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Title:
WIND POWER DEVICE WITH DYNAMIC SAIL, STREAMLINED CABLE OR ENHANCED GROUND MECHANISM
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2013/085800
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
An improved wind power device for wind energy conversion or vehicle propulsion. Among many possibilities contemplated, the device may have a moving sail with tethered wings (101), moving in elliptical trajectory, utilize separate sheave (503) and cable drum (505), use a block and tackle (411), attached to the tether and utilize a cable having a flexible jacket with aerodynamically streamlined cross section (603).

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Inventors:
GOLDSTEIN LEONID (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2012/067143
Publication Date:
June 13, 2013
Filing Date:
November 29, 2012
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
GOLDSTEIN LEONID (US)
International Classes:
B63H9/04; D07B1/02; F03D5/00; F03D9/00
Foreign References:
US20070120004A12007-05-31
RU29281U12003-05-10
US20090212574A12009-08-27
US20110041747A12011-02-24
US4033279A1977-07-05
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Claims:
What is clai med is:

[Clai m 1 ] A moving sail for use in systems, utilizing wind power, comprising: at least two airborne wings;

a platform at the ground level;

a pulled element attached to the platform;

a tether, connecting said wings to said pulled element;

an anti-twist device, preventing twisting of the tether by motion of the wings; wherein said wings move under influence of the wind in the same clockwise or counter clockwise direction, if viewed from said platform, and the motion of said wings has substantial cross wind component.

[Clai m 2] The system of claim 1 , wherein the anti-twist device has a first side and a second side, allowed to freely rotate one relative to another, and:

each of said wings is attached to the first side of the anti-twist device by at least one cable;

the tether is attached to the second side of said anti-twist device.

[Clai m 3] The system of claim 1 , wherein the platform is a ship and the pulled element is a hull of the ship.

[Clai m 4] The system of claim 1 , further including an electric generator and wherein the pulled element is coupled to a rotor of said electric generator.

[Clai m 5] The system of claim 1 , wherein said wings are kites or parafoils.

[Clai m 6] The system of claim 1 , wherein said wings move in substantially elliptical trajectory relative to said platform.

[Clai m 7] A method of utilizing wind power, comprising steps: providing at least two airborne wings, attached to a tether by cables; providing a platform at the ground level;

said platform having an element, pulled by said tether;

controlling said wings to move at least partially cross wind, in the same clockwise or counter clockwise direction relative to said platform for multiple loops, while preventing twisting of said tether.

[Clai m 8] The method of claim 7, wherein said tether pulls a ship.

[Clai m 9] The method of claim 7, comprising a step of converting mechanical energy of the wind into electric energy.

[Clai m 1 0] The method of claim 7, wherein said wings are kites or parafoils.

[Clai m 1 1 ] The method of claim 7, wherein said wings move in substantially elliptical trajectory relative to said platform.

[Clai m 1 2] A device for conversion of wind energy into electric energy, comprising:

an airborne wing or sail, moving under power of wind;

a cable, attached to said wing or sail;

a block and tackle system, attached to said cable;

a ground level platform;

a rotational element attached to said platform and coupled to said block and tackle system;

an electric generator, having a rotor rotationally connected to said rotational element. [Clai m 1 3] A device for conversion of wind energy into electric energy, comprising:

an airborne wing or sail, moving under power of wind;

a cable, attached to said wing or sail;

a ground level platform;

a rotational element attached to said platform in contact with said cable;

an electric generator, having a rotor rotationally connected to said rotational element;

means for holding excess of said cable;

[Clai m 1 4] The device of claim 1 3, wherein a cable drum is used as means for holding excess of said cable.

[Clai m 1 5] The device of claim 1 3, wherein excess of said cable is airborne.

[Clai m 1 6] The device of claim 1 3, wherein a perforated belt is used as said cable and a sprocket is used as said rotational element.

[Clai m 1 7] A method of converting linear motion of a cable into rotational motion in a wind energy conversion device, comprising steps:

providing a rotational element coupled with a rotor of an electric generator; coupling said cable with said rotational element;

storing excess of said cable separately from said rotational element.

[Clai m 1 8] A cable with aerodynamically streamlined profile, comprising a load bearing core;

a flexible jacket with aerodynamically streamlined profile around the core; wherein center of aerodynamic pressure on the jacket is behind the center of the core, when the profile of the cable is not oriented straight into the relative airflow.

[Clai m 1 9] The device of claim 1 8, the space between the load bearing core and the jacket is filled with a light weight flexible material.

[Clai m 20] The device of claim 1 8, wherein the jacket is cut in multiple places in order to increase cable flexibility.

[Clai m 21 ] A method of manufacturing a cable with aerodynamically

streamlined profile, comprising steps:

providing at least one core cable made of a material with high tensile strength; wrapping a flexible jacket, having aerodynamically streamlined profile around it.

[Clai m 22] The method of claim 21 , wherein the core cable is made of one of the following materials: ultra high molecular weight polyethylene fibers, aramid fibers, para aramid fibers, carbon fibers.

[Clai m 23] The method of claim 21 , further comprising a step of reducing the width of the core cable in the direction, perpendicular intended relative airflow.

[Clai m 24] The method of claim 21 , further comprising a step of filling the space between the core cable and the jacket with a light weight flexible material. WIND POWER DEVICE WITH DYNAMIC SAIL, STREAMLINED CABLE OR ENHANCED

GROUND MECHANISM

What i s clai med is :

[Clai m 1 ] A moving sail for use in systems, utilizing wind power, comprising: at least two airborne wings;

a platform at the ground level;

a pulled element attached to the platform;

a tether, connecting said wings to said pulled element;

an anti-twist device, preventing twisting of the tether by motion of the wings; wherein said wings move under influence of the wind in the same clockwise or counter clockwise direction, if viewed from said platform, and the motion of said wings has substantial cross wind component.

[Clai m 2] The system of claim 1 , wherein the anti-twist device has a first side and a second side, allowed to freely rotate one relative to another, and:

each of said wings is attached to the first side of the anti-twist device by at least one cable;

the tether is attached to the second side of said anti-twist device.

[Clai m 3] The system of claim 1 , wherein the platform is a ship and the pulled element is a hull of the ship.

[Clai m 4] The system of claim 1 , further including an electric generator and wherein the pulled element is coupled to a rotor of said electric generator.

[Clai m 5] The system of claim 1 , wherein said wings are kites or parafoils. [Clai m 6] The system of claim 1 , wherein said wings move in substantially elliptical trajectory relative to said platform.

[Clai m 7] A method of utilizing wind power, comprising steps:

providing at least two airborne wings, attached to a tether by cables;

providing a platform at the ground level;

said platform having an element, pulled by said tether;

controlling said wings to move at least partially cross wind, in the same clockwise or counter clockwise direction relative to said platform for multiple loops, while preventing twisting of said tether.

[Clai m 8] The method of claim 7, wherein said tether pulls a ship.

[Clai m 9] The method of claim 7, comprising a step of converting mechanical energy of the wind into electric energy.

[Clai m 1 0] The method of claim 7, wherein said wings are kites or parafoils.

[Clai m 1 1 ] The method of claim 7, wherein said wings move in substantially elliptical trajectory relative to said platform.

[Clai m 1 2] A device for conversion of wind energy into electric energy, comprising:

an airborne wing or sail, moving under power of wind;

a cable, attached to said wing or sail;

a block and tackle system, attached to said cable;

a ground level platform;

a rotational element attached to said platform and coupled to said block and tackle system; an electric generator, having a rotor rotationally connected to said rotational element.

[Clai m 1 3] A device for conversion of wind energy into electric energy, comprising:

an airborne wing or sail, moving under power of wind;

a cable, attached to said wing or sail;

a ground level platform;

a rotational element attached to said platform in contact with said cable;

an electric generator, having a rotor rotationally connected to said rotational element;

means for holding excess of said cable;

[Clai m 1 4] The device of claim 1 3, wherein a cable drum is used as means for holding excess of said cable.

[Clai m 1 5] The device of claim 1 3, wherein excess of said cable is airborne.

[Clai m 1 6] The device of claim 1 3, wherein a perforated belt is used as said cable and a sprocket is used as said rotational element.

[Clai m 1 7] A method of converting linear motion of a cable into rotational motion in a wind energy conversion device, comprising steps:

providing a rotational element coupled with a rotor of an electric generator; coupling said cable with said rotational element;

storing excess of said cable separately from said rotational element.

[Clai m 1 8] A cable with aerodynamically streamlined profile, comprising a load bearing core; a flexible jacket with aerodynamically streamlined profile around the core;

wherein center of aerodynamic pressure on the jacket is behind the center of the core, when the profile of the cable is not oriented straight into the relative airflow.

[Clai m 1 9] The device of claim 1 8, the space between the load bearing core and the jacket is filled with a light weight flexible material.

[Clai m 20] The device of claim 1 8, wherein the jacket is cut in multiple places in order to increase cable flexibility.

[Clai m 21 ] A method of manufacturing a cable with aerodynamically

streamlined profile, comprising steps:

providing at least one core cable made of a material with high tensile strength; wrapping a flexible jacket, having aerodynamically streamlined profile around it.

[Clai m 22] The method of claim 21 , wherein the core cable is made of one of the following materials: ultra high molecular weight polyethylene fibers, aramid fibers, para aramid fibers, carbon fibers.

[Clai m 23] The method of claim 21 , further comprising a step of reducing the width of the core cable in the direction, perpendicular intended relative airflow.

[Clai m 24] The method of claim 21 , further comprising a step of filling the space between the core cable and the jacket with a light weight flexible material.

Description:
WIND POWER DEVICE WITH DYNAMIC SAIL, STREAMLINED CABLE OR ENHANCED

GROUND MECHANSIM

DESCRI PTION BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[Para 1 ] This invention is generally directed to wind power utilizing systems and methods, using airborne wings or sails.

[Para 2] Recently, a novel approach to wind power utilization has appeared. A computer controlled kite, flying crosswind, harnesses power of the wind, which is further converted into electric energy or into propulsion of a ship. One example of former is U.S. Patent No. 8080889 by Ippolito et al (assigned to KiteGen). One example of later is U.S. Patent No. 7672761 by Wrage (assigned to SkySails). The common part is that the kite moves cross wind with high speed in so-called 'figure 8' trajectory. The tether of the kite also moves crosswind and experiences very large drag, which can exceed the drag of the kite itself. This drag wastes energy and limits possible length of the tether.

[Para 3] The crosswind flying airborne wing develops high lift forces. In the electricity generating applications, the speed of the tether, transferring this lift to the rotor of the electric generator, is relatively low (typically about 1 /3 of the wind speed), resulting in relatively low power output for the force. This issue is fu rther exacerbated by unwinding the tether from a tether drum, and using the same drum as a rotational element, converting linear motion of the cable into rotational motion. The drum is wide, and its width further increases when the tether's thickness increases. Consequently, drum's RPM is low and it requires an expensive gearbox with high input torque and large conversion ratio in order to achieve 1 , 500- 1 ,800 RPM, required by most conventional electric generators.

[Para 4] One attempt to solve the problem of high cable drag is U.S. Patent Application No. 1 2 / 1 54,685 Faired Tether for Wind Power Generation Systems by Griffith et al. Unfortunately, the tether in that application is prohibitively expensive or inefficient.

[Para 5] This invention is directed to solving these problems and more. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[Para 6] One embodiment of the invention is a moving sail for use in systems, utilizing wind power, comprising at least two airborne wings; a platform at the ground level; a pulled element attached to the platform; a tether, connecting the wings to the pulled element; an anti-twist device, preventing twisting of the tether by motion of the wings; and the wings move u nder influence of the wind in the same clockwise or counter clockwise direction, if viewed from the platform, and the motion of the wings has substantial cross wind component. Another embodiment of the invention is a moving sail for use in systems, utilizing wind power, comprising two or more two airborne wings; a platform at the ground level with a pulled element attached to it; an airborne attachment device, having two sides, allowed to freely rotate one relative to another; each wings is attached to one side of the attachment device by a flexible cable; and a tether, attached to another side of the attachment device and to a pulled element of said platform; the wings move under influence of the wind in the same clockwise or counter clockwise direction, if viewed from the platform, and the motion of the wings has substantial cross wind component.

[Para 7] Related method of utilizing wind power, comprising steps of providing at least two airborne wings, attached to a tether by cables; providing a platform having an element, pulled by the tether at the ground level and

controlling the wings to move at least partially cross wind, in the same clockwise or counter clockwise direction relative to the platform for multiple loops, while preventing twisting of the tether.

[Para 8] Another aspect of the invention is a device for conversion of wind energy into electric energy, comprising an airborne wing or sail, moving under power of wind; a cable, attached to this wing or sail; a block and tackle system, attached to the cable; a ground level platform with a rotational element (like a sheave, a pulley or a sprocket) on it, coupled to the block and tackle system and an electric generator with a rotor rotationally connected to the rotational element.

[Para 9] Another aspect of the invention is a device for conversion of wind energy into electric energy, comprising an airborne wing or sail, moving under power of wind; a cable, attached to this wing or sail; a ground level platform with a rotational element (like a sheave, a pulley or a sprocket) in contact with the cable; an electric generator, having a rotor rotationally connected to the rotational element; and means for holding excess of said cable (like a cable drum).

[Para 1 0] Related method of converting linear motion of a cable into rotational motion in a wind energy conversion device, comprising steps of providing a rotational element coupled with a rotor of an electric generator; coupling the cable with the rotational element; storing excess of the cable separately from the rotational element.

[Para 1 1 ] Another aspect of the invention is a cable with aerodynamically streamlined profile, comprising a load bearing core and a flexible jacket having aerodynamically streamlined profile around the core, placed in such way that the center of aerodynamic pressure on the jacket is behind the center of the core, when the profile of the cable is not oriented straight into the relative airflow.

[Para 1 2] A method of manufacturing a cable with aerodynamically streamlined profile, comprising steps of providing at least one core cable made of a material with high tensile strength and wrapping a flexible jacket, having

aerodynamically streamlined profile, around it.

[Para 1 3] Various objects, features, aspects, and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent from the following detailed description of preferred embodiments of the invention, along with the accompanying

drawings in which like numerals represent like components.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS [Para 1 4] The accompanying drawings illustrate the invention. The illustrations omit details not necessary for understanding of the invention, or obvious to one skilled in the art, and show parts out of proportion for clarity. In such drawings:

[Para 1 5] Fig. 1 is a schematic view of a vehicle propulsion system with a dynamic sail according to one aspect of the present invention

[Para 1 6] Fig. 2 is a schematic view of a rigid wing when used in the dynamic sail

[Para 1 7] Fig. 3 is a schematic view of a flexible wing when used in the dynamic sail

[Para 1 8] Fig. 4 is a schematic view of a wind energy conversion system according to one aspect of the present invention

[Para 1 9] Fig. 5 is a perspective view of a wind energy conversion system with a separate pulley or sprocket and a cable drum

[Para 20] Fig. 6A is a sectional view of one form of a aerodynamically streamlined cable

[Para 21 ] Fig. 6B is a perspective view of one form of the aerodynamically streamlined cable

[Para 22] Fig. 7 is a sectional view of another form of the aerodynamically streamlined cable

[Para 23] Fig. 8 is a sectional view of one more form of the aerodynamically streamlined cable [Para 24] Fig. 9 is a sectional view of yet another form of the aerodynamically streamlined cable

[Para 25] Fig. 1 0 is a perspective view of another form of the aerodynamically streamlined cable

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

[Para 26] Unless stated otherwise, term "cable" here includes usual mechanical cables, ropes and lines of any form and material. It also encompasses belts, including perforated belts, flat belts, round belts, toothed belts, ribbed belts, grooved belts and V-belts. A tether is a kind of a cable, lower end of which is attached to an object on the grou nd level.

[Para 27] Fig. 1 shows one embodiment of the invention, in which a system of airborne wings utilizes power of the wind to pull a ship. This embodiment comprises a pair of wings 1 01 , attached by cables 1 02 to an anti twist device 1 03. Anti twist device 1 03 is attached to a ship 1 1 0 by a tether (or another cable) 1 05. A control system 1 04 is provided. Ship 1 1 0 has a hull 1 06 and a rudder 1 07. Anti twist device 1 03 is provided in order to allow circular motion of wings 1 01 . Anti twist device 1 03 comprises a top part 1 09 and a bottom part 1 08 with a ball bearing between them, allowing unlimited rotation of top part 1 09 relative to bottom part 1 08. Optionally, it can be provided with its own direction sensor (gyroscopic, magnetic or GPS) and a servomotor, compensating remaining twisting moment. [Para 28] Wings 1 01 move cross wind in a circle in the same direction (clockwise or anti clockwise, when viewed from ship 1 1 0) under power of wind for long time. The circle lies in a plane - the plane of rotation. In Fig. 1 , the plane of rotation is inclined about 45 degrees to the horizon. The aerodynamic forces (mostly aerodynamic lift) act on wings 1 01 and are transferred to anti twist device 1 03. There, force components, parallel to the plane of rotation, compensate each other. The remaining force component, normal to the plane of rotation, pulls tether 1 05 , which pulls ship 1 1 0. The projection of tether 1 05 on horizontal plane does not usually match direction of the desired motion. Rudder 1 07 and hull 1 06 compensate sideways component of the pull force. Control system 1 04 selects direction of the tether to maximize the component of the pull force, matching the desired direction of ship motion (tractive component). Control system 1 04 can vary angle of attack of the wings depending on the wind condition and desired pull, and angle of inclination. Angle of inclination of the plane of rotation to the horizon can vary in wide range, from 30 to 85 degrees.

[Para 29] This system can be used either as an auxiliary propulsion system, as a main propulsion system with an auxiliary engine or, on a small boat, as a sole propulsion system. This system cannot pu ll ship 1 1 0 directly upwind. If upwind motion is desired, the system should be either depowered (wings are let to move with a minimum lift, required to keep wings 1 01 in the air) and a conventional engine used, or the ship should be tacking. [Para 30] More than two wings can move in the same plane of rotation. Multiple anti twist devices 1 03 can be connected with long tethers on top of each other, with a system of wings connected to each anti twist device 1 03 and moving in parallel planes.

[Para 31 ] Lateral axis of wings 1 01 have slight inclination to the plane of rotation. Wings 1 01 are cambered. In one particular embodiment, the lateral axis of the wings 1 01 are inclined 1 0° to the plane of their rotation, and the angle of attack is 3°. The angles change, depending on strength of the wind and the requ ired force. In another example, longitudinal axis of each wing 1 01 has constant angle 5° to the plane of rotation, and angle of attack changes with the position of the wing in the circle.

[Para 32] The system of wings 1 01 plays role of a conventional sail, with a big advantage: fast crosswind motion of the wings allows to develop force, many (possibly hundreds times) bigger than wind pressure on static sails of the same size. Another advantage is that it can catch stronger and more regular wings at the altitude above the sea level. Further, tether 1 05 does not exhibit significant motion and does not create significant drag. Also, circular motion of wings 1 01 requires lower centrifugal acceleration (compared with figure 8 motion).

[Para 33] Wing 1 01 can be any of the following: a rigid wing, like planes, gliders or ground based wind turbines have; a flexible wing; a soft wing; an inflatable wing; an inflatable wing, inflated by the ram air, entering it through holes; a kite wing; a paraglider wing; a wing, using soft materials, spread over a rigid frame or cables; a wing made of elastic fabric, receiving airfoil form from relative air flow; and/or a mixed wing, using different construction techniques in different parts of the wing.

[Para 34] Wing 1 01 can be made of various materials, including carbon fiber, fiberglass, wood, aluminum, aramids, para-aramids, polyester, high molecular weight polyethylene, nylon and others. Wing 1 01 may have wingtips to decrease turbulence and noise. Wing 1 01 has stabilization and control surfaces and their actuators and possibly its own control system. An example of a rigid wing is shown in Fig. 2. It comprises horizontal stabilizers 201 , rudders 202, a vertical stabilizer 203 and an elevator 204 on a double boom 206, spoilers 205 and a control system 207. An example of a kite wing is shown in Fig. 3.

It comprises flexible inflatable canopy 301 , 4 combined control and suspension cables 302 and a control device 303. In this form, position of the wing relative to the wind and to the horizon is controlled by dynamically changing the lengths of cables 302. Wing 1 01 can be aerodynamically unstable and its stability can be assured by frequent application of corrective forces.

[Para 35] Control system 1 04 comprises a central processor or a

microcontroller, actuators, sensors and communication means for

commu nicating with the control elements of wings 1 01 . Preferable

commu nication means is a wireless network, although optical or copper wires, going through cables 1 02 and tether 1 05 can be used too. The sensors may include an anemometer, barometer, radar, hygrometer, thermometer, GPS, cable tension meter, RPM meter, cameras for observing the wings and other. [Para 36] Fig. 4 shows another embodiment of the invention. A pair of wings 101 connected by cables 102 to anti twist device 103 are is placed in the air and are flying cross wind with a speed, exceeding speed of the wind. Wings 101 can have a high L/D ratio, and move with speed is 4-20 times higher, than the speed of the wind. A cable 401 is attached to anti twist device 103 at one end and to a sheave 403 at another end. A ground platform 410 is installed on the ground, or slightly above the ground. An electric generator 408, having a rotor and a stator, is installed on the platform. A pulley 407 is rotationally connected to the rotor of electric generator 408. The connection can be via a gearbox, or pulley can be co-axial with the rotor, or another way of mechanical transmission can be utilized. Platform 410 can be able to rotate in horizontal plane (yaw) to order accommodate changes in direction of wind and movement of the wing. A sheave 405 is installed on platform 410. A belt 406 is attached by its one end to platform 410, goes around another sheave 403, then around sheave 405, then around one more sheave 404, and comes into contact with pulley 407. Belt 406 wraps around pulley 407 at a number of times, necessary to avoid slippage (this number can be between 0.25 and 20, depending on used materials, cable form and other conditions). Remaining part of cable 406 is wound around a spool 409.

[Para 37] Usual mechanical cables, ropes and lines of many forms and materials can be used for belt 406. Also, various belts, including perforated belts, flat belts, round belts, toothed belts, ribbed belts, grooved belts, V-belts and other can be used for belt 406. Control system 41 2 is provided. [Para 38] Operation of this embodiment is controlled by control system 41 2. Operation comprises two phases: the active phase and the passive phase. The active phase starts when anti twist device 103 is in a position, closest to platform 410, sheave 403 is closest to sheave 405, and almost all of cable 406 is wound on spool 409. In a coordinate system, moving with anti twist device 103, wings 101 move in the rotation plane. Relative to platform 410, wings 101 move in ascending downwind spiral with constant radius, getting away from the platform. Aerodynamic lift of wings 101 pulls cable 401 , which pulls sheave 403. Belt 406 is pulled up, unwinding from spool 409 and rotating pulley 407, which rotates the rotor of electrical generator 408, which produces electric energy. When all cable 406 is unwound from spool 409, an electric motor or some other means stop spool 409 and start rotating it in the opposite direction, winding cable 406 back on. Winding cable 406 pulls in sheave 403 and extension cable 102. Wings 101 stop flying cross wind and are

commanded by control system 412 to fly in general direction of platform 410, creating minimum resistance, only to keep cables 102 and 103 stretched. In the end of passive phase, the device returns into the initial position, and a new active phase starts. The passive phase is much shorter than active phase and consumes very little energy.

[Para 39] Optional block and tackle 41 1 is employed to mechanical

disadvantage. It is used here for two purposes: a) increase velocity of belt 406 in contact with the pulley, thus decreasing forces, acting on the pulley and other mechanisms, connected to it, for the same power;

b) decrease tension of belt 406, thus allowing to decrease its thickness and, consequently, diameter of pulley 407, while increasing durability of the belt.

[Para 40] Increasing velocity of cable in contact with pulley 407 and decreasing diameter of pulley 407 allow to increase angular speed of pulley's rotation. A gearbox may still be required, but less expensive one than without use of block and tackle 41 1 . Fig. 4 shows block and tackle system with mechanical disadvantage ratio of 4 (i.e., velocity of the cable near the pu lley, attached to the rotor, is 4x higher than the speed, with which distance between wing 1 01 and generator 408 increases). By changing number of the sheaves, it is possible to change mechanical disadvantage ratio from 2 to 20. Block and tackle system 41 1 or its analogies (a differential pulley, Z-drag line, Spanish bartons etc.) can be used in any wind energy conversion system with airborne blades, where the motion transfer is performed by a cable. Alternatively, belt 406 can be connected directly to cable 401 . If belt 406 is perforated, a matching sprocket can be used instead of pulley 407.

[Para 41 ] An example system with cross wind wing trajectory, in which anti twist device 1 03 is moving away from platform 41 0 with an average speed 2 m /s, pulley 407 has diameter 0.25 m and block and tackle provides 1 Ox mechanical disadvantage has 1 ,500 RPM on pulley, sufficient for almost every 50Hz electric generator without gearbox. [Para 42] It should be noted, that in the active phase cable 401 moves steadily in the direction of its length and neither it nor block and tackle system 41 1 experience significant sideways motion (thus saving power losses due to air resistance and excessive wear of cable 406). Different strategies for control of wings 1 01 can be utilized by control system 41 2 in the active phase. One strategy is to attempt to keep wing's angle of attack in the air constant and low. Another strategy is to attempt to keep constant the wing's angle to the wings' plane of rotation. These controls actions can be combined with cyclical changing angle of the lateral axis of the wings to their plane of rotation (over each 360 degrees rotation cycle). Anti twist device 1 03 prevents twisting of cable 401 .

[Para 43] Fig. 5 shows another aspect of the invention - an enhanced

mechanism for conversion of linear motion of a cable into rotational motion of a rotor of electric generator. In one embodiment, this aspect of the invention comprises at least one wing 501 , moving in the air under power of wind and pulling a cable 502. On the ground, there is an electric generator 504,

comprising a rotor and a stator. A pulley (or a sheave, or a sprocket for a perforated belt) 503 is rotationally attached to the rotor of generator 504.

Optionally, it can be attached through a gearbox (not shown on the picture). Cable 502 is wrapped around pulley 503 at least pre-defined number of turns. Pre-defined number of turns can be fractional and is usually small, typically between 0.5 and 20. After wrapping around pulley 503, cable 502 is wound around a spool 505, and cable's end is attached to it. Means are provided to wind and unwind cable 502 accurately and to maintain pre-defined force on cable 503 in direction from pulley 503 to spool 505 in order to ensure sufficient friction. In Fig. 5, these means are a small electrical motor 506, attached to spool 505, and a ball screw 507 with associated small electric motor 508. Further, an optional section of cable 509 of a different kind can be inserted between wing 501 and cable 502. For example, cable 509 can be a standard round cable, while cable 502 can be a perforated belt. If cable 502 is perforated belt, a sprocket is used instead of pulley 503.

[Para 44] Operation of the system consists of two phases - the active phase and the passive phase. In the active phase, wing 501 is moving away from pulley 503, while rotating the rotor of generator 504, which generates electricity. It should be noted, that trajectories of the wing may differ as long as the cable length between wing 501 and pulley 503 increases. In the passive phase, wing

501 moves toward pulley 503, while cable 502 is winding on spool 505.

Electrical energy is not generated in the passive phase, other way around - small amount of electrical energy may be consumed. The arrows on the picture show direction of movement of cable 502, spool 505 and direction of rotation of pulley 503 and spool 505 in the active phase. In the passive phase these directions are opposite.

[Para 45] In the beginning of the active phase, spool 505 is in its left most position, wing 501 is in the position, closest to pulley 503 and most of cable

502 is wound on spool 505. In the active phase wing 501 is moving away, pulling cable 502. Cable 502 rotates pulley 503 and unwinds from spool 505. Small motor 506 resists rotation of spool 505, creating a force on the segment II of cable 502, opposite to direction of cable movement. Force, acting on segment II, is much smaller than force of wing's pull, acting on segment I, so that cable unwinds, while rotating pulley 503 without slippage. As cable 502 unwinds from spool 505, spool 505 moves toward right on ball screw 507, pushed by motor 508. Spool 505 moves to right with such speed that unwinding cable remains aligned with pulley 503. In the end of active phase, spool 505 is in its right most position, wing 501 is in the furthest position from pulley 503 and only few wraps of cable 502 remain on spool 505. Then passive phase starts. In this phase, motor 506 rotates pulley 506 in the opposite direction, winding cable 502 on pulley 505, while motor 508 moves spool 505 to the left. In the end of the passive phase, positions of the parts of the system correspond to the positions in the beginning of the active phase.

[Para 46] The benefits of this embodiment are due to the fact, that forces, acting on segment II of cable 502 are much smaller than forces, acting on segment I of cable 502. The ratio is determined by belt friction equation:

[Para 47] T h ∞d = ¾>id

[Para 48] where Ti oa d the force on segment I, Thoid is the force on segment II, mu is the coefficient of friction and phi is the angle of cable wrapping. It is desirable to have higher ratio of forces. In many cases ratio 20: 1 is sufficient (i.e., force on segment II is 5% of force on segment I). To achieve such ratio with a high friction ribbed belt over ribbed sheave( /77£/ = 0.9), only half turn of the cable is required. To achieve such ratio with Dyneema over smooth steel {mu = 0.05), full 20 turns are required. In any case, the force should be sufficient to prevent slippage. Since force, acting on segment II of cable 502 is relatively small and we do not care about angular velocity of spool 505, spool 505 can be wide and long and cable 502 can be laid in multiple layers on it.

[Para 49] Among advantages of this aspect and embodiment: very long cables and very long cable motion are allowed (up to tens of kilometers) due to large capacity of spool 505; cables and belts, withstanding high tension are allowed due to large capacity of spool 505; cable fatigue is decreased due to large diameter of spool 505; flat cables and belts can be used; rotational velocity of pulley 503 can be increased for the same linear velocity of cable 502 by decreasing diameter of pulley 503; higher power output at lower cost is achieved.

[Para 50] As a variation of this embodiment, a second wing can be used instead of spool 505, creating resistance in segment II of cable 502 in its active phase, and pulling cable 502 in the passive phase of the first wing. Also, drag based wind capturing devices can be used instead of wings in this embodiment.

[Para 51 ] Another aspect of the invention is a streamlined cable and method of its manufacturing, combining high strength with low drag in cross flow and low disturbance of laminar air flow. The high drag of a usual cable is caused by it being round in section. This causes disturbance of air flow in the area behind the cable. Thus, aerodynamic cable should have a section in the form of a streamlined body.

[Para 52] Fig. 6A shows one embodiment of such aerodynamic cable in section. It consists of an off-the-shelf load bearing rope 601 inside of a streamlined jacket or coating 603, with the remaining space occupied by polyethylene foam 602. Rope 601 is placed in the widest place inside jacket 603 (or jacket 603 is wrapped around rope 601 ). In some variants of this embodiments, especially when the rope diameter is small, polyethylene foam 602 is replaced by air. Also, electrical or optical wires can pass in the space between core 601 and jacket 603. Other light weight flexible material can be used instead of polyethylene foam. Rope 601 is made of aramid (including poly aramid or meta aramid) fibers, ultra high molecular weight polyethylene fibers, carbon fibers or another strong material. Jacket 603 is made of nylon or other material, sufficiently durable and flexible. Material of jacket 603 should also be smooth from outside, resistant to water and ultra violet radiation, or have coating with these properties. When the aerodynamic cable is attached to another cable or surface, jacket 603 and foam 602 are removed at the end, and rope 601 is attached as usual.

[Para 53] Fig. 6B shows perspective view of the aerodynamic cable according to this embodiment, with rope 601 exposed at the end. In most cases, the cable needs to orient itself correctly in the air stream. The cable in this embodiment does orient itself in the air stream, when it is attached by its end and

sufficiently long. In some variations, additional strips 604 are attached to the rear end of the cable at constant intervals, to provide additional stabilization in the air flow. Strips 604 can be rigid or flexible.

[Para 54] Fig. 7 shows another embodiment of the aerodynamic cable in section. It comprises multiple ropes 601 , possibly of different diameters. In this embodiment, ropes or yarns 601 can fill part or whole space inside of jacket 603. Fig. 8 shows another embodiment of such aerodynamic cable in section. It uses one or more sideways compressed ropes 601 . As the result of

asymmetrical compression, rope 601 should be wider in the direction of the airfoil axis and narrower in the perpendicular direction. Fig. 9 shows another embodiment of such streamlined cable, in which sectional form is not airfoil, but round in the forward part and angular in the rear part. Fig. 10 shows another embodiment, in which a small section of jacket 603 is removed at equal intervals (for example, each one hundred diameters of rope 601 ). It is done for better flexibility and self orientation in the air flow.

[Para 55] These embodiments of invention will have aerodynamic drag many times (5x - 50x) lower, than round cable of the same strength and weight, due to lower form drag coefficient in all embodiments and lower cross section in some embodiments for the same strength. The applications of the streamlined cable are in the airborne wind energy conversion devices, tethered aircraft, suspension cables for airplanes and kites, guy wires for tall buildings, bridge suspensions etc. Jacket 603 may have dimples to damp oscillations. The streamlined cable can be manufactured from conventional round fiber rope by flattening it by pressure from the sides, using the flattened rope 601 as the force bearing core, and then wrapping jacket 603 around it, with optional foam 602 inside of jacket 603.

[Para 56] Examples of using streamlined cable in this invention are for cables 1 02 in Fig. 1 and Fig. 4, cable 509 in Fig. 5 , suspension cables in the kite wing in Fig. 3.

[Para 57] Multiple embodiments and aspects of the invention are described with reference to ground level. The invention can be practiced in marine

environment (oceans, seas, lakes as well), in which case water level replaces ground level.

[Para 58] Thus, a wind power system with a dynamic sail, streamlined cable or enhanced ground mechanisms is described in conjunction with multiple specific embodiments. While the above description contains many specificities, these should not be construed as limitations on the scope, but rather as

exemplification of several embodiments thereof. Many other variations are possible.