive probe is configured to apply pressure to the portion of the skin of the user when the wearable device is secured to the user.

64. The wearable device of Claim 63, wherein, when the wearable device is secured to the user’s skin via the second substrate, the second substrate is positioned between the user’s skin and the second end of the thermally conductive probe.

65. The wearable device of any of Claims 51-64, wherein the housing comprises a main body and a rim extending around a perimeter of the main body, wherein the wearable device further comprises a third substrate including an opening configured to receive the main body of the housing, wherein the third substrate is coupled to the first substrate, and wherein the rim of the housing is secured between the first and third substrates.

66. The wearable device of any of Claims 51-65, wherein the mounting frame comprises a slot configured to receive and secure the thermally conductive probe.

67. The wearable device of Claim 66, wherein the slot is configured to surround a portion of a perimeter of a cross-section of the thermally conductive probe.

68. The wearable device of Claim 66, wherein the slot is configured to surround less than an entire perimeter of a cross-section of the thermally conductive probe.

69. The wearable device of any of Claims 51-68, wherein the thermally conductive probe comprises a metallic material.

70. The wearable device of any of Claims 51-69, wherein the thermally conductive probe comprises aluminum.

71. The wearable device of any of Claims 51-70, wherein the thermally conductive probe is rigid.

Description:
WEARABLE DEVICE FOR NONINVASIVE BODY TEMPERATURE

MEASUREMENT

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE TO ANY PRIORITY APPLICATIONS [0001] This application claims the benefit of priority under 35 U.S.C. § 119(e) to U.S. Patent Application No. 63/106273, entitled “WEARABLE DEVICE FOR NONINVASIVE BODY TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT,” filed October 27, 2020, U.S. Patent Application No. 63/056925, entitled “WEARABLE DEVICE FOR NONINVASIVE BODY TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT,” filed July 27, 2020, U.S. Patent Application No. 63/065961, entitled “HEALTH SCREENING AND MONITORING SYSTEM,” filed August 14, 2020, U.S. Patent Application No. 63/049478, entitled “REMOTE PATIENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS AND METHODS,” filed July 8, 2020, U.S. Patent Application No. 62/992808, entitled “REMOTE PATIENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING,” filed March 20, 2020, U.S. Patent Application No. 62/992779, entitled “OPIOID OVERDOSE MONITORING USER INTERFACE,” filed March 20, 2020, and U.S. Patent Application No. 63/010669, entitled “REMOTE PATIENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING,” filed April 15, 2020. All of the above-mentioned applications are hereby incorporated by reference herein in their entireties.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0002] The present disclosure relates to devices, methods, and/or systems for monitoring a subject’s physiological information. More specifically, the present disclosure describes, among other things, a wearable device that measures a subject’s body temperature.

BACKGROUND

[0003] Core body temperature is an important vital sign used by clinicians to monitor and/or manage the condition of a subject (for example, a patient). Core body temperature is the internal temperature of a subject. Internal body temperatures are typically maintained within a specific range in order for the body to carry out essential functions. Variations in core body temperature can be indicative of a deteriorating condition of a subject and can negatively impact the body’s ability to maintain critical life-sustaining functions. Despite the importance of core body temperature as a vital sign, some commonly employed devices, methods, and/or systems for estimating core body temperature based on skin surface or peripheral measurements are lacking. Skin surface temperature, typically measured using single point measurement devices or heat flux measurement devices, can vary dramatically from core body temperature in some cases, depending on, for example, physiology of the subject (for example, skin thickness), environment of the user, perfusion, and/or other conditions. “Clinical temperature” measurements — temperature measurements typically obtained with a thermometer at a subject’s periphery (such as at the subject’s armpit, rectum, or under a subject’s tongue) — do not represent a true measurement of internal body temperature, but rather, simply an approximation. There is a great need for improved devices, methods, and systems for non-invasively measuring (continuously or periodically) and/or transmitting (for example, wirelessly) a subject’s core body temperature.

SUMMARY

[0004] Various implementations of the wearable devices disclosed herein provide improved devices, methods, and systems for non-invasively measuring (continuously or periodically) and/or transmitting (for example, wirelessly) a subject’s core body temperature. Various embodiments of the disclosed wearable devices can be comfortably worn by a user over a long period of time (for example, 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days, 7 days, 8 days, 9 days, or 10 days), can monitor (continuously or periodically) the user’s core body temperature alone or in combination with other physiological parameters, and can transmit (for example, wirelessly) such physiological information to separate devices (for example, a mobile device). Some embodiments of the disclosed wearable devices can be configured to be removed and reapplied/re- secured in order to position the devices in various locations on the user’s body. Some embodiments of the disclosed wearable devices (or portions of such devices) can be disposable, which can reduce the risk of cross-contamination between multiple users. Some embodiments of the disclosed wearable devices (or portions of such devices) can be waterproof, thereby providing minimal disruption to ordinary activities of the user (for example, showering).

[0005] A wearable device configured for noninvasive measurement of a user’ s body temperature can comprise: a housing; a first substrate coupled to the housing and comprising an opening; a second substrate coupled to the first substrate and configured to secure to skin of a user when the wearable device is in use; a mounting frame enclosed by the housing and the first substrate; a circuit board secured by the mounting frame; a first temperature sensor coupled to the circuit board and configured to determine a body temperature of the user; and a thermally conductive probe secured by the mounting frame and positioned proximate to the first temperature sensor, the thermally conductive probe configured to extend at least partially through the opening in the first substrate and further configured to transmit a thermal energy from a portion of the user’s skin to the first temperature sensor when the wearable device is in use. The wearable device can be configured to secure to skin of the user and/or can be configured for continuous noninvasive measurement of the user’s body temperature. In some variants, the only type of physiological parameter measured and/or monitored by the wearable device is body temperature. In some variants, the only type of physiological parameter measured and/or monitored by the wearable device is body temperature. In some variants, the wearable device does not include an accelerometer, a gyroscope, a magnetometer, an oximetry sensor, a moisture sensor, an impedance sensor, an acoustic/respiration sensor, and/or an ECG sensor. In some variants, the first and second substrates are integrally formed with one another.

[0006] The circuit board can comprise a first surface, a second surface opposite the first surface, and one or more openings extending through the circuit board from the first surface to the second surface, the second surface positioned closer to the second substrate than the first surface. The thermally conductive probe can be positioned adjacent the one or more openings and the second surface of the circuit board. The first temperature sensor can be mounted to the first surface of the circuit board adjacent the one or more openings in the circuit board. The one or more openings of the circuit board can be configured to allow said thermal energy to pass through the circuit board to the first temperature sensor. The one or more openings of the circuit board can be filled with a thermally conductive material. The one or more openings of the circuit board can be not filled with a material. The one or more openings of the circuit board can comprise a plurality of openings. Each of the one or more openings of the circuit board can be circular. The first temperature sensor can be configured to determine the body temperature of the user in one minute intervals.

[0007] The wearable device can further comprise at least one thermally conductive material positioned between the one or more openings of the circuit board and the thermally conductive probe. The at least one thermally conductive material can comprise a first thermally conductive material and a second thermally conductive material, the first thermally conductive material comprising a thermal paste and the second thermally conductive material comprising a metallic material. The thermal paste can comprise zinc oxide. The metallic material can comprise at least one of gold and copper.

[0008] When the wearable device is secured to the user’ s skin via the second substrate, the second substrate can be positioned between the user’s skin and the thermally conductive probe. In some variants, the thermally conductive probe does not contact the portion of the skin of the user when the wearable device is secured to the user’s skin during use. An axis extending through a center of a cross-section of the thermally conductive probe and along a height of the thermally conductive probe can be oriented perpendicular with respect to a plane of the circuit board. The thermally conductive probe can comprise a width that is smaller than the height. The thermally conductive probe can comprise a first end, a second end opposite the first end, and a height extending between the first and second ends, and wherein the second end is configured to apply pressure to the portion of the skin of the user when the wearable device is secured to the user. When the wearable device is secured to the user’s skin via the second substrate, the second substrate can be positioned between the user’s skin and the second end of the thermally conductive probe.

[0009] The mounting frame can comprise one or more posts and the housing can comprise one or more cavities. Each of the one or more posts can be configured to secure within one of the one or more cavities. The one or more posts can comprise two posts positioned on opposite sides of the mounting frame and the one or more cavities can comprise two cavities. The circuit board can comprise one or more notches along one or more sides of the circuit board, the one or more notches sized and shaped to receive a portion of the one or more posts. The mounting frame can comprise a slot configured to receive and secure the thermally conductive probe. The slot can be configured to surround a portion of a perimeter of a cross-section of the thermally conductive probe. The slot can be configured to surround less than an entire perimeter of a cross-section of the thermally conductive probe. The thermally conductive probe can comprises a metallic material. The thermally conductive probe can comprise aluminum. The thermally conductive probe can be rigid.

[0010] The first substrate can comprise foam. The second substrate can comprise a fabric material and an adhesive material. The housing can comprise a main body and a rim extending around a perimeter of the main body, and the wearable device can further comprises a third substrate including an opening configured to receive the main body of the housing, wherein the third substrate is coupled to the first substrate, and wherein the rim of the housing is secured between the first and third substrates. The wearable device can further comprise a release liner configured to removably secure to the second substrate.

[0011] The opening in the first substrate can be sized and shaped to correspond to a size and shape of a perimeter of a cross-section of the thermally conductive probe. The opening in the first substrate and the cross-section of the thermally conductive probe can be circular.

[0012] The wearable device can further comprise a second temperature sensor coupled to the circuit board and spaced away from the first temperature sensor by a first distance, the second temperature sensor configured to measure an ambient temperature outside an interior of the housing. The wearable device can further comprise a thermally conductive material extending between the second temperature sensor and an interior surface of the housing, wherein the thermally conductive material is configured to transfer ambient thermal energy from the interior surface of the housing to the second temperature sensor. The second thermally conductive material can comprise a thermal putty configured to at least partially conform to a shape of a portion of the interior surface of the housing. The thermal putty can comprise a ceramic filled silicone sheet.

[0013] The wearable device can further comprise a wireless transceiver coupled to the circuit board and configured to wirelessly transmit one or more signals responsive to the determined body temperature over a wireless communication protocol. The wearable device can further comprise a third substrate positioned between the circuit board and the second substrate, wherein the third substrate is configured to reflect at least a portion of the one or more signals wirelessly transmitted from the wireless transceiver away from the user’s skin when the wearable device is in use. The third substrate can comprise metallized polypropylene.

[0014] The wearable device can further comprise a near field communication (NFC) tag configured to communicate with an NFC reader of a separate computing device. The NFC tag can be secured to an interior surface of the housing. The wearable device can further comprise a battery configured to provide power to the circuit board. The wearable device can further comprise a battery holder configured to couple the battery to the circuit board. [0015] A wearable device configured for noninvasive measurement of a user’s body temperature can comprise: a housing; a circuit board; a temperature sensor coupled to the circuit board and configured to generate one or more signals responsive to a thermal energy of a user; a battery configured to provide power to the circuit board; and a mounting frame configured to secure the circuit board to the housing, the mounting frame comprising a first end and a second end opposite the first end, the second end positioned adjacent the battery. The mounting frame, the circuit board, the temperature sensor, and the battery can be at least partially enclosed by the housing. The second end of the mounting frame can be sized and shaped to conform to a size and shape of a portion of the battery, thereby maximizing a size of the battery within the housing of the wearable device.

[0016] The second end of the mounting frame can be sized and shaped to surround approximately half of a perimeter of the battery. The second end of the mounting frame can be sized and shaped to surround less than half of a perimeter of the battery. The battery can comprise a circular shape and wherein the second end of the mounting frame can at least partially comprise a half-circle shape configured to surround a portion of a perimeter of the battery. The wearable device can further comprise a battery holder configured to couple the battery to the circuit board, the battery holder comprising opposing arms configured to electrically connect to electrical contacts of the circuit board. The mounting frame can comprise notches at comers of the second end, the notches configured to facilitate alignment of the battery holder and the mounting frame.

[0017] A wearable device configured for noninvasive measurement of a user’s body temperature can comprise: a housing; a circuit board at least partially enclosed by the housing, the circuit board comprising a first surface, a second surface opposite the first surface, and at least one hole extending through the circuit board from the first surface to the second surface; a first temperature sensor electrically coupled with the circuit board and positioned adjacent the first surface and the at least one hole of the circuit board; a thermally conductive probe comprising a first end and a second end opposite the first end, wherein the first end is positioned adjacent the second surface of the circuit board proximate the at least one hole and aligned with the first temperature sensor; a mounting frame configured to secure the thermally conductive probe and the circuit board to the housing; and one or more substrates operatively connected to the housing and configured to be positioned proximate skin of a user when the wearable device is in use, wherein at least one of the one or more substrates comprises an opening configured to allow at least a portion of the thermally conductive probe to pass at least partially therethrough. The second end of the thermally conductive probe can be configured to be positioned proximate to a portion of the skin of the user when the wearable device is secured to the user, the thermally conductive probe configured to transmit a thermal energy of the user to the first temperature sensor via the at least one hole extending through the circuit board, the first temperature sensor configured to determine a body temperature of the user based on said transmitted thermal energy.

[0018] The wearable device can further comprise a first thermally conductive material positioned between the first end of the thermally conductive probe and the first temperature sensor. The first thermally conductive material can comprise a thermal paste positioned between the first end of the thermally conductive probe and the second surface of the circuit board. The thermal paste can comprise zinc oxide. The wearable device can further comprise a second thermally conductive material positioned between the first end of the thermally conductive probe and the first temperature sensor. The first thermally conductive material can comprise a thermal paste positioned between the first end of the thermally conductive probe and the second surface of the circuit board. The second thermally conductive material can comprise a metallic material. The thermal paste can comprise zinc oxide. The metallic material can comprise at least one of gold and copper. The at least one hole of the circuit board can be filled with a thermally conductive material. The at least one hole of the circuit board can be not filled with a thermally conductive material. The at least one hole of the circuit board can comprise a plurality of holes. An axis extending through a center of a cross-section of the thermally conductive probe and along a height of the thermally conductive probe can be oriented perpendicular with respect to a plane of the circuit board. The one or more substrates can comprise a first substrate and a second substrate, said first substrate comprising said opening and coupled to the second substrate, said second substrate configured to secure to the skin of the user when the wearable device is in use. When the wearable device is secured to the user’s skin via the second substrate, the second substrate can be positioned between the user’ s skin and the second end of the thermally conductive probe. The second end of the thermally conductive probe can be configured to apply pressure to the portion of the skin of the user when the wearable device is secured to the user. When the wearable device is secured to the user’ s skin via the second substrate, the second substrate can be positioned between the user’s skin and the second end of the thermally conductive probe. The housing can comprise a main body and a rim extending around a perimeter of the main body. The wearable device can further comprise a third substrate including an opening configured to receive the main body of the housing. The third substrate can be coupled to the first substrate and the rim of the housing can be secured between the first and third substrates. The mounting frame can comprise a slot configured to receive and secure the thermally conductive probe. The slot can be configured to surround a portion of a perimeter of a cross-section of the thermally conductive probe. The slot can be configured to surround less than an entire perimeter of a cross-section of the thermally conductive probe. The thermally conductive probe can comprise a metallic material. The thermally conductive probe can comprise aluminum. The thermally conductive probe can rigid.

[0019] A wearable device configured for continuous and noninvasive measurement of a user’s body temperature can comprise: a housing; a circuit board at least partially enclosed by the housing, the circuit board comprising a first surface, a second surface opposite the first surface, and at least one hole extending through the circuit board from the first surface to the second surface; a first temperature sensor electrically coupled with the circuit board and positioned adjacent the first surface and the at least one hole of the circuit board; a thermally conductive probe comprising a first end and a second end opposite the first end, wherein the first end is positioned adjacent the second surface of the circuit board proximate the at least one hole and aligned with the first temperature sensor; a first thermally conductive material positioned between the first end of the probe and the first temperature sensor; a mounting frame configured to secure the thermally conductive probe and the circuit board to the housing; and one or more substrates operatively connected to the housing and configured to be positioned proximate skin of the user when the wearable physiological sensor is in use, wherein at least one of the one or more substrates comprises an opening configured to allow at least a portion of the probe to pass therethrough. The second end of the thermally conductive probe can be positioned proximate to a portion of the skin of the user when the wearable physiological sensor is secured to the user during use. The thermally conductive probe can be configured to transmit a thermal energy of the user to the first temperature sensor, and the first temperature sensor can be configured to determine a body temperature of the user based on said received thermal energy.

[0020] A wearable device configured for continuous and noninvasive measurement of a user’s body temperature can comprise: a housing; a circuit board at least partially enclosed by the housing; a first temperature sensor coupled to the circuit board; a thermally conductive probe vertically aligned with the first temperature sensor and comprising a first end and a second end opposite the first end, the first end positioned closer to the circuit board than the second end; a mounting frame configured to at least partially secure the thermally conductive probe and the circuit board to the housing; and one or more substrates coupled to the housing and configured to contact skin of a user when the wearable device is in use, wherein, when the one or more substrates contact the user’ s skin, the second end of the thermally conductive probe is positioned proximate to a portion of the skin. The thermally conductive probe can be configured to transmit a thermal energy of the user to the first temperature sensor and the first temperature sensor can be configured to determine a body temperature of the user based on said thermal energy.

[0021] For purposes of summarizing the disclosure, certain aspects, advantages, and novel features are discussed herein. It is to be understood that not necessarily all such aspects, advantages, or features will be embodied in any particular embodiment of the disclosure, and an artisan would recognize from the disclosure herein a myriad of combinations of such aspects, advantages, or features.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0022] Certain features of this disclosure are described below with reference to the drawings. The illustrated embodiments are intended to illustrate, but not to limit, the embodiments. Various features of the different disclosed embodiments can be combined to form further embodiments, which are part of this disclosure.

[0023] FIG. 1 illustrates a top perspective view of a wearable device in accordance with aspects of this disclosure.

[0024] FIGS. 2A and 2B illustrate top perspective views of the wearable device of FIG. 1 in accordance with aspects of this disclosure.

[0025] FIG. 2C illustrates a top view of the wearable device of FIG. 1 in accordance with aspects of this disclosure.

[0026] FIG. 2D illustrates a bottom view of the wearable device of FIG. 1 in accordance with aspects of this disclosure.

[0027] FIG. 2E illustrates a side view of the wearable device of FIG. 1 in accordance with aspects of this disclosure.

[0028] FIG. 2F illustrates another side view of the wearable device of FIG. 1 in accordance with aspects of this disclosure. [0029] FIG. 2G illustrates a front view of the wearable device of FIG. 1 in accordance with aspects of this disclosure.

[0030] FIG. 2H illustrates a back view of the wearable device of FIG. 1 in accordance with aspects of this disclosure.

[0031] FIG. 21 illustrates a schematic block diagram of the wearable device of FIG. 1 in accordance with aspects of this disclosure.

[0032] FIGS. 3A and 3B illustrate top and bottom exploded perspective views of the wearable device of FIG. 1 in accordance with aspects of this disclosure.

[0033] FIGS. 4 A and 4B illustrate top and bottom perspective views of a housing of the wearable device of FIG. 1 in accordance with aspects of this disclosure.

[0034] FIGS. 5A and 5B illustrate top and bottom perspective views of a portion of the wearable device of FIG. 1 in accordance with aspects of this disclosure.

[0035] FIGS. 5C and 5D illustrate top and bottom exploded perspective views of the portion of the wearable device of FIGS. 5 A and 5B in accordance with aspects of this disclosure.

[0036] FIG. 6A illustrates a top perspective view of a mounting frame of the wearable device of FIG. 1 in accordance with aspects of this disclosure.

[0037] FIGS. 6B and 6C illustrate top and bottom views of the mounting frame of FIG. 6A in accordance with aspects of this disclosure.

[0038] FIG. 7 illustrates a cross-section taken through a portion of the wearable device as shown in FIG. 2C in accordance with aspects of this disclosure.

[0039] FIGS. 8 A and 8B illustrate top and bottom perspective views of a portion of the wearable device of FIG. 1 in accordance with aspects of this disclosure.

[0040] FIGS. 8C and 8D illustrate top and bottom exploded perspective views of the portion of the wearable device of FIGS. 8 A and 8B in accordance with aspects of this disclosure.

[0041] FIGS. 9A-10B illustrate various views of portions of a probe of the portion the wearable device illustrated in FIGS. 8C-8D in accordance with aspects of this disclosure.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0042] Various features and advantages of this disclosure will now be described with reference to the accompanying figures. The following description is merely illustrative in nature and is in no way intended to limit the disclosure, its application, or uses. This disclosure extends beyond the specifically disclosed embodiments and/or uses and obvious modifications and equivalents thereof. Thus, it is intended that the scope of this disclosure should not be limited by any particular embodiments described below. The features of the illustrated embodiments can be modified, combined, removed, and/or substituted as will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art upon consideration of the principles disclosed herein.

[0043] FIG. 1 illustrates a top perspective view of a wearable device 10 (which may also be referred to herein as “physiological measurement device”, “physiological monitoring device”, “wearable physiological sensor”, “wearable physiological device”) that can measure and/or monitor one or more physiological parameters of a subject, as discussed further below. The wearable device 10 can secure to a portion of a subject’s body, such as a torso, chest, back, arm, neck, leg, under the arm (e.g., armpit), among other portions of the subject’s body. The wearable device 10 can secure (for example, removably secure) to skin of a subject and continuously and/or noninvasively measure the subject’s temperature with one or more temperature sensors. Additionally, as discussed below, the wearable device 10 can continuously or periodically wirelessly transmit temperature data of the subject to a separate device. FIG. 7, which is discussed in more detail below, illustrates a cross-section taken through the wearable device 10 when the wearable device 10 is secured to skin of a subject. As illustrated in FIG. 7 and as discussed further below, the wearable device 10 can include a thermally conductive probe 140 (or 240) that extends toward the subject’s skin and transmits thermal energy from the skin in a direction towards a temperature sensor of the wearable device 10 (such as temperature sensor 150a discussed further below). As also discussed below, the thermally conductive probe 140 (or thermally conductive probe 240) can contact (for example, indirectly via substrate 25) and/or apply pressure to the subject’s skin, which can facilitate thermal transmissivity. In some variants, the thermally conductive probe 140 does not contact the subject’s skin when the wearable device 10 is secured to the subject. For example, the substrate 25 can be positioned between the thermally conductive probe 140 and the subject’s skin when the wearable device 10 is secured to the subject.

[0044] FIGS. 3A-3B illustrate exploded perspective views of the wearable device 10. FIGS. 2A-2H illustrate various views of the wearable device 10 without a battery isolator 18 (see FIGS. 3A-3B) attached to better illustrate aspects of the wearable device 10. [0045] FIG. 21 illustrates an exemplary schematic block diagram of the wearable device 10. As shown, the wearable device 10 can include a processor 11, a storage device 12, a wireless transceiver 13, a battery 14, an information element 15, and/or one or more temperature sensors 16. The processor 11 can be configured, among other things, to process data, execute instructions to perform one or more functions, and/or control the operation of the wearable device 10. For example, the processor 11 can process physiological data obtained from the wearable device 10 and can execute instructions to perform functions related to storing and/or transmitting such physiological data. For example, the processor 11 can process data received from one or more temperature sensors 16 and/or one or more other physiological parameter sensors 17 and can execute instructions to perform functions related to storing and/or transmitting such received data.

[0046] The storage device 12 can include one or more memory devices that store data, including without limitation, dynamic and/or static random access memory (RAM), programmable read-only memory (PROM), erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM), electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM), and the like. Such stored data can be processed and/or unprocessed physiological data obtained from the wearable device 10, for example. The wireless transceiver 13 can be configured to allow the wearable device 10 to wirelessly communicate with other devices, systems, and/or networks over a communication protocol. The wireless transceiver 13 can be configured to use any of a variety of wireless communication protocols, such as Wi-Fi (802.1 lx), Bluetooth ® , ZigBee ® , Z-wave ® , cellular telephony, infrared, RFID, satellite transmission, proprietary protocols, combinations of the same, and the like.

[0047] The wearable device 10 can include a battery 14. The battery 14 can provide power for the hardware components of the wearable device 10 described herein. The battery 14 can be, for example, battery 110, described in more detail below. The battery 14 can be, for example, a lithium battery. Additionally or alternatively, the wearable device 10 can be configured to obtain power from a power source that is external to the wearable device 10. For example, the wearable device 10 can include or can be configured to connect to a cable which can itself connect to an external power source to provide power to the wearable device 10.

[0048] The wearable device 10 can include an information element 15. The information element 15 can be a memory storage element that stores, in non-volatile memory, information used to help maintain a standard of quality associated with the wearable device 10. Illustratively, the information element 15 can store information regarding whether the wearable device 10 has been previously activated and whether the wearable device 10 has been previously operational for a prolonged period of time, such as, for example, four hours. The information stored in the information element 15 can be used to help detect improper re-use of the wearable device 10, for example.

[0049] As shown in FIG. 21, the wearable device 10 can include one or more temperature sensors 16 that can continuously or periodically obtain temperature data of the subject. Advantageously, in some implementations, the processor 11 can compare temperature data from more than one temperature sensor 16 to more accurately determine core body temperature of the subject. In some variants, the wearable device 10 includes one or more temperature sensors 16 and also includes one or more other sensors 17, such as one or more of an accelerometer, a gyroscope, a magnetometer, an oximetry sensor, a moisture sensor, an impedance sensor, an acoustic/respiration sensor, and/or an ECG sensor. In some variants, the wearable device 10 includes one or more temperature sensors 16 and does not include an accelerometer, a gyroscope, a magnetometer, an oximetry sensor, a moisture sensor, an impedance sensor, an acoustic/respiration sensor, or an ECG sensor, which can advantageously help conserve battery and processing power and preserve processing capabilities of the wearable device 10 where continuous or periodic core body temperature values are being determined and/or transmitted. In some variants, the only type of physiological parameter measured and/or monitored by the wearable device 10 is body temperature. The one or more temperature sensors 16 can be, for example, any of temperature sensors 150a, 150b, 150c, each of which are discussed in more detail below.

[0050] The processor 11 of the wearable device 10 can be configured to process obtained physiological information. For example, the processor 11 can be configured to determine a core body temperature of a user based on thermal energy obtained by one or more temperature sensors 16 of the wearable device 10. The wireless transceiver 13 can be configured to wirelessly transmit the processed physiological information (and/or unprocessed physiological information) to a separate computing device, such as a patient monitor, a mobile device (for example, an iOS or Android enabled smartphone, tablet, laptop), a server or other computing or processing device for display and/or further processing, among other things. The computing device can be configured to store and/or further process the received physiological information, to display information indicative of or derived from the received physiological information, and/or to transmit information — including displays, alarms, alerts, and notifications — to computing devices or systems including a patient monitoring system associated with a hospital, a caregiver (for example, a primary provider), or a user (for example, an employer, a school, friends, family) that have permission to access the subject’s (for example, patient’s) data. As another example, the wireless transceiver 13 of the wearable device 10 can be configured to wirelessly transmit processed or unprocessed obtained physiological information to a mobile phone which can include one or more hardware processors configured to execute an application that generates a graphical user interface displaying information representative of the processed or unprocessed physiological information obtained from the wearable device 10. In some variants, the wearable device 10 is configured to measure and/or monitor only one type of physiological parameter, that being body temperature.

[0051] FIGS. 3A and 3B illustrate exploded views of the wearable device 10. The wearable device 10 can include a housing 40 and one or more substrates, such as one or more of substrates 20, 25, 50, 60, 65, 70, which are described in more detail below. As discussed above, the wearable device 10 can include a processor 11, storage device 12, wireless transceiver 13, battery 14, information element 15, and/or one or more temperature sensors 16. The processor 11, storage device 12, wireless transceiver 13, battery 14, information element 15, and/or one or more temperature sensors 16 can be mounted and/or coupled with a circuit layer of the wearable device 10. The circuit layer can be enclosed or at least partially enclosed by the housing 40 (and/or a portion of the housing 40) and/or one or more of substrates 20, 25, 50, 60, 65, 70. The circuit layer can be positioned between or at least partially between the housing 40 (or a portion of the housing 40) and one or more of the substrates of the wearable device 10, such as any of substrates 20, 25, 50, 60, 65, 70. The circuit layer can be, for example, a circuit board, such as circuit board 105 which is illustrated in at least FIGS. 3A-3B, 5A-5D, 7, and 8A- 8D. The circuit board 105 can be a printed circuit board, for example. The battery 14 can be, for example, the battery 110 shown in at least FIGS. 5A-5D and 8A-8D and described elsewhere herein. As shown and as discussed further below, the battery 110 can be mechanically and/or electronically coupled with the circuit board 105, for example, via the battery holder 115.

[0052] The wearable device 10 can include a probe that acts as a conduit to transmit thermal energy from the subject to and/or toward one or more temperature sensors 16 of the wearable device 10. The probe can be rigid or flexible. The probe can comprise thermally conductive material. For example, the probe can comprise a metallic material, such as aluminum. The probe can be the probe 140 or the probe 240 which are discussed in more detail below.

[0053] The wearable device 10 can include a mounting frame that secures one or more components of the wearable device 10 to the housing 40. The mounting frame can be, for example, mounting frame 130 shown in at least FIGS. 5A-5D and 8A-8D and further discussed below. The mounting frame 130 can secure the circuit board 105 and/or the probe 140 (or probe 240) to the housing 40 and/or to one or more of substrates 20, 25, 50, 60, 65, 70. Where the battery 110 is coupled with the circuit board 105 via the battery holder 115 as described below, the mounting frame 130 can secure the circuit board 105, battery holder 115, and the battery 110 to the housing 40 and/or to one or more of substrates 20, 25, 50, 60, 65, 70.

[0054] With reference to FIGS. 3A-3B and 5A-5D, the circuit board 105, the probe 140, the mounting frame 130, the battery 110, the battery holder 115, and/or one or more temperature sensors coupled to the circuit board 105 (such as temperature sensors 150a, 150b) can form an electronics assembly of the wearable device 10, which is generally represented by the numeral “100” in FIGS. 3A-3B. The electronics assembly 100, and any or all of the above-listed components that can form the electronics assembly 100, can be enclosed (or partially enclosed) by the housing 40 (or a portion thereof) and one or more of substrates 20, 25, 50, 60, 65, 70. The electronics assembly 100, and any or all of the above-listed components that can form the electronics assembly 100, can be positioned between or at least partially between the housing 40 (or a portion of the housing 40) and one or more of substrates 20, 25, 50, 60, 65, 70. The use of the phrase “electronics assembly” or the reference numeral “100” in the present disclosure is not intended to be limiting, but rather, is merely intended as a convenient method to refer to one or more components of the wearable device 10 which can be enclosed by the housing 40 and/or one or more of substrates 70, 25, 65, 50, 65, and/or 20.

[0055] As discussed above, the wearable device 10 can be configured to wirelessly communicate with a separate computing device. For example, the wearable device 10 can be configured to wirelessly transmit and/or receive information from a separate computing device. As another example, the wearable device 10 can be configured to wirelessly transmit processed and/or unprocessed physiological information obtained by the wearable device 10. As discussed above, the wearable device 10 can include a wireless transceiver 13. The wireless transceiver 13 can be coupled with (for example, mounted on a surface of) the circuit board 105. As discussed above, the wireless transceiver 13 can be configured to use any of a variety of wireless protocols, such as Wi Fi (802.1 lx), Bluetooth ® , ZigBee ® , Z-wave ® , cellular telephony, infrared, RFID, satellite transmission, proprietary protocols, combinations of the same, and the like.

[0056] The wearable device 10 can include near field communication (NFC) functional capabilities (for example, RFID) that can enable the wearable device 10 to interact and/or communicate with separate computing devices. Such NFC functional capabilities can enable the wearable device 10 to, among other things: confirm or verify that it is and/or is made up of authentic components; transfer data (for example, physiological data obtained by wearable device 10; and determine a lifespan of the wearable device 10. The wearable device 10 can include an RFID tag (for example, in the form of a sticker, label, layer, and/or inlay) that can interact with an RFID reader of a separate computing device that emits a radio frequency. For example, with reference to FIGS. 3A-3B, the wearable device 10 can include a NFC tag 30 that can communicate and/or interact with an NFC reader of a separate computing device. The NFC tag 30 can comprise a layer or inlay that can be secured to a portion of the wearable device 10. For example, as discussed in more detail below, the NFC tag 30 can be secured to a portion of the housing 40, such as to an interior surface of the housing 40. The NFC tag 30 can be secured to a portion of the housing 40 such that, when the wearable device 10 is assembled (as shown in FIGS. 1-2H), the NFC tag 30 is positioned at or near a top portion of the wearable device 10, such as a top portion 41a of the housing 40 which is discussed below. Such positioning can advantageously facilitate communication between the NFC tag 30 and an NFC reader of a separate computing device when brought in proximity to each other. The NFC tag 30 can be an active or passive RFID tag, for example. The NFC tag 30 can allow an NFC reader of a separate device to register, track, and/or determine information about the wearable device 10 such as date and/or location of manufacture, among other things.

[0057] The wearable device 10 can include a battery isolator that can block electrical communication between the battery 110 and one or more electrical contacts on the circuit board 105. For example, as shown in FIGS. 3A-3B, the wearable device 10 can include battery isolator 18 (which can also be referred to as a “battery isolator tab”). The battery isolator 18 can be used to preserve battery power until the wearable device 10 is ready for use. The battery isolator 18 can be configured to block electrical connection between the battery 110 and the circuit board 105 until the battery isolator 18 is removed from the wearable device 10. The battery isolator 18 can be made of any material that possesses adequate flexibility to be slidably removed from its initial position and adequate dielectric properties so as to electrically isolate the battery 110 (or a portion thereof) from the circuit board 105. For example, the battery isolator 18 can be made of plastic, polymer film, paper, foam, combinations of such materials, or the like. The battery isolator 18 can extend through a slot of the housing 40 when the wearable device 10 is assembled. For example, the battery isolator 18 can extend through slot 42 of housing 40 discussed below with reference to FIGS. 4A-4B. With reference to FIGS. 3A- 3B and FIG. 5B, an end of the battery isolator 18 can be positioned between an electrical contact on a bottom surface of the battery 110 and a portion of the battery holder 115 which is electrically connected to the circuit board 105. Such positioning can allow the battery isolator 18 to block electrical communication between the battery 110 and the circuit board 105. In some variants, the battery isolator 18 is textured (for example, at or near an end thereof that is external to the housing 40) to provide a frictional surface to aid a user in gripping and sliding the battery isolator 18 out of its original assembled position. Once the battery isolator 18 is removed, electrical communication between the battery 110 and the circuit board 105 can be initiated to energize the electronic components of the wearable device 10.

[0058] With reference to FIGS. 3A-3B and 4A-4B, the battery isolator 18 can be secured (for example, partially secured) to a portion of the housing 40 with a securement tab 35 (see FIGS. 3A-3B). For example, the securement tab 35 can secure a portion of the battery isolator 18 to a rim 44 of the housing 40 (see FIGS. 4A-4B), and/or can position the battery isolator 18 with respect to the housing 40. The battery isolator 18 can be inserted through a slot of the housing 40 (such as slot 42 extending through a rim 44 of the housing 40). The securement tab 35 can secure a portion of the battery isolator 18 to the rim 44 of the housing 40 proximate the slot 42. For example, the securement tab 35 can secure the battery isolator 18 to the rim 44 over and/or around the slot 42. The securement tab 35 can be and/or comprise, for example, an adhesive tape on one or more sides of the securement tab 35. The securement tab 35 can keep at least a portion of the battery isolator 18 in place (for example, stationary) with respect to the housing 40 until a sufficient force is applied to the battery isolator 18 which causes the securement tab 35 and/or the portion of the battery isolator 18 secured to the housing 40 by the securement tab 35 to “break free” (for example, move). The securement tab 35 can aid in maintaining a position of ends of the battery isolator 18 relative to the wearable device 10. For example, the securement tab 35 can advantageously help maintain a position of a first end of the battery isolator 18 in between the battery 110 and a portion of the battery holder 115 in electrical communication with the circuit board 105 and/or help maintain a position of a second end of the battery isolator 18 external to the housing 40 to facilitate visibility and/or grasping by a user.

[0059] The wearable device 10 can include one or more substrates that can secure and/or secure to other portions of the wearable device 10 and/or that can allow the wearable device 10 to secure to a subject (for example, skin of the subject). For example, with reference to FIGS. 3A-3B, the wearable device 10 can include one or more of substrates 20, 50, 60, 65, 25, and/or 70.

[0060] Substrate 20 can be configured to surround a portion of the housing 40. For example, substrate 20 can include an opening 22 through which the housing 40 fits during assembly. The opening 22 can be sized and/or shaped to match a size and/or shape of a portion of the housing 40. For example, the opening 22 can be sized and/or shaped to match a size and/or shape of a main body 41 of the housing 40 which can be interior to and/or within the rim 44 of the housing 40. Substrate 50 can be positioned adjacent (for example, underneath) the housing 40 (or a portion thereof) and/or between the substrate 25 and the housing 40 (or a portion thereof). The substrates 20, 50 can sandwich a portion of the housing 40 therebetween. For example, when the wearable device 10 is assembled, the substrates 20, 50 can sandwich the rim 44 of the housing 40. Such configuration can secure the housing 40 (and other components of the wearable device 10 that are directly or indirectly connected to the housing 40) to the substrates 20, 50 and any other of the substrates 70, 25, 65, and/or 60 which can be incorporated in the wearable device 10. As illustrated in FIG. 3A, the substrates 20, 50 can have substantially similar shapes. For example, substrates 20, 50 can have substantially matching perimeters. Substrates 20, 50 can be made of foam material such as white polyethylene, polyurethane, or reticulated polyurethane foams, to name a few. Substrates 20, 50 can be made of medical-grade foam material.

[0061] With reference to FIGS. 3A-3B and 5A-5B, substrate 50 can include an opening 55 sized and/or shaped to match a size and/or shape of the probe 140, or probe 240. For example, the opening 55 can have a size and/or shape that matches a size and/or shape of a perimeter of a cross-section of the probe 140 (or a portion of the probe 140), or probe 240 (or a portion of the probe 240). As discussed further below, this can advantageously allow a portion of the probe 140 (or probe 240) to extend through at least a portion of the opening 55 and be in closer proximity to a portion of the subject’s skin surface when the wearable device 10 is in use, which can allow the probe 140 (or probe 240) to transmit thermal energy from the subject near, to, and/or toward one or more temperature sensors of the wearable device 10 (for example, temperature sensors 150a and/or 150c). The opening 55 can allow the probe 140 (or a portion of the probe 140), or probe 240 (or a portion of the probe 240) to extend through the opening 55 to contact (directly or indirectly via substrate 25) and/or apply pressure to a portion of the subject’s skin surface, which can also increase thermal transmissibility. Opening 55 can extend through a thickness of substrate 50 and/or can extend between opposing surfaces of the substrate 50 (for example, top and bottom surfaces of the substrate 50). Opening 55 can be spaced from a perimeter of the substrate 50. Substrate 50 can include a first end, a second end opposite the first end, and first and second sides extending between the first and second ends and opposite one another. In such configurations, opening 55 can be positioned closer to one of the first or second ends and/or can be positioned equidistantly or non-equidistantly from the first and second sides.

[0062] Any of the above mentioned substrates 20, 60, 50, 65, 25 can be integrally formed with one or more of each other. For example, in some variants, substrate 25 (described above) is integrally formed with substrate 50, substrate 60, and/or substrate 65. In some variants, wearable device 10 does not include substrate 65 and/or substrate 60. In some variants, wearable device 10 does not include a substrate 25 but rather includes a substrate 50 that can include the features and/or characteristics described above with respect to substrate 25 (for example, substrate 50 can be configured to secure (e.g., adhere) to skin of a user).

[0063] The wearable device 10 can include a substrate configured to contact the subject and/or help secure (for example, removably secure) the wearable device 10 (or portions thereof) to the subject. For example, with reference to FIGS. 3A-3B, the wearable device 10 can include a substrate 25 that can contact and/or secure to skin of a subject when the wearable device 10 is in use. Substrate 25 can be a bottommost one of the one or more substrates (and/or of the wearable device 10) when the wearable device 10 is in use (for example, after the release liner 70 is removed). Substrate 25 can be or include a material configured to secure to skin of a user. Substrate 25 can comprise a material configured to allow for removable securement of the wearable device 10 to the user’ s skin. For example, the substrate 25 can be coated with a high tack, medical-grade adhesive, which when in contact with the subject’s skin, is suitable for long-term monitoring, such as, for example two days or longer, such as 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days, 7 days, 8 days, 9 days, or 10 days or longer. Additionally or alternatively, the substrate 25 can be or include a soft, comfortable, and/or breathable material. For example, substrate 25 can be or include fabric, such as non-woven fabric having holes or openings. The substrate 25 can be fabric and include an adhesive material or layer (such as adhesive tape) on one or both surfaces of the substrate 25. Such configuration can allow the wearable device 10 to comfortably secure to the user’s skin.

[0064] The wearable device 10 can include a substrate that is a release liner 70. The release liner 70 can secure to one or more of the above-described substrates (such as substrate 25) and can be removed prior to securement of the wearable device 10 to a user. For example, release liner 70 can be removed from the substrate 25 prior to placement and/or securement of the wearable device 10 on the subject’s skin.

[0065] As discussed above, the wearable device 10 can include a wireless transceiver 13 that can transmit data to (and/or receive data from) a separate device over a wireless communication protocol. Advantageously, the wearable device 10 can include one or more substrates positioned between the wireless transceiver 13 (and/or the circuit board 105) and the subject’s skin (when the device 10 is in use) that reflect wireless signal(s) transmitted from the wireless transceiver 13 away from the subject’s skin. Such configuration can, among other things, help to amplify the emitted signal (for example, in a direction away from the subject’s skin), which may be important especially where the wireless communication protocol utilizes a relatively short range (for example, Bluetooth® wireless communication protocols).

[0066] For example, with reference to FIGS. 3A-3B, the wearable device 10 can include a substrate 60 that is configured to reflect such wireless signal(s) transmitted from the wireless transceiver 13 away from the subject’s skin. Substrate 60 can be positioned between the circuit board 105 (and a wireless transceiver mounted to the circuit board 105) and substrate 50. Substrate 60 can be positioned between the circuit board 105 (and a wireless transceiver mounted to the circuit board 105) and any of substrates 50, 25, 65, and/or the release liner 70. Substrate 60 can be adhered to a surface of substrate 50 and/or one or more of the battery 110, the battery holder 115, and/or the mounting frame 130 (see FIG. 3B and 5B). With reference to FIGS. 3A-3B, in some variants, the substrate 60 is sized and/or shaped to not cover the opening 55 in the substrate 50, which can allow the probe 140 (or probe 240) to extend through the opening 44. Substrate 60 can be a polypropylene film, such as a metalized propylene film, that is configured to reflect wireless signals (for example, transmitted over Bluetooth® wireless communication protocol) away from the subject’s skin when the wearable device 10 is in use.

[0067] The wearable device 10 can include a substrate 65 positioned between a surface of substrate 25 (or a portion of a surface of substrate 25) and a surface of the substrate 50 (or a portion of a surface of the substrate 50). For example, the substrate 65 can be positioned between the opening 55 in the substrate 50 and a surface of the substrate 25. The substrate 65 can include an adhesive material configured to secure the substrate 50 (or a portion thereof) to the substrate 25 (or a portion thereof). Substrate 65 can be, for example a polypropylene film. Substrate 65 can cover the opening 55 when secured to substrate 50. When an end (for example, bottom end) of the probe 140 (or probe 240) extends through the opening 55 of the substrate 50, the substrate 65 can cover the end of the probe 140 (or probe 240) and/or “bulge” at and/or around the end, for example, as shown in FIG. 7. Substrate 65 can advantageously cover opening 55 and prevent ingress of fluid (for example, sweat) through opening 55 and toward electrical components (for example, the circuit board 105) of the wearable device 10 when in use. Such configuration is especially beneficial where substrate 25 is permeable (for example, a fabric material) and sweat from the subject’s skin is present around the perimeter of the probe 140 near the opening 55.

[0068] One or more of substrates 60, 65, 25, or 70 can be transparent or semi transparent. For example, FIG. 2D illustrates substrates 70, 25, 65 as being transparent such that probe 140 can be seen in FIG. 2D. However, any or all of substrates 60, 65, 25, or 70 can be not transparent.

[0069] Any or all of substrates 25, 50, 20 can be made of a material that can provide thermal insulation and/or provide thermal conductivity. For example, when the wearable device 10 is positioned on and/or secured to (for example, adhered to) a subject’s skin surface, one or more of the substrates 25, 50, 20 can act to insulate the skin surface at, around, and/or proximate to a point or region where temperature is measured and/or where thermal energy is transmitted from the skin surface of the subject to or near one or more temperature sensors of the wearable device 10. For example, when the wearable device 10 is positioned on and/or secured to (for example, adhered to) a subject’s skin surface, the substrates 25, 50, 20 can insulate the skin surface around the opening 55 and/or around the probe 140 (or probe 240) which can act as a conduit for thermal energy to flow from the skin surface to and/or toward one or more temperature sensors of the wearable device 10 (such as temperature sensor 150a). In the human body, there is a natural heat flux between the body core and the skin surface because the body core temperature is typically at a higher temperature than that of the skin surface. Thus, heat flows from the body core to the skin. By insulating the skin surface at and around the opening 55 and/or the probe 140 (or probe 240) — thereby preventing heat from escaping — the temperature gradient between the body core and the skin surface will decrease. The skin temperature, under the insulated area will rise until it reaches equilibrium with the warmest region (i.e., the body core) underneath the insulation, thereby approaching the body core temperature. When equilibrium is reached, the skin temperature is equal to the body core temperature. One or more of substrates 25, 50, 20, which can be in direct or indirect contact with the subject’s skin around the opening 55, probe 140 (or probe 240), and/or one or more temperature sensors of the wearable device 10, can possess thermal insulation properties. In some configurations, the substrates 20 and/or 50 are made of thermally insulating materials including polyurethane foam, polystyrene foam, neoprene foam, neoprene rubber, polyester (Mylar), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), silicone foam, silicone rubber, or the like, and the substrate 25 is made of a fabric having an adhesive material configured to secure to a subject’s skin.

[0070] As discussed above and as shown in at least FIGS. 3A-3B, the wearable device 10 can include a housing 40 which can enclose, house, and/or protect various components of the wearable device 10. FIGS. 4A and 4B illustrate top and bottom views of the housing 40, respectively. The housing 40 can be made of any material that is capable of adequately protecting the electronic components of the wearable device 10. The housing 40 can be rigid or alternatively, flexible. The housing 40 can be made of and/or include thermoplastics and/or thermosetting polymers. With reference to FIG. 4A, the housing 40 can have a main body 41 that can include (and/or that can be defined by) a top portion 41a and one or more walls (or a single, continuous wall) 41b extending outward from the top portion 41a and/or around a perimeter of the top portion 41a (or a portion of a perimeter of the top portion 41a). The main body 41 can include a height that can be defined by a height of the wall(s) 41b. As discussed above, a portion of the housing 40 can be positioned within and/or extend through the opening 22 of the substrate 20. For example, the main body 41 can be positioned within and/or can extend through the opening 22. The main body 41 can be sized and/or shaped to be received in and/or through the opening 22 of the substrate 20. The main body 41 can be sized and/or shaped to create a tight fit when positioned within the opening 22 of the substrate 20.

[0071] As shown in FIGS. 4A-4B, the housing 40 can include a rim 44 extending around a portion of a perimeter of the main body 41. The rim 44 can extend around an entire perimeter of the main body 41 or a portion of the perimeter of the main body 41. The rim 44 can be connected to and/or can extend outward from the wall(s) 41b. The rim 44 can be used to secure the housing 40 in position relative to one or more substrates of the wearable device 10. For example, as discussed above the rim 44 can be positioned and/or sandwiched between the substrates 20, 50 when the wearable device 10 is assembled, which can allow the housing 40 to be secured to the substrates 20, 50 and/or any other substrates 60, 65, 25, and/or 70 discussed above.

[0072] The wearable device 10 can include one or more indicators configured to indicate a status of the wearable device 10, such as whether the wearable device 10 is in an operational (“on”) mode, whether the wearable device 10 is pairing or has paired with a separate device, whether an error has been detected, and/or a power level of the wearable device 10. For example, with reference to at least FIG. 5A, the wearable device 10 can include an emitter 133 configured to emit light of one or more wavelengths to indicate a status of the wearable device 10. The emitter 133 can be coupled to the circuit board 105. The emitter 133 can include one or more light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The emitter 133 can emit light of certain colors to indicate certain statuses of the wearable device 10. For example, the emitter 133 can emit a green light to indicate that the wearable device 10 is powered “on” or a red light to indicate the wearable device 10 is “off’. The housing 40 can be configured to allow light emitted from the emitter 133 to be visible from a location outside an interior of the housing 40. For example, the housing 40 (or a portion thereof such as the main body 41) can comprise a transparent or semi transparent material that allows light emitted from the emitter 133 to be seen from a location outside an interior of the housing 40. Additionally or alternatively, the housing 40 can include an opening or hole that allows light emitted from the emitter 133 to pass through the housing 40. For example, as shown in FIGS. 4A-4B, the housing 40 can include a hole 46 that can allow light emitted from the emitter 133 to pass through the housing 40. The hole 46 can be located on the main body 41, for example, on the top portion 41a of the main body 41 of the housing 40. However, the hole 46 can be located in an alternative location, for example, on and/or along the wall(s) 41b of the housing 40. The hole 46 can be aligned with the emitter 133 to allow light emitted from the emitter 133 to more easily pass through the housing 40. For example, the hole 46 can be vertically aligned (or at least partially vertically aligned) with the emitter 133 so as to allow the light from the emitter 133 to pass through the housing 40.

[0073] As discussed previously, the housing 40 can include a slot through which the battery isolator 18 can be inserted during assembly. As shown in at least FIGS. 4A-4B, the slot 42 can be positioned on and/or can extend through the rim 44. However, the location of the slot 42 is not so limited. The slot 42 can be positioned on and/or can extend through a different portion of the housing 40, for example, the main body 41 or a portion thereof.

[0074] With reference to FIG. 4B, the housing 40 can include one or more features that can help secure, align, and/or position the housing 40 with respect to one or more other components of the wearable device 10. Such features can also assist assembly of the wearable device 10. For example, the housing 40 can include one or more features that can secure, align, and/or position the housing 40 with respect to the mounting frame 130 and/or circuit board 105. With reference to FIGS. 4B and 5A-6B, the housing 40 can comprise one or more cavities 49a, 49b configured to receive, retain, and/or secure one or more posts 135a, 135b of the mounting frame 130. The housing 40 can include one, both, or none of cavities 49a, 49b. The cavities 49a, 49b can be defined and/or formed by a wall having a cylindrical shape (see FIG. 4B), among other shapes. Such wall which can define and/or form the cavities 49a, 49b can extend from (for example, perpendicularly from) an interior surface of the top portion 41a of the housing 40. The cavities 49a, 49b can be positioned at or near the wall(s) 41b of the housing 40. The cavities 49a, 49b can be positioned at or near opposing walls 41b or other portions of the housing 40. The cavities 49a, 49b can be sized and/or shaped to receive, retain, and/or secure the one or more posts 135a, 135b of the mounting frame 130 so as to prevent movement of the mounting frame 130 (and/or other components coupled to the mounting frame 130 such as the circuit board 105 and/or the probe 140, 240) with respect to the housing 40 and/or the one or more substrates. The cavities 49a, 49b can be located opposite one another along portions of the housing 40, for example, at or near opposite sides of the housing 40 (and/or main body 41). While the figures illustrate the housing 40 having two cavities 49a, 49b, the housing 40 can have an alternative amount of cavities, such as less than or more than two cavities 49a, 49b. The number of cavities 49a, 49b can correspond with the number of posts 135a, 135b on the mounting frame 130. [0075] With continued reference to FIG. 4B, the housing 40 can include a recess 43 (which can also be referred to as a “recessed portion”). The recess 43 can be located on a portion of the main body 41 of the housing 40, for example, on and/or along an interior surface of a top portion 41a of the main body 41. The recess 43 can align with one or more temperature sensors of the wearable device 10 that can be mounted to the circuit board 105. For example, with reference to FIGS. 3A-3B, 4B, 5A, and 7, the recess 43 can be aligned (for example, vertically aligned), with temperature sensor 150a. The recess 43 can advantageously provide more spacing and/or distance between the temperature sensor 150a and the housing 40 (such as the top portion 41a of the housing 40) to prevent the temperature sensor 150a from being influenced by a temperature of the housing 40 and/or by ambient temperature surrounding the housing 40 and/or wearable device 10. The recess 43 can be circular, among other shapes. The recess 43 can gradually transition from the interior surface of the top portion 41a of the main body 41 at, near, and/or around a perimeter the recess 43 (see FIG. 4B and 7). With reference to FIG. 7, the recess 43 can be recessed a given depth Di from portions of the interior surface of the housing 40 (such as interior surface of the top portion 41a). The depth Di of the recess 43 can be less than a thickness Ti of the housing 40 or a portion thereof (such as a thickness of the top portion 41a of the housing 40). The recess 43 can be larger than the temperature sensor 150a. For example, the recess 43 can have a width, length, and/or diameter that is larger than a width, length, and/or diameter of the temperature sensor 150a (see FIG. 7).

[0076] As discussed previously, the wearable device 10 can include an NFC tag 30 that can allow the wearable device 10 to interact with a separate computing device (such as an NFC reader of a separate device). As also discussed previously, the NFC tag 30 can be secured to a portion of the housing 40. With reference to FIG. 4B, the housing 40 can include an alignment feature 45 configured to align, position, retain, and/or secure the NFC tag 30. The alignment feature 45 can be located on an interior surface of the housing 40, such as on the top portion 41a of the main body 41. The alignment feature 45 can be formed by a protrusion 45a extending outward from an interior surface of the housing 40 (such as an interior surface of the top portion 41a of the housing 40) and extending continuously or intermittently along a portion of such interior surface. The protrusion 45a can have a height smaller than a height of the wall(s) 41b of the housing 40, for example. The alignment feature 45 can have a size and/or shape that matches a size and/or shape of the NFC tag 30. The alignment feature 45 can be configured to receive the NFC tag 30, for example, during assembly of the wearable device 10. The alignment feature 45 can comprise a rectangular shape where the NFC tag 30 comprises a rectangular shape. However, other shapes are possible for the alignment feature 45 and/or the NFC tag 30. The alignment feature 45 can comprise a protrusion 45a extending outward from and along an interior surface of the housing 40 in a rectangular shape. In some variants, the recess 43 interrupts a perimeter of the rectangular shape defined by the protrusions 45 a.

[0077] The housing 40 can include one or more indicators configured to assist in the positioning and/or placement of the battery isolator 18 with respect to the housing 40 during assembly of the wearable device 10. For example, as shown in FIG. 4B, the housing 40 can include one or more of indicators 47a, 47b on the rim 44 of the housing 40. The indicators 47a, 47b can be straight and/or parallel lines and can be spaced apart from one another. During assembly, a portion of the battery isolator 18 can be placed through the slot 42 of the housing 40 and a width of the battery isolator 18 can be aligned with respect to a distance between the two indicators 47a, 47b. In some cases, the distance between the two indicators 47a, 47b can match a width of the battery isolator 18. In some cases, an end of the battery isolator 18 can be positioned between the two indicators 47a, 47b prior to removal of the battery isolator 18 from the housing 40 and/or wearable device 10. Such positioning can advantageously allow the battery isolator 18 to be properly positioned between an electrical contact of the battery 110 and the battery holder 115 which can be in electrical communication with the circuit board 105. For example, such positioning can ensure that a portion of the battery isolator 18 is positioned between a prong 115c of the battery holder 115 which can be in a middle portion of the battery holder 115 between two opposing arms 115a, 115b of the battery holder 115.

[0078] FIGS. 5A-5D show different views of a portion of the wearable device 10. As shown, the wearable device 10 can include a circuit board 105, a battery 110, a battery holder 115, a mounting frame 130, and a probe 140. The circuit board 105 can mechanically support and electrically connect various electrical components of the wearable device 10 to facilitate the performance of various functions of the wearable device 10. Such electrical components can include without limitation, the processor 11, storage device 12, wireless transceiver 13, and one or more temperature sensors 16 (such as temperature sensors 150a, 150b). The circuit board 105 can be double sided, having electronic components mounted on a first and/or second side or surface thereof. The circuit board 105 can include one or more electrical contacts 107 which can be electrically coupled (for example, soldered) to the battery holder 115 (or portions thereof). While the figures illustrate a circuit board 105 which can be, for example, a rigid circuit board (such as a rigid, printed circuit board), the wearable device 10 can alternatively include a flexible circuit that can electrically connect various electrical components of the wearable device 10.

[0079] The circuit board 105 or portions thereof can be sized and/or shaped to interact with the mounting frame 130. For example, the circuit board 105 or portions thereof can be sized and/or shaped to be secured to, be retained by, and/or be positioned by and/or with respect to, the mounting frame 130. As discussed in more detail below, a size and/or shape of an end 105a of the circuit board 105 can be configured to fit within a slot defined by one or more walls of the mounting frame 130. For example, the end 105a of the circuit board 105 can have a width that is sized to fit within a slot defined between walls 133c, 133d of the mounting frame 130. Additionally, as discussed further below, the circuit board 105 can include one or more openings 111 that are sized and/or shaped to receive the one or more posts 135a, 135b or portions thereof (such as a portion of a perimeter of the posts 135a, 135b). The openings 111 can be notches, for example, and can be positioned along sides or edges of the circuit board 105. The circuit board 105 can have an end 105a and an end 105b opposite the end 105a. As shown in at least FIGS. 5C- 5D, the end 105b of the circuit board 105 can be curved. The curvature of the end 105b can match a curvature of a portion of the battery 110 and/or housing 40 (for example, the main body 41 of the housing), for example.

[0080] As illustrated in FIGS. 5A-5D, the battery holder 115 can be attached to electrical contacts 107 on two sides and/or edges of the circuit board 105. The battery holder 115 can form a support structure for the battery 110 and can hold the battery 110 in a stationary position relative to the circuit board 105. The battery holder 115 can be made of electrically conductive material. The battery 110 can provide power to the hardware components of the wearable device 10 which are described herein. The battery 110 can be a coin cell battery (such as a lithium coin cell battery). The battery 110 can have a cathode on a first (top) side and an anode on a second (bottom) side opposite the first side. As shown in at least FIG. 5C, the battery holder 115 can include two opposing arms 115a, 115b which can be electrically connected (for example, soldered) to electrical contacts 107 of the circuit board 105 and can also include a prong 115c that can contact the anode on the bottom side of the battery 110. The prong 115c can biased and/or can extend upward from a portion of the battery holder 115 so as to apply pressure to a portion of the battery 110 when the battery 110 is secured to the battery holder 115. During assembly and prior to use, the battery isolator 18 can be inserted between the anode of the battery 110 and the prong 115c to block electrical contact between the battery 110 and the circuit board 105. As shown in FIG. 5D, the circuit board 105 can include an electrical contact 157 configured to contact the cathode on the top side of the battery 110. The electrical contact 157 can be a gold plated copper pad.

[0081] As shown in at least FIGS. 5A-5D and as discussed above, the wearable device 10 can include a mounting frame 130. FIGS. 6A-6C illustrate various views of the mounting frame 130. The mounting frame 130 can secure the circuit board 105 (and electrical components mounted to the circuit board 105) and/or the probe 140 to the housing 40 and/or the mounting frame 130 can operably position the circuit board 105 (and electrical components mounted to the circuit board 105) and/or the probe 140 to the housing 40. Additionally, because the battery holder 115 and battery 110 can be secured to the circuit board 105 as discussed above, the mounting frame 130 can secure the battery 110 and/or battery holder 115 to the housing 40.

[0082] With continued reference to FIGS. 6A-6C, the mounting frame 130 can have a first end 130a, a second end 130b opposite the first end 130a, a side 130c, and a side 130d opposite the side 130c. The mounting frame 130 can be sized and/or shaped to conform to a size and/or shape of the battery 110 or a portion thereof. For example, with reference to FIGS. 5A-5D and 6A-6C, the end 130a of the mounting frame 130 (or a portion of the end 130a) can be curved to conform to a portion of a perimeter of the battery 110. The end 130a (or a portion of the end 130a) can comprise a half-moon shape, among other shapes. The curvature of the end 130a can match or partially match a curvature of the battery 110 or a portion thereof. The end 130a can be curved inward toward the end 130b of the mounting frame 130. A surface of the end 130a that faces away from the end 130b can be concave, for example. At least a portion of the end 130 can be sized and/or shaped to surround a portion of the battery 110, such as a portion of a perimeter of the battery 110. For example, at least a portion of the end 130 can be sized and/or shaped to surround less than an entire perimeter of the battery 110, less than V2 of a perimeter of the battery 110, greater than s of a perimeter of the battery 110, greater than Vs of a perimeter of the battery 110, greater than s of a perimeter of the battery 110, between Vs and Vs of a perimeter of the battery 110, between Vs and 6 /s of a perimeter of the battery 110, between Vs and s of a perimeter of the battery 110, between Vs and V 2 of a perimeter of the battery 110, approximately V 2 of a perimeter of the battery 110, among other values or ranges. [0083] Advantageously, where the end 130a is sized and/or shaped to conform to a size and/or shape of the battery 110 (or a portion of the battery 110) and/or where the end 130a is sized and/or shaped to surround a portion of the battery 110 as described above, such configuration can allow the wearable device 10 to have smaller dimensions while maximizing the size of the battery 110. Minimizing overall dimensions of the wearable device 10 can increase comfort and reduce the bulkiness of the wearable device 10 when placed on a subject and/or handled by a user. Additionally, maximizing the size of the battery 110 in such manner can allow the wearable device 10 to have a longer service life, for example, more than 1 day, more than 2 days, more than 3 days, more than 4 days, more than 5 days, more than 6 days, or more than 7 days.

[0084] The mounting frame 130 or a portion thereof can be sized and/or shaped to interact with, secure, retain, and/or position the circuit board 105. For example, the mounting frame 130 can include one or more posts 135a, 135b which are configured to fit within one or more openings 111 in the circuit board 105. With reference to FIGS. 5A-6B, the one or more posts 135a, 135b can fit within a space defined by openings 111 in the circuit board 105. While the figures illustrate the mounting frame 130 having two posts 135a, 135b, the mounting frame 130 can have an alternative amount of posts 135a, 135b. The mounting frame 130 can have one, two, three, four, five, or six or more posts 135a, 135b configured to interact with a corresponding number of openings 111 in the circuit board 105. The one or more posts 135a, 135b can be positioned proximate or adjacent sides 130c, 130d of the mounting frame 130, for example, where the circuit board 105 includes openings 111 on opposite sides and/or edges thereof. The one or more posts 135a, 135b can be positioned in an alternative location, however. The one or more posts 135a, 135b can be positioned closer to the end 130a than to the end 130b of the mounting frame 130 (see FIG. 6B). The one or more posts 135a, 135b can be at least partially retained within the openings 111 and can limit or prevent movement of the circuit board 105 relative to the mounting frame 130 in one or more directions. For example, the one or more posts 135a, 135b, when positioned within the openings 111, can limit or prevent movement of the circuit board 105 relative to the mounting frame 130 in one or more directions along a plane of the circuit board 105. Such plane can extend along and/or be defined by one or more surfaces of the circuit board 105 (for example, opposite surfaces of the circuit board 105). The one or more posts 135a, 135b can have a size and/or shape that corresponds to a size and/or shape of the openings 111 (or a portion thereof). For example, the one or more posts 135a, 135b can have a cylindrical shape that allows positioning within half-circle shaped openings 111. The one or more posts 135a, 135b can extend outward from a surface 131a of the mounting frame 130 (see FIGS. 6A- 6B). For example, the one or more posts 135a, 135b can extend transverse (for example, perpendicular) to surface 131a of the mounting frame 130.

[0085] The one or more posts 135a, 135b can secure to a portion of the housing 40, as discussed above. For example, the one or more posts 135a, 135b can be sized and/or shaped to secure to and/or within the one or more cavities 49a, 49b of the housing 40. Accordingly, via interaction with the one or more openings 111 of the circuit board 105 and the one or more cavities 49a, 49b of the housing 40, the one or more posts 135a, 135b can secure the circuit board 105 (and components coupled thereto) and the mounting frame 130 to the housing 40. Where the mounting frame 130 is configured to secure the probe 140 (or probe 240) as discussed further below, the one or more posts 135a, 135b can additionally secure the probe 140 (or probe 240) to the housing 40. The securement of the one or more posts 135a, 135b to the one or more cavities 49a, 49b can be a friction fit, for example. As another example, the one or more posts 135a, 135b can comprise a smaller cross-section than the one or more cavities 49a, 49b, allowing the posts 135a, 135b to be received within the cavities 49a, 49b and reduce lateral movement of the mounting frame 130 and housing 40 relative to one another, but also allowing the posts 135a, 135b to more easily be inserted and/or removed from the cavities 49a, 49b (for example, during assembly of the wearable device 10 ).

[0086] The mounting frame 130 can include alternative or additional features that facilitation interaction with, securement and/or retaining of, and/or positioning of the circuit board 105. For example, the mounting frame 130 can include one or more raised portions and/or one or more walls which can extend from a surface 131a of the mounting frame 130 and can retain a portion or portions of the circuit board 105. For example, with reference to FIGS. 6A-6C, the mounting frame 130 can include one or both of raised portions 133a, 133b and/or one or both of walls 133c, 133d. The raised portions 133a, 133b and/or walls 133c, 133d can be positioned proximate or adjacent the end 130b of the mounting frame 130. The walls 133c, 133d can be spaced apart from one another by a distance that is sized to match a portion of the circuit board 105. For example, the walls 133c, 133d can be spaced apart from one another by a width Wi that is sized to receive a width of an end 105a of the circuit board. The width of the end 105a can be smaller than a width of the opposite end 105b of the circuit board 105 and/or smaller than a width of another portion of the circuit board 105 (see FIG. 5C). Advantageously, such configuration can allow the end 105a of the circuit board 105 to be retained between the walls 133c, 133d and can limit or prevent movement of the circuit board 105 relative to the mounting frame 130 in one or more directions along a plane of the circuit board 105 (and/or mounting frame 130). Such plane can extend along and/or be defined by one or more surfaces of the circuit board 105 (for example, opposite surfaces of the circuit board 105). With reference to FIGS. 6A-6B and 5A, the raised portions 133a, 133b can provide additional or alternative securement between portions of the circuit board 105 and the mounting frame 130, for example, portions of the circuit board 105 between the openings 111 and the end 105a. Interaction between the raised portions 133a, 133b, and/or walls 133c, and the end 105a of the circuit board 105 can limit or prevent rotation of the circuit board 105 relative to the mounting frame 130, for example, about an axis extending perpendicular to a surface of the circuit board 105 (for example, a top and/or bottom surface of the circuit board 105). Additionally or alternatively, interaction between the one or more posts 135a, 135b and the openings 111 of the circuit board 105 can limit or prevent rotation of the circuit board 105 relative to the mounting frame 130, for example, about an axis extending perpendicular to a surface of the circuit board 105 (for example, a top and/or bottom surface of the circuit board 105).

[0087] As shown in at least FIGS. 6A-6C, one or both of sides 130c, 130d (or portions thereof) can be curved and/or rounded. For example, one or both of surfaces of the sides 130c, 130d can be convex. Alternatively, one or both of sides 130c, 130d can be straight. Where the mounting frame 130 includes one or more of raised portions 133a, 133b, one or both of the raised portions 133a, 133b can be adjacent the sides 130c, 130d and can be curved similarly as the sides 130c, 130d (see FIG. 6B).

[0088] With reference to FIG. 6B, the mounting frame 130 can include one or both of notches 138a, 138b at corners where the end 130a joins the sides 130c, 130d. The notches 138a, 138b can interact with the opposing arms 115a, 115b of the battery holder 115 to facilitate alignment, positioning, and/or engagement between the mounting frame 130 and the battery holder 115 (see FIGS. 5A-5B and FIG. 6B).

[0089] As discussed elsewhere herein and as shown in at least FIGS. 5A-5D, the wearable device 10 can include a probe 140 that can be configured to transmit thermal energy from the subject to, toward, and/or near one or more temperature sensors of the wearable device 10. The mounting frame 130 can be configured to secure the probe 140 and/or operably position the probe 140 with respect a subject’s skin. For example, the mounting frame 130 can include an opening sized and/or shaped to receive and/or secure the probe 140 or a portion thereof. The opening can extend through a thickness or depth of the mounting frame 130. The opening can be positioned adjacent or proximate to end 130a, end 130b, side 130c, and/or 130d. The opening can be a slot, for example, the slot 132 shown in at least FIGS. 5C-6C. As shown, the slot 132 can be positioned at and/or along end 130b of the mounting frame 130. The slot 132 can be sized and/or shaped to receive and/or secure a portion of the probe 140. For example, the slot 132 can be shaped and/or sized to match a size and/or shape of a portion of a cross-section and/or exterior surface or perimeter of the probe 140. The slot 132 can comprise a circular or partially circular shape, for example, where the probe 140 has a cylindrical shape. The slot 132 can be positioned adjacent end 130b so as to allow the probe 140 to be inserted into the slot 132 along a direction that is transverse (for example, perpendicular) to an axis extending through a center of the slot 132. Additionally or alternatively, the slot 132 can be sized, shaped, and/or positioned to allow the probe 140 (or a portion thereof) to be inserted into the slot 132 along a direction that is parallel to such axis extending through a center of the slot 132. The slot 132 can be sized and/or shaped to surround a portion of the probe 140. For example, the slot 132 can be sized and/or shaped to surround a portion of a cross- section and/or exterior surface or perimeter of the probe 140. For example, the mounting frame 130 and/or the slot 132 can be configured such that, when the probe 140 is secured to the mounting frame 130, the mounting frame 130 surrounds less than an entire perimeter of a cross-section of the probe 140, greater than X U of a perimeter of a cross- section of the probe 140, greater than 2 of a perimeter of a cross-section of the probe 140, greater than ¾ of a perimeter of a cross-section of the probe 140, approximately 'A of a perimeter of a cross-section of the probe 140, approximately A of a perimeter of a cross-section of the probe 140, or any value therebetween, or any range bounded by any combination of these values, although values and ranges outside these values or ranges can be used in some cases.

[0090] As discussed in more detail below, the probe 140 can have a body 144 having a recessed portion 146 which has a cross-section that is smaller than a cross- section of the body 144 of the probe 140. The slot 132 can be sized and/or shaped to receive a size and/or shape of the recessed portion 146 of the probe 140, for example. The slot 132 can have a depth (oriented vertically in the view of FIGS. 5C-5D) that is less than, equal to, or greater than a height (oriented vertically in the view of FIGS. 5C-5D) of the recessed portion 146 of the probe 140 which extends along a portion of a height of the body 144 of the probe 140. With reference to FIGS. 6A-6C, the slot 132 can include one or more protrusions 139 extending along the depth of the slot 132 (or a portion of the depth of the slot 132). For example, the slot 132 can include, one, two, three, four, five, or six or more protrusions 139. The one or more protrusions 139 can be spaced from one another, equidistantly or non-equidistantly, along a length (or width) of the slot 132 (see FIGS. 6A-6C). The protrusions 139 can extend outward from (for example, perpendicular to) a surface of the slot 132. The protrusions 139 can be rigid or alternatively, non-rigid (for example, flexible). The protrusions 139 can engage a portion of the probe 140 when the probe 140 is positioned within the slot 132. For example, the protrusions 139 can engage the recessed portion 146 of the probe 140 when the probe 140 is positioned within the slot 132. The slot 132 can secure the probe 140 in a friction-fit engagement and/or snap-fit engagement, or other type of engagement for example.

[0091] When the probe 140 is secured within the slot 132, the probe 140 (and/or an axis extending through a center of the probe 140) can be oriented transverse (for example, perpendicular) to a plane and/or surface of the mounting frame 130. For example, when the probe 140 is secured within the slot 132, the probe 140 can be oriented perpendicular to the surface 131a of the mounting frame 130. Additionally or alternatively, when the probe 140 is secured within the slot 132 of the mounting frame 130, the probe 140 can be oriented perpendicular to the circuit board 105 (and/or a surface or plane of the circuit board 105). Such positioning can help the probe 140 make contact with (whether direct, or indirect via substrates 65 and/or 25) and/or apply pressure to a portion of the subject’s skin to facilitate transmission of thermal energy through the probe 140 to and/or near other portions of the wearable device 10 (such as toward temperature sensor 150a).

[0092] With reference to FIGS. 6A-6B, the mounting frame 130 can include a recessed portion 137 that can be recessed from surface 131a of the mounting frame 130. The recessed portion 137 can be positioned proximate or adjacent end 130b of the mounting frame 130. The recessed portion 137 can be positioned around the slot 132. A perimeter of the recessed portion 137 can be larger than a perimeter of the slot 132. The perimeter of the recessed portion 137 can be spaced outward from the perimeter of the slot 132 (see FIG. 6B). The recessed portion 137 can be recessed from the surface 131a a depth (oriented vertically in the view of FIGS. 5C-6A) that is sized to correspond to a height of a portion of the probe 140. For example, the recessed portion 137 can be recessed from the surface 131a a depth that is sized to correspond to a height (oriented vertically in the view of FIGS. 5C-5D) of a top portion 148 of the probe 140 which is discussed in more detail below. Such configuration can allow a height of the top portion 148 of the probe 140 to fit within the depth of the recessed portion 137 when the probe 140 is secured within the slot 132.

[0093] As discussed elsewhere herein and as illustrated in FIG. 7, the wearable device 10 can include a probe 140 that can act as a conduit to transmit thermal energy from the subject’s skin to, toward, and/or near one or more temperature sensors of the wearable device 10. As shown in at least FIGS. 5C-5D, the probe 140 can comprise a first end 142a, a second end 142b opposite the first end 142a, and a body 144. The probe 140 (and/or body 144 of probe 140) can include a height extending between the first and second ends 142a, 142b. The probe 140 can comprise a variety of shapes and/or sizes. The probe 140 can comprise a cylindrical shape among others. As shown, the body 144 can comprise a recessed portion 146 extending along a portion of the body 144 of the probe 140. The recessed portion 146 can be recessed from an outer surface of the body 144. The recessed portion 146 can assist the probe 140 in securing to and/or within the slot 132 of the mounting frame 130. For example, a height of the recessed portion 146 can be sized to correspond to a depth of the slot 132 of the mounting frame 130 so as to allow portions of the body 144 proximate the recessed portion 146 to engage top and bottom surfaces of the mounting frame (and/or recessed portion 137 of the mounting frame 130) when the probe 140 is received within the slot 132. As discussed above, the slot 132 can include one or more protrusions 139 along a width of the slot 132. The recessed depth of the recessed portion 146 of the probe 140 can be sized to fit a distance that the one or more protrusions 139 extend outward from the surface of the slot 132. Additionally or alternatively, the height of the recessed portion 146 of the probe 140 can be sized to fit a height of the one or more protrusions 139. For example, the one or more protrusions 139 can extend outward from a surface of the slot 132 a given distance that corresponds to a depth of the recessed portion 146 (with respect to the outer surface of body 144). As another example, the one or more protrusions 139 can have a height extending along a depth of the slot 132 that corresponds to a height of the recessed portion 146. The height of the recessed portion 146 can extend along a portion of the height of the probe 140 (“vertically” given the orientation shown in FIGS. 5C-5D).

[0094] As discussed above, the wearable device 10 can include one or more temperature sensors. FIGS. 5A, 5C, and 5D illustrate a temperature sensor 150a positioned on a first surface of the circuit board 105. When the probe 140 is secured to the mounting frame 130, the probe 140 can be aligned with and/or positioned proximate to the temperature sensor 150a. For example, with respect to FIGS. 5A-5B, when the probe 140 is secured to the mounting frame 130 (for example, within the slot 132), the probe 140 can be vertically aligned with the temperature sensor 150a. For example, an axis extending through a center of the probe 140 can extend through the temperature sensor 150a, and such axis can be perpendicular to a surface or plane of the circuit board 105. When the probe 140 is secured to the mounting frame 130 (for example, within the slot 132), the end 142a of the probe 140 can be positioned proximate or adjacent a surface (for example, bottom surface) of the circuit board 105 proximate the temperature sensor 150a. As another example, when the probe 140 is secured to the mounting frame 130 (for example, within the slot 132), the end 142a of the probe 140 can be positioned adjacent a first surface (for example, bottom surface) of the circuit board 105 and the temperature sensor 150a can be positioned adjacent a second surface (for example, a top surface) of the circuit board 105 and the probe 140 and the temperature sensor 150a can be aligned. As another example, when the probe 140 is secured to the mounting frame 130 (for example, within the slot 132), the circuit board 105 can be positioned between the probe 140 and the temperature sensor 150a.

[0095] The wearable device 10 can include a thermally conductive material and/or layer between the end 142a of the probe 140 and a surface of the circuit board 105. For example, with reference to FIGS. 5C-5D, the wearable device 10 can include a thermal paste 173 positioned between the end 142a of the probe 140 and a surface of the circuit board 105 (for example, a bottom surface of the circuit board 105 given the orientation shown in FIGS. 5C-5D). The thermal paste 173 can be aligned (for example, vertically aligned) with the probe 140 and/or the temperature sensor 150a. The thermal paste 173 can comprise zinc oxide, for example. The thermal paste 173 can be silicone free. The thermal paste 173 can comprise a circular shape, among other shapes. For example, the thermal paste 173 can be in the form of a disc. The thermal paste 173 can conform to a shape of the probe 140 and/or can deform when positioned between the circuit board 105 and the probe 140. The thermal paste 173 can reduce or prevent air gaps between end 142a of the probe 140 and the circuit board 105 and thus increase thermal transmissivity.

[0096] With reference to FIG. 5D, the circuit board 105 can include one or more openings 159 extending through the circuit board 105. For example, the one or more openings 159 can extend through a thickness of the circuit board 105 and/or between opposing surfaces (for example, top and bottom surfaces) of the circuit board 105. The one or more openings 159 can be located adjacent to the temperature sensor 150a, the thermal paste 173, and/or the probe 140 (for example, end 142a of the probe 140). The one or more openings 159 can allow thermal energy to flow from the probe 140 and/or thermal paste 173 through the circuit board 105 to the temperature sensor 150a. In such configuration, the one or more openings 159 can provide a passageway by which such thermal energy can flow from the probe 140 and/or thermal paste 173 through the circuit board 105 and to the temperature sensor 150a. The circuit board 150 can include one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, or ten or more openings 159. The circuit board 150 can include between one and twenty openings 159, between one and ten openings 159, between one and five openings 159, for example. The circuit board 105 can include a plurality of openings 159, for example, more than two, more than three, more than four, more than five, more than six, more than seven, or more than eight openings 159. The circuit board 105 can include a plurality of openings 159 arranged in an array and/or pattern. For example, the circuit board 105 can include a plurality of openings 159 arranged in an array having a rectangular shape (see FIG. 5D), square shape, circular shape, among others. The plurality of openings 159 can be spaced equidistantly from one another in some cases.

[0097] Where such openings 159 are arranged in an array, dimensions of the array can correspond to dimensions of the probe 140 to ensure that thermal energy flowing through the end 142a of the probe 140 is conveyed through the circuit board 105 to the temperature sensor 150a efficiently. For example, where the probe 140 has a circular cross-section, the circuit board 105 can include a plurality of openings 159 arranged in a circular array having a diameter that is less than, equal to, or greater than a diameter of the circular cross-section of the probe 140. As another example, where the probe 140 has a circular cross-section, the circuit board 105 can include a plurality of openings 159 arranged in a non-circular array (e.g., a square or rectangular array) whose length and/or width dimensions are less than, equal to, or greater than a diameter of the circular cross-section of the probe 140. As another example, where the probe 140 has a cross-section having a length and width, a length and/or width of an array of the plurality of openings 159 can be less than, equal to, or greater than such length and/or width of the cross-section of the probe 140.

[0098] In some variants, the one or more openings 159 include (for example, are filled with) a thermally conductive material, such as gold and/or copper, to increase thermal transmissivity through the circuit board 105. When the wearable device 10 is assembled, the one or more openings 159 (and/or an array formed by a plurality of the openings 159) can align with the temperature sensor 150a, the thermal paste 173, the probe 140 (for example, an axis extending through a height of the probe 140), the slot 132 of the mounting frame 130, and/or the opening 55 of substrate 50. In some implementations, an axis extending through a center of an array defined by a plurality of openings 159 can align with the temperature sensor 150a, the thermal paste 173, the probe 140 (for example, an axis extending through a height of the probe 140), the slot 132 of the mounting frame 130, and/or the opening 55 of substrate 50. Each of the one or more openings 159 can be smaller than opening 55 of substrate 50 and/or smaller than slot 132 in mounting frame 130, each of which are discussed elsewhere herein. Where the circuit board 105 includes a plurality of openings 159 arranged in an array, the region or area defining and/or forming the boundary of such array can be smaller than opening 55 of substrate 50 and/or smaller than slot 132 in mounting frame 130.

[0099] With continued reference to FIGS. 5C-5D, the thermal paste 173 can be positioned between the one or more openings 159 of the circuit board 105 and the thermally conductive probe 140. The thermal paste 173 can be positioned between a surface of the circuit board 105 and the thermally conductive probe 140. The thermal paste 173 can be positioned between end 142a of the thermally conductive probe 140 and a surface of the circuit board 105. The thermal paste 173 can be positioned between end 142a of the thermally conductive probe 140 and the one or more openings 159 of the circuit board 105.

[0100] With continued reference to FIG. 5D, the wearable device 10 can include a thermally conductive pad 155 positioned adjacent to the one or more openings 159 and a surface (for example, a bottom surface) of the circuit board 105. The thermally conductive pad 155 can be positioned between the one or more openings 159 and the thermal paste 173 and/or the probe 140. The thermally conductive pad 155 can increase thermal transmissivity of thermal energy from the probe 140 and the thermal paste 173 to the one or more openings 159 through the circuit board 105 and to the temperature sensor 150a. The thermally conductive pad 155 can be metallic. For example, the thermally conductive pad 155 can include gold and/or copper.

[0101] FIG. 7 illustrates a cross-section view taken along a portion of the assembled view of the wearable device 10 shown in FIG. 2C when placed adjacent skin of a subject. As shown, when the probe 140 is secured to the mounting frame 130 (for example, within the slot 132) and the mounting frame 130 is secured to the housing 40, the end 142b of the probe 140 can be positioned in proximity to the subject’s skin. As also shown, the probe 140 can apply pressure to and/or press against a portion of the skin of a subject when the wearable device 10 is placed on and/or secured to the subject. Where the wearable device 10 includes substrates 65 and/or 25 coupled with the housing 40 (for example, via securement to substrate 50), the substrates 65, 25 can be positioned between the end 142b of the probe 140 and the skin of the subject when the wearable device 10 is secured to the user. As discussed previously, the substrate 50 (which can comprise foam), can include an opening 55 that is sized and/or shaped to allow a portion of the probe 140 to extend therethough.

[0102] In some implementations, the probe 140 extends through opening 55 and beyond a surface of substrate 50 (for example, a “bottom” surface of substrate 50) a distance that is equal to or greater than approximately 0.01 inch, approximately 0.02 inch, approximately 0.03 inch, approximately 0.04 inch, approximately 0.05 inch, approximately 0.06 inch, approximately 0.07 inch, approximately 0.08 inch, approximately 0.09 inch, approximately 0.1 inch, approximately 0.2 inch, approximately 0.3 inch, approximately 0.4 inch, or approximately 0.5 inch, or any value or range between any of these values, or any value or range bounded by any combination of these values. In some implementations, the probe 140 extends through opening 55 and beyond a surface of substrate 50 (for example, a “bottom” surface of substrate 50) a distance that is between approximately 0.01 inch and approximately 0.5 inch, for example, between approximately 0.02 inch and approximately 0.4 inch, between approximately 0.03 inch and approximately 0.3 inch, between approximately 0.04 inch and approximately 0.2 inch, between approximately 0.05 inch and approximately 0.1 inch, between approximately 0.06 inch and approximately 0.09 inch, between approximately 0.07 inch and approximately 0.08 inch, between approximately 0.05 inch and approximately 0.2 inch, or between approximately 0.09 inch and approximately 0.2 inch, or any value or range between any of these values or ranges, or any value or range bounded by any combination of these values. Alternatively, in some implementations, the probe 140 does not extend beyond the bottom surface of the substrate 50. For example, in some implementations, the probe 140 extends through the opening 55 but terminates at the bottom surface of the substrate 50 such that a plane of the end 142b of the probe 140 is generally parallel to a plane of the bottom surface of the substrate 50.

[0103] When the wearable device 10 is assembled and placed and/or secured to the subject’s skin and the end 142b of the probe 140 extends through the opening 55 of substrate 50, the substrate 65 and/or substrate 25 can be positioned between the subject’s skin surface and the end 142b of the probe 140. Accordingly, in such configuration, the probe 140 (for example, the end 142b of the probe 140) can indirectly contact a portion of the subject’s skin. As discussed above, the substrate 65 can cover the opening 55 and the end 142b of the probe 140 and prevent fluid (for example, sweat) ingress through the opening 55 and to an interior of the housing 40, for example, to and/or toward electrical components of the wearable device 10. As also discussed above, substrate 25 can comprise a thermally conductive material and/or can be configured to allow thermal energy to pass from the subject’s skin to the end 142b of the probe 140. As also discussed above, any of substrates 25, 65, 50, and/or 20 can advantageously insulate portions of the subject’s skin. When a portion of the probe 140 is positioned through the opening 55 (for example, the end 142b through the opening 55 of the substrate 55), the substrates 25, 20, 65, and/or 50 can insulate portions of the subject’s skin around and/or underneath the end 142b of the probe 140, which can allow the probe 140 to transmit thermal energy indicative of the subject’s core body temperature, as discussed previously.

[0104] The probe 140 can comprise thermally conductive material that allows the probe 140 to transmit and/or act as a conduit for thermal energy of the subject. Thus, thermal energy from the subject’s skin can pass through substrates 25 and/or 65, and the probe 140. As discussed above, the probe 140 can comprise aluminum, for example, among other thermally conductive materials. As also discussed above, the probe 140 can be rigid, which can allow the probe 140 to apply pressure to a portion of the subject’s skin. Such application of pressure to a portion of the subject’s skin can allow the probe 140 to better receive thermal energy from the subject. For example, the probe 140 can be not compressible and/or not extendible (for example, not compressible and/or not extendible relative to a longitudinal axis extending along a height of the probe 140). As another example, the probe 140 can be not compressible and/or not extendible relative to a longitudinal axis extending through a center of a cross-section of the probe 140.

[0105] As discussed above and as illustrated in FIG. 7, the end 142a of the probe 140 can be positioned adjacent a first surface of the circuit board 105 (for example, a “bottom” surface of the circuit board 105) and the temperature sensor 150a can be positioned adjacent a second surface of the circuit board 105 (for example, a “top” surface of the circuit board 105). As also discussed above, a thermal paste 173 can be positioned between the end 142a of the probe 140 and the circuit board 150. As also discussed above, a thermally conductive pad 155 can be positioned between one or more openings 159 in the circuit board 105 and the thermal paste 173 and/or the probe 140. The one or more openings 159 can allow thermal energy to pass through the circuit board 105 to the temperature sensor 150a.

[0106] As thermal energy is transmitted to the temperature sensor 150a, the temperature sensor 150a can determine a body temperature of the subject and/or can generate and transmit one or more signals responsive to the thermal energy to the processor 11 of the wearable device 10. The temperature sensor 150a can be or include, a thermocouple and/or a thermistor, for example. The temperature sensor 150a can be a chip that is electrically and mechanically coupled with the circuit board 105. The temperature sensor 150a can be configured to generate one or more signals responsive to detected thermal energy, determine body temperature, and/or transmit such generated one or more signals and/or such determined body temperature to the processor 11 of the wearable device 10 continuously and/or intermittently. For example, temperature sensor 150a can be configured to generate one or more signals responsive to detected thermal energy, determine body temperature, and/or transmit such generated one or more signals and/or such determined body temperature every 0.5 seconds, 1 second, 2 second, 3 seconds, 4 seconds, 5 seconds, 10 seconds, 30 seconds, 1 minute, 2 minute, 3 minutes, 4 minutes, 5 minutes, or at other intervals.

[0107] In addition to temperature sensor 150a, the wearable device 10 can include one or more additional temperature sensors. For example, with reference to FIG. 5C, the wearable device 10 can include temperature sensor 150b. Similar to temperature sensor 150a, temperature sensor 150b can be electrically and/or mechanically coupled to the circuit board 105. Temperature sensor 150b can be spaced away from the temperature sensor 150a. Temperature sensor 150b can be used to detect a temperature within an interior of the housing 40 and/or proximate the circuit board 105, for example. Temperature sensor 150b can be used to measure an ambient temperature, for example, a temperature outside the interior of the housing 40.

[0108] In some implementations, the temperature sensor 150b is surrounded by a material in order to isolate the temperature sensor 150b from nearby electrical components and/or to prevent the temperature sensor 150b from being thermally influenced by the temperature of the interior of the housing 40 so that the temperature sensor 150b can better measure ambient temperatures outside the housing 40. For example, with reference to FIGS. 5A and 5C, the wearable device 10 can include a thermal putty 120 which can be positioned around and/or adjacent to the temperature sensor 150b. Thermal putty 120 can be positioned between the temperature sensor 150b and an interior surface of the top portion 41a of the housing 40 (see FIG. 5A, 5C, and 4B). For example, the thermal putty 120 can extend from a surface of the circuit board 105 around the temperature sensor 150b outward (for example, “upward” given the view shown in FIGS. 5 A and 5C) to the interior surface of the top portion 41a of the housing 40. Advantageously, the thermal putty 120 can transmit thermal energy from the surface of the housing 40 (which is in thermal contact with ambient) to the temperature sensor 150b. The thermal putty 120 can deform and/or conform to a shape of a portion of the interior surface of the top portion 41a of the housing 40 in order to better facilitate the transfer of thermal energy from the interior surface (and ambient) to the temperature sensor 150b. The temperature sensor 150b can be configured to generate one or more signals based on received thermal energy, whether from the interior of the housing 40 or from ambient (for example, via the thermal putty 120). The thermal putty 120 can be a ceramic filled silicone sheet, for example.

[0109] The temperature sensor 150b can be configured to generate one or more signals responsive to detected thermal energy, determine temperature, and/or transmit such generated one or more signals and/or such determined temperature to the processor 11 of the wearable device 10 continuously and/or intermittently. For example, temperature sensor 150b can be configured to generate one or more signals responsive to detected thermal energy, determine temperature, and/or transmit such generated one or more signals and/or such determined temperature every 0.5 seconds, 1 second, 2 second, 3 seconds, 4 seconds, 5 seconds, 10 seconds, 30 seconds, 1 minute, 2 minute, 3 minutes, 4 minutes, 5 minutes, or at other intervals. Such generated one or more signals, determined temperature, and/or transmission of such generated one or more signals and/or determined temperature can be simultaneous or non-simultaneous with the generated one or more signals, determined body temperature, and/or transmitted one or more signals and/or determined body temperature from temperature sensor 150a.

[0110] Advantageously, incorporating both of temperature sensors 150a, 150b can allow the wearable device 10 to more accurately determine a core body temperature of the user. For example, the processor 11 can utilize temperature data from the temperature sensor 150b in order to adjust or “correct” temperature data received from the first temperature sensor 150a in order to more accurately determine a subject’s core body temperature. For example, the processor 11 can compare temperature data received from both of the temperature sensors 150a, 150b and determine a corrected body temperature based on such comparison. The processor 11 can apply weight factors to one or both of temperature data received from temperature sensors 150a, 150b and/or otherwise compare such received data to determine a corrected body temperature.

[0111] As discussed above and with continued reference to FIG. 7, the housing 40 can include a recess 43 that is recessed a depth Di from portions of the interior surface of the housing 40 (such as interior surface of the top portion 41a) which is less than a thickness Ti of the housing 40 (such as a thickness of the top portion 41a of the housing 40). The recess 43, depth Di, and thickness Ti are illustrated in FIG. 7. As discussed above, the recess 43 can advantageously provide more spacing and/or distance between the temperature sensor 150a and the housing 40 (such as the top portion 41a of the housing 40) to prevent the temperature sensor 150a from being influenced by the temperature of the housing 40 and/or ambient temperature surrounding the housing 40 and/or wearable device 10.

[0112] FIGS. 8A-8D illustrate an alternative design for an electronics assembly 200 that can be incorporated within the wearable device 10. The electronics assembly 200 can be the same in some or many respects to the electronics assembly 100 discussed above. More specifically, some or many of the components that can form and/or be part of the electronics assembly 100 as discussed above can also form and/or be part of the electronics assembly 200. For example, the electronics assembly 200 can be formed from the circuit board 105, battery 110, battery holder 115, mounting frame 130, temperature sensor 150a, thermal putty 120, temperature sensor 150b, thermal paste 173, thermally conductive pad 155, one or more openings 159, and/or emitter 133, along with one or more other components that are discussed below with reference to FIGS. 8A-10B. Accordingly, the discussion above with reference to any or all of these components and/or other components discussed above is equally applicable to the electronics assembly 200 and components that can form the electronics assembly 200. As mentioned above, the use of the phrase “electronics assembly” or the reference numeral “200” in the present disclosure is not intended to be limiting, but rather, is merely intended as a way to refer to one or more components of the wearable device 10, for example, which can be enclosed by the housing 40 and/or one or more of substrates 70, 25, 65, 50, 65, and/or 20.

[0113] FIGS. 8A-8D illustrate an alternative design for a probe 240. FIGS. 8A-8B illustrate an assembled view where probe 240 is secured to the mounting frame 130 (and other components of the wearable device 10) and FIGS. 5C-5D illustrate an exploded view of the probe 240 along with other components of the wearable device 10. FIGS. 8A-8D also illustrate a flexible circuit 230 and a temperature sensor 150c which can be coupled to a portion of the flexible circuit 230. The flexible circuit 230 can include a first end or portion 232 which can be coupled to temperature sensor 150a and/or the circuit board 105 proximate a first surface of the circuit board 105 (for example, a “top” surface of the circuit board 105) and a second end or portion 234 that can be coupled with and/or can support the temperature sensor 150c. The flexible circuit 230 can include a stem 236 which can be connected to the first and second portions (or ends) 232, 234 of the flexible circuit 230.

[0114] Similar to as discussed with respect to probe 140, the probe 240 can be rigid. For example, the probe 240 can be not compressible and/or not extendible (for example, not compressible and/or not extendible relative to a longitudinal axis extending along a height of the probe 240). As another example, the probe 240 can be not compressible and/or not extendible relative to a longitudinal axis extending through a center of a cross-section of the probe 240.

[0115] FIGS. 9A-10B together illustrate the probe 240. The probe 240 can include a receptacle 260 (FIGS. 9A-9B) and an insert 250 (FIGS. 10A-10B) configured to be received within a portion of the receptacle 260 (which can also be referred to as a “housing 260”). The insert 250 can include a first end 252, a second end 254 opposite the first end 252, a body 258, and a head 256. The body 258 can comprise a cylindrical shape, among others. The head 256 of the insert 250 can be flared outward around a portion of the body 258. The head 256 of the insert 250 can be tapered. The head 256 of the insert 250 can extend around a portion of a perimeter of the body 258 and/or can be positioned at or near the end 252. The head 256 can have a cross-section that increases from a region where the head 256 connects to the body 258 to the end 252. The head 256 can have a frustoconical shape, as illustrated in FIGS. 10A-10B. As discussed below, the body 258 can be sized and/or shaped to fit within a cavity 268 of the receptacle 260. As also discussed below, the head 256 can be sized and/or shaped to fit within a tapered recess 265 of the receptacle 260.

[0116] The receptacle 260 can include a first end 260a, a second end opposite the first end 260b, and a body 262. The receptacle 260 can include a head 264 which extends outward from the body 262 and/or which has a cross-section that is greater than a cross-section of the body 262. The head 264 can be located at or near the end 260a of the receptacle 260. The body 262 can be cylindrical, among other shapes, similar to the shape of the body of the probe 140, for example. The head 264 can be sized and/or shaped to fit within the recessed portion 137 of the mounting frame 130 discussed above with reference to FIGS. 6A-6C. The head 264 can comprise a square or rectangular shape, for example, and the head 264 can have rounded corners. A height (or thickness) of the head 264 can be sized to match a depth of the recessed portion 137 of the mounting frame 130 so as to allow the head 264 to fit within the space defined by the recessed portion 137. Such configuration can allow the receptacle 260 (and the probe 240) to be at least partially secured to the mounting frame 130. Similar to the body 144 of the probe 140, the body 262 of the receptacle 260 can be sized and/or shaped to fit within the slot 132 of the mounting frame 130. Accordingly, the discussion above with reference to the securement and/or positioning of the probe 140 within the slot 132 of the mounting frame 130 is equally applicable to the probe 240 (and receptacle 260).

[0117] The receptacle 260 can include a protrusion 269 extending outward from a portion of a surface of the body 262 (see FIGS. 9A-9B). The protrusion 269 can extend outward from the surface of the body 262 and have a flat or planar end which can provide a flat surface by which the stem 236 of the flexible circuit 230 can rest against and/or contact, which can help with alignment and/or positioning of the stem 236 and flexible circuit 230 with respect to the receptacle 260 and the probe 240. The protrusion 269 can be circular shaped, for example, or another shape.

[0118] The receptacle 260 can include a cavity 268 extending through a portion of a height of the receptacle 260 (for example, the body 262). The cavity 268 can extend along an axis aligned with a height of the receptacle 260 and/or extending through a center of a cross-section of the receptacle 260. The receptacle 260 can additionally include an opening 266 positioned along an outer surface of the body 262. The opening 266 can extend inward from the outer surface of the body 262 towards an interior of the body 262. The opening 266 can meet and/or join the cavity 268 within an interior of the body 262. An axis extending through the opening 266 (e.g., a center of the opening 266) can be transverse (for example, perpendicular) to an axis extending through the cavity 268 (e.g., a center of the cavity 268). The opening 266 can be positioned proximate the end 260b of the receptacle 260. The opening 266 can be positioned closer to the end 260b than to the end 260a of the receptacle 260.

[0119] The cavity 268 can be sized and/or shaped to receive the insert 250 or a portion thereof. For example, the cavity 268 can be sized and/or shaped to receive the body 258 of the insert 250. The cavity 258 can be cylindrical, among other shapes, for example. The head 264 of the receptacle 260 can include a tapered recess 265 around the cavity 268. The tapered recess 265 can be sized and/or shaped to receive the head 256 of the insert 250 such that, when the body 258 is positioned within the cavity 268, the end 252 of the insert 250 sits “flush” (for example, on the same plane) with a surface of the end 260a and/or the head 264 of the receptacle 260.

[0120] With reference to FIGS. 8C-8D, the temperature sensor 150c can be coupled to the end 234 of the flexible circuit 230 which can be positioned within the opening 266 of the receptacle 260. The insert 250 can be positioned within the cavity 268 of the receptacle 260 such that the end 254 of the insert 250 is positioned proximate or adjacent (for example, above) the temperature sensor 150c. For example, when the insert 250 is positioned within the cavity 268 of the receptacle 260, the end 254 of the insert 250 can contact the temperature sensor 150c. When the probe 240 is secured to the mounting frame 130, for example, via securement of the receptacle 260 within the slot 132 of the mounting frame 130, the probe 240 can transmit thermal energy from a subject in a similar manner as the probe 140 described above. For example, the end 260b of the probe 240 can be positioned adjacent skin of the subject when the wearable device 10 is secured to the subject. Similar to the end 142b of the probe 140, the end 260b can contact (for example, indirectly via substrates 25 and/or 65), apply pressure to, and/or press into the subject skin. Where the wearable device 10 includes one or more of substrates 25 and/or 65, the substrates 25 and/or 65 can be positioned between the end 260b of the probe 240 and the subject’s skin when the wearable device 10 is secured to or placed on the subject’s skin. The probe 240 or portions thereof (such as the receptacle 260 and/or the insert 250) can comprise thermally conductive material similar to that described with reference to the probe 140. For example, the probe 240 or portions thereof (such as the receptacle 260 and/or the insert 250) can comprise a metallic material, such as aluminum.

[0121] Similar to that discussed with reference to probe 140, a portion of the probe 240 (for example, a portion of the receptacle 260) can be positioned through an opening 55 in the substrate 50. The discussion above with reference to the extent to which probe 140 can extend through opening 55 and/or beyond a surface of the substrate 50 is equally applicable to probe 240. In such configuration, when portions of the substrate 25 and/or 65 are secured to the subject’s skin around the probe 240, the end 260b can apply pressure to and/or press into a portion of the skin, which can allow the probe 240 to better transmit thermal energy from within the skin. Thermal energy from the skin surface, which can be insulated and/or isolated by one or more of substrates 25, 50, 65 and/or 20, can be transmitted through the end 260b to the temperature sensor 150c positioned within the opening 266. The temperature sensor 150c can determine a body temperature of the subject and/or can generate and transmit one or more signals responsive to the detected thermal energy to the processor 11, for example, via the flexible circuit 230. The thermal energy from the subject’s skin surface can also be transmitted from the end 260b through the receptacle 260 and/or insert 250 to the temperature sensor 150a. Such transmitted thermal energy can be transmitted through the thermal paste 173, through the thermally conductive pad 155, and the one or more openings 159 in the circuit board 105 similar to as discussed above with reference to FIG. 5D.

[0122] The temperature sensor 150c can be configured to generate one or more signals responsive to detected thermal energy, determined body temperature, and/or transmit such generated one or more signals and/or such determined body temperature to the processor 11 of the wearable device 10 continuously and/or intermittently. For example, temperature sensor 150c can be configured to generate one or more signals responsive to detected thermal energy, determine body temperature, and/or transmit such generated one or more signals and/or such determined temperature every 0.5 seconds, 1 second, 2 second, 3 seconds, 4 seconds, 5 seconds, 10 seconds, 30 seconds, 1 minute, 2 minute, 3 minutes, 4 minutes, 5 minutes, or at other intervals. Such temperature data can be measured and/or transmitted simultaneous of non- simultaneous with temperature data measure and/or transmitted by temperature sensor 150a and/or 150b which is discussed elsewhere herein.

[0123] Incorporating both of temperature sensor 150a and 150c can advantageously provide more robust measurements of core body temperature. As shown, temperature sensor 150c can be aligned (for example, vertically aligned with temperature sensor 150a and spaced from temperature sensor 150a along an axis that extends parallel to a height of the probe 240. Similar to temperature sensor 150a, temperature sensor 150c can be spaced away from the temperature sensor 150b. Because the temperature sensor 150c is positioned closer to the subject’s skin surface and also closer to the end 260b of the probe than the temperature sensor 150a, the difference or gradient of detected temperature values from sensors 150a, 150c can be used by the processor 11 for purposes of comparison. Additionally, where the wearable device 10 includes all of temperature sensors 150a, 150b, 150c, the processor 11 can determine a core body temperature of the subject based on comparisons of temperature data measured by each of the temperature sensors 150a, 150b, 150c. The processor 11 can apply weight factors to any or all of temperature data received from temperature sensors 150a, 150b, 150c and/or otherwise compare such received data to determine a corrected body temperature.

[0124] The various devices, methods, and/or systems discussed above can be used for monitoring a subject’s physiological information. For example, as discussed above, the wearable device 10 can be used to measure a subject’s temperature, among other things, over time. As discussed above, the wearable device 10 can be configured to wirelessly communicate with (for example, via a wireless transceiver 13 of the wearable device 10) a separate computing device, such as a patient monitor and/or a mobile device (e.g., smart phone). The wearable device 10 can wirelessly transmit physiological data (such as temperature data) over time (continuously or periodically) to such separate computing device for display, among other things. As also discussed above, the wearable device 10 can wirelessly transmit processed or unprocessed obtained physiological information to a mobile phone (for example) which can include one or more hardware processors configured to execute an application that generates a graphical user interface displaying information representative of the processed or unprocessed physiological information obtained from the wearable device 10. Such graphical user interfaces can display continuous and/or periodic measurements obtained from the wearable device 10, display and/or issue various types of alerts, display physiological trend information (for example, temperature trends), among other things. Features or aspects displayed by such graphical user interfaces can include, without limitation, a splash screen, onboarding, device setup, instructions (for example, both visual/graphical and textual) for securing the wearable device 10 to a subject and/or pairing the wearable device 10 to the separate computing device, temperature data and/or trending dashboard, user scenarios, notes (such as medication notes and reminders as well as other user activity notes), temperature trending data and information, user settings and profiles, app settings, and alerts and push notifications.

[0125] Any and all of the wearable devices discussed herein can be utilized in systems and/or methods for monitoring and managing health status, exposure levels, and/or risk state of one or more users in relation to a variety of infections or illnesses, such as those described in co-pending U.S. Patent Application Serial No. ##/######, filed on March 19, 2021, titled “HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM FOR LIMITING THE SPREAD OF AN INFECTION IN AN ORGANIZATION,” corresponding to Attorney Docket No. MAS.1371A, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. [0126] Any and all of the wearable devices discussed herein can be utilized in systems and/or methods for remote patient care and monitoring of one or more users in relation to a variety of infections or illnesses, such as those described in co-pending U.S. Patent Application Serial No. ##/######, filed on March 19, 2021, titled “REMOTE PATIENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS AND METHODS,” corresponding to Attorney Docket No. MAS.1330A1, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Additional Considerations and Terminology

[0127] Although this invention has been disclosed in the context of certain preferred embodiments, it should be understood that certain advantages, features and aspects of the systems, devices, and methods may be realized in a variety of other embodiments. Additionally, it is contemplated that various aspects and features described herein can be practiced separately, combined together, or substituted for one another, and that a variety of combination and subcombinations of the features and aspects can be made and still fall within the scope of the invention. Furthermore, the systems and devices described above need not include all of the modules and functions described in the preferred embodiments.

[0128] Conditional language used herein, such as, among others, "can," "could," "might," "may," “e.g.,” and the like, unless specifically stated otherwise, or otherwise understood within the context as used, is generally intended to convey that certain features, elements, and/or steps are optional. Thus, such conditional language is not generally intended to imply that features, elements, and/or steps are in any way required or that one or more embodiments necessarily include logic for deciding, with or without other input or prompting, whether these features, elements, and/or steps are included or are to be always performed. The terms “comprising,” “including,” “having,” and the like are synonymous and are used inclusively, in an open-ended fashion, and do not exclude additional elements, features, acts, operations, and so forth. Also, the term “or” is used in its inclusive sense (and not in its exclusive sense) so that when used, for example, to connect a list of elements, the term “or” means one, some, or all of the elements in the list. Further, the term "each," as used herein, in addition to having its ordinary meaning, can mean any subset of a set of elements to which the term "each" is applied. [0129] Conjunctive language such as the phrase “at least one of X, Y, and Z,” unless specifically stated otherwise, is otherwise understood with the context as used in general to convey that an item, term, etc. may be either X, Y, or Z. Thus, such conjunctive language is not generally intended to imply that certain embodiments require the presence of at least one of X, at least one of Y, and at least one of Z.

[0130] Language of degree used herein, such as the terms “approximately,” “about,” “generally,” and “substantially” as used herein represent a value, amount, or characteristic close to the stated value, amount, or characteristic that still performs a desired function or achieves a desired result. For example, the terms “approximately”, “about”, “generally,” and “substantially” may refer to an amount that is within less than 10% of, within less than 5% of, within less than 1% of, within less than 0.1% of, and within less than 0.01% of the stated amount. As another example, in certain embodiments, the terms “generally parallel” and “substantially parallel” refer to a value, amount, or characteristic that departs from exactly parallel by less than or equal to 10 degrees, 5 degrees, 3 degrees, or 1 degree. As another example, in certain embodiments, the terms “generally perpendicular” and “substantially perpendicular” refer to a value, amount, or characteristic that departs from exactly perpendicular by less than or equal to 10 degrees, 5 degrees, 3 degrees, or 1 degree.

[0131] Although certain embodiments and examples have been described herein, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that many aspects of the systems and devices shown and described in the present disclosure may be differently combined and/or modified to form still further embodiments or acceptable examples. All such modifications and variations are intended to be included herein within the scope of this disclosure. A wide variety of designs and approaches are possible. No feature, structure, or step disclosed herein is essential or indispensable.

[0132] Any methods disclosed herein need not be performed in the order recited. The methods disclosed herein may include certain actions taken by a practitioner; however, they can also include any third-party instruction of those actions, either expressly or by implication.

[0133] The methods and tasks described herein may be performed and fully automated by a computer system. The computer system may, in some cases, include multiple distinct computers or computing devices (e.g., physical servers, workstations, storage arrays, cloud computing resources, etc.) that communicate and interoperate over a network to perform the described functions. Each such computing device typically includes a processor (or multiple processors) that executes program instructions or modules stored in a memory or other non-transitory computer-readable storage medium or device (e.g., solid state storage devices, disk drives, etc.)· The various functions disclosed herein may be embodied in such program instructions, and/or may be implemented in application- specific circuitry (e.g., ASICs or FPGAs) of the computer system. Where the computer system includes multiple computing devices, these devices may, but need not, be co-located. The results of the disclosed methods and tasks may be persistently stored by transforming physical storage devices, such as solid state memory chips and/or magnetic disks, into a different state. The computer system may be a cloud- based computing system whose processing resources are shared by multiple distinct business entities or other users.

[0134] Depending on the embodiment, certain acts, events, or functions of any of the processes or algorithms described herein can be performed in a different sequence, can be added, merged, or left out altogether (for example, not all described operations or events are necessary for the practice of the algorithm). Moreover, in certain embodiments, operations or events can be performed concurrently, e.g., through multi threaded processing, interrupt processing, or multiple processors or processor cores or on other parallel architectures, rather than sequentially.

[0135] Various illustrative logical blocks, modules, routines, and algorithm steps that may be described in connection with the disclosure herein can be implemented as electronic hardware (e.g., ASICs or FPGA devices), computer software that runs on general purpose computer hardware, or combinations of both. Various illustrative components, blocks, and steps may be described herein generally in terms of their functionality. Whether such functionality is implemented as specialized hardware versus software running on general-purpose hardware depends upon the particular application and design constraints imposed on the overall system. The described functionality can be implemented in varying ways for each particular application, but such implementation decisions should not be interpreted as causing a departure from the scope of the disclosure.

[0136] Moreover, various illustrative logical blocks and modules that may be described in connection with the disclosure herein can be implemented or performed by a machine, such as a general purpose processor, a digital signal processor (DSP), an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), a field programmable gate array (FPGA) or other programmable logic device, discrete gate or transistor logic, discrete hardware components, or any combination thereof designed to perform the functions described herein. A general purpose processor can be a microprocessor, but in the alternative, the processor can be a controller, microcontroller, or state machine, combinations of the same, or the like. A processor can include electrical circuitry configured to process computer-executable instructions. A processor can include an FPGA or other programmable device that performs logic operations without processing computer- executable instructions. A processor can also be implemented as a combination of computing devices, e.g., a combination of a DSP and a microprocessor, a plurality of microprocessors, one or more microprocessors in conjunction with a DSP core, or any other such configuration. Although described herein primarily with respect to digital technology, a processor may also include primarily analog components. For example, some or all of the rendering techniques described herein may be implemented in analog circuitry or mixed analog and digital circuitry. A computing environment can include any type of computer system, including, but not limited to, a computer system based on a microprocessor, a mainframe computer, a digital signal processor, a portable computing device, a device controller, or a computational engine within an appliance, to name a few.

[0137] The elements of any method, process, routine, or algorithm described in connection with the disclosure herein can be embodied directly in hardware, in a software module executed by a processor, or in a combination of the two. A software module can reside in RAM memory, flash memory, ROM memory, EPROM memory, EEPROM memory, registers, hard disk, a removable disk, a CD-ROM, or any other form of a non-transitory computer-readable storage medium. An exemplary storage medium can be coupled to the processor such that the processor can read information from, and write information to, the storage medium. In the alternative, the storage medium can be integral to the processor. The processor and the storage medium can reside in an ASIC. The ASIC can reside in a user terminal. In the alternative, the processor and the storage medium can reside as discrete components in a user terminal.

[0138] While the above detailed description has shown, described, and pointed out novel features, it can be understood that various omissions, substitutions, and changes in the form and details of the devices or algorithms illustrated can be made without departing from the spirit of the disclosure. As can be recognized, certain portions of the description herein can be embodied within a form that does not provide all of the features and benefits set forth herein, as some features can be used or practiced separately from others. The scope of certain embodiments disclosed herein is indicated by the appended claims rather than by the foregoing description All changes which come within the meaning and range of equivalency of the claims are to be embraced within their scope.