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Title:
FILTER MEDIA CONFIGURATIONS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/161108
Kind Code:
A9
Abstract:
The current technology relates to filter media configurations where the filter media has a surface with a treatment that that increases the roll off angle of the surface for a 50 μL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene. Some example filter media has a fluted configuration, and some example filter media has multiple layers. Filter media having multiple layers can be single facer media, for example, where one layer is planar and another layer is fluted.

Inventors:
RAHMATHULLAH AFLAL (US)
DALLAS ANDREW (US)
TUCKER BRIAN (US)
ADAMEK DANIEL (US)
WAY PAUL (US)
BETCHER SCOTT (US)
KAPOOR VIJAY (US)
MARCKS COLTER (US)
ROSSITER WILLIAM (US)
WINTERS TIMOTHY (US)
JODI WIJADI (US)
HAUSER BRADLY (US)
MORAVEC DAVIS (US)
GOERTZ MATTHEW (US)
SONTAG STEPHEN (US)
RAJGARHIA STUTI (GB)
CHRIST CHARLES (US)
BLOCK JOSEPH (US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2019/018080
Publication Date:
September 17, 2020
Filing Date:
February 14, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
DONALDSON CO INC (US)
International Classes:
B01D39/18; B01D39/16
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
NIKHANJ, Rakhi, D. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
We claim:

1. A filter media comprising:

a substrate layer having a first surface having a treatment that increases the roll off angle of the first surface for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface is immersed in toluene, wherein the substrate layer has a first edge and a second edge and the substrate layer defines a plurality of flutes extending between the first edge and the second edge.

2. The filter media of any one of claims 1 and 3-26, wherein the roll off angle of the first surface is in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and the first surface has a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface is immersed in toluene.

3. The filter media of any one of claims 1-2 and 4-26, wherein the substrate layer further defines a second surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the second surface is immersed in toluene.

4. The filter media of any one of claims 1-3 and 5-26, wherein the flutes are tapered.

5. The filter media of any one of claims 1-4 and 6-26, wherein the flutes define ridges.

6. The filter media of any one of claims 1-5 and 7-26, wherein the roll off angle of the first surface is in a range of 60 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 70 degrees to 90 degrees, or in a range of 80 degrees to 90 degrees.

7. The filter media of any one of claims 1-6 and 8-26, wherein the first surface comprises a UV -treated surface.

8. The filter media of any one of claims 1-7 and 9-26, wherein the first surface comprises a UV-oxy gen-treated surface.

9. The filter media of any one of claims 1-8 and 10-26, wherein the substrate layer comprises at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component.

10. The filter media of any one of claims 1-9 and 11-26, wherein the substrate layer comprises a UV -reactive resin.

11. The filter media of any one of claims 1-10 and 12-26, wherein the first surface comprises a hydrophilic group-containing polymer.

12. The filter media of any one of claims 1-11 and 13-26, wherein the hydrophilic group- containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic pendant group.

13. The filter media of any one of claims 1-12 and 14-26, wherein the hydrophilic group- containing polymer does not comprise a fluoropolymer.

14. The filter media of any one of claims 1-13 and 15-26, wherein the hydrophilic group- containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic polymer.

15. The filter media of any one of claims 1-14 and 16-26, wherein the hydrophilic group- containing polymer comprises a charged polymer.

16. The filter media of any one of claims 1-15 and 17-26, wherein the hydrophilic group- containing polymer comprises a hydroxylated methacrylate polymer.

17. The filter media of any one of claims 1-16 and 18-26, wherein the substrate layer comprises a modifying resin.

18. The filter media of any one of claims 1-17 and 19-26, wherein the substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm.

19. The filter media of any one of claims 1-18 and 20-26, wherein the substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter in a range of 40 pm to 50 pm.

20. The filter media of any one of claims 1-19 and 21-26, wherein the substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

21. The filter media of any one of claims 1-20 and 22-26, wherein the substrate layer comprises at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component, wherein the surface comprises a UV -treated surface, wherein the substrate comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the substrate is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

22. The filter media of any one of claims 1-21 and 23-26, wherein the surface comprises a hydrophilic group-containing polymer, wherein the substrate comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the substrate is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

23. The filter media of any one of claims 1-22 and 24-26, wherein the substrate layer is stable.

24. The filter media of any one of claims 1-23 and 25-26, wherein the first surface comprises poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPM), poly(2 -hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) (PHEM), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (P2E20), polyethyleneimine (PEI), quatemized polyethyleneimine, poly(dopamine), or combinations thereof.

25. The filter media of any one of claims 1-24 and 26, wherein the substrate layer comprises cellulose, polyester, polyamide, polyolefin, glass, or a combination thereof.

26. The filter media of any one of claims 1-25, wherein the substrate layer comprises a phenolic resin.

27. A filter media comprising:

a first substrate layer having a first surface having a treatment that increases the roll off angle of the first surface for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface is immersed in toluene, wherein the first substrate layer has a first edge and a second edge, and the first substrate layer is fluted to define flute peaks and flute valleys; and

a second substrate layer coupled to the first substrate layer, wherein the second substrate layer is planar, and the first substrate layer and the second substrate layer cooperatively define a plurality of flutes extending between the first edge and the second edge.

28. The filter media of any one of claims 27 and 29-52, wherein the roll off angle of the first surface is in the range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and the first surface has a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface is immersed in toluene

29. The filter media of any one of claims 27-28 and 30-52, the first substrate layer defining a second surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the second surface is immersed in toluene.

30. The filter media of any one of claims 27-29 and 31-52, the second substrate layer defining a third surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface is immersed in toluene.

31. The filter media of any one of claims 27-30 and 32-52, the second substrate layer defining a fourth surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the second surface is immersed in toluene.

32. The filter media of any one of claims 27-31 and 33-52, wherein the roll off angle of the first surface is in a range of 60 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 70 degrees to 90 degrees, or in a range of 80 degrees to 90 degrees.

33. The filter media of any one of claims 27-32 and 34-52, wherein the first surface comprises a UV -treated surface.

34. The filter media of any one of claims 27-33 and 35-52, wherein the first surface comprises a UV-oxy gen-treated surface.

35. The filter media of any one of claims 27-34 and 36-52, wherein the first substrate layer comprises at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component.

36. The filter media of any one of claims 27-35 and 37-52, wherein the first substrate layer comprises a UV-reactive resin.

37. The filter media of any one of claims 27-36 and 38-52, wherein the first surface comprises a hydrophilic group-containing polymer.

38. The filter media of any one of claims 27-37 and 39-52, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic pendant group.

39. The filter media of any one of claims 27-38 and 40-52, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer does not comprise a fluoropolymer.

40. The filter media of any one of claims 27-39 and 41-52, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic polymer.

41. The filter media of any one of claims 27-40 and 42-52, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a charged polymer.

42. The filter media of any one of claims 27-41 and 43-52, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydroxylated methacrylate polymer.

43. The filter media of any one of claims 27-42 and 44-52, wherein the first substrate layer comprises a modifying resin.

44. The filter media of any one of claims 27-43 and 45-52, wherein the first substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm.

45. The filter media of any one of claims 27-44 and 46-52, wherein the first substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter in a range of 40 pm to 50 pm.

46. The filter media of any one of claims 27-45 and 47-52, wherein the first substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

47. The filter media of any one of claims 27-46 and 48-52, wherein the first substrate layer comprises at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component, wherein the first surface comprises a UV-treated surface, wherein the first substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the first substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

48. The filter media of any one of claims 27-47 and 49-52, wherein the first surface comprises a hydrophilic group-containing polymer, wherein the first substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the first substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

49. The filter media of any one of claims 27-48 and 50-52, wherein at least one of the first substrate layer and the second substrate layer is stable.

50. The filter media of any one of claims 27-49 and 51-52, wherein the first surface comprises poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPM), poly(2 -hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) (PHEM), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (P2E20), polyethyleneimine (PEI), quatemized polyethyleneimine, poly(dopamine), or combinations thereof.

5E The filter media of any one of claims 27-50 and 52, wherein the first substrate layer comprises cellulose, polyester, polyamide, polyolefin, glass, or a combination thereof.

52. The filter media of any one of claims 27-51, wherein the first substrate layer comprises a phenolic resin.

53. A filter media comprising:

a first substrate layer defining a first surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface is immersed in toluene; and

a second substrate layer abutting the first substrate layer, the second substrate layer defining a second surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the second surface is immersed in toluene.

54. The filter media of any one of claims 53 and 55-80, wherein the first substrate layer and the second substrate layer are different materials.

55. The filter media of any one of claims 53-54 and 56-80, wherein the first substrate has a first average pore size and the second substrate has a second average pore size, and the first average pore size and second average pore size are different.

56. The filter media of any one of claims 53-55 and 57-80, wherein the first surface comprises a UV -treated surface and the second surface comprises a hydrophilic group- containing polymer.

57. The filter media of any one of claims 53-56 and 58-80, further comprising a third substrate layer abutting the second substrate layer, the third substrate layer defining a third surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the third surface is immersed in toluene.

58. The filter media of any one of claims 53-57 and 59-80, wherein the third substrate layer and the second substrate layer are different materials.

59. The filter media of any one of claims 53-58 and 60-80, wherein the first substrate layer defines a third surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the third surface is immersed in toluene.

60. The filter media of any one of claims 53-59 and 61-80, wherein the second substrate layer defines a fourth surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the fourth surface is immersed in toluene.

61. The filter media of any one of claims 53-60 and 62-80, wherein the roll off angle of the first surface is in a range of 60 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 70 degrees to 90 degrees, or in a range of 80 degrees to 90 degrees.

62. The filter media of any one of claims 53-61 and 63-80, wherein the first surface comprises a UV -treated surface.

63. The filter media of any one of claims 53-62 and 64-80, wherein the first surface comprises a UV-oxy gen-treated surface.

64. The filter media of any one of claims 53-63 and 65-80, wherein the first substrate layer comprises at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component.

65. The filter media of any one of claims 53-64 and 66-80, wherein the first substrate layer comprises a UV-reactive resin.

66. The filter media of any one of claims 53-65 and 67-80, wherein the second surface comprises a hydrophilic group-containing polymer.

67. The filter media of any one of claims 53-66 and 68-80, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic pendant group.

68. The filter media of any one of claims 53-67 and 69-80, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer does not comprise a fluoropolymer.

69. The filter media of any one of claims 53-68 and 70-80, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic polymer.

70. The filter media of any one of claims 53-69 and 71-80, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a charged polymer.

71. The filter media of any one of claims 53-70 and 72-80, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydroxylated methacrylate polymer.

72. The filter media of any one of claims 53-71 and 73-80, wherein the second substrate layer comprises a modifying resin.

73. The filter media of any one of claims 53-72 and 74-80, wherein the first substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm.

74. The filter media of any one of claims 53-73 and 75-80, wherein the first substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter in a range of 40 pm to 50 pm.

75. The filter media of any one of claims 53-74 and 76-80, wherein the first substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

76. The filter media of any one of claims 53-75 and 77-80, wherein the first substrate layer comprises at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component, wherein the first surface comprises a UV-treated surface, wherein the first substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the first substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

77. The filter media of any one of claims 53-76 and 78-80, wherein the second surface comprises a hydrophilic group-containing polymer, wherein the second substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the second substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

78. The filter media of any one of claims 53-77 and 79-80, wherein at least one of the first substrate layer and the second substrate layer is stable.

79. The filter media of any one of claims 53-78 and 80, wherein the first surface comprises poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPM), poly(2 -hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) (PHEM), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (P2E20), polyethyleneimine (PEI), quatemized polyethyleneimine, poly(dopamine), or combinations thereof.

80. The filter media of any one of claims 53-79, wherein the first substrate layer and the second substrate layer each comprises cellulose, polyester, polyamide, polyolefin, glass, or a combination thereof.

81. A filter media comprising:

a first substrate layer having a first surface that is a UV-treated surface; and

a second substrate layer abutting the first substrate layer, the second substrate layer comprising a second surface having a hydrophilic group-containing polymer.

82. The filter media of any one of claims 81 and 83-101, wherein the first surface comprises a UV -reactive resin.

83. The filter media of any one of claims 81-82 and 84-101, wherein the first surface and the second surface each have a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when immersed in toluene.

84. The filter media of any one of claims 81-83 and 85-101, wherein the roll off angle of the first surface is in a range of 60 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 70 degrees to 90 degrees, or in a range of 80 degrees to 90 degrees.

85. The filter media of any one of claims 81-84 and 86-101, wherein the first surface comprises a UV-oxy gen-treated surface.

86. The filter media of any one of claims 81-85 and 87-101, wherein the first substrate layer comprises at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component.

87. The filter media of any one of claims 81-86 and 88-101, wherein the second surface comprises a hydrophilic group-containing polymer.

88. The filter media of any one of claims 81-87 and 89-101, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic pendant group.

89. The filter media of any one of claims 81-88 and 90-101, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer does not comprise a fluoropolymer.

90. The filter media of any one of claims 81-89 and 91-101, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic polymer.

91. The filter media of any one of claims 81-90 and 92-101, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a charged polymer.

92. The filter media of any one of claims 81-91 and 93-101, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydroxylated methacrylate polymer.

93. The filter media of any one of claims 81-92 and 94-101, wherein the second substrate layer comprises a modifying resin.

94. The filter media of any one of claims 81-93 and 95-101, wherein the first substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm.

95. The filter media of any one of claims 81-94 and 96-101, wherein the first substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter in a range of 40 pm to 50 pm.

96. The filter media of any one of claims 81-95 and 97-101, wherein the first substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

97. The filter media of any one of claims 81-96 and 98-101, wherein the first substrate layer comprises at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component, wherein the first surface comprises a UV-treated surface, wherein the first substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the first substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

98. The filter media of any one of claims 81-97 and 99-101, wherein the second surface comprises a hydrophilic group-containing polymer, wherein the second substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the second substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

99. The filter media of any one of claims 81-98 and 100-101, wherein at least one of the first substrate layer and the second substrate layer is stable.

100. The filter media of any one of claims 81-99 and 101, wherein the first surface comprises poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPM), poly(2 -hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) (PHEM), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (P2E20), polyethyleneimine (PEI), quatemized polyethyleneimine, poly(dopamine), or combinations thereof.

101. The filter media of any one of claims 81-100, wherein the first substrate layer and the second substrate layer each comprises cellulose, polyester, polyamide, polyolefin, glass, or a combination thereof.

102. A filter media comprising:

a first substrate having a first porosity and defining a first surface; and

a second substrate abutting the first substrate, the second substrate having a second porosity and defining and second surface, wherein the first porosity is greater than the second porosity, and wherein the first surface and the second surface each have a treatment that increases a roll off angle of the surface for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

103. The filter media of any one of claims 102 and 104-125, wherein the roll off angle of each of the first surface and the second surface is in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and each of the first surface and second surface have a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when immersed in toluene.

104. The filter media of any one of claims 102-103 and 105-125, wherein the first substrate is a screen.

105. The filter media of any one of claims 102-104 and 106-125, wherein the second substrate is a screen.

106. The filter media of any one of claims 102-105 and 107-125, wherein the first surface comprises a UV-reactive resin.

107. The filter media of any one of claims 102-106 and 108-125, wherein the roll off angle of the first surface is in a range of 60 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 70 degrees to 90 degrees, or in a range of 80 degrees to 90 degrees.

108. The filter media of any one of claims 102-107 and 109-125, wherein the roll off angle of the second surface is in a range of 60 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 70 degrees to 90 degrees, or in a range of 80 degrees to 90 degrees.

109. The filter media of any one of claims 102-108 and 110-125, wherein the first surface comprises a UV-oxy gen-treated surface.

110. The filter media of any one of claims 102-109 and 111-125, wherein the first substrate layer comprises at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component.

111. The filter media of any one of claims 102-110 and 112-125, wherein the second surface comprises a hydrophilic group-containing polymer.

112. The filter media of any one of claims 102-111 and 113-125, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic pendant group.

113. The filter media of any one of claims 102-112 and 114-125, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer does not comprise a fluoropolymer.

114. The filter media of any one of claims 102-113 and 115-125, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic polymer.

115. The filter media of any one of claims 102-114 and 116-125, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a charged polymer.

116. The filter media of any one of claims 102-115 and 117-125, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydroxylated methacrylate polymer.

117. The filter media of any one of claims 102-116 and 118-125, wherein the second substrate layer comprises a modifying resin.

118. The filter media of any one of claims 102-117 and 119-125, wherein the first substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm.

119. The filter media of any one of claims 102-118 and 120-125, wherein the first substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter in a range of 40 pm to 50 pm.

120. The filter media of any one of claims 102-119 and 121-125, wherein the first substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

121. The filter media of any one of claims 102-120 and 122-125, wherein the first substrate layer comprises at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component, wherein the first surface comprises a UV -treated surface, wherein the first substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the first substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

122. The filter media of any one of claims 102-121 and 123-125, wherein the second surface comprises a hydrophilic group-containing polymer, wherein the second substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the second substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

123. The filter media of any one of claims 102-122 and 124-125, wherein at least one of the first substrate layer and the second substrate layer is stable.

124. The filter media of any one of claims 102-123 and 125, wherein the first surface comprises poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPM), poly(2 -hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) (PHEM), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (P2E20), polyethyleneimine (PEI), quatemized polyethyleneimine, poly(dopamine), or combinations thereof.

125. The filter media of any one of claims 102-124, wherein the first substrate layer and the second substrate layer each comprises cellulose, polyester, polyamide, polyolefin, glass, or a combination thereof.

Description:
FILTER MEDIA CONFIGURATIONS

Continuing Application Data

This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application Serial No. 62/631,402, filed February 15, 2018, which is incorporated by reference herein.

Field of the Technology

The technology disclosed herein relates to filter media. More particularly, the technology disclosed herein relates to filter media configurations.

Background

Filtration of hydrocarbon fluids including diesel fuels for use in internal combustion engines is often essential to proper engine performance. Water and particle removal can be necessary to provide favorable engine performance as well as to protect engine components from damage. Free water (that is, non-dissolved water), which exists as a separate phase in the hydrocarbon fluid, can, if not removed, cause problems including damage to engine components through cavitation, corrosion, or promotion of microbiological growth.

Summary

In some embodiments, the technology disclosed herein relates to filter media having a substrate layer with a first surface having a treatment that increases the roll off angle of the first surface for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface is immersed in toluene. The substrate layer has a first edge and a second edge and the substrate layer defines a plurality of flutes extending between the first edge and the second edge.

In some such embodiments, the roll off angle of the first surface is in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and the first surface has a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface is immersed in toluene. Additionally or alternatively, the substrate layer further defines a second surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the second surface is immersed in toluene.

Additionally or alternatively, the flutes are tapered. Additionally or alternatively, the flutes define ridges. Additionally or alternatively, the roll off angle of the first surface is in a range of 60 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 70 degrees to 90 degrees, or in a range of 80 degrees to 90 degrees.

Additionally or alternatively, the first surface has a UV -treated surface. Additionally or alternatively, the first surface has a UV-oxy gen-treated surface. Additionally or alternatively, the substrate layer has at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component. Additionally or alternatively, the substrate layer has a UV -reactive resin.

Additionally or alternatively, the first surface has a hydrophilic group-containing polymer. Additionally or alternatively, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer has a hydrophilic pendant group. Additionally or alternatively, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer does not have a fluoropolymer. Additionally or alternatively, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer has a hydrophilic polymer. Additionally or alternatively, the hydrophilic group- containing polymer has a charged polymer. Additionally or alternatively, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer has a hydroxylated methacrylate polymer.

Additionally or alternatively, the substrate layer has a modifying resin. Additionally or alternatively, the substrate layer has pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm. Additionally or alternatively, the substrate layer has pores having an average diameter in a range of 40 pm to 50 pm. Additionally or alternatively, the substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous. Additionally or alternatively, the substrate layer has at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component, wherein the surface has a UV- treated surface, wherein the substrate has pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the substrate is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous. Additionally or alternatively, the surface has a hydrophilic group-containing polymer, wherein the substrate has pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the substrate is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

Additionally or alternatively, the substrate layer is stable. Additionally or

alternatively, the first surface has poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPM), poly(2- hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) (PHEM), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (P2E20), polyethyleneimine (PEI), quatemized polyethyleneimine, poly(dopamine), or combinations thereof. Additionally or alternatively, the substrate layer has cellulose, polyester, polyamide, polyolefin, glass, or a combination thereof. Additionally or alternatively, the substrate layer has a phenolic resin.

In some embodiments, the current technology relates to a filter media having a first substrate layer with a first surface having a treatment that increases the roll off angle of the first surface for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface is immersed in toluene. The first substrate layer has a first edge and a second edge, and the first substrate layer is fluted to define flute peaks and flute valleys. A second substrate layer is coupled to the first substrate layer, where the second substrate layer is planar. The first substrate layer and the second substrate layer cooperatively define a plurality of flutes extending between the first edge and the second edge.

In some such embodiments, the roll off angle of the first surface is in the range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and the first surface has a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface is immersed in toluene. Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer defines a second surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the second surface is immersed in toluene. Additionally or alternatively, the second substrate layer defining a third surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface is immersed in toluene.

Additionally or alternatively, the second substrate layer defining a fourth surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the second surface is immersed in toluene. Additionally or alternatively, wherein the roll off angle of the first surface is in a range of 60 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 70 degrees to 90 degrees, or in a range of 80 degrees to 90 degrees. Additionally or alternatively, the first surface has a UV -treated surface. Additionally or alternatively, the first surface has a UV-oxy gen-treated surface.

Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer has at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component. Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer has a UV -reactive resin. Additionally or alternatively, the first surface has a hydrophilic group-containing polymer. Additionally or alternatively, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer has a hydrophilic pendant group. Additionally or alternatively, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer does not have a fluoropolymer. Additionally or alternatively, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer has a hydrophilic polymer. Additionally or alternatively, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer has a charged polymer. Additionally or alternatively, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer has a hydroxylated methacrylate polymer.

Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer has a modifying resin.

Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer has pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm. Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer has pores having an average diameter in a range of 40 pm to 50 pm. Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous. Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer has at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component, wherein the first surface has a UV -treated surface, wherein the first substrate layer has pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the first substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous. Additionally or alternatively, the first surface has a hydrophilic group-containing polymer, where the first substrate layer has pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and the first substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

Additionally or alternatively, at least one of the first substrate layer and the second substrate layer is stable. Additionally or alternatively, the first surface has

poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPM), poly(2 -hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) (PHEM), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (P2E20), polyethyleneimine (PEI), quatemized polyethyleneimine, poly(dopamine), or combinations thereof. Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer has cellulose, polyester, polyamide, polyolefin, glass, or a combination thereof.

Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer has a phenolic resin.

Some embodiments of the current technology relate to a filter media having a first substrate layer and a second substrate layer. The first substrate layer defines a first surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface is immersed in toluene. The second substrate layer abuts the first substrate layer and defines a second surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the second surface is immersed in toluene.

In some such embodiments, the first substrate layer and the second substrate layer are different materials. Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate has a first average pore size and the second substrate has a second average pore size, and the first average pore size and second average pore size are different. Additionally or alternatively, the first surface has a UV -treated surface and the second surface has a hydrophilic group-containing polymer. Additionally or alternatively, the filter media has a third substrate layer abutting the second substrate layer, where the third substrate layer defines a third surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the third surface is immersed in toluene. Additionally or alternatively, the third substrate layer and the second substrate layer are different materials. Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer defines a third surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the third surface is immersed in toluene. Additionally or alternatively, the second substrate layer defines a fourth surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the fourth surface is immersed in toluene. Additionally or alternatively, the roll off angle of the first surface is in a range of 60 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 70 degrees to 90 degrees, or in a range of 80 degrees to 90 degrees.

Additionally or alternatively, the first surface has a UV -treated surface. Additionally or alternatively, the first surface has a UV-oxy gen-treated surface. Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer has at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component. Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer has a UV- reactive resin.

Additionally or alternatively, the second surface has a hydrophilic group-containing polymer. Additionally or alternatively, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer has a hydrophilic pendant group. Additionally or alternatively, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer does not have a fluoropolymer. Additionally or alternatively, the hydrophilic group- containing polymer has a hydrophilic polymer. Additionally or alternatively, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer has a charged polymer. Additionally or alternatively, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer has a hydroxylated methacrylate polymer.

Additionally or alternatively, the second substrate layer has a modifying resin.

Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer has pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm. Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer has pores having an average diameter in a range of 40 pm to 50 pm. Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous. Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer has at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component, where the first surface has a UV -treated surface, the first substrate layer has pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

Additionally or alternatively, the second surface has a hydrophilic group-containing polymer, wherein the second substrate layer has pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the second substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous. Additionally or alternatively, at least one of the first substrate layer and the second substrate layer is stable. Additionally or alternatively, the first surface has poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPM), poly(2 -hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) (PHEM), poly(2-ethyl-2- oxazoline) (P2E20), polyethyleneimine (PEI), quatemized polyethyleneimine,

poly(dopamine), or combinations thereof. Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer and the second substrate layer each has cellulose, polyester, polyamide, polyolefin, glass, or a combination thereof.

Some embodiments of the present technology relate to a filter media having a first substrate layer and a second substrate layer. The first substrate layer has a first surface that is a UV -treated surface, and the second substrate layer abuts the first substrate layer. The second substrate layer has a second surface having a hydrophilic group-containing polymer.

In some such embodiments, the first surface has a UV -reactive resin. Additionally or alternatively, the first surface and the second surface each have a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when immersed in toluene. Additionally or alternatively, the roll off angle of the first surface is in a range of 60 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 70 degrees to 90 degrees, or in a range of 80 degrees to 90 degrees. Additionally or alternatively, the first surface has a UV-oxy gen-treated surface. Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer has at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component.

Additionally or alternatively, the second surface has a hydrophilic group-containing polymer. Additionally or alternatively, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer has a hydrophilic pendant group. Additionally or alternatively, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer does not have a fluoropolymer. Additionally or alternatively, the hydrophilic group- containing polymer has a hydrophilic polymer. Additionally or alternatively, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer has a charged polymer. Additionally or alternatively, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer has a hydroxylated methacrylate polymer.

Additionally or alternatively, the second substrate layer has a modifying resin.

Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer has pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm. Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer has pores having an average diameter in a range of 40 pm to 50 pm. Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous. Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer has at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component, wherein the first surface has a UV -treated surface, wherein the first substrate layer has pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the first substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous. Additionally or alternatively, the second surface has a hydrophilic group-containing polymer, wherein the second substrate layer has pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the second substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous. Additionally or alternatively, at least one of the first substrate layer and the second substrate layer is stable. Additionally or alternatively, the first surface has poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPM), poly(2 -hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) (PHEM), poly(2-ethyl-2- oxazoline) (P2E20), polyethyleneimine (PEI), quatemized polyethyleneimine,

poly(dopamine), or combinations thereof. Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer and the second substrate layer each has cellulose, polyester, polyamide, polyolefin, glass, or a combination thereof.

Some embodiments of the current technology relate to a filter media having a first substrate having a first porosity and defining a first surface and a second substrate abutting the first substrate. The second substrate defines a second surface and has a second porosity, where the first porosity is greater than the second porosity. The first surface and the second surface each have a treatment that increases a roll off angle of the surface for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

In some such embodiments, the roll off angle of each of the first surface and the second surface is in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and each of the first surface and second surface have a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when immersed in toluene. Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate is a screen. Additionally or alternatively, the second substrate is a screen. Additionally or alternatively, the first surface has a UV-reactive resin. Additionally or alternatively, the roll off angle of the first surface is in a range of 60 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 70 degrees to 90 degrees, or in a range of 80 degrees to 90 degrees. Additionally or alternatively, the roll off angle of the second surface is in a range of 60 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 70 degrees to 90 degrees, or in a range of 80 degrees to 90 degrees. Additionally or alternatively, the first surface has a UV-oxy gen-treated surface. Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer has at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component.

Additionally or alternatively, the second surface has a hydrophilic group-containing polymer. Additionally or alternatively, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer has a hydrophilic pendant group. Additionally or alternatively, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer does not have a fluoropolymer. Additionally or alternatively, the hydrophilic group- containing polymer has a hydrophilic polymer. Additionally or alternatively, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer has a charged polymer. Additionally or alternatively, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer has a hydroxylated methacrylate polymer.

Additionally or alternatively, the second substrate layer has a modifying resin.

Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer has pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm. Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer has pores having an average diameter in a range of 40 pm to 50 pm. Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous. Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer has at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component, wherein the first surface has a UV -treated surface, wherein the first substrate layer has pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the first substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous. Additionally or alternatively, the second surface has a hydrophilic group-containing polymer, wherein the second substrate layer has pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the second substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

Additionally or alternatively, at least one of the first substrate layer and the second substrate layer is stable. Additionally or alternatively, the first surface has

poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPM), poly(2 -hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) (PHEM), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (P2E20), polyethyleneimine (PEI), quatemized polyethyleneimine, poly(dopamine), or combinations thereof. Additionally or alternatively, the first substrate layer and the second substrate layer each has cellulose, polyester, polyamide, polyolefin, glass, or a combination thereof.

The terms“comprises” and variations thereof do not have a limiting meaning where these terms appear in the description and claims.

The term“consisting of’ means including, and limited to, whatever follows the phrase “consisting of.” That is,“consisting of’ indicates that the listed elements are required or mandatory, and that no other elements may be present.

The term“consisting essentially of’ indicates that any elements listed after the phrase are included, and that other elements than those listed may be included provided that those elements do not interfere with or contribute to the activity or action specified in the disclosure for the listed elements.

Unless otherwise specified,“a,”“an,”“the,” and“at least one” are used

interchangeably and mean one or more than one.

Also herein, the recitations of numerical ranges by endpoints include all numbers subsumed within that range (for example, 1 to 5 includes 1, 1.5, 2, 2.75, 3, 3.80, 4, 5, etc.). For any method disclosed herein that includes discrete steps, the steps may be conducted in any feasible order. And, as appropriate, any combination of two or more steps may be conducted simultaneously.

The above summary of the present technology is not intended to describe each disclosed embodiment or every implementation. The description that follows more particularly exemplifies illustrative embodiments. In several places throughout the application, guidance is provided through lists of examples, which examples can be used in various combinations. In each instance, the recited list serves only as a representative group and should not be interpreted as an exclusive list.

Brief Description of the Drawings

The current technology may be more completely understood and appreciated in consideration of the following detailed description of various embodiments of the current technology with the accompanying drawings.

FIG. 1 is an example sheet of filter media consistent with some embodiments.

FIG. 2 is another example sheet of filter media consistent with some embodiments.

FIG. 3 is another example sheet of filter media consistent with some embodiments.

FIG. 4 is yet another example sheet of filter media consistent with some

embodiments.

FIG. 5 is yet another example sheet of filter media consistent with some

embodiments.

FIG. 6 is yet another example sheet of filter media consistent with some

embodiments.

FIG. 7 is a series of cross-sectional views of the filter media depicted in FIG. 6.

FIG. 8 is another example sheet of filter media consistent with some embodiments.

FIG. 9 is a partial cross-sectional view of the sheet of filter media depicted in FIG. 8.

FIG. 10 is a partial cross-sectional view of another sheet of filter media.

FIG. 11 A shows an exemplary arrangement of the layers of a filter media including a substrate. FIG. 1 IB shows an exemplary arrangement of the layers of a filter media including a substrate. FIG. 11C shows an exemplary arrangement of the layers of a filter media including a substrate. FIG. 1 ID shows an exemplary arrangement of the layers of a filter media including a substrate. FIG. 12 depicts exemplary images of a 50 pL water droplet on UV-oxy gen-treated Substrate 1 immersed in toluene at 0 degrees (0°) rotation (left) and 90° rotation (right).

FIG. 13 shows a schematic of the two-loop system used for the droplet sizing test.

FIG. 14 shows performance of untreated Substrate 1 (control) and UV-oxy gen-treated Substrate 1, as measured by water removal efficiency.

FIG. 15 shows the contact angle and the roll off angle of untreated Substrate 1 and UV-oxy gen-treated Substrate 1 without soaking or after soaking in Pump Fuel for 30 days. Contact angles and roll off angles were measured using a 50 pL water droplet in toluene, and reported values are an average of three independent measurements taken on different areas of the media.

FIG. 16 shows the contact angle (CA) and roll off angle (RO) of a treated side and an untreated side of UV/H202-treated Substrate 1 immersed in toluene, measured using a 50 pL water droplet.

FIG. 17 shows exemplary images of a 20 pL water droplet on PHPM-treated

Substrate 1 immersed in toluene at 0° rotation (left) and 60° rotation (right).

FIG. 18 shows the performance as measured by water removal efficiency of uncoated (control) and PEI-lOK-coated Substrate 1.

FIG. 19 shows the permeability of uncoated Substrate 1 and of Substrate 1 coated with 2 % (w/v) PHEM, 4% (w/v) PHEM, 6% (w/v) PHEM, or 8% (w/v) PHEM.

FIG. 20 shows the contact angle and the roll off angle of a 50 pL water droplet on uncoated Substrate 1 (control), PHPM-coated Substrate 1, PHPM-coated Substrate 1 crosslinked (CL) using 1% (w/v) N-(2-Aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, and PHPM-coated Substrate 1 crosslinked (CL) using 1% (w/v) N-(2-Aminoethyl)-3- aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and annealed without soaking or after soaking in Pump Fuel for the indicated period.

FIG. 21 shows the contact angle and the roll off angle of a 50 pL water droplet on uncoated Substrate 1 (control), PEI-lOK-coated Substrate 1, PEI-lOK-coated Substrate 1 crosslinked (CL) using 1% (w/v) (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane), and PEI-lOK- coated Substrate 1 crosslinked (CL) using 1% (w/v) (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane and annealed without soaking or after soaking in Pump Fuel for the indicated period.

FIG. 22 shows the contact angle and the roll off angle of a 50 pL water droplet on an exemplary PHEM nanofiber-coated Substrate 6 with and without crosslinker DAMO-T.

FIG. 23 shows the contact angle and the roll off angle of a 50 pL water droplet on an exemplary PEI nanofiber-coated Substrate 6 without crosslinker or crosslinked with (3- glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxy silane) (crossbnker 1) or poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (crossbnker 2).

FIG. 24 shows the contact angles and the roll off angles of a 50 pL water droplet on an exemplary PHEM nanofiber-coated, DAMO-T-crossbnked Substrate 6 1 day, 6 days, and 32 days after formation of the coating by electrospinning.

FIG. 25 shows the contact angle and the roll off angle of a 50 pL water droplet on an exemplary PEI- 1 OK nanofiber-coated, crosslinked Substrate 6 1 day, 6 days, and 32 days after formation of the coating by electrospinning. The PEI was crosslinked using either (3- glycidyloxypropyl) trimethoxy silane (crossbnker 1) or poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) (crossbnker 2).

FIG. 26(A-C) shows exemplary scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of uncoated Substrate 6 (FIG. 26A), Substrate 6 coated by electrospinning with PHEM without crossbnker (FIG. 26B), or Substrate 6 coated by electrospinning with PHEM with crossbnker DAMO-T (FIG. 26C). All images are shown at lOOOx magnification.

FIG. 27(A-C) shows exemplary SEM images of Substrate 6 coated by electrospinning with PEI-1 OK without crossbnker (FIG. 27 A), Substrate 6 coated by electrospinning with PEI-10K with crosslinker (3-glycidyloxypropyl) trimethoxy silane (FIG. 27B), and Substrate 6 coated by electrospinning with PEI- 1 OK with crossbnker poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) (FIG. 27C). All images are shown at 50x magnification.

FIG. 28(A-D) shows exemplary SEM images of uncoated Substrate 6 (FIG. 28A); Substrate 6 coated by electrospinning with PEI- 1 OK without crossbnker (FIG. 28B);

Substrate 6 coated by electrospinning with PEI-1 OK and crossbnker 1 ((3-glycidyloxypropyl) trimethoxy silane) (FIG. 28C); and Substrate 6 coated by electrospinning with PEI-1 OK and crossbnker 2 (poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA)) (FIG. 28D). All images are shown at 200x magnification.

Detailed Description

A hydrocarbon fluid-water separation filter can include a filter media that includes at least one layer to remove particles and/or at least one layer to coalesce water from a hydrocarbon fluid stream; the layer or layers can be a substrate or can be supported by a substrate. In some embodiments, the particle removal layer and the water-coalescing layer can be the same layer and the layer can be a substrate or can be supported by a substrate. This disclosure describes a filter media including a substrate for use in a hydrocarbon fluid-water separation filter, methods of identifying the substrate, methods of making the substrate, methods of using the substrate, and methods of improving the roll off angle of the substrate. Inclusion of the substrate in a filter media or a filter element including, for example, a hydrocarbon fluid-water separation filter element, can provide more efficient filter manufacturing and/or improved performance characteristics of the filter media or filter element including, for example, improved water separation efficiency.

Definitions

As used here, the term“chemically distinct” means that two compounds have different chemical compositions.

As used herein, the term“hydrophilic” refers to the ability of a molecule or other molecular entity to dissolve in water, and the term“hydrophile” refers to a molecule or other molecular entity which is hydrophilic and/or that is attracted to, and tends to be miscible with or soluble in water. In some embodiments,“hydrophilic” means that, to the extent saturation has not been reached, at least 90% of the molecules or other molecular entities, preferably at least 95% of the molecules or other molecular entities, more preferably at least 97% of the molecules or other molecular entities, and most preferably at least 99% of the molecules or other molecular entities dissolve in water at 25 degrees Celsius (°C). In some embodiments, “hydrophile” means that, to the extent saturation has not been reached, at least 90% of the molecules or other molecular entities, preferably at least 95% of the molecules or other molecular entities, more preferably at least 97% of the molecules or other molecular entities, and most preferably at least 99% of the molecules or other molecular entities are miscible with or soluble in water at 25°C.

A“hydrophilic surface” refers to a surface on which a water droplet has a contact angle of less than 90 degrees. In some embodiments, the surface is preferably immersed in toluene.

A“hydrophobic surface” refers to a surface on which a water droplet has a contact angle of at least 90 degrees. In some embodiments, the surface is preferably immersed in toluene.

A UV -reactive resin is used herein to mean a resin that has at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component.

"Porosity" is defined as the amount of void space in a material.

A substrate or a surface that is“stable” or has“stability” refers to a substrate or surface having the ability to retain a roll off angle of at least 80 percent (%), preferably at least 85%, more preferably at least 90%, or even preferably at least 95% of an initial roll off angle after being submersed in a hydrocarbon fluid at a temperature of at least 50°C for at least 1 hour, at least 12 hours, or at least 24 hours, and up to 10 days, up to 30 days, or up to 90 days. In some embodiments, the“initial roll off angle” of the surface or the substrate is the roll off angle of a surface substrate that has been submersed in a hydrocarbon fluid for less than an hour, or more preferably less than 20 minutes.

A“polar functional group” refers to a functional group having a net dipole as a result of the presence of electronegative atoms (for example, nitrogen, oxygen, chlorine, fluorine, etc.).

The words“preferred” and“preferably” refer to embodiments of the presently- disclosed technology that may afford certain benefits, under certain circumstances. However, other embodiments may also be preferred, under the same or other circumstances.

Furthermore, the recitation of one or more preferred embodiments does not imply that other embodiments are not useful, and is not intended to exclude other embodiments from the scope of the current technology.

Substrate Materials

Substrates disclosed herein can generally be suitable for use in constructing a filter media. In some embodiments, the substrate is preferably a substrate suitable for use in a hydrocarbon fluid filter element including, for example, a fuel filter. In some embodiments, the substrate can include, for example, cellulose, polyester, polyamide, polyolefin, glass, or combinations thereof (for example, blends, mixtures, or copolymers thereol). The substrate can include, for example, a nonwoven web, a woven web, a porous sheet, a sintered plastic, a screen, a mesh, or combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the substrate can include synthetic fibers, naturally occurring fibers, or combinations thereof (for example, blends or mixtures thereol). The substrate is typically of a porous nature and of a specified and definable performance characteristic such as pore size (such as average pore diameter), Frazier air permeability, and/or another suitable metric.

In some embodiments, the substrate can include a thermoplastic or a thermosetting polymer fiber. The polymers of the fiber may be present in a single polymeric material system, in a bicomponent fiber, or in a combination thereof. A bicomponent fiber may include, for example, a thermoplastic polymer. In some embodiments, a bicomponent fiber can have a core-sheath structure, including a concentric or a non-concentric structure. In some embodiments, the sheath of the bicomponent fiber can have a melting temperature lower than the melting temperature of the core such that, when heated, the sheath binds to the other fibers in the layer while the core maintains structural integrity. Exemplary embodiments of bicomponent fibers include side-by-side fibers or island-in-the-sea fibers.

In some embodiments, the substrate can include a cellulosic fiber including, for example, a softwood fiber (such as mercerized southern pine), a hardwood fiber (such as Eucalyptus fibers), a regenerated cellulose fiber, a mechanical pulp fiber, or a combination thereof (for example, a mixture or blend thereol).

In some embodiments, the substrate can include a glass fiber including, for example, a microglass, a chopped glass fiber, or a combination thereof (for example, a mixture or blend thereol).

In some embodiments, the substrate includes a fiber having a mean diameter of at least 0.3 micron, at least 1 micron, at least 10 microns, at least 15 microns, at least 20 microns, or at least 25 microns. In some embodiments, the substrate includes a fiber having a mean diameter of up to 50 microns, up to 60 microns, up to 70 microns, up to 75 microns, up to 80 microns, or up to 100 microns. A person having skill in the art will recognize that the diameter of the fiber may be varied depending on the fiber material as well as the process used to manufacture the fiber. The length of these fibers can also vary from a few millimeters in length to being a continuous fibrous structure. The cross-sectional shape of the fiber can also be varied depending on the material or manufacturing process used.

The substrate may, in some embodiments, include one or more binding materials. In some embodiments, a binding material includes a modifying resin that provides additional rigidity and/or hardness to the substrate. For example, in some embodiments, the substrate may be saturated with a modifying resin. A modifying resin may include a UV-reactive resin, as described herein, or a non-UV-reactive resin. A modifying resin may, in some

embodiments, include a phenolic resin and/or an acrylic resin. A non-UV-reactive resin may, in some embodiments, include an acrylic resin that lacks an aromatic component and/or an unsaturated component.

In some embodiments, including, for example, when the substrate is prepared by being exposed to UV radiation, the substrate can include an aromatic component and/or an unsaturated component. The aromatic component and/or an unsaturated component may be present in the substrate itself or the aromatic/unsaturated component can be present in another material, such as a resin, that is added to the substrate. A resin including an aromatic component and/or an unsaturated component is referred to herein as a UV-reactive resin. A UV -reactive resin may include, for example, a phenolic resin. In some embodiments, the unsaturated component preferably includes a double bond.

In some embodiments, the substrate includes pores having an average diameter of up to 10 micrometers (pm), up to 20 pm, up to 30 pm, up to 40 pm, up to 45 pm, up to 50 pm, up to 60 pm, up to 70 pm, up to 80 pm, up to 90 pm, up to 100 pm, up to 200 pm, up to 300 pm, up to 400 pm, up to 500 pm, up to 600 pm, up to 700 pm, up to 800 pm, up to 900 pm, up to 1 millimeter (mm), up to 1.5 mm, up to 2 mm, up to 2.5 mm, or up to 3 mm. In some embodiments, the substrate includes pores having an average diameter of at least 2 pm, at least 5 pm, at least 10 pm, at least 20 pm, at least 30 pm, at least 40 pm, at least 50 pm, at least 60 pm, at least 70 pm, at least 80 pm, at least 90 pm, at least 100 pm, at least 200 pm, at least 300 pm, at least 400 pm, at least 500 pm, at least 600 pm, at least 700 pm, at least 800 pm, at least 900 pm, or at least 1 mm. In some embodiments, the substrate includes pores having an average diameter in a range of 5 pm to 100 pm. In some embodiments, the substrate includes pores having an average diameter in a range of 40 pm to 50 pm. In some embodiments, pore size may be measured using capillary flow porometry. In some embodiments, pore size is preferably measured by liquid extrusion porometry, as described in US Patent Publication No. 2011/0198280.

In some embodiments, the substrate is at least 15% porous, at least 20% porous, at least 25% porous, at least 30% porous, at least 35% porous, at least 40% porous, at least 45% porous, at least 50% porous, at least 55% porous, at least 55% porous, at least 60% porous, at least 65% porous, at least 70% porous, at least 75% porous, or at least 80% porous. In some embodiments, the substrate is up to 75% porous, up to 80% porous, up to 85% porous, up to 90% porous, up to 95% porous, up to 96% porous, up to 97% porous, up to 98% porous, or up to 99% porous. For example, the substrate may be at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous, at least 50% porous and up to 99% porous, or at least 80% porous and up to 95% porous.

Substrate Surface Properties

In one aspect, this disclosure describes a filter media that includes a substrate suitable for hydrocarbon fluid-water separation. The substrate has a surface. In some embodiments, the substrate or a surface of the substrate are preferably stable.

In some embodiments, the surface of the substrate has a roll off angle of at least 30 degrees, at least 35 degrees, at least 40 degrees, at least 45 degrees, at least 50 degrees, at least 55 degrees, at least 60 degrees, at least 65 degrees, at least 70 degrees, at least 75 degrees, or at least 80 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene. In some embodiments, the surface has a roll off angle of at least 30 degrees, at least 35 degrees, at least 40 degrees, at least 45 degrees, at least 50 degrees, at least 55 degrees, at least 60 degrees, at least 65 degrees, at least 70 degrees, at least 75 degrees, or at least 80 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

In some embodiments, the surface of the substrate has a roll off angle of up to 60 degrees, up to 65 degrees, up to 70 degrees, up to 75 degrees, up to 80 degrees, up to 85 degrees, or up to 90 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene. In some embodiments, the surface has a roll off angle of up to 60 degrees, up to 65 degrees, up to 70 degrees, up to 75 degrees, up to 80 degrees, up to 85 degrees, or up to 90 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

In some embodiments, the surface of the substrate has a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene. In some embodiments, the surface has a roll off angle in a range of 40 degrees to 90 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

In some embodiments, the surface of the substrate is preferably hydrophobic, that is, the surface has a contact angle of at least 90 degrees. In some embodiments, the surface has a contact angle of at least 90 degrees, at least 100 degrees, at least 110 degrees, at least 120 degrees, at least 130 degrees, or at least 140 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene. In some embodiments, the surface has a contact angle of at least 90 degrees, at least 100 degrees, at least 110 degrees, at least 120 degrees, at least 130 degrees, or at least 140 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

In some embodiments, the surface of the substrate has contact angle of up to 150 degrees, up to 160 degrees, up to 170 degrees, or up to 180 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene. In some embodiments, the surface has contact angle of up to 150 degrees, up to 160 degrees, up to 170 degrees, or up to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

In some embodiments, the surface of the substrate has a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 150 degrees or in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

In some embodiments, the surface of the substrate has a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 150 degrees or in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene. As further described below, the roll off angle (that is, the adhesion) of a water droplet on a hydrophobic surface (that is, a surface having a contact angle of at least 90 degrees) of a substrate in a hydrocarbon fluid correlates with the size of a water droplet that can be coalesced or grown on the surface of the substrate in a hydrocarbon fluid. The size of the water droplet that can be coalesced or grown correlates with the ability of a substrate to remove water from hydrocarbon fluid. Thus, the ability of a substrate to remove water from hydrocarbon fluid can be accurately predicted by determining the roll off angle and the contact angle of a water droplet on the surface of the substrate in a hydrocarbon fluid.

Substrates produced and/or identified by the methods disclosed herein have a high contact angle and high roll off angle. The high contact angle is indicative of the low apparent drag forces on a water droplet, while the high roll off angle is indicative of the ability of the droplet to be retained on the substrate surface. Without wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that this combination of features allows larger droplets to form through coalescence, making the droplets easier to separate from a hydrocarbon fluid stream, and improving the overall efficiency of water separation from the hydrocarbon fluid stream.

The balance of high contact angle and high roll off angle is achievable using the methodology disclosed herein including, for example, by modifying substrate surfaces to increase their roll off angle. Typically, these methods have little negative impact on the contact angle. In some embodiments, substrates having high contact angles can, therefore, be modified to provide a substrate having the claimed combination of contact angle and roll off angle.

Typically, a surface of the substrate, prior to any surface modification or treatment, has a roll off angle of less than 50 degrees, less than 40 degrees, or less than 30 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene. Typically, a surface of the substrate, prior to any surface modification or treatment, has a roll off angle of less than 30 degrees, less than 20 degrees, less than 15 degrees, or less than 12 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

For example, the roll off angle of the surface prior to any surface modification or treatment may be in a range of 0 degrees to 50 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

In some embodiments, the roll off angle of the surface prior to any surface modification or treatment may preferably be in a range of 0 degrees to 40 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene. For example, the roll off angle of the surface prior to any surface modification or treatment may be in a range of 0 degrees to 20 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

Typically, a surface of a substrate, prior to any surface modification or treatment, has a contact angle of at least 90 degrees, at least 100 degrees, or at least 110 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene. Typically, a surface of a substrate, prior to any surface modification or treatment, has a contact angle of at least 90 degrees, at least 100 degrees, or at least 110 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

For example, the contact angle of the surface, prior to any surface modification or treatment, may be in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

In some embodiments, the contact angle of the surface, prior to any surface modification or treatment, may preferably be in a range of 100 degrees to 150 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

For example, the contact angle of the surface, prior to any surface modification or treatment, may be in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

In some embodiments, the contact angle of the surface, prior to any surface modification or treatment, may preferably be in a range of 100 degrees to 150 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

In some embodiments, the surface, prior to any surface modification or treatment, may have a contact angle of 0 degrees, that is, a droplet will completely spread out on the surface. In some embodiments, including when the surface, prior to any surface modification or treatment, has a contact angle of 0 degrees, the roll of angle, prior to any surface modification or treatment, will be undefined.

Providing a material (including, for example, a substrate) having a surface having a suitable contact angle is within the remit of the skilled person. Typically, including materials that are generally hydrophobic will usually result in a higher contact angle.

Other factors that influence the contact angle of a surface may include the pore size and porosity. For instance, pores of a certain size may promote hydrocarbon fluid, which is hydrophobic, being trapped in the filter. Moreover, the high interfacial tension of water prevents it from effectively penetrating pores below a certain size. Methods of Making the Substrate

Substrates disclosed herein can be treated by any suitable method to achieve the desired roll off angle and the desired contact angle. In some embodiments, treating the substrate, includes treating only a portion of the substrate, such as the surface of the substrate.

In some embodiments, the treatment to achieve the desired roll off angle and the desired contact angle does not change the structure of the substrate. For example, in some embodiments, the treatment does not change at least one of the average diameter of the pores of the substrate and permeability of the substrate. In some embodiments, the treatment does not change the appearance of the media when viewed at 500x magnification.

Curing

In some embodiments, the substrate includes a resin (for example, a modifying resin). Resins are well known and are typically used to improve the internal bonding of substrates.

Any suitable resin may be used including, for example, a UV -reactive resin or a non- UV -reactive resin. The resin may include, for example, a partially-cured resin (for example, a partially-cured phenolic resin), and curing of the resin may be performed to increase the rigidity of the substrate and/or to prevent disintegration of the substrate during use. Curing may be performed prior to performing a treatment to achieve the desired roll off angle and the desired contact angle or after performing a treatment to achieve the desired roll off angle and the desired contact angle. For example, if the substrate includes a hydrophilic group- containing polymer present in a separate layer from the resin, curing of the resin may be performed prior to formation of the layer including the hydrophilic group-containing polymer or after formation of the layer including the hydrophilic group-containing polymer. In some embodiments, the resin is preferably impregnated into the substrate.

The resin can include polymerizable monomers, polymerizable oligomers, polymerizable polymers, or combinations thereof (for example, blends, mixtures, or copolymers thereol). As used herein, curing refers to hardening of the resin and can include crosslinking and/or polymerizing components of the resin. In some embodiments, the resin includes polymers, and, during curing, the molecular weight of the polymer is increased due to crosslinking of the polymers.

Curing may be performed by any suitable means including, for example, by heating the substrate. In some embodiments, curing is preferably performed by heating the substrate at a temperature and for a time sufficient to cure a resin (including, for example, a phenolic resin). In some embodiments, the substrate may be heated at a temperature of at least 50°C, at least 75°C, at least 100°C, or at least 125°C. In some embodiments, the substrate may be heated at a temperature of up to 125°C, up to 150°C, up to 175°C, or up to 200°C. In some embodiments, the substrate may be heated to a temperature having a range of 50°C to 200°C. In some embodiments, the substrate may be heated for at least 1 minute, at least 2 minutes, at least 5 minutes, at least 7 minutes, at least 10 minutes, or at least 15 minutes. In some embodiments, the substrate may be heated for up to 8 minutes, up to 10 minutes, up to 12 minutes, up to 15 minutes, up to 20 minutes, or up to 25 minutes. In some embodiments, it may be preferred to heat the substrate at 150°C for 10 minutes.

Methods of Treating a Substrate to Increase the Roll off Angle

In some embodiments, the disclosure relates to methods of treating a substrate to increase the roll off angle of a surface. Without wishing to be bound by theory, the various methods disclosed are believed to increase the roll off angle by modifying the surface properties of the substrate to make the microstructure of the surface more hydrophilic, while retaining the overall hydrophobic properties of the surface to water droplets.

The various different approaches include those set out below.

UV

In some embodiments, the substrate includes a UV -treated surface, that is, a surface having been exposed to UV radiation. In such embodiments, the substrate can include an aromatic and/or unsaturated component.

For instance, the substrate may include a fibrous material having an aromatic and/or unsaturated component. In some embodiments, the substrate may include a UV -reactive resin, that is, a resin having an aromatic and/or unsaturated component. Such a UV -reactive resin may be present in addition to a fibrous material having an aromatic and/or unsaturated component, or may be used in combination with fibrous material not having an aromatic and/or unsaturated component.

In some embodiments, the substrate preferably includes an aromatic resin (that is, a resin containing aromatic groups) including, for example, a phenolic resin.

In some embodiments, the UV radiation is applied to the substrate at a distance from the source of at least 0.25 centimeters (cm), at least 0.5 cm, at least 0.75 cm, at least 1 cm, at least 1.25 cm, at least 2 cm, or at least 5 cm. In some embodiments, the UV radiation is applied to the substrate at a distance from the source of up to 0.5 cm, up to 1 cm, up to 2 cm, up to 3 cm, up to 5 cm, or up to 10 cm. In some embodiments, the substrate is exposed to UV radiation of at least 250 microwatts per square centimeter (pW/cm 2 ), at least 300 pW/cm 2 , at least 500 pW/cm 2 , at least 1 milliwatt per square centimeter (mW/cm 2 ), at least 5 mW/cm 2 , at least 10 mW/cm 2 , at least 15 mW/cm 2 , at least 20 mW/cm 2 , at least 21 mW/cm 2 , or at least 25 mW/cm 2 . In some embodiments, the substrate is exposed to UV radiation of up to 20 mW/cm 2 , up to 21 mW/cm 2 , up to 22 mW/cm 2 , up to 25 mW/cm 2 , up to 30 mW/cm 2 , up to 40 mW/cm 2 , up to 50 mW/cm 2 , up to 60 mW/cm 2 , up to 70 mW/cm 2 , up to 80 mW/cm 2 , up to 90 mW/cm 2 , up to 100 mW/cm 2 , up to 150 mW/cm 2 , or up to 200 mW/cm 2 .

In some embodiments, for example, the substrate is exposed to UV radiation in a range of 300 pW/cm 2 to 100 mW/cm 2 .

In some embodiments, for example, the substrate is exposed to UV radiation in a range of 300 pW/cm 2 to 200 mW/cm 2 .

In some embodiments, the substrate is exposed to (that is, treated with) UV radiation for at least 1 second, at least 2 seconds, at least 3 seconds, at least 5 seconds, at least 10 seconds, at least 30 seconds, at least 1 minute, at least 2 minutes, at least 3 minutes, at least 4 minutes, at least 5 minutes, at least 7 minutes, at least 9 minutes, at least 10 minutes, at least 11 minutes, at least 13 minutes, at least 15 minutes, at least 17 minutes, or at least 20 minutes. In some embodiments, the substrate is exposed to UV radiation for up to 5 seconds, up to 10 seconds, up to 30 seconds, up to 1 minute, up to 2 minutes, up to 4 minutes, up to 5 minutes, up to 6 minutes, up to 8 minutes, up to 10 minutes, up to 12 minutes, up to 14 minutes, up to 15 minutes, up to 16 minutes, up to 18 minutes, up to 20 minutes, up to 22 minutes, up to 24 minutes, up to 25 minutes, up to 26 minutes, up to 28 minutes, or up to 30 minutes.

In some embodiments, the UV radiation is applied for a time in a range of 2 seconds to 20 minutes.

In some embodiments, different wavelengths of UV radiation may be applied sequentially. In some embodiments, it may be preferable to apply different wavelengths of UV radiation simultaneously.

Without wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that the UV radiation causes an aromatic and/or unsaturated component to react and become chemically modified. This reaction increases the roll off angle of the surface while substantially retaining the contact angle properties. It has been found that additional agents, such as those set out below, may promote the chemical reaction of aromatic and/or unsaturated components present in and/or on the substrate. These additional agents may be used individually, sequentially, and/or

simultaneously during treatment of the substrate with UV.

UV + Oxygen

In some embodiments, the substrate preferably includes a UV-oxygen-treated surface, that is, a surface exposed to UV radiation in the presence of oxygen. Treatment in the presence of oxygen can include at least one of, for example, treatment in atmospheric air including oxygen, treatment in an oxygen-containing environment, treatment in an oxygen- enriched environment, or treatment of a substrate that includes oxygen in or on the substrate.

In some embodiments, the substrate is preferably treated under conditions and with wavelengths of UV radiation sufficient to generate ozone and oxygen radicals. In some embodiments, the UV radiation source is preferably a low pressure mercury lamp. The UV radiation may be applied using any combination of the parameters described above with respect to treatment with UV radiation including distance, intensity, and time, and multiple wavelengths may be applied using sequential or simultaneous application.

In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength capable of forming two oxygen radicals (O) from Ch. Oxygen radicals can react with O2 to form ozone (O3). In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength of at least 165 nanometers (nm), at least 170 nm, at least 175 nm, at least 180 nm, or at least 185 nm. In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength of up to 190 nm, up to 195 nm, up to 200 nm, up to 205 nm, up to 210 nm, up to 215 nm, up to 220 nm, up to 230 nm, or up to 240 nm. In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength in a range of 180 nm to 210 nm. In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength of 185 nm.

In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength capable of splitting ozone (O3) to form O2 and an oxygen radical (O ). In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength of at least 200 nm, at least 205 nm, at least 210 nm, at least 215 nm, at least 220 nm, at least 225 nm, at least 230 nm, at least 235 nm, at least 240 nm, at least 245 nm, or at least 250 nm. In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength of up to 260 nm, up to 265 nm, up to 270 nm, up to 275 nm, up to 280 nm, up to 285 nm, up to 290 nm, up to 295 nm, up to 300 nm, up to 310 nm, or up to 320 nm. In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength in a range of 210 nm to 280 nm. In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength of 254 nm. UV + Ozone

In some embodiments, the substrate includes a UV-ozone-treated surface, that is, a surface treated with UV radiation in the presence of ozone (O3). The UV radiation may be applied using any combination of the parameters described above with respect to treatment with UV radiation including distance, intensity, and time, and multiple wavelengths may be applied using sequential or simultaneous application.

Treatment in the presence of ozone can include, for example, treatment in an ozone- containing environment or treatment during the generation of ozone within the environment (for example, by corona discharge). In some embodiments, the ozone-containing environment includes O2. In other embodiments the ozone-containing environment includes less than 10 percent by volume (vol.-%) O2, less than 5 vol.-% O2, less than 2 vol.-% O2, or less than 1 vol.-% O2. In some embodiments, the ozone-containing environment includes an inert gas, such as nitrogen, helium, argon, or mixtures thereof.

In some embodiments the ozone-containing environment includes at least 0.005 vol- % O3, at least 0.01 vol.-% O3, at least 0.05 vol.-% O3, at least 0.1 vol.-% O3, at least 0.5 vol- % O3, at least 1 vol.-% O3, at least 2 vol.-% O3, at least 5 vol.-% O3, at least 10 vol.-% O3, or at least 15 vol.-% O3. In some embodiments, the ozone-containing environment includes a higher concentration of ozone at the surface of the substrate. Such a concentration can be achieved by, for example, introducing the ozone at the substrate surface (for example, by allowing ozone to diffuse from the back side of the media.) In some embodiments, the concentration of ozone at or near the surface of the substrate is preferably sufficient to generate oxygen radicals from the ozone present in the presence of UV radiation.

In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength capable of splitting ozone (O3) to form O2 and an oxygen radical (O ). In embodiments, including, for example, when the ozone-containing environment includes less than 10 vol.-% O2, less than 5 vol.-% O2, less than 2 vol.-% O2, or less than 1 vol.-% O2, the UV radiation can include a wavelength of at least 165 nm, at least 170 nm, at least 175 nm, at least 180 nm, or at least 185 nm and of up to 260 nm, up to 265 nm, up to 270 nm, up to 275 nm, up to 280 nm, up to 285 nm, or up to 290 nm. In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength in a range of 180 nm to 280 nm.

In embodiments when the ozone-containing environment includes O2 that would absorb UV radiation in a range of 180 nm to 210 nm, the UV radiation preferably includes a wavelength of at least 210 nm, at least 215 nm, at least 220 nm, at least 225 nm, at least 230 nm, at least 235 nm, at least 240 nm, at least 245 nm, or at least 250 nm. In some

embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength of up to 260 nm, up to 265 nm, up to 270 nm, up to 275 nm, up to 280 nm, up to 285 nm, up to 290 nm, up to 295 nm, up to 300 nm, up to 310 nm, or up to 320 nm. In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength in a range of 210 nm to 280 nm. In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength of 254 nm.

UV + H 2 O 2

In some embodiments, the substrate includes a UV-ThC -treated surface, that is, a surface treated with UV radiation and H2O2. In some embodiments, the surface of the substrate and/or the entire substrate may be placed in contact with (for example, coated with and/or submerged in) a solution including H2O2. In some embodiments, the solution can include at least 20 percent by weight (wt.-%) H2O2, at least 25 wt.-% H2O2, at least 30 wt.-% H2O2, at least 40 wt.-% H2O2, at least 50 wt.-% H2O2, at least 60 wt.-% H2O2, at least 70 wt- % H2O2, at least 80 wt.-% H2O2, or at least 90 wt.-% H2O2. In some embodiments, the solution can contain up to 30 wt.-% H2O2, up to 40 wt.-% H2O2, up to 50 wt.-% H2O2, up to 60 wt.-% H2O2, up to 70 wt. -% H2O2, up to 80 wt.-% H2O2, up to 90 wt.-% H2O2, or up to 100 wt.-% H2O2.

In some embodiments, the substrate may be placed in contact with a solution including H2O2 for at least 10 seconds, at least 30 seconds, at least 45 seconds, at least 1 minute, at least 2 minutes, at least 4 minutes, at least 6 minutes, or at least 8 minutes. In some embodiments, the substrate may be in contact with a solution including H2O2 for up to 30 seconds, up to 45 seconds, up to 1 minute, up to 2 minutes, up to 4 minutes, up to 6 minutes, up to 8 minutes, up to 10 minutes, or up to 30 minutes.

In some embodiments, the substrate may be treated with UV radiation while in contact with a solution including H2O2. In some embodiments, the substrate may be treated with UV radiation after being in contact with a solution including H2O2. The UV radiation may be applied using any combination of the parameters described above with respect to treatment with UV radiation including distance, intensity, and time, and multiple wavelengths may be applied using sequential or simultaneous application.

The substrate may be treated with UV radiation sufficient to generate hydroxyl radicals (ΌH). The substrate may be treated with UV radiation while the surface is in contact with H2O2, after the surface has been in contact with H2O2, or both during contact and after contact with H2O2.

In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength capable of forming two oxygen radicals (O) from O2. Oxygen radicals can react with O2 to form ozone (O3). In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength of at least 165 nm, at least 170 nm, at least 175 nm, at least 180 nm, or at least 185 nm. In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength of up to 190 nm, up to 195 nm, up to 200 nm, up to 205 nm, up to 210 nm, up to 215 nm, up to 220 nm, up to 230 nm, or up to 240 nm. In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength in a range of 180 nm to 210 nm. In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength of 185 nm.

In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength capable of splitting ozone (O3) to form O2 and an oxygen radical (O ). In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength of at least 200 nm, at least 205 nm, at least 210 nm, at least 215 nm, at least 220 nm, at least 225 nm, at least 230 nm, at least 235 nm, at least 240 nm, at least 245 nm, or at least 250 nm. In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength of up to 260 nm, up to 265 nm, up to 270 nm, up to 275 nm, up to 280 nm, up to 285 nm, up to 290 nm, up to 295 nm, up to 300 nm, up to 310 nm, or up to 320 nm. In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength in a range of 210 nm to 280 nm. In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength of 254 nm.

In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength of at least 200 nm, at least 250 nm, at least 300 nm, at least 330 nm, at least 340 nm, at least 350 nm, at least 355 nm, at least 360 nm, or at least 370 nm. In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength of up to 350 nm, up to 360 nm, up to 370 nm, up to 375 nm, up to 380 nm, up to 385 nm, up to 390 nm, up to 395 nm, up to 400 nm, up to 410 nm, or up to 420 nm. In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength in a range of 350 nm to 370 nm. In some embodiments, the UV radiation includes a wavelength of 360 nm.

In some embodiments, a substrate may be dried after being placed in contact with a solution including H2O2 and before being treated with UV. In some embodiments, a substrate may be dried after being placed in contact with a solution including H2O2 and after being treated with UV. In some embodiments, the substrate may be oven dried.

The UV treatment (whether UV alone or UV with oxygen, ozone, and/or hydrogen peroxide) is more effective when the substrate includes an aromatic and/or unsaturated component, including, for example, when the substrate includes a UV -reactive resin including, for example, an aromatic resin (for example, a resin containing aromatic groups) including, for example, a phenolic resin.

Substrate Including a Hydrophilic Group-Containing Polymer

As an alternative or in addition to UV treatment, the surface properties of the substrate may be modified by the inclusion of a hydrophilic group-containing polymer in and/or on the substrate. In some embodiments when both UV treatment and inclusion of a hydrophilic group-containing polymer are used, it may be preferred to include a hydrophilic group-containing polymer in a substrate or to modify a substrate to include a hydrophilic group-containing polymer prior to UV treatment.

In some embodiments, the substrate includes a hydrophilic group-containing polymer. The hydrophilic group of the hydrophilic group-containing polymer can include a hydrophilic pendant group or a hydrophilic group that repeats within the polymer backbone or both. As used herein, a“pendant group” is covalently bound to the polymer backbone but does not form a part of the polymer backbone. In some embodiments, the hydrophilic group includes at least one of a hydroxy, an amide, an alcohol, an acrylic acid, a pyrrolidone, a methyl ether, an ethylene glycol, a propylene glycol, dopamine, and an ethylene imine. In some embodiments, a hydrophilic pendant group includes at least one of a hydroxy, an amide, an alcohol, an acrylic acid, a pyrrolidone, a methyl ether, and dopamine. In some embodiments, a hydrophilic group that repeats within the polymer backbone includes at least one of an ethylene glycol, a propylene glycol, dopamine, and an ethylene imine.

In some embodiments, a substrate including a hydrophilic group-containing polymer may include a surface having a hydrophilic group-containing polymer disposed thereon. In some embodiments, the substrate preferably includes a layer including a hydrophilic group- containing polymer. In some embodiments, the surface having the hydrophilic group- containing polymer disposed thereon or, in some embodiments, the hydrophilic group- containing polymer-containing layer, preferably forms the surface of the substrate having the desired properties (including roll off angle and contact angle), as described herein.

The layer may be formed using any suitable method. For example, the layer could be formed by applying a polymer including, for example, a pre-polymerized polymer.

Additionally or alternatively, the layer could be formed by applying monomers, oligomers, polymers, or combinations thereof (for example, blends, mixtures, or copolymers thereol) and then polymerizing the monomers, oligomers, polymers, or combinations thereof to form a polymer, copolymer, or combination thereof. In some embodiments, a polymer may be deposited from a solution using oxidative or reductive polymerization.

In some embodiments, the layer may be formed using any suitable coating process including, for example, plasma-deposition coating, roll-to-roll coating, dip coating, and/or spray coating. Spray coating may include, for example, air pressure spraying, electrostatic spraying, etc. In some embodiments, the surface may be laminated. In some embodiments, the layer may be formed by spinning a polymer onto the substrate. Spinning a polymer onto the substrate may include, for example, electrospinning the polymer onto the substrate or depositing the polymer on the substrate by wet spinning, dry spinning, melt spinning, gel spinning, jet spinning, magnetospinning, etc. The spinning of the polymer onto the substrate may, in some embodiments, form polymer nanofibers. Additionally or alternatively, spinning of the polymer onto the substrate may coat fibers already present in the substrate. In some embodiments, including wherein the polymer is deposited by dry spinning polymer solution onto the substrate, one or more driving forces including air, an electric field, centrifugal force, a magnetic field, etc., may be used individually or in combination.

In some embodiments, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer includes polar functional groups.

In some embodiments, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer is a hydrophilic polymer.

In some embodiments, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer is not able to dissolve in water (for example, it is not a hydrophilic polymer) but rather includes at least one of a pendant group able to dissolve in water (for example, a hydrophilic pendant group) or a group that repeats within the polymer backbone that is able to dissolve in water (for example, a hydrophilic group that repeats within the polymer backbone).

In some embodiments, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer includes a hydroxylated methacrylate polymer. In some embodiments, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer does not include a fluorine group.

In some embodiments, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer does not include a fluoropolymer. As used herein, a fluoropolymer refers to a polymer that includes at least 5% fluorine, at least 10% fluorine, at least 15% fluorine, or at least 20% fluorine.

In some embodiments, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer can include, for example, poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPM) including poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate, poly(3-hydroxypropyl methacrylate, or a mixture thereof; poly(2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) (PHEM); poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (P2E20); polyethyleneimine (PEI); quatemized polyethyleneimine; or poly(dopamine); or combinations thereof (for example, blends, mixtures, or copolymers thereof).

In some embodiments, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer can be dispersed and/or dissolved in a solvent during layer formation. In some embodiments, the solvent preferably solubilizes the hydrophilic group-containing polymer but does not solubilize the substrate or any component of the substrate. In some embodiments, the solvent is preferably non-toxic. In some embodiments, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer is preferably insoluble in a hydrocarbon fluid. In some embodiments, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer is preferably insoluble in toluene.

In some embodiments, the solvent is a solvent having a high dielectric constant. The solvent can include, for example, methanol, ethanol, propanol, isopropanol (also called isopropyl alcohol (IP A)), butanol (including each of its isomeric structures), butanone (including each of its isomeric structures), acetone, ethylene glycol, dimethyl formamide, ethyl acetate, water, etc.

The concentration of the hydrophilic group-containing polymer in the solvent can be selected based on the molecular weight of the polymer. In some embodiments, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer may be present in the solvent at a concentration of at least 0.25 percent (%) weight/volume (w/v), at least 0.5% (w/v), at least 0.75% (w/v), at least 1.0% (w/v), at least 1.25% (w/v), at least 1.5% (w/v), at least 1.75% (w/v), at least 2.0% (w/v), at least 3% (w/v), at least 5% (w/v), at least 10% (w/v), at least 20% (w/v), at least 30% (w/v), at least 40% (w/v), or at least 50% (w/v). In some embodiments, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer may be present in the solvent at a concentration of up to 0.5% (w/v), up to 0.75% (w/v), up to 1.0% (w/v), up to 1.25% (w/v), up to 1.5% (w/v), up to 1.75% (w/v), up to 2.0% (w/v), up to 3% (w/v), up to 4% (w/v), up to 5% (w/v), up to 10% (w/v), up to 15% (w/v), up to 20% (w/v), up to 30% (w/v), up to 40% (w/v), up to 50% (w/v), or up to 60% (w/v).

In some embodiments, including, for example, for depositing the hydrophilic group- containing polymer by dip coating, the polymer may be present in the solvent at a concentration in a range of 0.5% (w/v) to 4% (w/v).

In some embodiments, including, for example, for depositing the hydrophilic group- containing polymer by dip coating, the polymer may be present in the solvent at a concentration in a range of 0.5% (w/v) to 1% (w/v). In some embodiments, including, for example, for depositing the hydrophilic group- containing polymer by electrospinning, the polymer may be present in the solvent at a concentration in a range of 5% (w/v) to 30% (w/v).

In some embodiments, the layer may be formed using dip coating. The dip coating can be accomplished by using, for example, a Chemat DipMaster 50 dip coater. In some embodiments, the layer may be formed by dip coating the substrate one, two, three, or more times. In some embodiments, the substrate may be dip coated, rotated 180 degrees, and dip coated again. In some embodiments, the substrate may be submerged in a dispersion including the hydrophilic group-containing polymer and withdrawn at a rate of 50 millimeters per minute (mm/min). In some embodiments, the dispersion is preferably a solution.

In some embodiments, the layer may be formed using electrospinning. The electrospinning may be accomplished as described, for example, in US20160047062 Al.

In some embodiments, including, for example, when the hydrophilic group-containing polymer includes poly(dopamine), the hydrophilic group-containing polymer may be deposited from a solution using oxidative or reductive polymerization. For example, a layer including poly (dopamine) may be prepared from the oxidative polymerization of dopamine.

In some embodiments, the layer including a hydrophilic group-containing polymer has a thickness of at least 0.5 Angstrom (A), at least 1 A, at least 5 A, at least 8 A, at least 10 A, at least 12 A, at least 14 A, at least 16 A, at least 18 A, at least 20 A, at least 25 A, at least 30 A, or at least 50 A.

In some embodiments, solvent may be removed after layer formation including, for example, after a dip coating procedure. The solvent may be removed, for example, by evaporation including, for example, by drying using an oven.

In some embodiments, a charged coating may be formed (for example, via quatemization, electrochemical oxidation, or reduction) and/or the coating may include a charged polymer. In some embodiments, the layer including a hydrophilic group-containing polymer may be altered after formation of the layer. For example, the hydrophilic group- containing polymer may be quatemized. In some embodiments, the hydrophilic group- containing polymer can be quatemized by treating the polymer layer with an acid. In some embodiments, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer can be quatemized by dipping the substrate including the hydrophilic group-containing polymer layer in a solution including an acid. In some embodiments, the acid can be HC1.

In some embodiments, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer and/or the coating may be treated with maleic anhydride. In some embodiments, the substrate may include a hydrophilic group-containing polymer disposed therein. If the substrate includes a modifying resin, the polymer is chemically distinct from the modifying resin. In some embodiments, the hydrophilic group- containing polymer may be applied simultaneously with a modifying resin. For example, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer may be mixed with a modifying resin before the modifying resin is applied to the substrate.

In some embodiments, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer may be crosslinked. In some embodiments, including, for example, when the polymer forms a hydrophilic group- containing polymer forms layer on a substrate, the polymer may be crosslinked by including a crosslinker in the polymer dispersion used for coating or electrospinning. In some embodiments, including, for example, when the polymer is disposed within a substrate, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer may be crosslinked by including a crosslinker in a dispersion used to introduce the hydrophilic group-containing polymer. In some

embodiments, the dispersion is preferably a solution.

Any suitable crosslinker for use with the hydrophilic group-containing polymer may be selected. For example, N-(2-Aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (DAMO-T) may be used as a crosslinker for PHEM. For example, (3-glycidyloxypropyl) trimethoxy silane or poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) may be used as a crosslinker for polyethyleneimine (PEI). Hydrophilic group-containing polymers including primary or secondary amine groups could be crosslinked by, for example, compounds including carboxylic acids (adipic acid), aldehydes (for example, gluteraldehyde), ketones, melamine- formaldehyde resins, phenol-formaldehyde resins, etc. In another example, hydrophilic group-containing polymers containing primary or secondary alcohol groups could be crosslinked by, for example, compounds including carboxylic acids (adipic acid), isocyanates (toluene diisocyanate), organic silanes (tetramethoxysilane), titanium(IV) complexes (tetrabutyltitanate), phenol-formaldehyde resins, melamine-formaldehyde resins, etc.

In some embodiments, crosslinking of the hydrophilic group-containing polymer may accelerated by exposing the hydrophilic group-containing polymer and the crosslinker to heat. The heat may be applied by any suitable method including, for example, by heating the substrate in an oven, exposing the substrate to an infrared light, exposing the substrate to steam, or treating the substrate with heated rollers. Any combination of time and temperature suitable for use with the hydrophilic group-containing polymer, crosslinker, and substrate may be used. In some embodiments, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer and the crosslinker may be exposed to temperatures of at least 80°C, at least 90°C, at least 100°C, at least 110°C, at least 120°C, at least 130°C, at least 140°C, at least 150°C, at least 160°C, at least 170°C, at least 180°C, or at least 190°C. In some embodiments, the hydrophilic group- containing polymer and the crosslinker may be exposed to temperatures of up to 140°C, up to 150°C, up to 160°C, up to 170°C, up to 180°C, up to 190°C, up to 200°C, up to 210°C, up to 220°C, up to 230°C, up to 240°C, up to 260°C, up to 280°C, or up to 300°C. In some embodiments, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer and the crosslinker may be exposed to a heat treatment for at least 15 seconds, at least 30 seconds, at least 60 seconds, at least 120 seconds, at least 2 minutes, at least 5 minutes, at least 10 minutes, or at least 1 hour. In some embodiments, the media is exposed to heat for up to 2 minutes, up to 3 minutes, up to 5 minutes, up to 10 minutes, up to 15 minutes, up to 20 minutes, up to 1 hour, up to 2 hours, up to 24 hours, or up to 2 days. For example, in some embodiments, the hydrophilic group- containing polymer may be crosslinked by heating the hydrophilic group-containing polymer and the crosslinker at a temperature of at least 100°C and up to 150°C for between 15 seconds and 15 minutes. In another example, in some embodiments, the hydrophilic group- containing polymer may be crosslinked by heating the hydrophilic group-containing polymer and the crosslinker at a temperature of at least 80°C and up to 200°C for between 15 seconds and 15 minutes.

In some embodiments, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer may be annealed.

As used herein,“annealing” includes exposing a hydrophilic group-containing polymer to an environment with the purpose of reorienting functional groups within the hydrophilic group- containing polymer and/or increasing the crystallinity of the hydrophilic group-containing polymer. If crosslinking of the hydrophilic group-containing polymer is accelerated by exposing the hydrophilic group-containing polymer and the crosslinker to heat, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer may be annealed before crosslinking, during crosslinking, or after crosslinking. In some embodiments, if crosslinking of the hydrophilic group-containing polymer is accelerated by exposing the hydrophilic group-containing polymer and the crosslinker to heat, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer may preferably be annealed during crosslinking or after crosslinking. In some embodiments, the hydrophilic group-containing polymer may preferably be annealed after crosslinking.

In some embodiments, annealing includes heating the substrate including the hydrophilic group-containing polymer in the presence of a polar solvent. For example, annealing may include submerging a hydrophilic group-containing polymer-containing and/or a hydrophilic group-containing polymer-coated substrate in a polar solvent.

Additionally or alternatively, annealing may include exposing a hydrophilic group-containing polymer-containing and/or a hydrophilic group-containing polymer-coated substrate to a polar solvent in the form of steam. In some embodiments, including, for example, when a hydrophilic group-containing polymer layer is applied by dip coating a substrate in a polymer solution, the polymer solution may include a polar solvent, and heating and subsequent evaporation of the polar solvent from the substrate may anneal the polymer layer.

A polar solvent suitable for annealing may include, for example, water or an alcohol. An alcohol may include, for example, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, t-butanol, etc. Other suitable polar solvents may include, for example, acetone, ethyl acetate, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), dimethylformamide (DMF), etc.

In some embodiments, annealing includes exposing the substrate to a temperature of at least the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the hydrophilic group-containing polymer. In some embodiments, annealing includes exposing the substrate to a solvent having a temperature of at least the Tg of the hydrophilic group-containing polymer.

In some embodiments, including for example, when annealing includes submerging the hydrophilic group-containing polymer-coated substrate in a polar solvent, the polar solvent is at least 50°C, at least 55°C, at least 60°C, at least 65°C, at least 70°C, at least 75°C, at least 80°C, at least 85°C, at least 90°C, at least 95°C, at least 100°C, at least 110°C, at least 120°C, at least 130°C, at least 140°C, or at least 150°C. In some embodiments, the polar solvent is up to 90°C, up to 95°C, up to 100°C, up to 105°C, up to 110°C, up to 115°C, up to 120°C, up to 130°C, up to 140°C, up to 150°C, or up to 200°C. In some embodiments, the media is submerged in the polar solvent for at least 10 seconds, at least 30 seconds, at least 60 seconds, at least 90 seconds, at least 120 seconds, at least 150 seconds, or at least 180 seconds. In some embodiments, the media is submerged in the polar solvent for up to 60 seconds, up to 120 seconds, up to 150 seconds, up to 180 seconds, up to 3 minutes, or up to 5 minutes. In some embodiments, the polar solvent may preferably be water. For example, in some embodiments, annealing includes submerging the hydrophilic group-containing polymer-coated media in 90°C water for at least 10 seconds and up to 5 minutes.

Without wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that the surface of the substrate having a hydrophilic group-containing polymer disposed thereon or including a hydrophilic group-containing polymer disposed therein may have the desired properties (including roll off angle and contact angle), described above, because of discontinuities on the substrate surface. Accordingly, in some embodiments, the substrate may include a mixture of fibers. In some embodiments, the substrate may include both non-polymer and polymer fibers and/or two different types of polymer fibers. For example, the substrate could include, polyester fibers discontinuously wrapped with nylon and/or nylon fibers discontinuously wrapped with polyester. Additionally or alternatively, the substrate may include a fiber that, if it formed the entire surface, would create a hydrophilic surface and a fiber that, if it formed the entire surface, would create a hydrophobic surface.

In some embodiments, a substrate including a hydrophilic group-containing polymer - including a substrate including a hydrophilic group-containing polymer coating or a substrate including a hydrophilic group-containing polymer disposed therein - is preferably stable. In some embodiments, the stability of a substrate including a hydrophilic group- containing polymer may be increased by treating with maleic anhydride, annealing the hydrophilic group-containing polymer, and/or crosslinking the hydrophilic group-containing polymer. Without wishing to be bound by theory, in some embodiments, stability of a substrate including a hydrophilic group-containing polymer is believed to be increased by decreasing the solubility of the hydrophilic group-containing polymer - including, for example, by crosslinking. Again, without wishing to be bound by theory, in some embodiments, it is believed that the stability of a substrate may to be increased by increasing the accessibility of a polymer’s hydrophilic pendant group (for example, a hydroxyl group) on a surface of a substrate - including, for example, by annealing.

Filter Media Including the Substrate

In some embodiments, a filter media including the substrate is preferably used for hydrocarbon-water separation or, more preferably, fuel-water separation, and, most preferably, diesel fuel-water separation. In some embodiments the filter media can be used for other types of fluid filtration.

The filter media may include one layer, two layers, or a plurality of layers. In some embodiments, one or more of the layers of the filter media may be supported by the substrate, may include the substrate, or may be the substrate.

In some embodiments, and, as shown, for example, in FIG. 11A-D, the filter media may include a layer to remove particles from a hydrocarbon liquid stream 20 and/or a layer to coalesce water from a hydrocarbon liquid stream (also referred to as a coalescing layer) 30. In some embodiments, a layer to remove particles from a hydrocarbon liquid stream and/or a coalescing layer may be supported by the substrate 10, as shown in an illustrative

embodiment in FIG. 11 A and FIG. 1 IB. In some embodiments, including, for example, when the filter media is designed to accommodate a flow that passes from upstream to downstream during use of the filter media, a layer to remove particles from a hydrocarbon liquid stream and/or a coalescing layer can be located upstream of the substrate. In some embodiments, the layer to remove particles from a hydrocarbon liquid stream and the substrate are the same layer 40, as shown in one embodiment in FIG. 11C. In some embodiments, the coalescing layer and the substrate are the same layer 50, as shown in one embodiment in FIG. 1 ID.

When the substrate and the layer to remove particles from a hydrocarbon liquid stream are the same layer or when the substrate and the layer to coalesce water from a hydrocarbon liquid stream are the same layer, filter media manufacturing may be more efficient because the filter media may include a decreased number of total layers.

In some embodiments, a surface of the substrate preferably forms a downstream side of the substrate. In some embodiments, a surface of the substrate can form a downstream side or layer of the filter media or a downstream side of the filter media.

In some embodiments, including, for example, when a surface of the substrate forms a downstream side or layer of the filter media or a downstream side of the filter media, the substrate may preferably be separated from another layer by sufficient space to allow water droplet formation and/or water droplet roll off. In some embodiments, the substrate may be separated from another layer by at least 10 pm, at least 20 pm, at least 30 pm, at least 40 pm, at least 50 pm, at least 100 pm, at least 200 pm, at least 500 pm, or at least 1 mm. In some embodiments, the substrate may be separated from another layer by up to 40 pm, up to 50 pm, up to 100 pm, up to 200 pm, up to 500 pm, up to 1 mm, up to 2 mm, up to 3 mm, up to 4 mm, or up to 5 mm.

In some embodiments, a layer configured to remove particulate contaminants 20 is located upstream of a coalescing layer 30 and the coalescing layer is located upstream of the substrate 10, as shown in one embodiment, in FIG. 11A. In some embodiments, a coalescing layer is located downstream of the substrate. In some embodiments, the filter media may include at least two coalescing layers with one of the coalescing layers located downstream of the substrate.

In some embodiments, the substrate may be included in a flow-by structure including, for example, a structure as described in co-pending U.S. Patent Application No. 62/543,456, filed 08/10/2017 and entitled: Fluid Filtration Apparatuses, Systems, and Methods, which is hereby incorporated by reference for its description of media structures.

In some embodiments, the filter media can be included in a filter element. The filter media can have any suitable configuration. In some embodiments, the filter element can include a screen. In some embodiments, the screen can be located downstream of the substrate. The filter media may have any suitable configuration. For example, the filter media can have a tubular configuration. In some embodiments, the filter media can include pleats.

In some embodiments, the filter media may be designed for flow that passes from upstream to downstream during use of the filter media. In some embodiments, including for example, when a filter media includes a substrate located downstream of an upstream layer, the substrate may include pores having an average diameter greater than the average diameter of the pores of the upstream layer. Additionally or alternatively, the substrate may include pores having an average diameter greater than the average diameter of a droplet that forms on a downstream side of the upstream layer. For example, when a filter media includes an upstream layer that is a coalescing layer that includes pores having an average diameter, the substrate may include pores having an average diameter greater than the average diameter of the pores of the coalescing layer.

Filter Media

Filter media consistent with the technology disclosed herein can have a variety of configurations. The filter media can be configured for incorporation into a filter element. In some embodiments, the filter media can be constructed of one or more layers of material, where at least one layer of material is a substrate consistent with the technology disclosed herein. In various embodiments, multiple layers of material are substrates consistent with the technology disclosed herein.

FIG. 1 depicts an example filter media 100 consistent with some embodiments. The filter media 100 has a first substrate layer 110 and a second substrate layer 120 abutting the first substrate layer 110. The first substrate layer 110 has a first surface 112 having a treatment that increases a roll off angle of the first surface 112 for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene. The second substrate layer 120 can have a second surface 122 having a treatment that increases a roll off angle of the first surface 112 for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene. The first surface can have a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface is immersed in toluene. The second surface 122 can have a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface is immersed in toluene.

While FIG. 1 depicts the first surface 112 and the second surface 122 as being the “upper” surfaces of the respective substrates (relative to the drawing), it will be appreciated that one or both of the first surface 112 and the second surface 122 could be the opposite surface of the respective substrate. As depicted in FIG. 2, in some filter media 100a embodiments a first surface 112a of a first substrate layer 110a and a second surface 122a of a second substrate layer 120a are abutting. As another example in FIG. 3, in some filter media 100b embodiments a first surface 112b of a first substrate layer 110b and a second surface 122b of a second substrate layer 120b are oppositely-facing.

Returning to FIG. 1, In a variety of embodiments, the first substrate layer 110 is a different material than the second substrate layer 120, wherein a“different material” means that the substrate layers 110, 120 have variances in their chemical compositions, physical configurations and/or physical properties. In some other embodiments, however, the first substrate layer 110 is the same material as the second substrate layer 120.

As an example where the first substrate layer 110 is a different material than the second substrate layer 120, the first substrate layer 110 can have a first porosity and the second substrate layer 120 can have a second porosity, where the first porosity and the second porosity are different. The first porosity can be greater than the second porosity, or vice versa. As another example, in some embodiments, the first substrate has a first average pore size (such as average pore diameter) and the second substrate has a second average pore size, and the first average pore size and second average pore size are different. As another example, in some embodiments the first substrate is constructed of a first composition of fibers and the second substrate is constructed of a second composition of fibers that is different than the first composition of fibers. As yet another example, the roll-off angle of the first substrate can be different than the roll-off angle of the second substrate. As yet another example, the first surface 112 and the second surface 122 can have different surface treatments. In some embodiments, the first surface 112 is a UV -treated surface and the second surface 122 has a hydrophilic group-containing polymer. In such embodiments the first surface 112 can have a UV -reacted resin, such as an acrylic resin and/or a phenolic resin.

The surface opposite the first surface 112 of the first substrate layer 110, which can be referred to as a third surface 114, can also have a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the third surface 114 is immersed in toluene, in some embodiments. Additionally or alternatively, the surface opposite the second surface 122, which can be referred to as a fourth surface 124, can have a roll-off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface 124 is immersed in toluene. FIG. 4 depicts another example embodiment of a filter media having a first substrate layer 110c, a second substrate layer 120c, and a third substrate layer 130c. The first substrate layer 110c has a first surface 112c with a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface 112c is immersed in toluene. The second substrate layer 120c has a second surface 122c with a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface 122c is immersed in toluene. The third substrate layer 130c has a third surface 132c with a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface 132c is immersed in toluene.

Similar to examples and embodiments described above, the third substrate layer 130c can be constructed of the same or different materials than each of the first substrate layer 110c and the second substrate layer 120c.

The example filter medias of FIGS. 1-4 can incorporate additional layers of material including support layers, filtration layers, coalescing layers, sorbent layers, and the like. Each of the layers of material, including the substrate layers, can be coupled to abutting layers of material in embodiments. The layers can be coupled through a variety of approaches including, for example, adhesive bonding or thermal bonding. Each of the substrate layers can be consistent with substrate layers disclosed herein above. In some examples, one or more of the substrate layers is a screen, and in some particular examples, the substrate layers are a series of screens.

FIG. 5 depicts another example filter media consistent with some embodiments of the current technology. The filter media 200 has a substrate layer 210 having a first surface 212, a second surface 214, a first edge 202, and a second edge 204. A plurality of flutes 220 extend between the first edge 202 and the second edge 204, where the term“flute” as used herein encompasses corrugations.

The substrate layer 210 is consistent with substrate layers discussed herein throughout. The first surface 212 of the substrate layer has a treatment that increases the roll off angle of the first surface 212 for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface 212 is immersed in toluene. In a variety of embodiments, the first surface 212 has a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface is immersed in toluene. The filter media 200 can have additional layers such as additional substrate layers (consistently with FIGS. 1-5), support layers, filtration layers, and the like. In examples consistent with the current embodiment, the flutes define flute peaks 222 and flute valleys 224 that each extend from the first edge 202 to the second edge 204. The flute peaks 222 and flute valleys 224 generally define a sinusoidal shape. Alternate flute configurations are described in the discussion that follows.

In some embodiments the second surface 214 also has a treatment that increases the roll off angle of the second surface 214 for a 50 pL water droplet when the second surface 214 is immersed in toluene. In particular embodiments, the second surface 214 has a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the second surface is immersed in toluene. The second surface can have the same treatment or a different treatment than the first surface. For example, the first surface can have a UV treatment in some examples and the second surface can contain a hydrophilic group-containing polymer.

FIGS. 6 and 7 depict another example filter media consistent with some embodiments of the current technology. FIG. 7 is a series of cross-sectional views along the length of the flutes L depicted in FIG. 6. Similar to FIG. 5, the filter media 300 has a substrate layer 310 having a first surface 312, a second surface 314, a first edge 302, and a second edge 304. A plurality of flutes 320 extend between the first edge 302 and the second edge 304.

The substrate layer 310 is consistent with substrate layers discussed herein throughout. The first surface 312 of the substrate layer has a treatment that increases the roll off angle of the first surface for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface 312 is immersed in toluene. In particular, the first surface 312 can have a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface is immersed in toluene. The filter media 300 can include additional layers such as additional substrate layers (consistently with FIGS. 1-5), support layers, filtration layers, and the like. In examples consistent with the current embodiment, the flutes define flute peaks 322 and flute valleys 324 that each extend from the first edge 302 to the second edge 304. The flute peaks 322 and flute valleys 324 generally define a repeating pattern across the width W of the media. While the flute peaks 322 and flute valleys 324 generally define a curvature in the current example, in some other embodiments the flute peaks and/or the flute valleys can be defined by a fold line or a crease along the substrate.

The plurality of flutes 320 define flute peaks 322 and flute valleys 324 that each extend from the first edge 302 to the second edge 304. The plurality of flutes 320 also define a first pair of ridges 328 and a second pair of ridges 329. The ridges 328, 329 are intermediate to the flute peaks 322 and the flute valleys 324. A ridge can be considered a line of intersection between differently sloped media portions that runs along at least a portion of the length I. of a flute. A ridge can be formed via deformation of the filter media. The media can be deformed to define a ridge as a result of applying pressure to the media. Techniques for forming the ridge include coining, creasing, bending, and folding.

Unlike the plurality of flutes depicted in FIG. 5, which are non-tapered, in the current example the plurality of flutes 320 are in a tapered configuration, meaning that the flute shape changes progressively along the length of the flute L. Figure 7 demonstrates the change in flute profile resulting from the tapered configuration of the filter media 300 from the first edge 302 of the filter media 300 - configuration 320a - to the second edge 304 of the filter media - configuration 320d. As a result of the taper, the filter media 300 defines the flute profiles depicted as 320b and 320c at intermediate locations along the flute length L. As the filter media 300 tapers from 320a to 320d, the first pair of ridges 328 and second pair of ridges 329 approach the flutes valleys 324 and move away from the flute peaks 322.

Accordingly, as the plurality of flutes 320 defined by the filter media 300 taper from 320a to 320d, the cross-sectional area of each flute decreases. It is additionally observed that as the flute taper progresses toward the second edge from 320a to 320d, the ridges 328, 329 tend to merge together or become less distinguishable from each other. In addition, as the filter media 300 tapers from the second edge 304 (flute profile 320d) to the first edge 302 (flute profile 320a), the first pair of ridges 328 and the second pair of ridges 329 approach the flute peaks 322. The filter media 300 can be characterized as having multiple ridges between adjacent peaks over at least 30%, and preferably at least 50%, of the length of the flutes L.

The filter media 300 can have tapered flutes without creating a strain in the media. In particular, the length l of the substrate layer 310 that extends across the width W of the filter media 300 is equal from the first edge 302 to the second edge 304 of the filter media 300. As such, the length of the substrate layer 310 extending across the media width W at cross- sections A- A’, B-B’, C-C’ and D-D’ are equal.

FIGS. 6 and 7 depicts one example filter media having particular flute shapes, but other flute shapes are certainly contemplated. In some alternate embodiments the flutes can have ridges, but are not tapered and, rather, the flutes have the same cross-sectional shape from the first edge to the second edge of the media.

FIGS. 8 and 9 depict a perspective view and a cross-sectional view, respectively, of a sheet of single facer media 400 consistent with some embodiments disclosed herein. The single facer media 400 has a first substrate layer 410 defining a fluted sheet and a second substrate layer 420 defining a facing sheet. The second substrate layer 420 is coupled to the first substrate layer 410. The first substrate layer 410 defines flute peaks 412 and flute valleys 414 that each extend from a first edge 402 to a second edge 404 of the first substrate layer 410. The second substrate layer 420 is planar. The first substrate layer 410 and the second substrate layer 420 cooperatively define a plurality of flutes 430 extending between the first edge 402 and the second edge 404.

The first substrate layer 410 has a first surface 416 having a treatment, as disclosed herein, that increases the roll off angle of the first surface for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface is immersed in toluene. In the current embodiment, the first surface 416 faces away from the second substrate layer 420, but in some other embodiments the first surface 416 abuts the second substrate layer 420. In a number of embodiments, the roll off angle of the first surface is in the range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and the first surface 416 has a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface 416 is immersed in toluene.

The first substrate layer 410 also has a second surface 418. In some embodiments the second surface 418 has had a treatment, as disclosed herein, that increases the roll off angle of the second surface 418 for a 50 pL water droplet when the second surface 418 is immersed in toluene. The second surface 418 can have a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the second surface is immersed in toluene.

Similar to the first substrate layer 410, the second substrate layer 420 has a first surface 426 and a second surface 428. In various embodiments, one or more of the first surface 426 and second surface 428 can have a treatment that increases the roll off angle of the particular surface for a 50 pL water droplet when the respective surface is immersed in toluene. One or more of the first surface 426 and second surface 428 can have a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the respective surface is immersed in toluene.

The second substrate layer 420 can be coupled to the first substrate layer 410 through a variety of approaches. For example, a discontinuous line of adhesive can be disposed between the first substrate layer 410 and the second substrate layer 420 such that the layers are bonded at discrete points between the flute valleys 414 and the first surface 426 of the second substrate layer 420.

Referring particularly to FIG. 9, the distance D1 defines the period length or interval of a flute. The length D2 defines the length of the media over the flute period Dl. The ratio of the lengths D2 to Dl can be within a range of 1.2 - 2.0, inclusive. Herein the ratio D2/D1 will sometimes be characterized as the flute/flat ratio or the media draw for the media. In some embodiments at least a portion of the flutes extending from the first edge 402 to the second edge 404 has a D2/D1 value that is greater than 1.0, often at least 1.05, and frequently at least 1.1. In some implementations D2/D1 is at least 1.15, and in other implementations at least 1.20. A higher D2/D1 value indicates increases in the amount of media provided along a given flute width, and can also result in an increase in height J of the flute. In some implementations D2/D1 is greater than 1.30, 1.40, or 1.50. Typical ranges for D2/D1 include, for example, from 1.05 to 2.0; from 1.10 to 1.75; and from 1.20 to 1.50.

The flute height J is the distance from the facing sheet, or the second substrate layer 420, to the highest point of the fluted sheet, in other words, the flute peak 412 of the first substrate layer 410. Alternatively stated, the flute height J is the difference in exterior elevation between flute peaks 412 and flute valleys 414 of the first substrate layer 410. The flute height J takes into account the thickness of the first substrate layer 410. Although the distances Dl, D2, and J are applied to the specific fluted media arrangement shown in FIG. 9, these distances can be applied to other configurations of fluted media disclosed herein where Dl refers to the period length of a flute or the distance of flat media underneath a given flute, D2 refers to the length of fluted media from one flute valley 414 to an adjacent flute valley 414, and J refers to the flute height. In some embodiments, J may have typical dimensions of from 0.03 inches to 0.08 inches. In some other embodiments, J can range from 0.010 inches to 0.300 inches. In further embodiments, J can be less than 0.5 inches. Flute height can generally be variable depending upon the application. Also, it will be understood that J can vary along the length of a flute in some implementations.

The ratio of flute width to height is also adjusted in some implementations of the current technology. The flute width to height ratio is the ratio of the flute width Dl to the flute height J. The flute width to height ratio can be expressed by the following formula:

flute width to height ratio = Dl/J

Measured distances such as flute width Dl and flute height J can be characterized as average values for the filtration media. Such measurements can be made along the flute length excluding a certain amount (such as 20%) of the flute length at each end (due to distortions that may occur). The flute width to height ratio can vary or remain constant over the length of the flute. An advantage of providing a tapered flute wherein the flute height or flute width varies over the length of the flute is the ability to reduce potential contacts between adjacent media surfaces and thereby reduce masking. Generally suitable Dl/J ratios will be less than 10, more typically less than 8, and often less than 6. If Dl/J is too high, then the flow through the flutes can become too restricted because the flutes are relatively short, despite being quite wide. Also, significant structural deformation of the flute under pressure loads becomes more likely, which can result in the collapse of downstream flutes. Suitable Dl/J ratios include greater than 1, more often greater than 1.5, and usually greater than 2. In most implementations the width to height ratio is at least about 2.0, generally at least 2.1, more typically at least 2.2, often at least 2.3, optionally at least 2.5, and optionally at least 3.0.

Other suitable Dl/J ratios include, in example implementations, greater than 4, greater than 6, or greater than 8. Thus, suitable ranges include, but are not limited to, Dl/J ratios of 2 to 10, 4 to 8, and 5 to 7. However, in some implementations flutes with extremely low Dl/J ratios can be used (although such flutes are generally more difficult to manufacture). For example, Dl/J ratios of less than 1.0, less than 0.75, and less than .50 are possible. In some implementations, flutes containing relatively high or low Dl/J values have better

performance than flutes containing Dl/J near values of 0.5 to 2.0. Suitable ranges of such ratios for Dl/J include 2 to 8 and 0.075 to 0.500.

FIG. 10 depicts a cross-sectional view of an alternate configuration of single facer media 500. The media 500 includes a fluted sheet, which is a first substrate layer 510, coupled to a facing sheet, which is a second substrate layer 520. The first substrate layer 510 and the second substrate layer 520 cooperatively define a plurality of flutes 530 that extend between a first edge and a second edge of the media (similar to that depicted in FIG. 8). The first substrate layer 510 defines flute peaks 512 and flute valleys 514. The second substrate layer 520 is planar. Similar to that described above, one or both surfaces of each of the substrate layers can be treated consistently with treatments described herein to increase the roll-off angle of the respective surfaces for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface is immersed in toluene.

In the current example, the first substrate layer 510 also defines ridges 518 between flute peaks 512 and flute valleys 514. In some embodiments, the flutes taper between two edges of the media, similar to that depicted in FIG. 6. In such embodiments, the flute height J and the flute width Dl, as described above, can remain constant from one edge of the sheet of media to the opposite edge of the sheet of media. In some other embodiments consistent with the current figure, the flutes do not taper between two edges of the media. EXAMPLES

MATERIALS

All purchased materials were used as received (that is, with no further purification). Unless otherwise specified, materials were purchased from Sigma Aldrich (St. Louis, MO).

• CHROMAS OLV Isopropyl Alcohol (IP A) - 99.9%

• CHROMAS OLV Toluene - 99.9%

• CHROMAS OLV Ethyl Acetate - 99.9%

• Methyl Alcohol - ACS Reagent - 99.8%

• Ethyl Alcohol (EtOH)

• Maleic Anhydride - 99%

• H2O2 - 30% or 50%

• NH4OH - ACS Reagent - 50%

• N-(2-Aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (also referred to as DYNASYLAN DAMO-T or DAMO-T) - Evonik Industries AG (Essen, Germany)

• DYNASYLAN SIVO 203 - Evonik Industries AG (Essen, Germany)

• Tyzor 131 (Tyzor)

• HC1 in isopropyl alcohol (IP A) - 0.05M

• Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEM) - Scientific Polymer Products (Ontario, NY) - Mw=20,000

• Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (P2E20) - Mw=50,000

• Polyethyleneimine, branched (PEI-10K or PEI 10000) - Mw=25,000 - Mn=10,000

• Polyethyleneimine, branched (PEI-600) - Mw=600

• Poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPM) - Scientific Polymer Products (Ontario, NY) - Granular

• Poly(ethylene oxide) diamine terminated (PEO-NH2) - Scientific Polymer Products (Ontario, NY) - Mw=2000

• Polystyrene-co-Allyl Alcohol (PS-co-AA) - 40 mol%

• Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)

• Acrodur 950L - BASF Corporation (Florham Park, NJ)

• 3-glycidyloxypropyl) trimethoxy silane • poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA)

• Ultra-pure water was generated by treating tap water with Millipore Elix 10UV and Millipore Milli-Q A10 modules and had a resistance of 18.2 MW*ah

• Diesel fuel or Pump Fuel = Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) that meets ASTM-D975. “Pump fuel” indicates that the sourced ULSD was used as-received from a fuel pump.

• Bio Diesel = soy-based biodiesel that meets ASTM-D6751 (Renewable Energy Group (REG), Inc., Mason City, IA).

TEST PROCEDURES

Contact Angles and Roll-off Angles

The contact angle and the roll-off angle of a substrate were measured using a

DropMaster DM-701 contact angle meter equipped with a tilt stage (Kyowa Interface Science Co., Ltd.; Niiza-City, Japan). Measurements were performed using the wide camera lens setting and calibrated using a 6 millimeter (mm) calibration standard with the FAMAS software package (Kyowa Interface Science Co., Ltd.; Niiza-City, Japan). Measurements were taken only after the droplet had reached equilibrium on the surface (that is, the contact angle and exposed droplet volume was constant for one minute). Measurements were taken of droplets that were in contact with only the substrate, that is, the droplet was not in contact with any surface supporting the substrate.

Water contact angles in toluene were measured using 20 pL drops or 50 pL drops of ultra-pure water deposited on a substrate sample that was submersed in toluene. Contact angles were measured using a tangent fit and were calculated from an average of five independent measurements taken on different areas of the substrate.

Water roll-off angles in toluene were measured using 20 pL drops or 50 pL drops of ultra-pure water deposited on a substrate sample that was submersed in toluene. The stage was set to rotate to 90° at a rotation speed of 2 degrees per second ( sec). At the point when the water drop freely rolled away, or the rear contact line moved at least 0.4 millimeters (mm) relative to the media surface, the rotation was stopped. The angle at the time the rotation was stopped was measured; this angle is defined as the roll-off angle. If the droplet did not roll-off before 90 degrees (°), the value is reported as 90°. If the droplet rolled away during the deposition process, the value is reported at 1°. Exemplary images of water droplets on a substrate sample immersed in toluene are shown in FIG. 12. Reported values were calculated from an average of five independent measurements taken on different areas of media.

Intentional depressions in the substrate (for example, point-bonding depressions) were avoided. If the substrate had a directional macrostructure (for example, corrugation), the roll off angles were measured in a direction that minimized the effect of the macrostructure.

Droplet Sizing Test

To determine droplet sizing, a modified version of ISO 16332 was used. A 10 Liter (L) tank supplying a two loop system in multi-pass, shown in FIG. 12, was employed. A main loop handled the majority of the flow, and a test loop, including a media holder, provided a slipstream off the main loop. Manual back-pressure valves were used to regulate the flow to a face velocity of 0.07 feet per minute (ft/min) through the test media throughout the duration of the test. This face velocity is typical of values for in-the-field applications.

Two inch by two inch square samples of each layer were cut and then packed in to a multi-layer media composite including: a loading layer, an efficiency layer, and the substrate sample. The substrate sample to be tested was placed downstream of the efficiency layer, and the efficiency layer was placed downstream of the loading layer. The loading layer and the efficiency layer were thermally bonded sheets that included 20% to 80% bi-component binder fiber having a fiber diameter of 5 pm to 50 pm and a fiber length of 0.1 cm to 15 cm, glass fiber having a fiber diameter of 0.1 micron to 30 microns and an aspect ratio of 10 to 10,000, and have a pore size of 0.5 pm to 100 pm.

Once packed in to a multi-layer media composite, the media layers were held in a custom-built clear acrylic holder. Stainless steel ¼ inch outside diameter (OD) tubing, attached with National Pipe Thread Taper (NPT) fittings, was used to deliver fuel into and out of the from the test loop. The holder was 6 inches x 4 inches with a 1 inch x 1 inch sample window and a 1 inch x 4 inch x ¾ inch channel on the downstream side of the media to allow coalesced droplets to exit the fuel stream. As droplets exited the fuel stream, they passed through a zone where a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera captured images of the droplets. Image analysis software (Image J 1.47T, available on the world wide web at imagej.nih.gov) was used to analyze the captured images to determine droplet sizes. The measured droplet sizes were used for statistical analysis. Reported mean droplet sizes were volume weighted: D10 represents the diameter at which 10% of the droplets included a total water volume less than D10 and 90% of the droplets included a total water volume greater than D10; D50 represents the median diameter at which 50% of the droplets included a total water volume less than D50 and 50% of the droplets included a total water volume greater than D50; D90 represents the diameter at which 90% of the droplets included a total water volume less than D90 and 10% of the droplets included a total water volume greater than D90.

Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel from Chevron Phillips Chemical (The Woodlands, TX) was used as a base fuel. 5% (by volume) soy biodiesel (Renewable Energy Group (REG), Inc., Mason City, IA) was added to the base fuel to form a fuel mixture. The interfacial tension of the fuel mixture was 21 ± 2 dynes per centimeter, as determined by pendant drop method.

The same batch of fuel mixture was used for all testing.

For testing, a multi-layer media composite was placed in the holder, and the holder was filled with the fuel mixture. A face velocity of 0.07 ft/min was set and manually maintained for 10 minutes prior to introducing water.

A water-in-fuel emulsion was generated by injecting water into the main fuel loop and forcing it through an orifice plate. To achieve the desired mean 20 pm emulsion, a 1.8 mm plate was used. The flow speed in the main loop was adjusted to achieve a differential pressure across the orifice plate of 5.0 pounds per square inch (psi) (approximately 1.2 Liters per minute (Lpm)). The water was injected at a rate of 0.3 milliliter per minute (mL/min) with an initial target challenge of 2500 parts per million (ppm) water. Fuel that was not taken into the test loop was sent through a clean-up filter before being directed back into the main tank where it could be passed through the orifice again. The system provides a consistent emulsion challenge to the multi-layer media composite during the duration of a 20 minute test.

Fuel-Water Separation Efficiency Test

Fuel-water separation efficiency testing was done using the ISO/TS 16332 laboratory test method, modified as described herein.

For testing flat-sheets of media, an aluminum holder that holds a 7 inch x 7 inch sheet of filter media (effective size of 6 inches x 6 inches) was used. On the downstream side of the filter media, a 100 pm polyester screen (effective size of 6 inches x 6 inches) was placed to ensure that coalesced water droplets larger than 100 pm in diameter were not carried downstream with the fuel flow.

The upstream water concentration in fuel was set at 5000 ppm and is considered to be constant through the duration of the test. This concentration of water was determined by measuring the known flow rates of both the water injection pump and the fuel flow rate. The downstream water concentration was recorded at predetermined intervals. The water concentration was measured using a Karl-Fisher volumetric titration method using a commercial Metrohm AG (Herisau, Switzerland) 841 Titrando titrator.

The droplet size distribution of the upstream free water was determined using a commercial Malvern Instruments (Malvern, United Kingdom) Insitec SX droplet size analyzer with an attached wet flow cell. For an emulsified water test, the droplet size distribution typically has a D50 of 10 pm ± 1 pm with a D10 and D90 of 3 pm and 25 pm, respectively.

The face velocity across the media in all tests unless otherwise specified was fixed at 0.05 feet per minute (fpm or ft/min). Unless otherwise specified, the total test time was 15 minutes.

The percent separation efficiency of the media during the test was calculated as the ratio of the downstream water concentration to the upstream water concentration.

Permeability Test

A sample at least 38 cm 2 was cut from a media to be tested. The sample was mounted on a TEXTEST® FX 3310 (obtained from Textest AG, Schwerzenbach, Switzerland).

Permeability through the media was measured using air, wherein cubic feet of air per square feet of media per minute (ft 3 air/ft 2 media/min) or cubic meters of air per square meters of media per minute (m 3 air/m 2 media/min) was measured at a pressure drop of 0.5 inches (1.27 cm) of water.

PREPARATION METHODS

Example 1 - UV treatment

UV -treated media layers were made by exposing the downstream (wire side) surface of a substrate to UV radiation. The UV source was a low pressure mercury lamp (4 inch c 4 inch Standard Mercury Grid Lamp, BHK, Inc., Ontario, Canada). The low pressure mercury lamp produces UV light at the following discrete wavelengths: 185 nm, 254 nm, 297 nm,

302 nm, 313 nm, 365 nm, and 366 nm. 4 inch c 4 inch samples were exposed to the lamp for between 1 and 20 minutes. Samples shown in FIG. 11 were exposed to the lamp for 20 minutes; samples used for water drop sizing experiments were treated for 8 minutes. Samples were placed approximately 1 cm below the lamp during treatment.

A sample of each substrate listed in Table 1 was UV treated with the low pressure mercury lamp in the presence of atmospheric oxygen. Using the same batch of fuel, D10, D50, and D90 for each substrate before and after treatment were measured; results are shown in Table 2. The contact angles and roll-off angles (for 20 pL drops and 50 pL drops) of each substrate (in toluene) before and after treatment are shown in Table 3.

UV-oxygen treatment with the low pressure mercury lamp resulted in substrates exhibiting an increased roll off angle compared to untreated substrate. As shown in Table 2, with the exception of Substrate 6, an enhancement of D50 mean droplet size of at least 2 fold was also observed. Higher roll off angles measured using drops of water deposited on a substrate sample submersed in toluene (Table 3) correlate with the coalescence of larger droplets by the substrate (D50 enhancement) in diesel fuel (Tables 2 and 3). Because the roll off angle correlates with the size of droplets that coalesce on a surface of a substrate, the roll off angle may be used to identify a substrate that has the ability to coalesce larger droplets capable of exiting the fuel stream.

Without wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that the acrylic-based resin system of Substrate 6 does not allow for necessary modification(s) of the surface during exposure to UV irradiation. Given the ability of UV-oxygen treatment to enhance adhesion and droplet growth in 100% polyester and phenolic resin containing medias (Substrate 7 and Substrates 1-5, respectively), it is believed that an aromatic component or another form of carbon- carbon bond unsaturation can enhance the effect of UV-oxygen treatment of substrates.

In contrast, when the low pressure mercury lamp was fitted with either a UV bandpass filter (FSQ-UG5, Newport Corp., Irving, CA) that blocks wavelengths less than

approximately 220 nm and greater than approximately 400 nm, treated Substrate 1 showed little to no change in roll-off angle or mean droplet size compared to untreated media.

Similarly, when Substrates 1 and 7 were treated with a lamp that emits UV at wavelengths greater than 360 nm (Model F300S, Heraeus Noblelight Fusion UV Inc., Gaithersburg, MD), the treated substrates showed little to no change in mean droplet size compared to untreated substrates and only a small increase in roll off angle compared to untreated substrates.

Table 1

Table 2

Table 3

The ability of Substrate 1 samples (untreated and UV-oxy gen-treated) to remove water from fuel (that is, the performance of the media) was determined by measuring downstream water content after 15 minutes; results are shown in FIG. 13. As can be seen in FIG. 14, compared to untreated Substrate 1, UV-oxy gen-treated Substrate 1 samples exhibited significantly improved ability to remove water from the fuel and to maintain low downstream water content, consistent with the observed increased roll off angle and D50 enhancement compared to untreated substrate.

Substrate 1 samples (untreated and UV-oxy gen-treated) were soaked in 200 milliliters (mL) of Pump Fuel for 30 days at 55°C. Before testing, control (not soaked) and treated samples were washed with hexane and then heated for five minutes in an 80°C oven to evaporate the hexane. Contact angles in toluene and roll-off angles in toluene were measured using 50 pL drops of ultra-pure water deposited on a substrate sample that was submersed in toluene. Measurements were performed as described above. Results are shown in FIG. 15 and Table 4. The average roll off angle and contact angle - and the corresponding ability to remove water from fuel - were maintained in UV-oxy gen-treated substrates even after being soaked in fuel for 30 days at 55°C, conditions that are found in some in-the-field applications and can accelerate aging of a substrate.

Table 4

Example 2 - UV/H2O2 Treatment

Substrate 1 was cured by heating the media at 150°C for 10 minutes. The substrate was then submerged in a 50% H2O2 solution contained in a shallow petri dish (1 cm deep) and UV treated with a low pressure mercury lamp (4 inch c 4 inch Standard Mercury Grid Lamp, BHK, Inc., Ontario, Canada) for 0 minutes, 2 minutes, 4 minutes, 6 minutes, or 8 minutes. The substrate was then oven dried at 80°C for 5 minutes.

The contact angles (CA) in toluene and water roll-off angles (RO) of the treated side and the untreated side of each substrate were measured using 50 pL drops of ultra-pure water in toluene. Results are shown in Table 4 and FIG. 16. Example 3 - Comparative Examples

The contact angle and roll-off angle in toluene of a Cummins MO-608 fuel-water separation filter was tested using 20 pL water drops. The upstream side of the filter media had a contact angle of 143° and a roll-off angle of 19°. The downstream side of the filter media had a contact angle of 146° and a roll-off angle of 24°.

The contact angle and roll-off angle in toluene of an ACDelco TP3018 fuel-water separation filter was tested using 20 pL water drops. The upstream side of the filter media had a contact angle of 146° and a roll-off angle of 28°. The downstream side of the filter media had a reported roll-off angle of 1° (that is, drops rolled away during the deposition process).

The contact angle and roll-off angle in toluene of a Ford F150 FD4615 fuel-water separation filter was tested using 20 pL water drops. The upstream side of the filter media had a contact angle of 149° and a roll-off angle of 10°. The downstream side of the filter media had a contact angle of 137° and a roll-off angle of 9°.

The contact angle and roll-off angle in toluene of a Donaldson P551063 fuel-water separation filter was tested using 20 pL water drops. The upstream side of the filter media had a contact angle of 157° and a roll-off angle of 22°. The downstream side of the filter media had a contact angle of 125° and a roll-off angle of 11°.

The contact angle and roll-off angle in toluene of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane was tested using 50 pL water drops. The membrane had a reported roll-off angle of 1° (that is, drops rolled away during the deposition process), making it was impossible to stabilize the droplet to measure a contact angle. It was approximated that the contact angle is at least 165°.

The contact angle and roll-off angle in toluene of a Komatsu 600-319-5611 fuel filter was tested using 20 pL water drops. The upstream side of the filter media had a contact angle of 150° and a roll-off angle of 3°. The downstream side of the filter media had a contact angle of 145° and a roll-off angle of 32°.

Example 4 - Polymer Coating by Dip Coating

Substrate 1 (20% polyester/80% cellulose media with a partially-cured phenolic resin component) was coated with a polymer, using the polymers, concentrations, and solvents shown in Table 5. Samples were dip coated using a Chemat DipMaster 50 dip coater (Chemat Technology, Inc., Northridge, CA). Media was fully submerged in a solution including polymer and withdrawn at a rate of 50 mm/min. To ensure coating homogeneity, media was dip coated, rotated 180 degrees, and dip coated again (for a total of two dip coats). Non- aqueous solvents were removed via oven drying at 80°C for 5 minutes, and water was removed via oven dying at 100°C for 5 minutes.

To create a charged coating (via quatemization) of PEI-600 (see Table 5 (PEI-600 HC1)), Substrate 1 that had been previously coated with PEI-600 was dip coated in HC1 (0.05 M in IP A), using the dip coating procedures described above. To create PEI-10K + Maleic Anhydride coating (see Table 5), Substrate 1 that had been previously coated PEI- 10K was dip coated in maleic anhydride using the dip coating procedures described above.

After the dip coating procedure was complete, to increase rigidity of the media and cure the partially-cured phenolic resin, a curing treatment was applied at 150°C for 10 minutes after drying at 80°C for 5 minutes.

Results are shown in Table 5 and FIG. 18. An exemplary image of a 20 pL water droplet on a PHPM-treated substrate (see Table 5) immersed in toluene at 0° rotation (left) and 60° rotation (right) is shown in FIG. 221.

As shown in Table 4, higher roll off angles measured using drops of water deposited on a substrate sample submersed in toluene correlate with the coalescence of larger droplets by the substrate (D50 enhancement) in diesel fuel. Because the roll off angle correlates with the size of droplets that coalesce on a surface of a substrate, the roll off angle may be used to identify a substrate that has the ability to coalesce larger droplets capable of exiting the fuel stream. As shown in FIG. 18, increased fuel -water separation efficiency was seen for PEI- 10K coated substrate compared to untreated substrate, consistent with the observed increased roll off angle and D50 enhancement.

Table 5

Polymer untreated PEI- 1 OK PS-co-AA PHPM

Concentration lg/200mL lg/200mL lg/200mL

Solvent IPA IPA MeOH

Dry Time (at 80°C) 5 5 5

Droplet Sizing

D90 (mm) 0.60 1.00 0.43 2.02

D50 (mm) 0.29 0.69 0.30 1.09

D10 (mm) 0.17 0.29 0.20 0.65

D90 Enhancement 1.7x 0.7x 3.4x D50 Enhancement 2.4x l.Ox 3.8x DIO Enhancement 1.7x 1.2x 3.9x

Contact Angle in Toluene 137° 138° 134° 125°

20uL Roll Off Angle in Toluene 41° 68° 8° 90° 50uL Roll Off Angle in Toluene 10° 18° - 90°

PEI- 1 OK +

PEI-600

Polymer PAA PEI-600 Maleic

HC1

Anhydride

Concentration lg/200mL lg/200mL lg/200mL lg/200mL

Solvent IPA IPA IPA IPA

Dry Time (at 80°C) 5 5 5 5

Droplet Sizing

D90 (mm) 0.43 0.55 0.87

D50 (mm) 0.29 0.35 0.52 0.50

D10 (mm) 0.15 0.18 0.35 0.30

D90 Enhancement 0.7x 0.9x 1.5x 0.16 D50 Enhancement l .Ox 1.2x 1.8x 0.8x D10 Enhancement 0.9x l . lx 2. lx l.Ox

l.Ox

Contact Angle in Toluene 135° 127° 131° 144° 20uL Roll Off Angle in

Toluene 34' 37' 90' 34°

50uL Roll Off Angle in

Toluene 11 21

Table 5 (cont.)

Polymer PHEM P2E20 DAMO-T Tyzor

Concentration lg/200mL lg/200mL 2g/200mL 10mL/200mL Solvent IPA MeOH EtOH Hexane

Dry Time (at 80°C) 5 5 5 15

Droplet Sizing

D90 (mm) 0.65 1.33 0.44 0.41

D50 (mm) 0.42 0.68 0.27 0.25

D10 (mm) 0.28 0.34 0.14 0.15

D90 Enhancement 1. lx 2.2x 0.7x 0.7x

D50 Enhancement 1.5x 2.4x 0.9x 0.9x

D10 Enhancement 1.7x 2. lx 0.9x 0.9x

Contact Angle in Toluene 139° 125° 136° 132°

20uL Roll Off Angle in

Toluene 56° 90° <60° 28°

50uL Roll Off Angle in

Toluene 16° 90°

Polymer SIVO 203

Concentration 4g/400mL

Solvent IP A

Dry Time (at 80° C) 15

Droplet Sizing

D90 (mm) 0.31

D50 (mm) 0.19

D10 (mm) 0.12

D90 Enhancement 0.5x

D50 Enhancement 0.7x

D10 Enhancement 0.7x

Contact Angle in Toluene 133°

20uL Roll Off Angle in Toluene 17° 50uL Roll Off Angle in Toluene

Example 5 - Effect of Polymer Coating on Permeability

Substrate 1 (20% polyester/80% cellulose media with a partially-cured phenolic resin component) was dip coated using a Chemat DipMaster 50 dip coater (Chemat Technology, Inc., Northridge, CA) with 2 % (w/v) PHEM, 4% (w/v) PHEM, 6% (w/v) PHEM, or 8%

(w/v) PHEM in methanol. Media was fully submerged in the solution including polymer and withdrawn at a rate of 50 mm/min. To ensure coating homogeneity, media was dip coated, rotated 180 degrees, and dip coated again (for a total of two dip coats). Non-aqueous solvents were removed via oven drying at 80°C for 5 minutes, and water was removed via oven dying at 100°C for 5 minutes.

After the dip coating procedure was complete and after drying at 80°C for 5 minutes, a curing treatment was applied at 150°C for 10 minutes.

Permeability was tested as described above. Results are shown in FIG. 19.

Example 6 - Polymer Coating by Dip Coating, Crosslinking, and Annealing

Substrate 1 (20% polyester/80% cellulose media with a partially-cured phenolic resin component; see Table 1) was coated with a polymer, using the polymers, crosslinkers, concentrations, and solvents shown in Tables 6 and 7. Samples were dip coated using a Chemat DipMaster 50 dip coater (Chemat Technology, Inc., Northridge, CA). Media was fully submerged in a solution including polymer and withdrawn at a rate of 50 mm/min. To ensure coating homogeneity, media was dip coated, rotated 180 degrees, and dip coated again (for a total of two dip coats). Non-aqueous solvents were removed via oven drying at 80°C for 5 minutes, and water was removed via oven dying at 100°C for 5 minutes.

After dip coating and/or before annealing, if performed, the media was oven dried at 80°C for 5 minutes and then exposed to 150°C for 5 minutes. The heating is believed to increase rigidity of the media, to cure the partially-cured phenolic resin, and to accelerate crosslinking of the crosslinker, if present.

If the polymer coating was annealed, after the dip coating procedure and heating were complete, the media was submerging in hot (90°C) water for 1-2 minutes. After annealing, the media was oven dried for 100°C for 5 minutes.

Substrate 1 samples (untreated and polymer coated) were soaked in 200 milliliters (mL) of Pump Fuel for 13 days, 30 days, or 39 days (as indicated in FIG. 20 or FIG. 21) at 55°C. Before testing, control (not soaked) and treated samples were washed with hexane and then heated for five minutes in an 80°C oven to evaporate the hexane. Contact angles in toluene and roll-off angles in toluene were measured using 50 pL drops of ultra-pure water deposited on a substrate sample that was submersed in toluene. Measurements were performed as described above.

Results are shown in FIG. 19 and FIG. 1220. The average roll off angle and contact angle - and the corresponding ability to remove water from fuel - were maintained in crosslinked polymer-coated substrates and crosslinked and annealed polymer-coated substrates even after being soaked in fuel for 39 days at 55°C, conditions that are found in some in-the-field applications and can accelerate aging of a substrate.

Table 6

Polymer PEI- 1 OK PEI- 1 OK

Polymer Concentration 4g/100mL 4g/100mL

Solvent methanol methanol

3-

Crosslinker none glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane

Crosslinker Concentration lg/lOOmL

Dry Time (at 80°C) 5 5

Table 7

Polymer PHEM PHEM

Polymer

Concentration 4g/100mL 4g/100mL

Solvent methanol methanol

N-(2-Aminoethyl)-3-

Crosslinker none aminopropyltrimethoxysilane

Crosslinker

Concentration lg/lOOmL

Dry Time (at 80°C) 5 5

Example 7 - Polymer Coating by Electrospinning

A coating was formed on Substrate 6 (see Table 1) by electrospinning with a 10% polymer (w/v) solution using the conditions shown in Table 8. A methanol solution was used for poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEM) and an isopropyl alcohol (IP A) solution was used for PEI- 1 OK. Coatings were formed with and without the presence of a crosslinker in the spinning solution. 0.5 % (w/v) N-(2-Aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (also referred to herein as DAMO-T) was used as a crosslinker for PHEM; 0.5 % (w/v) (3- glycidyloxypropyl) trimethoxy silane (also referred to herein as crosslinker 1) or 0.5 % (w/v) poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) (also referred to herein as crosslinker 2) were used as the crosslinker for PEI- 1 OK.

Results are shown in FIG. 1321 to FIG. 1624. Contact angles and roll off angles of a 50 pL water droplet on a PHEM-coated substrate with and without crosslinker were measured immediately after electrospinning and are shown in FIG. 1321. Contact angles and roll off angles of a 50 pL water droplet on a PEI-coated substrate with and without crosslinker were measured immediately after electrospinning and are shown in FIG. 1422.

FIG. 1523 shows the contact angles and the roll off angles of a 50 pL water droplet on an exemplary PHEM nanofiber-coated, DAMO-T-crosslinked Substrate 6 1 day, 6 days, and 32 days after formation of the coating by electrospinning. Contact angles and roll off angles 52 days after formation of the coating by electrospinning were similar to those observed 32 days after formation of the coating by electrospinning.

FIG. 1624 shows the contact angles and the roll off angles of a 50 pL water droplet on an exemplary PEI-lOK nanofiber-coated, crosslinked Substrate 6 1 day, 6 days, and 32 days after formation of the coating by electrospinning. The PEI was crosslinked using either (3- glycidyloxypropyl) trimethoxy silane (crosslinker 1) or poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) (crosslinker 2). Contact angles and roll off angles 52 days after formation of the coating by electrospinning were similar to those observed 32 days after formation of the coating by electrospinning.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of Substrate 6 coated with polymers by electrospinning are shown in FIG. 17, FIG. 18, and FIG. 19. As shown in FIG. 17, electrospinning of PHEM forms PHEM nanofibers that coat the cellulose substrate. In contrast, as shown in FIG. 18 and FIG. 19, PEI- 1 OK did not form nanofibers on the substrate but, rather, directly coated the cellulose fibers present in the substrate. These results indicate that a polymer coating created using electrospinning technique may be present in the form of nanofibers or it may be present as a solid polymer coat on a substrate.

Table 8 Polymer solution Volumetrii Voltage Spinning Spinning

Flow Rate (kV) distance time (min) (ml/min) (inch)

PHEM + methanol 0.1 25 5 5

PHEM + methanol + DAMO-T 0.1 25 5 5

PEI + IP A 0.5 20 5 15

PEI + IPA + PEGDA 0.5 20 5 15

PEI + IPA + (3- 0.5 20 5 15 glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxy

silane

Methods of Identifying Material Suitable for Hydrocarbon Fluid-Water Separation

In one aspect, this disclosure describes a method of identifying a material including, for example, a filter media, having specific properties. The material is preferably suitable for hydrocarbon fluid-water separation.

In some embodiments, the method includes determining the roll off angle and, optionally, the contact angle of a droplet on a surface of the material while the material is immersed in fluid that includes a hydrocarbon. In some embodiments, the method includes identifying a material having the properties of a substrate suitable for hydrocarbon fluid-water separation including the roll off angle and/or contact angles described below.

In some embodiments, the droplet includes a hydrophile. In some embodiments, the droplet preferably includes water. In some embodiments, the droplet consists essentially of water. In some embodiments, the droplet consists of water. In some embodiments, the droplet is at least 5 pL, at least 10 pL, at least 15 pL, at least 20 pL, at least 25 pL, at least 30 pL, at least 35 pL, at least 40 pL, at least 45 pL, or at least 50 pL. In some embodiments, the droplet is up to 10 pL, up to 15 pL, up to 20 pL, up to 25 pL, up to 30 pL, up to 35 pL, up to 40 pL, up to 45 pL, up to 50 pL, up to 60 pL, up to 70 pL, or up to 100 pL. In some embodiments, the droplet is preferably a 20 pL droplet or a 50 pL droplet.

In some embodiments, the fluid that includes a hydrocarbon includes toluene. In some embodiments, the fluid that includes a hydrocarbon consists essentially of toluene. In some embodiments, the fluid that includes a hydrocarbon consists of toluene. Without wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that, because of its interfacial tension with water, toluene acts as a surrogate for other hydrocarbon fluids including, for example, diesel fuel. In contrast to previous methods for identifying materials suitable for use in hydrocarbon fluid-water separation, the methods described herein do not rely on the properties of a flat surface (for example, a surface that is non-porous). Rather, the methods described herein provide methods for testing the properties of a porous material (including, for example, a porous substrate) or a material having a porous surface. Furthermore, the methods described herein do not rely on the properties of the material in air. Rather, the materials are identified by the properties of the material in a fluid that includes a hydrocarbon including, for example, toluene.

For example, WO 2015/175877 says that a filter media designed to enhance fluid separation efficiency may comprise one or more layers having a surface modified to wet the fluid to be separated and one or more layers having a surface modified to repel the fluid to be separated. And WO 2015/175877 states that a“hydrophilic surface” may refer to a surface that has a water contact angle of less than 90 degrees and a“hydrophobic surface” may refer to a surface that has a water contact angle of greater than 90 degrees. But WO 2015/175877 does not say that the contact angle should be calculated in fluid rather than in air. And, indeed, the hydrophobicity of a surface in air does not predict the hydrophobicity of a surface in a hydrocarbon fluid.

Moreover, WO 2015/175877 does not say that the roll off angle of a surface is important and does not say how to select materials that alter the roll off angle. Rather, WO 2015/175877 says that roughness or coatings may be used to modify the wettability of a layer with respect to a particular fluid and that the terms“wet” and“wetting” refer to the ability of a fluid to interact with a surface such that the contact angle of the fluid with respect to the surface is less than 90 degrees.

But the wettability or contact angle of a surface alone - whether measured in air or in a hydrocarbon fluid - does not predict the hydrocarbon- water separation ability of the surface in a hydrocarbon fluid. In contrast, and as further described below, the adhesion or roll off angle of a water droplet on a surface in a hydrocarbon fluid optionally in combination with the contact angle of a droplet on the surface in a hydrocarbon fluid can be used to predict the ability of a substrate to remove water from hydrocarbon fluid.

Treated Substrates and Uses

In some embodiments, the disclosure relates to a filter media including a substrate obtainable by a method that includes exposing a surface of the substrate to UV radiation. The substrate includes at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component. In some embodiments, the surface of the substrate, prior to treatment, preferably has a contact angle of at least 90 degrees, as further described herein.

In some embodiments, exposing a surface of the substrate to UV radiation includes exposing the surface to UV radiation in the presence of oxygen, as further described herein.

In some embodiments, exposing a surface of the substrate to UV radiation includes exposing the surface to UV radiation and at least one of H202 and ozone, as further described herein. In some embodiments, the substrate includes a UV-reactive resin, that is, a resin including at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component. In some embodiments, the UV-reactive resin includes a phenolic resin.

In some embodiments, the disclosure relates to a filter media including a substrate obtainable by a method that includes disposing a hydrophilic group-containing polymer on a surface of the substrate.

In some embodiments, the surface of the substrate, prior to treatment, preferably has a contact angle of at least 90 degrees, as further described herein.

In some embodiments, the disclosure relates to the use of UV radiation to improve the roll off angle of a surface of a substrate, the substrate including at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component.

In some embodiments, the use is characterized by the substrate including an aromatic resin.

In some embodiments, the use is characterized by the substrate including a phenolic resin.

In some embodiments, the use is characterized by the use of UV radiation in the presence of at least one of oxygen, ozone, and H202.

In some embodiments, the disclosure relates to the use of a substance obtainable by exposure of at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component to UV radiation to improve the roll off angle of a substrate.

In some embodiments, the use relates to a use of a substance obtainable by exposure of a UV-reactive resin to UV radiation to improve the roll off angle of a substrate.

In some embodiments, the use relates to a use of a substance obtainable by exposure of an aromatic resin to UV radiation to improve the roll off angle of a substrate.

In some embodiments, the use relates to a use of a substance obtainable by exposure of a phenolic resin to UV radiation to improve the roll off angle of a substrate.

In some embodiments, the use is characterized by exposure to UV radiation in the presence of at least one of oxygen, ozone, and H202. The disclosure also relates to the use of a hydrophilic group-containing polymer to improve the roll off angle of a substrate.

The disclosure further relates to the use of a hydrophilic polymer to improve the roll off angle of a substrate.

In some embodiments of these uses, the substrate is preferably a filter substrate, including, for instance, a filter substrate having a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene, as further described herein.

In some embodiments of these uses, the substrate is preferably a filter substrate, including, for instance, a filter substrate having a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene, as further described herein.

Exemplary Filter Media Embodiments

Embodiment 1. A filter media comprising a substrate, wherein the substrate comprises a surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 2. The filter media of embodiment 1 , wherein the surface has a roll off angle in a range of 60 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 70 degrees to 90 degrees, or in a range of 80 degrees to 90 degrees.

Embodiment 3. A filter media comprising a substrate, wherein the substrate comprises a surface having a roll off angle in a range of 40 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 4. The filter media of embodiment 3, wherein the surface has a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 60 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 70 degrees to 90 degrees, or in a range of 80 degrees to 90 degrees. Embodiment 5. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 4, wherein the surface comprises a UV -treated surface.

Embodiment 6. The filter media of any one of any one of embodiments 1 to 5, wherein the surface comprises a UV-oxy gen-treated surface.

Embodiment 7. The filter media of any one of any one of embodiments 1 to 6, wherein the surface comprises a UV-ozone-treated surface.

Embodiment 8. The filter media of any one of any one of embodiments 1 to 7, wherein the surface comprises a UV-H202-treated surface.

Embodiment 9. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 8, wherein the substrate comprises a hydrophilic group-containing polymer.

Embodiment 10. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 9, wherein the surface comprises a hydrophilic group-containing polymer disposed thereon.

Embodiment 11. The filter media of either of embodiments 9 or 10, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic pendant group.

Embodiment 12. The filter media of any one of embodiments 9 to 11, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPM), poly(2 -hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) (PHEM), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (P2E20), polyethyleneimine (PEI), quatemized polyethyleneimine, poly(dopamine), or combinations thereof.

Embodiment 13. The filter media of any one of embodiments 9 to 12, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic polymer.

Embodiment 14. The filter media of any one of embodiments 9 to 13, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a charged polymer. Embodiment 15. The filter media of any one of embodiments 9 to 14, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydroxylated methacrylate polymer.

Embodiment 16. The filter media of any one of embodiments 9 to 15, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer does not comprise a fluoropolymer.

Embodiment 17. A filter media comprising a substrate,

wherein the substrate comprises a surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene; and

wherein the surface comprises poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPM), poly(2- hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) (PHEM), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (P2E20), polyethyleneimine (PEI), quatemized polyethyleneimine, poly(dopamine), or combinations thereof.

Embodiment 18. The filter media of embodiment 17, wherein the surface has a roll off angle in a range of 60 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 70 degrees to 90 degrees, or in a range of 80 degrees to 90 degrees.

Embodiment 19. A filter media comprising a substrate,

wherein the substrate comprises a surface having a roll off angle in a range of 40 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene; and

wherein the surface comprises poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPM), poly(2- hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) (PHEM), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (P2E20), polyethyleneimine (PEI), quatemized polyethyleneimine, poly(dopamine), or combinations thereof.

Embodiment 20. The filter media of embodiment 19, wherein the surface has a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 60 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 70 degrees to 90 degrees, or in a range of 80 degrees to 90 degrees.

Embodiment 21. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 20, wherein the substrate comprises cellulose, polyester, polyamide, polyolefin, glass, or a combination thereof. Embodiment 22. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 21, wherein the substrate comprises at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component.

Embodiment 23. The filter media of any one of any one of embodiments 1 to 22, wherein the substrate comprises a modifying resin.

Embodiment 24. The filter media of any one of any one of embodiments 1 to 23, wherein the substrate comprises a UV-reactive resin.

Embodiment 25. The filter media of any one of any one of embodiments 1 to 24, wherein the substrate comprises a phenolic resin.

Embodiment 26. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 25, wherein the substrate comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm.

Embodiment 27. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the substrate comprises pores having an average diameter in a range of 40 pm to 50 pm.

Embodiment 28. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 27, wherein the substrate is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

Embodiment 29. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 28, wherein the filter media further comprises a coalescing layer located upstream of the substrate.

Embodiment 30. The filter media of embodiment 29, wherein the coalescing layer comprises pores having an average diameter and the substrate comprises pores having an average diameter, and the average diameter of the pores of the substrate is greater than the average diameter of the pores of the coalescing layer.

Embodiment 31. The filter media of either of embodiments 29 or 30, wherein the substrate comprises pores having an average diameter, and wherein a droplet having an average diameter forms on a downstream side of the coalescing layer, and further wherein the average diameter of the pores of the substrate is greater than the average diameter of the droplet. Embodiment 32. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 31, wherein the substrate is stable.

Embodiment 33. A filter media comprising:

a first substrate layer defining a first surface having a treatment that increases the roll off angle of the first surface for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface is immersed in toluene; and

a second substrate layer abutting the first substrate layer, the second substrate layer having a treatment that increases the roll off angle of the first surface for a 50 pL water droplet when the second surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 34. The filter media of embodiment 33, wherein the roll off angle of the first surface is in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees, and the first surface has a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 35. The filter media of embodiment 33 or 34, wherein the roll off angle of the second surface is in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees, and the second surface has a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the second surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 36. The filter media of any of embodiments 33-35, wherein the first substrate layer and the second substrate layer are different materials.

Embodiment 37. The filter media of any of embodiments 33-36, wherein the first substrate has a first average pore size and the second substrate has a second average pore size, and the first average pore size and second average pore size are different.

Embodiment 38. The filter media of any of embodiments 33-37, wherein the first surface comprises a UV -treated surface.

Embodiment 39. The filter media of embodiment 38, wherein the first surface comprises a UV-oxy gen-treated surface. Embodiment 40. The filter media of any of embodiments 33-39, wherein the first substrate layer comprises a UV-reactive resin.

Embodiment 41. The filter media of any of embodiments 33-40, wherein the second surface comprises a hydrophilic group-containing polymer.

Embodiment 42. The filter media of embodiment 41, wherein the hydrophilic group- containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic pendant group.

Embodiment 43. The filter media of embodiment 41, wherein the hydrophilic group- containing polymer comprises a charged polymer.

Embodiment 44. The filter media of embodiment 41, wherein the hydrophilic group- containing polymer comprises a hydroxylated methacrylate polymer.

Embodiment 45. The filter media of any of embodiments 33-44, wherein the second substrate layer comprises a UV-reactive resin.

Embodiment 46. The filter media of any of embodiments 33-45, wherein the second substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm.

Embodiment 47. The filter media of any of embodiments 33-46, wherein the second substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

Exemplary Method of Treatment Embodiments

Embodiment 1. A method of treating a material comprising a surface, the method comprising treating the surface to form a treated surface,

wherein the treated surface has a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene. Embodiment 2. The method of embodiment 1, wherein the treated surface has a roll off angle in a range of 60 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 70 degrees to 90 degrees, or in a range of 80 degrees to 90 degrees.

Embodiment 3. A method of treating a material comprising a surface, the method comprising treating the surface to form a treated surface,

wherein the treated surface has a roll off angle in a range of 40 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 4. The method of embodiment 3, wherein the treated surface has a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 60 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 70 degrees to 90 degrees, or in a range of 80 degrees to 90 degrees.

Embodiment 5. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 4, wherein treating the surface comprises exposing the surface to ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

Embodiment 6. The method of embodiment 5, wherein treating the surface comprises exposing the surface to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the presence of oxygen, and wherein the UV radiation comprises a first wavelength in a range of 180 nm to 210 nm and a second wavelength in a range of 210 nm to 280 nm.

Embodiment 7. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 6, wherein the UV radiation comprises a wavelength of 185 nm.

Embodiment 8. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 7, wherein the UV radiation comprises a wavelength of 254 nm.

Embodiment 9. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 8, wherein treating the surface comprises exposing the surface to H202.

Embodiment 10. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 9, wherein treating the surface comprises exposing the surface to ultraviolet (UV) radiation comprising a wavelength in a range of 350 nm to 370 nm. Embodiment 11. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 10, wherein treating the surface comprises exposing the surface to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the presence of ozone.

Embodiment 12. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 11, wherein treating the surface comprises exposing the surface to UV radiation in a range of 300 pW/cm2 to 200 mW/cm2.

Embodiment 13. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 12, wherein treating the surface comprises exposing the surface to UV radiation for a time in a range of 2 seconds to 20 minutes.

Embodiment 14. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 13, wherein treating the surface comprises forming a layer comprising a hydrophilic group-containing polymer on the surface.

Embodiment 15. The method of embodiment 14, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPM), poly (2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) (PHEM), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (P2E20), polyethyleneimine (PEI), quatemized polyethyleneimine, poly(dopamine), or combinations thereof.

Embodiment 16. The method of either of embodiments 14 or 15, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic polymer.

Embodiment 17. The method of any one of embodiments 14 to 16, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic pendant group.

Embodiment 18. The method of any one of embodiments 14 to 17, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydroxylated methacrylate polymer.

Embodiment 19. The method of any one of embodiments 14 to 18, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer does not comprise a fluoropolymer.

Embodiment 20. The method of any one of embodiments 14 to 19, wherein the layer comprises a charged layer. Embodiment 21. The method of any one of embodiments 14 to 20, wherein forming a layer comprising a hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises dip coating the material in a solution comprising the hydrophilic group-containing polymer.

Embodiment 22. The method of embodiment 21, wherein the solution comprising the hydrophilic group-containing polymer further comprises a crosslinker.

Embodiment 23. The method of embodiment 22, wherein the crosslinker comprises at least one of N-(2-Aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (DAMO-T), 3-glycidyloxypropyl) trimethoxy silane and poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA).

Embodiment 24. The method of any one of embodiments 14 to 20, wherein forming a layer comprising a hydrophilic group-containing polymer on the surface comprises electrospinning a solution comprising a hydrophilic group-containing polymer onto the surface.

Embodiment 25. The method of embodiment 24, the method further comprising forming nanofibers comprising the hydrophilic group-containing polymer on the surface.

Embodiment 26. The method of either of embodiments 24 or 25, wherein the solution comprising a hydrophilic group-containing polymer further comprises a crosslinker.

Embodiment 27. The method of embodiment 26, wherein the crosslinker comprises at least one of N-(2-Aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (DAMO-T), 3-glycidyloxypropyl) trimethoxy silane and poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA).

Embodiment 28. The method of any one of embodiments 14 to 27, the method further comprising crosslinking the hydrophilic group-containing polymer.

Embodiment 29. The method of Embodiment 28, wherein crosslinking the hydrophilic group- containing polymer comprises heating the hydrophilic group-containing polymer-coated material at a temperature in a range of 80°C to 200°C for 30 seconds to 15 minutes.

Embodiment 30. The method of any one of embodiments 14 to 29, the method further comprising annealing the hydrophilic group-containing polymer. Embodiment 31. The method of Embodiment 30, wherein annealing the hydrophilic group- containing polymer comprises submerging the hydrophilic group-containing polymer-coated material in a solvent for at least 10 seconds, wherein the temperature of the solvent is at least the glass transition temperature of the hydrophilic group-containing polymer.

Embodiment 32. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 31, wherein the material comprises a filter media.

Embodiment 33. The method of embodiment 32, wherein the filter media comprises a substrate.

Embodiment 34. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 33, wherein the material comprises cellulose, polyester, polyamide, polyolefin, glass, or a combination thereof.

Embodiment 35. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 34, wherein the material comprises a at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component.

Embodiment 36. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 35, wherein the material comprises a modifying resin.

Embodiment 37. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 36, wherein the material comprises a UV -reactive resin.

Embodiment 38. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 37, wherein the material comprises a phenolic resin.

Embodiment 39. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 38, wherein the material comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm.

Embodiment 40. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 39, wherein the material comprises pores having an average diameter in a range of 40 pm to 50 pm. Embodiment 41. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 40, wherein the material is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

Embodiment 42. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 41, wherein the treated surface is stable.

Embodiment 43. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 42, wherein the surface of the material, prior to treatment, has a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 44. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 43, wherein the surface of the material, prior to treatment, has a contact angle in a range of 100 degrees to 150 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 45. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 44, wherein the surface of the material, prior to treatment, has a roll off angle in a range of 0 degrees to 50 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 46. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 42, wherein the surface of the material, prior to treatment, has a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 47. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 42 or 46, wherein the surface of the material, prior to treatment, has a contact angle in a range of 100 degrees to 150 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 48. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 42, 46, or 47 wherein the surface of the material, prior to treatment, has a roll off angle in a range of 0 degrees to 40 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

Exemplary Filter Element Embodiments

Embodiment 1. A filter element comprising: a filter media comprising a substrate, wherein the substrate comprises a surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 2. The filter element of embodiment 1 , wherein the surface has a roll off angle in a range of 60 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 70 degrees to 90 degrees, or in a range of 80 degrees to 90 degrees.

Embodiment 3. A filter element comprising

a filter media comprising a substrate, wherein the substrate comprises a surface having a roll off angle in a range of 40 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 4. The filter element of embodiment 3, wherein the surface has a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 60 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 70 degrees to 90 degrees, or in a range of 80 degrees to 90 degrees.

Embodiment 5. The filter element of any one of embodiments 1 to 4, wherein the surface defines a downstream side of the filter media.

Embodiment 6. The filter element of any one of embodiments 1 to 5, wherein the filter media comprises a layer configured to remove particulate contaminants.

Embodiment 7. The filter element of embodiment 6, wherein the layer configured to remove particulate contaminants is upstream of the substrate.

Embodiment 8. The filter element of any one of embodiments 1 to 7, wherein the filter media comprises a coalescing layer.

Embodiment 9. The filter element of embodiment 8, wherein the coalescing layer is upstream of the substrate.

Embodiment 10. The filter element of any one of embodiments 1 to 9, wherein the filter media comprises a layer configured to remove particulate contaminants and a coalescing layer, and the layer configured to remove particulate contaminants is upstream of the coalescing layer and the coalescing layer is upstream of the substrate.

Embodiment 11. The filter element of any one of embodiments 1 to 10, the filter element further comprising a screen.

Embodiment 12. The filter element of embodiment 11, wherein the screen is downstream of the substrate.

Embodiment 13. The filter element of any one of embodiments 1 to 12, the filter element further comprising a second coalescing layer downstream of the substrate.

Embodiment 14. The filter element of any one of embodiments 1 to 13, wherein the filter media has a tubular configuration.

Embodiment 15. The filter element of any one of embodiments 1 to 14, wherein the filter media comprises pleats.

Embodiment 16. The filter element of any one of embodiments 1 to 15, wherein the filter element is configured to remove water from a hydrocarbon fluid.

Embodiment 17. The filter element of embodiment 16, wherein the hydrocarbon fluid comprises diesel fuel.

Embodiment 18. The filter element of any one of embodiments 1 to 17, wherein the surface is stable.

Exemplary Methods of Identifying Material Suitable for Hydrocarbon Fluid-Water Separation

Embodiment 1. A method for identifying a material suitable for hydrocarbon fluid- water separation, the method comprising determining the roll off angle of a droplet on a surface of the material, wherein the material is immersed in a fluid comprising a hydrocarbon, and wherein the roll off angle is in a range of 40 degrees to 90 degrees. Embodiment 2. The method of embodiment 1, wherein the droplet comprises a hydrophile.

Embodiment 3. The method of either of embodiments 1 or 2, wherein the droplet comprises water.

Embodiment 4. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 3, wherein the fluid comprising a hydrocarbon comprises toluene.

Embodiment 5. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 4, wherein the droplet is a 20 pL droplet.

Embodiment 6. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 4, wherein the droplet is a 50 pL droplet.

Embodiment 7. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 6, wherein the method further comprises determining the contact angle of the droplet on the surface of the material.

Embodiment 8. The method of embodiment 7, wherein the contact angle is in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees.

Embodiment 9. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 8, wherein the material comprises a hydrophilic group-containing polymer disposed thereon.

Embodiment 10. The method of embodiment 10, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic polymer.

Embodiment 11. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 10, wherein the surface of the material is stable.

Embodiment 12. The method of any one of embodiments 1 to 11, wherein the material comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm. Embodiment 13. method of any one of embodiments 1 to 12, wherein the material comprises pores having an average diameter in a range of 40 pm to 50 pm.

Embodiment 14. method of any one of embodiments 1 to 13, wherein the material is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

Exemplary UV Radiation-Treated Substrate Embodiments

Embodiment 1. A filter media comprising a substrate obtainable by a method comprising: exposing a surface of the substrate to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, wherein the substrate comprises at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component.

Embodiment 2. The filter media of embodiment 1, wherein the surface of the substrate, prior to treatment, has a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 3. The filter media of either of embodiments 1 or 2, wherein the surface of the substrate, prior to treatment, has a contact angle in a range of 100 degrees to 150 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 4. The filter media of embodiment 1, wherein the surface of the substrate, prior to treatment, has a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 5. The filter media of either of embodiments 1 or 4, wherein the surface of the substrate, prior to treatment, has a contact angle in a range of 100 degrees to 150 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 6. A filter media comprising a substrate obtainable by a method comprising providing a substrate comprising at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component, the substrate having a surface having a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene, and exposing a surface of the substrate to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Embodiment 7. The filter media of embodiment 6, wherein the surface of the substrate, prior to treatment, has a contact angle in a range of 100 degrees to 150 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 8. A filter media comprising a substrate obtainable by a method comprising providing a substrate comprising at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component, the substrate having a surface, the surface having, prior to treatment, a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene, and

exposing a surface of the substrate to ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

Embodiment 9. The filter media of embodiment 8, wherein the surface of the substrate, prior to treatment, has a contact angle in a range of 100 degrees to 150 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 10. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 9, wherein exposing the surface of the substrate to UV radiation comprises exposing the surface to UV radiation in the presence of oxygen, and wherein the UV radiation comprises a first wavelength in a range of 180 nm to 210 nm and a second wavelength in a range of 210 nm to 280 nm.

Embodiment 11. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 10, wherein the UV radiation comprises a wavelength of 185 nm.

Embodiment 12. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 11, wherein the UV radiation comprises a wavelength of 254 nm.

Embodiment 13. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 12, wherein exposing the surface comprises exposing the surface to H202.

Embodiment 14. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 13, wherein exposing the surface comprises exposing the surface to UV radiation comprising a wavelength in a range of 350 nm to 370 nm. Embodiment 15. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 14, wherein exposing the surface comprises exposing the surface to UV radiation in the presence of ozone.

Embodiment 16. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 15, wherein exposing the surface comprises exposing the surface to UV radiation in a range of 300 pW/cm2 to 200 mW/cm2.

Embodiment 17. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 16, wherein exposing the surface comprises exposing the surface to UV radiation for a time in a range of 2 seconds to 20 minutes.

Embodiment 18. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 17, wherein the substrate comprises an aromatic component and an unsaturated component.

Embodiment 19. The filter media of embodiment 18, wherein the substrate comprises a UV- reactive resin.

Embodiment 20. The filter media of either of embodiments 18 or 19, the UV-reactive resin comprising a phenolic resin.

Embodiment 21. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 20, wherein the substrate comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm.

Embodiment 22. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 21, wherein the substrate comprises pores having an average diameter in a range of 40 pm to 50 pm.

Embodiment 23. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 22, wherein the substrate is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

Embodiment 24. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 22, wherein the substrate, prior to treatment, has a roll off angle in a range of 0 degrees to 50 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene. Embodiment 25. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 22, wherein the substrate, prior to treatment, has a roll off angle in a range of 0 degrees to 40 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

Exemplary Hydrophilic Group-Containing Polymer-Treated Substrate Embodiments

Embodiment 1. A filter media comprising a substrate obtainable by a method comprising: disposing a hydrophilic group-containing polymer on a surface of the substrate.

Embodiment 2. The filter media of embodiment 1, wherein the surface of the substrate, prior to treatment, has a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 3. The filter media of either of embodiments 1 or 2, wherein the surface of the substrate, prior to treatment, has a contact angle in a range of 100 degrees to 150 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 4. The filter media of embodiment 1, wherein the surface of the substrate, prior to treatment, has a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 5. The filter media of either of embodiments 1 or 4, wherein the surface of the substrate, prior to treatment, has a contact angle in a range of 100 degrees to 150 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 6. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 5, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPM), poly(2- hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) (PHEM), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (P2E20), polyethyleneimine (PEI), quatemized polyethyleneimine, poly(dopamine), or combinations thereof.

Embodiment 7. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 6, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic polymer. Embodiment 8. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 7, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic pendant group.

Embodiment 9. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 8, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydroxylated methacrylate polymer.

Embodiment 10. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 9, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer does not comprise a fluoropolymer.

Embodiment 11. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 10, wherein disposing a hydrophilic group-containing polymer on the surface of the substrate comprises forming a layer comprising the hydrophilic group-containing polymer on the surface.

Embodiment 12. The filter media of embodiment 11, wherein the layer comprises a charged layer.

Embodiment 13. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 12, wherein disposing a hydrophilic group-containing polymer on the surface of the substrate comprises dip coating the substrate in a solution comprising the hydrophilic group-containing polymer.

Embodiment 14. The filter media of embodiment 13, wherein the solution comprising the hydrophilic group-containing polymer further comprises a crosslinker.

Embodiment 15. The filter media of embodiment 14, wherein the crosslinker comprises at least one of N-(2-Aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (DAMO-T), 3- glycidyloxypropyl) trimethoxy silane and poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA).

Embodiment 16. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 12, wherein disposing a hydrophilic group-containing polymer on the surface of the substrate comprises

electrospinning a solution comprising a hydrophilic group-containing polymer onto the surface. Embodiment 17. The filter media of embodiment 16, wherein electrospinning a solution comprising a hydrophilic group-containing polymer onto the surface comprises forming nanofibers comprising the hydrophilic group-containing polymer on the surface.

Embodiment 18. The filter media of either of embodiments 16 or 17, wherein the solution comprising a hydrophilic group-containing polymer further comprises a crosslinker.

Embodiment 19. The filter media of embodiment 18, wherein the crosslinker comprises at least one of N-(2-Aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (DAMO-T), 3- glycidyloxypropyl) trimethoxy silane and poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA).

Embodiment 20. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 20, the method further comprising crosslinking the hydrophilic group-containing polymer.

Embodiment 21. The filter media of Embodiment 20, wherein crosslinking the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises heating the hydrophilic group-containing polymer- coated material at a temperature in a range of 80°C to 200°C for 30 seconds to 15 minutes.

Embodiment 22. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 21, the method further comprising annealing the hydrophilic group-containing polymer.

Embodiment 23. The filter media of Embodiment 22, wherein annealing the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises submerging the hydrophilic group-containing polymer- coated material in a solvent for at least 10 seconds, wherein the temperature of the solvent is at least the glass transition temperature of the hydrophilic group-containing polymer.

Embodiment 24. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 23, wherein the substrate comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm.

Embodiment 25. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 24, wherein the substrate comprises pores having an average diameter in a range of 40 pm to 50 pm.

Embodiment 26. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 25, wherein the substrate is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous. Embodiment 27. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the substrate, prior to treatment, has a roll off angle in a range of 0 degrees to 50 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 28. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 to 26, wherein the substrate, prior to treatment, has a roll off angle in a range of 0 degrees to 40 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

Exemplary Use Embodiments

Embodiment 1. The use of ultraviolet (UV) radiation to improve the roll off angle of a surface of a substrate, the substrate comprising at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component.

Embodiment 2. The use of embodiment 1, the use characterized by the substrate comprising an aromatic resin.

Embodiment 3. The use of either of embodiments 1 or 2, the use characterized by the substrate comprising a phenolic resin.

Embodiment 4. The use of any one of embodiments 1 to 3, the use characterized by the use of UV radiation in the presence of oxygen to improve the roll off angle.

Embodiment 5. The use of any one of embodiments 1 to 4, the use characterized by the use of UV radiation in the presence of ozone to improve the roll off angle.

Embodiment 6. The use of any one of embodiments 1 to 5, the use characterized by the use of UV radiation in the presence of H202 to improve the roll off angle.

Embodiment 7. The use of a substance obtainable by exposure of at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component to UV radiation to improve the roll off angle of a substrate. Embodiment 8. The use of embodiment 7, wherein the use relates to a use of a substance obtainable by exposure of a UV-reactive resin to UV radiation to improve the roll off angle of a substrate.

Embodiment 9. The use of either of embodiments 7 or 8, wherein the use relates to a use of a substance obtainable by exposure of a phenolic resin to UV radiation to improve the roll off angle of a substrate.

Embodiment 10. The use of any one of embodiments 7 to 9, the use characterized by exposure of at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component to UV radiation in the presence of oxygen.

Embodiment 11. The use of any one of embodiments 7 to 9, the use characterized by exposure of at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component to UV radiation in the presence of ozone.

Embodiment 12. The use of any one of embodiments 7 to 9, the use characterized by exposure of at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component to UV radiation in the presence of H202.

Embodiment 13. The use of a hydrophilic group-containing polymer to improve the roll off angle of a substrate.

Embodiment 14. The use of a hydrophilic polymer to improve the roll off angle of a substrate.

Embodiment 15. The use of any one of embodiments 1 to 14 wherein the substrate is a filter substrate.

Embodiment 16. The use of embodiment 15, wherein the filter substrate has a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 20 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene. Embodiment 17. The use of embodiment 15, wherein the filter substrate has a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

Additional Exemplary Embodiments

Embodiment 1. A filter media comprising:

a substrate layer having a first surface having a treatment that increases the roll off angle of the first surface for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface is immersed in toluene, wherein the substrate layer has a first edge and a second edge and the substrate layer defines a plurality of flutes extending between the first edge and the second edge.

Embodiment 2. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 and 3-26, wherein the roll off angle of the first surface is in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and the first surface has a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 3. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1-2 and 4-26, wherein the substrate layer further defines a second surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the second surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 4. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1-3 and 5-26, wherein the flutes are tapered.

Embodiment 5. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1-4 and 6-26, wherein the flutes define ridges.

Embodiment 6. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1-5 and 7-26, wherein the roll off angle of the first surface is in a range of 60 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 70 degrees to 90 degrees, or in a range of 80 degrees to 90 degrees.

Embodiment 7. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1-6 and 8-26, wherein the first surface comprises a UV -treated surface.

Embodiment 8. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1-7 and 9-26, wherein the first surface comprises a UV-oxy gen-treated surface.

Embodiment 9. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1 -8 and 10-26, wherein the substrate layer comprises at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component. Embodiment 10. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1-9 and 11-26, wherein the substrate layer comprises a UV -reactive resin. Embodiment 11. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1-10 and 12-26, wherein the first surface comprises a hydrophilic group-containing polymer.

Embodiment 12. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1-11 and 13-26, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic pendant group.

Embodiment 13. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1-12 and 14-26, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer does not comprise a fluoropolymer.

Embodiment 14. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1-13 and 15-26, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic polymer.

Embodiment 15. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1-14 and 16-26, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a charged polymer.

Embodiment 16. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1-15 and 17-26, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydroxylated methacrylate polymer.

Embodiment 17. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1-16 and 18-26, wherein the substrate layer comprises a modifying resin.

Embodiment 18. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1-17 and 19-26, wherein the substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm.

Embodiment 19. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1-18 and 20-26, wherein the substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter in a range of 40 pm to 50 pm.

Embodiment 20. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1-19 and 21-26, wherein the substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

Embodiment 21. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1-20 and 22-26, wherein the substrate layer comprises at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component, wherein the surface comprises a UV -treated surface, wherein the substrate comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the substrate is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

Embodiment 22. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1-21 and 23-26, wherein the surface comprises a hydrophilic group-containing polymer, wherein the substrate comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the substrate is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

Embodiment 23. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1-22 and 24-26, wherein the substrate layer is stable.

Embodiment 24. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1-23 and 25-26, wherein the first surface comprises poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPM), poly(2 -hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) (PHEM), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (P2E20), polyethyleneimine (PEI), quatemized polyethyleneimine, poly(dopamine), or combinations thereof.

Embodiment 25. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1-24 and 26, wherein the substrate layer comprises cellulose, polyester, polyamide, polyolefin, glass, or a combination thereof.

Embodiment 26. The filter media of any one of embodiments 1-25, wherein the substrate layer comprises a phenolic resin.

Embodiment 27. A filter media comprising:

a first substrate layer having a first surface having a treatment that increases the roll off angle of the first surface for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface is immersed in toluene, wherein the first substrate layer has a first edge and a second edge, and the first substrate layer is fluted to define flute peaks and flute valleys; and

a second substrate layer coupled to the first substrate layer, wherein the second substrate layer is planar, and the first substrate layer and the second substrate layer cooperatively define a plurality of flutes extending between the first edge and the second edge.

Embodiment 28. The filter media of any one of embodiments 27 and 29-52, wherein the roll off angle of the first surface is in the range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and the first surface has a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface is immersed in toluene

Embodiment 29. The filter media of any one of embodiments 27-28 and 30-52, the first substrate layer defining a second surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the second surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 30. The filter media of any one of embodiments 27-29 and 31-52, the second substrate layer defining a third surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment The filter media of any one of embodiments 27-30 and 32-52, the second substrate layer defining a fourth surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the second surface is immersed in toluene. Embodiment 32. The filter media of any one of embodiments 27-31 and 33-52, wherein the roll off angle of the first surface is in a range of 60 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 70 degrees to 90 degrees, or in a range of 80 degrees to 90 degrees.

Embodiment 33. The filter media of any one of embodiments 27-32 and 34-52, wherein the first surface comprises a UV-treated surface.

Embodiment 34. The filter media of any one of embodiments 27-33 and 35-52, wherein the first surface comprises a UV-oxy gen-treated surface.

Embodiment 35. The filter media of any one of embodiments 27-34 and 36-52, wherein the first substrate layer comprises at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component. Embodiment 36. The filter media of any one of embodiments 27-35 and 37-52, wherein the first substrate layer comprises a UV -reactive resin.

Embodiment 37. The filter media of any one of embodiments 27-36 and 38-52, wherein the first surface comprises a hydrophilic group-containing polymer.

Embodiment 38. The filter media of any one of embodiments 27-37 and 39-52, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic pendant group.

Embodiment 39. The filter media of any one of embodiments 27-38 and 40-52, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer does not comprise a fluoropolymer.

Embodiment 40. The filter media of any one of embodiments 27-39 and 41-52, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic polymer.

Embodiment 41. The filter media of any one of embodiments 27-40 and 42-52, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a charged polymer.

Embodiment 42. The filter media of any one of embodiments 27-41 and 43-52, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydroxylated methacrylate polymer.

Embodiment 43. The filter media of any one of embodiments 27-42 and 44-52, wherein the first substrate layer comprises a modifying resin.

Embodiment 44. The filter media of any one of embodiments 27-43 and 45-52, wherein the first substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm.

Embodiment 45. The filter media of any one of embodiments 27-44 and 46-52, wherein the first substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter in a range of 40 pm to 50 pm.

Embodiment 46. The filter media of any one of embodiments 27-45 and 47-52, wherein the first substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

Embodiment 47. The filter media of any one of embodiments 27-46 and 48-52, wherein the first substrate layer comprises at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component, wherein the first surface comprises a UV-treated surface, wherein the first substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the first substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

Embodiment 48. The filter media of any one of embodiments 27-47 and 49-52, wherein the first surface comprises a hydrophilic group-containing polymer, wherein the first substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the first substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

Embodiment 49. The filter media of any one of embodiments 27-48 and 50-52, wherein at least one of the first substrate layer and the second substrate layer is stable.

Embodiment 50. The filter media of any one of embodiments 27-49 and 51-52, wherein the first surface comprises poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPM), poly(2 -hydroxy ethyl

methacrylate) (PHEM), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (P2E20), polyethyleneimine (PEI), quatemized polyethyleneimine, poly(dopamine), or combinations thereof.

Embodiment 51. The filter media of any one of embodiments 27-50 and 52, wherein the first substrate layer comprises cellulose, polyester, polyamide, polyolefin, glass, or a combination thereof.

Embodiment 52. The filter media of any one of embodiments 27-51, wherein the first substrate layer comprises a phenolic resin.

Embodiment 53. A filter media comprising:

a first substrate layer defining a first surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the first surface is immersed in toluene; and

a second substrate layer abutting the first substrate layer, the second substrate layer defining a second surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the second surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 54. The filter media of any one of embodiments 53 and 55-80, wherein the first substrate layer and the second substrate layer are different materials.

Embodiment 55. The filter media of any one of embodiments 53-54 and 56-80, wherein the first substrate has a first average pore size and the second substrate has a second average pore size, and the first average pore size and second average pore size are different.

Embodiment 56. The filter media of any one of embodiments 53-55 and 57-80, wherein the first surface comprises a UV -treated surface and the second surface comprises a hydrophilic group- containing polymer. Embodiment 57. The filter media of any one of embodiments 53-56 and 58-80, further comprising a third substrate layer abutting the second substrate layer, the third substrate layer defining a third surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the third surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 58. The filter media of any one of embodiments 53-57 and 59-80, wherein the third substrate layer and the second substrate layer are different materials.

Embodiment 59. The filter media of any one of embodiments 53-58 and 60-80, wherein the first substrate layer defines a third surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the third surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 60. The filter media of any one of embodiments 53-59 and 61-80, wherein the second substrate layer defines a fourth surface having a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when the fourth surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 61. The filter media of any one of embodiments 53-60 and 62-80, wherein the roll off angle of the first surface is in a range of 60 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 70 degrees to 90 degrees, or in a range of 80 degrees to 90 degrees.

Embodiment 62. The filter media of any one of embodiments 53-61 and 63-80, wherein the first surface comprises a UV-treated surface.

Embodiment 63. The filter media of any one of embodiments 53-62 and 64-80, wherein the first surface comprises a UV-oxy gen-treated surface.

Embodiment 64. The filter media of any one of embodiments 53-63 and 65-80, wherein the first substrate layer comprises at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component. Embodiment 65. The filter media of any one of embodiments 53-64 and 66-80, wherein the first substrate layer comprises a UV -reactive resin.

Embodiment 66. The filter media of any one of embodiments 53-65 and 67-80, wherein the second surface comprises a hydrophilic group-containing polymer.

Embodiment 67. The filter media of any one of embodiments 53-66 and 68-80, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic pendant group.

Embodiment 68. The filter media of any one of embodiments 53-67 and 69-80, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer does not comprise a fluoropolymer.

Embodiment 69. The filter media of any one of embodiments 53-68 and 70-80, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic polymer. Embodiment 70. The filter media of any one of embodiments 53-69 and 71-80, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a charged polymer.

Embodiment 71. The filter media of any one of embodiments 53-70 and 72-80, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydroxylated methacrylate polymer.

Embodiment 72. The filter media of any one of embodiments 53-71 and 73-80, wherein the second substrate layer comprises a modifying resin.

Embodiment 73. The filter media of any one of embodiments 53-72 and 74-80, wherein the first substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm.

Embodiment 74. The filter media of any one of embodiments 53-73 and 75-80, wherein the first substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter in a range of 40 pm to 50 pm.

Embodiment 75. The filter media of any one of embodiments 53-74 and 76-80, wherein the first substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

Embodiment 76. The filter media of any one of embodiments 53-75 and 77-80, wherein the first substrate layer comprises at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component, wherein the first surface comprises a UV-treated surface, wherein the first substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the first substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

Embodiment 77. The filter media of any one of embodiments 53-76 and 78-80, wherein the second surface comprises a hydrophilic group-containing polymer, wherein the second substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the second substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

Embodiment 78. The filter media of any one of embodiments 53-77 and 79-80, wherein at least one of the first substrate layer and the second substrate layer is stable.

Embodiment 79. The filter media of any one of embodiments 53-78 and 80, wherein the first surface comprises poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPM), poly(2 -hydroxy ethyl

methacrylate) (PHEM), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (P2E20), polyethyleneimine (PEI), quatemized polyethyleneimine, poly(dopamine), or combinations thereof.

Embodiment 80. The filter media of any one of embodiments 53-79, wherein the first substrate layer and the second substrate layer each comprises cellulose, polyester, polyamide, polyolefin, glass, or a combination thereof.

Embodiment 81. A filter media comprising:

a first substrate layer having a first surface that is a UV-treated surface; and a second substrate layer abutting the first substrate layer, the second substrate layer comprising a second surface having a hydrophilic group-containing polymer.

Embodiment 82. The filter media of any one of embodiments 81 and 83-101, wherein the first surface comprises a UV-reactive resin.

Embodiment 83. The filter media of any one of embodiments 81-82 and 84-101, wherein the first surface and the second surface each have a roll off angle in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 84. The filter media of any one of embodiments 81-83 and 85-101, wherein the roll off angle of the first surface is in a range of 60 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 70 degrees to 90 degrees, or in a range of 80 degrees to 90 degrees.

Embodiment 85. The filter media of any one of embodiments 81-84 and 86-101, wherein the first surface comprises a UV-oxy gen-treated surface.

Embodiment 86. The filter media of any one of embodiments 81-85 and 87-101, wherein the first substrate layer comprises at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component.

Embodiment 87. The filter media of any one of embodiments 81-86 and 88-101, wherein the second surface comprises a hydrophilic group-containing polymer.

Embodiment 88. The filter media of any one of embodiments 81-87 and 89-101, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic pendant group.

Embodiment 89. The filter media of any one of embodiments 81-88 and 90-101, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer does not comprise a fluoropolymer.

Embodiment 90. The filter media of any one of embodiments 81-89 and 91-101, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic polymer.

Embodiment 91. The filter media of any one of embodiments 81-90 and 92-101, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a charged polymer.

Embodiment 92. The filter media of any one of embodiments 81-91 and 93-101, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydroxylated methacrylate polymer.

Embodiment 93. The filter media of any one of embodiments 81-92 and 94-101, wherein the second substrate layer comprises a modifying resin.

Embodiment 94. The filter media of any one of embodiments 81-93 and 95-101, wherein the first substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm.

Embodiment 95. The filter media of any one of embodiments 81-94 and 96-101, wherein the first substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter in a range of 40 pm to 50 pm. Embodiment 96. The filter media of any one of embodiments 81-95 and 97-101, wherein the first substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

Embodiment 97. The filter media of any one of embodiments 81-96 and 98-101, wherein the first substrate layer comprises at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component, wherein the first surface comprises a UV -treated surface, wherein the first substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the first substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

Embodiment 98. The filter media of any one of embodiments 81-97 and 99-101, wherein the second surface comprises a hydrophilic group-containing polymer, wherein the second substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the second substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

Embodiment 99. The filter media of any one of embodiments 81-98 and 100-101, wherein at least one of the first substrate layer and the second substrate layer is stable.

Embodiment 100. The filter media of any one of embodiments 81-99 and 101, wherein the first surface comprises poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPM), poly(2 -hydroxy ethyl

methacrylate) (PHEM), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (P2E20), polyethyleneimine (PEI), quatemized polyethyleneimine, poly(dopamine), or combinations thereof.

Embodiment 101. The filter media of any one of embodiments 81-100, wherein the first substrate layer and the second substrate layer each comprises cellulose, polyester, polyamide, polyolefin, glass, or a combination thereof.

Embodiment 102. A filter media comprising:

a first substrate having a first porosity and defining a first surface; and

a second substrate abutting the first substrate, the second substrate having a second porosity and defining and second surface, wherein the first porosity is greater than the second porosity, and wherein the first surface and the second surface each have a treatment that increases a roll off angle of the surface for a 50 pL water droplet when the surface is immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 103. The filter media of any one of embodiments 102 and 104-125, wherein the roll off angle of each of the first surface and the second surface is in a range of 50 degrees to 90 degrees and each of the first surface and second surface have a contact angle in a range of 90 degrees to 180 degrees for a 50 pL water droplet when immersed in toluene.

Embodiment 104. The filter media of any one of embodiments 102-103 and 105-125, wherein the first substrate is a screen.

Embodiment 105. The filter media of any one of embodiments 102-104 and 106-125, wherein the second substrate is a screen. Embodiment 106. The filter media of any one of embodiments 102-105 and 107-125, wherein the first surface comprises a UV -reactive resin.

Embodiment 107. The filter media of any one of embodiments 102-106 and 108-125, wherein the roll off angle of the first surface is in a range of 60 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 70 degrees to 90 degrees, or in a range of 80 degrees to 90 degrees.

Embodiment 108. The filter media of any one of embodiments 102-107 and 109-125, wherein the roll off angle of the second surface is in a range of 60 degrees to 90 degrees, in a range of 70 degrees to 90 degrees, or in a range of 80 degrees to 90 degrees.

Embodiment 109. The filter media of any one of embodiments 102-108 and 110-125, wherein the first surface comprises a UV-oxy gen-treated surface.

Embodiment 110. The filter media of any one of embodiments 102-109 and 111-125, wherein the first substrate layer comprises at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component.

Embodiment 111. The filter media of any one of embodiments 102-110 and 112-125, wherein the second surface comprises a hydrophilic group-containing polymer.

Embodiment 112. The filter media of any one of embodiments 102-111 and 113-125, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic pendant group.

Embodiment 113. The filter media of any one of embodiments 102-112 and 114-125, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer does not comprise a fluoropolymer.

Embodiment 114. The filter media of any one of embodiments 102-113 and 115-125, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydrophilic polymer.

Embodiment 115. The filter media of any one of embodiments 102-114 and 116-125, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a charged polymer.

Embodiment 116. The filter media of any one of embodiments 102-115 and 117-125, wherein the hydrophilic group-containing polymer comprises a hydroxylated methacrylate polymer. Embodiment 117. The filter media of any one of embodiments 102-116 and 118-125, wherein the second substrate layer comprises a modifying resin.

Embodiment 118. The filter media of any one of embodiments 102-117 and 119-125, wherein the first substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm.

Embodiment 119. The filter media of any one of embodiments 102-118 and 120-125, wherein the first substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter in a range of 40 pm to 50 pm.

Embodiment 120. The filter media of any one of embodiments 102-119 and 121-125, wherein the first substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous. Embodiment 121. The filter media of any one of embodiments 102-120 and 122-125, wherein the first substrate layer comprises at least one of an aromatic component and an unsaturated component, wherein the first surface comprises a UV -treated surface, wherein the first substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the first substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

Embodiment 122. The filter media of any one of embodiments 102-121 and 123-125, wherein the second surface comprises a hydrophilic group-containing polymer, wherein the second substrate layer comprises pores having an average diameter of up to 2 mm, and wherein the second substrate layer is at least 15% porous and up to 99% porous.

Embodiment 123. The filter media of any one of embodiments 102-122 and 124-125, wherein at least one of the first substrate layer and the second substrate layer is stable.

Embodiment 124. The filter media of any one of embodiments 102-123 and 125, wherein the first surface comprises poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPM), poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEM), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (P2E20), polyethyleneimine (PEI), quatemized polyethyleneimine, poly(dopamine), or combinations thereof.

Embodiment 125. The filter media of any one of embodiments 102-124, wherein the first substrate layer and the second substrate layer each comprises cellulose, polyester, polyamide, polyolefin, glass, or a combination thereof.

The present technology is illustrated by the above examples. It is to be understood that the particular examples, materials, amounts, and procedures are to be interpreted broadly in accordance with the scope and spirit of the technology as set forth herein.

The complete disclosure of all patents, patent applications, and publications, and electronically available material cited herein are incorporated by reference. In the event that any inconsistency exists between the disclosure of the present application and the

disclosure(s) of any document incorporated herein by reference, the disclosure of the present application shall govern. The foregoing detailed description and examples have been given for clarity of understanding only. No unnecessary limitations are to be understood therefrom.

The current technology is not limited to the exact details shown and described, for variations obvious to one skilled in the art will be included within the technology defined by the claims.

Unless otherwise indicated, all numbers expressing quantities of components, molecular weights, and so forth used in the specification and claims are to be understood as being modified in all instances by the term "about." Accordingly, unless otherwise indicated to the contrary, the numerical parameters set forth in the specification and claims are approximations that may vary depending upon the desired properties sought to be obtained by the present technology. At the very least, and not as an attempt to limit the doctrine of equivalents to the scope of the claims, each numerical parameter should at least be construed in light of the number of reported significant digits and by applying ordinary rounding techniques.

Notwithstanding that the numerical ranges and parameters setting forth the broad scope of the current technology are approximations, the numerical values set forth in the specific examples are reported as precisely as possible. All numerical values, however, inherently contain a range necessarily resulting from the standard deviation found in their respective testing measurements.

All headings are for the convenience of the reader and should not be used to limit the meaning of the text that follows the heading, unless so specified.