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Title:
A LIPID COMPOSITION FOR BAKERY PRODUCTS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2022/098968
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A lipid composition includes, by weight of the lipid composition: from 30wt% to 70wt% a first lipid component; from 10wt% to 40wt% a sweetening substance; from 5wt% to 20wt% water; from 0.1wt% to 1.2wt% an emulsifier; and 1.5wt% to 11wt% a second lipid component. The emulsifier has a SFA content of less than 90wt%. The second lipid component has a SFA content of at least 90wt%, and fully saturated fatty acids with a carbon chain of more than 16 carbons comprise C22:0 and account for at least 33.3wt% of the SFA content of the second lipid component by weight. The lipid composition has a SFA content of at least 40wt%, and fully saturated fatty acids with a carbon chain of more than 16 carbons account for at least 12.5wt% of the SFA content of the lipid composition by weight.

Inventors:
CHANG GUIFANG (CN)
CHEN PING (NZ)
DING SAIYAN (CN)
Application Number:
PCT/US2021/058203
Publication Date:
May 12, 2022
Filing Date:
November 05, 2021
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
CARGILL INC (US)
International Classes:
A23D7/01; A21D13/16; A23D7/005; A23D7/02
Foreign References:
EP0786209A11997-07-30
JP6450081B22019-01-09
CN103209595A2013-07-17
CN101756105A2010-06-30
CN108566991A2018-09-25
Other References:
"The Lipid Handbook with CD-ROM, Third Edition (3)", vol. 20, 1 March 2007, CRC PRESS, ISBN: 978-1-4200-0967-5, article FRANK D GUNSTONE ET AL: "CHAPTER 2. OCCURRENCE AND CHARACTERISATION OF OILS AND FATS", pages: 37 - 141, XP055282096, DOI: 10.1201/9781420009675.ch2
"Cold Pressed Oils", 1 January 2020, ELSEVIER, ISBN: 978-0-12-818188-1, article PIRAVI-VANAK ZAHRA: "Cold pressed colza oil - Chapter 38", pages: 429 - 437, XP055894142, DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-818188-1.00038-4
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
LODGE, Alexander M. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1. A lipid composition, comprising:

(a) from 30wt% to 70wt% a first lipid component, by weight of the lipid composition;

(b) from 10wt% to 40wt% a sweetening substance, by weight of the lipid composition;

(c) from 5wt% to 20wt% water, by weight of the lipid composition;

(d) from 0.1 wt% to 1.2wt% an emulsifier, by weight of the lipid composition, wherein the emulsifier has a SFA content of less than 90wt% ; and

(e) from 1.5wt% to llwt% a second lipid component, by weight of the lipid composition, wherein the second lipid component has a SFA content of at least 90wt%, wherein fully saturated fatty acids with a carbon chain of more than 16 carbons comprise C22:0 and account for at least 33.3wt% of the SFA content of the second lipid component by weight, wherein the lipid composition has a SFA content of at least 40wt%, wherein fully saturated fatty acids with a carbon chain of more than 16 carbons account for at least 12.5wt% of the SFA of the lipid composition by weight, wherein the lipid composition has a C12:0 content of from 0.35wt% to 12wt%, wherein the lipid composition has a hardness of from 500g to 2000g at from 5 °C to 15 °C by texture analysis as measured using a 5 mm cylinder probe to penetrate 75% of original height of the lipid composition at 2 mm/s, wherein the lipid composition comprises less than 2wt% TFA, and wherein the lipid composition has a C22:0 content of from 0.1wt% to 1.5wt%.

2. The lipid composition according to claim 1, wherein the lipid composition has:

(A) a SFA content of from 40wt% to 60wt%; or SFA content of from 43wt% to 57wt%; or SFA content of from 45wt% to 55wt%; and/or

(B) a C12:0 content of from 0.37wt% to 7wt%; or C12:0 content of from 0.4wt% to 6.5wt%; or C12:0 content of from 0.5wt% to 6wt%; and/or

(C) a C18:0 content of from 4.5wt% to 9wt%; or C18:0 content of from 4.7wt% to 8.5wt%; or C18:0 content of from 5wt% to 7.5wt%; and/or

(D) a C22:0 content of from 0.3wt% to 1.3wt%; or C22:0 content of from 0.4wt% to l.lwt%.

3. The lipid composition according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the lipid composition has: (A) a hardness of from 600g to 1900g; or from 700g to 1800g; or from 800g to 1700g, at 5 °C by texture analysis as measured using a 5 mm cylinder probe to penetrate 75% of original height of the lipid composition at 2mm/s; and/or

(B) a hardness of from 550g to 1500g; or from 570 to 1300g; or from 600g to 1100g, at 15 °C by texture analysis as measured using a 5 mm cylinder probe to penetrate 75% of original height of the lipid composition at 2mm/s.

4. The lipid composition according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the lipid composition comprises:

(G) no partially hydrogenated lipid; and/or

(H) an additive selected from the group consisting of an antioxidant, a nutrient enhancer, a flavoring substance, a preservative, a pigment and a combination thereof.

5. The lipid composition according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the first lipid component

(A) has an average molecular weight of from 700 g/mol to 900 g/mol; from 755 g/mol to 820 g/mol; or from 760 g/mol to 815 g/mol; or from 790 g/mol to 815 g/mol; and/or

(B) is an oil selected from the group consisting of soy bean oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil and a combination thereof, optionally the oil is processed by a technique selected from the group consisting of fractionation, interesterification, blending and a combination thereof, and/or preferably the oil comprises from 0.3wt% to 15wt% palm kernel oil; or from 0.4wt% to 14.5wt% palm kernel oil; or from 0.5wt% to 14wt% palm kernel oil, by weight of the first lipid component.

6. The lipid composition according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the second lipid component:

(A) has a C18:0 content of from 30wt% to 50wt%; or C18:0 content of from 35wt% to 45wt%; and/or

(B) has weight percentage of from 1.5wt% to 10wt%; or from 1.5wt% to 7wt%, by weight of the lipid composition; and/or

(C) has a molar amount which accounts for from 2.6mol% to 15mol% of the total molar amount of the first lipid component, the emulsifier and the second lipid component; or from 3mol% to 14.5mol% of the total molar amount of the first lipid component, the emulsifier and the second lipid component; or from 3.2mol% to 14.4mol% of the total molar amount of the first lipid component, the emulsifier and the second lipid component; or from 3.3mol% to 14mol% of the total molar amount of the first lipid component, the emulsifier and the second lipid component; or from 3.4mol% to 13.5mol% of the total molar amount of the first lipid component, the emulsifier and the second lipid component.

7. A food product comprising a lipid composition according to any one of the preceding claims.

8. The food product according to claim 7, wherein the food product is a bakery product made from a laminated dough, and/or is a bakery product selected from the group consisting of a bread, a croissant, a puff pastry, a Danish pastry and a galette.

9. A process of making a food product according to claim 7 or 8 wherein the lipid composition is extruded as a continuous sheet at 5 °C to 15 °C.

10. A process of making a lipid composition, comprising the steps of:

(A) mixing, by weight of the lipid composition:

(i) from 30wt% to 70wt% a first lipid component;

(ii) from 1.5wt% to llwt% a second lipid component, wherein the second lipid component has a SFA content of at least 90wt%, wherein fully saturated fatty acids with a carbon chain of more than 16 carbons comprise C22:0 and account for at least 33.3wt% of the SFA content of the second lipid component by weight,; and

(iii) from 0.1 wt% to 1.2wt% an emulsifier, wherein the emulsifier has a SFA content of less than 90wt%, to produce a lipid phase;

(B) mixing, by weight of the lipid composition:

(i) from 5wt% to 20wt% water; and

(ii) from 10wt% to 40wt% a sweetening substance, to produce an aqueous phase;

(C) mixing the lipid phase and the aqueous phase to produce a water-in-oil emulsion; and

(D) cooling the water-in-oil emulsion with a cooling apparatus to produce a crystallized emulsion, wherein the lipid composition has a SFA content of at least 40wt%, and wherein fully saturated fatty acids with a carbon chain of more than 16 carbons account for at least 12.5wt% of the SFA content of the lipid composition by weight, wherein the lipid composition has a C12:0 content of from 0.35wt% to 12wt%, wherein the lipid composition has a hardness of from 500g to 2000g at from 5 °C to 15 °C by texture analysis as measured using a 5 mm cylinder probe to penetrate 75% of original height of the lipid composition at 2 mm/s, wherein the lipid composition comprises less than 2wt% TFA, and wherein the lipid composition has a C22:0 content of from 0.1wt% to 1.5wt%.

11. The process according to claim 10, further comprising adding a lipophilic additive and/or a water-soluble additive to the lipid phase before mixing with the aqueous phase, preferably the additive is selected from the group consisting of an antioxidant, a nutrient enhancer, a flavoring substance, a preservative, a pigment and a combination thereof.

12. The process according to claim 10 or 11, further comprising subjecting the crystallized emulsion to one or more of the following steps:

(A) resting;

(B) extrusion; and

(C) tempering.

13. Use of the lipid composition of claims 1-6 for improving a property of a food product by a method comprising adding the lipid composition to the food product.

14. The use of claim 13, wherein:

(A) the property is selected from the group consisting of nutritional profile, texture, color, taste, aroma, appearance, and a combination thereof; and/or

(B) the food product is selected from the group consisting of a bread, a croissant, a puff pastry, a Danish pastry and a galette; and/or

(C) the lipid composition is added as a laminating fat.

15. A method of making a continuous lipid composition sheet, , comprising subjecting the lipid composition according to any one of claims 1-6 to extrusion, optionally the extruded lipid composition is further subject to a process selected from the group consisting of folding, sheeting, rolling and a combination thereof.

16. The method according to claim 15, wherein the extrusion and/or subsequent process takes place at from 5 °C to 15 °C; or at from 5 °C to 10 °C.

Description:
A Lipid Composition for Bakery Products

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the benefit of Chinese Application No.

202011238465.2, filed 09 November 2020, which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

Field of the Invention

[0002] The present invention generally relates to the technical field of butter substitutes for bakery products.

Background of the Invention

[0003] Many popular bakery products are made from laminated doughs. A laminated dough is a dough having a number of thin layers separated by butter. For instance, a galette may have around 27 layers and a croissant may have around 81 layers. The term “laminating” refers to the process of flattening and folding butter into the dough multiple times such that the dough has alternating layers of butter and dough. The butter between the dough layers will melt into the dough layers under heat, thereby producing buttery and flaky thin sheets within the baked goods.

[0004] Scientists in the food industry have conducted extensive research on butter substitutes which can produce laminated-dough baked goods with taste and appearance comparable to those made with butter. Pastry margarine is one of the popular butter substitutes widely used in the food industry. Conventional pastry margarine contains 82wt% fat and no sugar, yet sweetness of bakery products is generally required due to consumer preference. As such, efforts have been made to introduce sugar into pastry margarine, resulting in a reduction in the lipid content therein. The reduction in the lipid content in turn leads to a significant compromise on the textual properties of the pastry margarine. [0005] However, textual properties of pastry margarine are critical to the quality of baked goods. Butter imparts the moist and flaky texture to baked goods. An ideal butter substitute should be capable of replicating the same texture, as the flaky texture is a particularly important feature when it comes to laminated-dough baked goods. Also, an ideal butter substitute should tolerate a broad range of operating temperature and consistently maintain its firmness (hardness) and plasticity despite temperature fluctuations. Such consistent firmness and plasticity can contribute to improved production efficiency of bakery products.

[0006] Partially hydrogenated oils (PHOs) used to be added to sweet pastry margarine for the purpose of improving the textual properties thereof. PHOs contain trans fatty acids (TFA). Indeed, an information sheet provided by the World Health Organization entitled “POLICIES TO ELIMINATE INDUSTRIALLY-PRODUCED TRANS FAT CONSUMPTION” (accessible online via WHO’s website at: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/documents/replace-tr ansfats/replace-act- information-sheet.pdf ?ua= 1 ) identifies partially hydrogenated oils as the main source of industrially-produced trans fatty acids.

[0007] It is known that trans fatty acids raise the low-density lipoprotein (known as the “bad cholesterol”) level and lower the high-density lipoprotein (known as the “good cholesterol”) level, and thus contribute to higher risks of heart attacks, heart disease, etc. Trans fatty acids have also been associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. Many countries, such as Denmark, have enacted laws and regulations setting limits on the use of trans fatty acids in foods. Some other countries, such as the US and Canada, have gone even further and ban the use of partially hydrogenated oils in foods.

[0008] Research has been done using saturated fatty acids (SFA) to replace PHOs. However, a high content of SFA increases the melting point of sweet pastry margarine, which results in a waxy mouthfeel. On the other hand, an excessively low content of SFA is not capable of providing the sweet pastry margarine with the desired textural qualities.

[0009] Furthermore, attempts have been made in the food industry to produce bakery products by way of continuous production, for the purpose of improving production efficiency. For a bakery product made from a laminated dough, the continuous and automated preparation of the dough presents a challenge. In a continuous production line, margarine is extruded into a continuous sheet, which is then placed onto a continuous sheet of the dough for subsequent processing, such as sheeting and folding. The extrusion of the continuous margarine sheet requires the margarine to have sufficient plasticity and suitable firmness, such that the margarine sheet would not be susceptible to flaking, breaking and/or crumbling. Also, in the food industry margarine is generally stored at a temperature of from 0 °C to 5 °C, and low temperature generally makes margarine brittle. Thus, it is common practice in the food industry to let the margarine warm up (e.g., to room temperature) before feeding it to the extrusion machine, which adds to the production cost and reduces production efficiency.

[0010] Chinese patent application CN 103209595 A (hereinafter ‘595 application) discloses a water-in-oil emulsion lipid composition for being folded into a dough, having 35- 70% lipid and 0.05-5% adhesive protein based on dry matter. The lipid composition of the ‘595 application is said to reduce oil leakage and prevent the flaky layers of the baked goods from peeling off. However, the ‘595 application is silent on improving the plasticity and firmness of the lipid composition at reduced temperature.

[0011] Chinese patent application CN 101756105 A (hereinafter ‘105 application) discloses a healthy sweet and milky emulsion composition for being folded into a dough, comprising 30-70% lipid with a low TFA content, 1-40% milk products and 10-50% sugar. The ‘105 application focuses on improvement of flavor and taste of baked goods, and does not discuss improvement on the plasticity and firmness of the emulsion composition at reduced temperature.

[0012] Chinese patent application CN 108566991 A (hereinafter ‘991 application) discloses a lipid composition having a low TFA content and good plasticity for the Danish pastry, comprising 40-70% base lipid, 0-2% emulsifier and 30-60% an aqueous phase . The base lipid contains 0-20% palm olein, 0-30% interesterified (IE) lipid 1, 0-30% IE lipid 2 and 10-40% IE lipid 3. The base oil of the IE lipids 1, 2 and 3 includes palm olein, palm stearine, coconut oil and soybean oil. The lipid composition of the ‘991 application has an operating range of 5-20 °C. However, the ‘991 application does not teach how to improve the plasticity and firmness of a lipid composition at reduced temperature, for use in continuous production of bakery products.

[0013] In view of the above, there still exists a need for a sweet pastry margarine which is not only capable of replicating the textual properties of butter, but also displays sufficient plasticity and suitable firmness for extrusion at reduced temperature, such as from 5 °C to 15 °C (or even from 5 °C to 10 °C), for use in the continuous production of bakery products.

Summary of the Invention

[0014] An aspect of the present invention relates to a lipid composition. The lipid composition includes: from 30wt% to 70wt% a first lipid component, from 10wt% to 40wt% a sweetening substance, from 5wt% to 20wt% water, from 0.1 wt% to 1.2wt% an emulsifier, and from 1.5wt% to llwt% a second lipid component, by weight of the lipid composition. The emulsifier has a SFA content of less than 90 wt%. The second lipid component has a SFA content of at least 90 wt%, and fully saturated fatty acids with a carbon chain of more than 16 carbons comprise C22:0 and account for at least 33.3wt% of the SFA content of the second lipid component by weight. The lipid composition has a SFA content of at least 40 wt%, and fully saturated fatty acids with a carbon chain of more than 16 carbons account for at least 12.5wt% of the SFA content of the lipid composition by weight. The lipid composition has a C12:0 content of from 0.35wt% to 12wt%. The lipid composition provides a hardness of from 500g to 2000g at from 5 °C to 15 °C by texture analysis as measured using a 5 mm cylinder probe to penetrate 75% of original height of the lipid composition at 2 mm/s. The lipid composition contains less than 2 wt% TFA. The lipid composition has a C22:0 content of from 0.1wt% to 1.5wt%.

[0015] Another aspect of the present invention relates to a food product containing a lipid composition according to the present invention. A further aspect of the present invention relates to a process of making a food product, in which the lipid composition according to the present invention is extruded as a continuous sheet at 5 °C to 15 °C. The food product may be a bakery product made from a laminated dough. Specifically, the bakery product may be selected from the group consisting of bread, a croissant, a puff pastry, a Danish pastry and a galette.

[0016] A yet further aspect of the present invention relates to a process of making the lipid composition according to the present invention. The process includes the steps of: mixing, by weight of the lipid composition, from 30wt% to 70wt% a first lipid component, from 1.5wt% to 1 lwt% a second lipid component and from 0.1wt% to 1.2wt% an emulsifier, to produce a lipid phase; mixing, by weight of the lipid composition, from 5wt% to 20wt% water and from 10wt% to 40wt% a sweetening substance, to produce an aqueous phase; mixing the lipid phase and the aqueous phase to produce a water-in-oil emulsion; and cooling the water-in-oil emulsion with a cooling apparatus to produce a crystallized emulsion. The emulsifier has a SFA content of less than 90wt%. The second lipid component has a SFA content of at least 90wt%, and fully saturated fatty acids with a carbon chain of more than 16 carbons comprise C22:0 and account for at least 33.3wt% of the SFA content of the second lipid component by weight. The lipid composition has a SFA content of at least 40wt%, and fully saturated fatty acids with a carbon chain of more than 16 carbons account for at least 12.5wt% of the SFA content of the lipid composition by weight. The lipid composition has a C12:0 content of from 0.35wt% to 12 wt%, and a hardness of from 500g to 2000g at from 5 °C to 15 °C by texture analysis as measured using a 5 mm cylinder probe to penetrate 75% of original height of the lipid composition at 2 mm/s. The lipid composition contains less than 2 wt% TFA. The lipid composition has a C22:0 content of from 0.1wt% to 1.5wt%.

[0017] A yet further aspect of the present invention relates to use of the lipid composition according to the present invention for improving a property of a food product, by a method including adding the lipid composition to the food product.

[0018] A yet further aspect of the preset invention relates to a method of making a continuous lipid composition sheet, including subjecting the lipid composition according to the present invention to extrusion.

[0019] Without intending to be limited by theory, it is believed that the lipid composition of the present invention provides a sweet butter substitute for pastries with at least one or more benefits selected from a more butter-like texture, providing suitable firmness at reduced temperature (e.g., from 5 °C to 15 °C, or from 5 °C to 10 °C), providing consistently sufficient plasticity at reduced temperature (e.g., from 5 °C to 15 °C), providing sufficient ducticity at reduced temperature (e.g., from 5 °C to 15 °C, or from 5 °C to 10 °C), improved mouthfeel, etc. As such, the lipid composition of the present invention is particularly suitable for industrial continuous production of bakery products, such as a bread, a puff pastry, a croissant, a Danish pastry, and/or a galette, which may require the lipid composition to be extruded into a continuous sheet for subsequent processing at reduced temperature, such as from 5 °C to 15 °C, or from 5 °C to 10 °C. Brief Description of Figure

[0020] It is convenient to further describe the present invention with respect to the accompanying figure that illustrates a possible arrangement of the invention. Other arrangements of the invention are possible and consequently, the particularity of the accompanying figure is not limiting and is not to be understood as superseding the generality of the preceding description of the invention.

[0021] Figure 1 is a schematic illustration of an exemplary continuous production process for a bakery product, for which the lipid composition of the present invention may be particularly suitable.

[0022] The figure herein is for reference purposes only and is not necessarily to scale.

Detailed Description of the Invention

[0023] Unless otherwise noted, all measurements, weights, lengths, etc. are in metric units, and all temperatures are in degrees Celsius. It is understood that unless otherwise specifically noted, the materials compounds, chemicals, etc. described herein are typically commodity items and/or industry-standard items available from a variety of suppliers and sources worldwide.

[0024] As used herein, the expression “Cx:D” refers to the lipid number of a fatty acid, with “x” indicating the length of the fatty acid chain and “D” indicating the number of double bonds. For instance, C18:0 refers to a fully saturated fatty acid having a fatty acid chain of 18 carbons (e.g., stearic acid).

[0025] As used herein, the term “derivative” refers to a compound derived from a precursor compound by a chemical reaction. For instance, the derivatives of a fatty acid may include, but not limited to, esters, salts, amides, nitriles, halides, anhydrides of the fatty acid.

[0026] As used herein, the term “lipid” refers to an oil or fat, derived from various sources including plants, animals and microorganisms.

[0027] As used herein, the term “lipid component” refers to a lipid or derivative thereof. [0028] As used herein, the term “melting point” refers to the slip melting point, which is an index of the temperature at which fat softens and becomes sufficiently fluid to slip in an open capillary tube.

[0029] As used herein, the term “nutrient enhancer” refers to any substance which provides a lipid composition with additional nutrient value, such as protein, vitamin, mineral, carbohydrate, fat (saturated and unsaturated), dietary fibre, etc.

[0030] As used herein, the term “oil” refers to an oil individually or a blend of two or more different oils. By the same token, the term “fat” refers to a fat individually or a blend of two or more fats.

[0031] As used herein, the term “interestification” (or “interesterification”) refers to a process wherein the fatty acid moieties redistribute over the glycerol moieties in a triglyceride.

[0032] As used herein, the term “saturated fatty acid (SFA) content” refers to the ratio of the weight of fully saturated fatty acid moieties in relation to the weight of all fatty acid moieties in a lipid. Likewise, the terms “C12:0”, “C18:0 content” and “C22:0 content” refers to the ratio of the weight of C12:0/C18:0/C22:0 moieties in relation to the weight of all fatty acid moieties in a lipid.

[0033] As used herein, the term “solid fat content (SFC)” refers to the ratio of fat in crystalline phase to total fat at a given temperature. The SFC of a lipid composition determines the plasticity thereof to a large extent.

[0034] An aspect of the present invention relates to a lipid composition. The lipid composition includes: from 30wt% to 70wt% a first lipid component, from 10wt% to 40wt% a sweetening substance, from 5wt% to 20wt% water, from 0.1 wt% to 1.2wt% an emulsifier, and from 1.5wt% to llwt% a second lipid component, by weight of the lipid composition. The emulsifier has a SFA content of less than 90wt%. The second lipid component has a SFA content of at least 90wt%, and fully saturated fatty acids with a carbon chain of more than 16 carbons comprise C22:0 and account for at least 33.3wt% of the SFA content of the second lipid component by weight. The lipid composition has a SFA content of at least 40wt%, and fully saturated fatty acids with a carbon chain of more than 16 carbons account for at least 12.5wt% of the SFA content of the lipid composition by weight. The lipid composition has a C12:0 content of from 0.35wt% to 12wt%. The lipid composition provides a hardness of from 500g to 2000g at from 5 °C to 15 °C by texture analysis as measured using a 5 mm cylinder probe to penetrate 75% of original height of the lipid composition at 2 mm/s. The lipid composition contains less than 2wt% TFA. The lipid composition has a C22:0 content of from 0.1wt% to 1.5wt%.

[0035] Without intending to be bound by theory, it has been found that the lipid composition of the present invention may impart baked goods with moist and flaky texture, while also providing a suitable firmness and sufficient plasticity and ducticity at reduced temperature, such as from 5 °C to 15 °C. As such, the lipid composition of the present invention is particularly suitable for industrial continuous production of bakery products, especially those heavily relying on butter or margarine for texture (e.g., croissants and the Danish pastries). It is believed that the technical effects of the present invention are predicated on the specific SFA content (especially the content of fatty acids with a carbon chain of more than 16 carbons) of the second lipid component. The technical effects of the present invention are also achieved by the specific lauric fatty acid content in the lipid composition.

[0036] In an aspect of the present invention, the lipid composition contains no partially hydrogenated lipid. As discussed above, partially hydrogenated oils have been identified as the main source of industrially -produced trans fatty acids. As such, by eliminating the use of partially hydrogenated lipid in the composition, the content of TFA can be effectively controlled.

[0037] Possible emulsifiers which may be used in the present invention include, but not limited to, sucrose fatty acid esters (or sucrose esters), glycerin fatty acid esters, polyglycerin fatty acid esters, sorbitan fatty acid esters, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid esters, propylene glycol fatty acid esters, organic acid monoglycerides (e.g., acetic acid monoglycerides, tartaric acid monoglycerides, mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides, citric acid monoglyceride, diacetyl tartaric acid monoglycerides, lactic acid monoglycerides, succinylated monoglycerides and malic acid monoglycerides), calcium stearoyl lactylate, sodium stearoyl lactylate, lecithin, etc. The emulsifier should have a SFA content of less than 90wt%; or SFA content of less than 70wt%; or SFA content of less than 40wt%. [0038] Without intending to be bound by theory, it is believed that the SFA content of the emulsifier helps contribute to the desirable textual properties of the lipid composition, even at reduced temperature.

[0039] In an aspect of the present invention, the lipid composition of the present invention has a SFA content of from 40wt% to 60wt%; or SFA content of from 43wt% to 57wt%; or SFA content of from 45wt% to 55wt%.

[0040] Without intending to be bound by theory, it is believed that the specific lipid composition of the present invention strikes a balance between providing butter- like taste and mouthfeel and imparting the lipid composition with desirable textual properties. The lipid composition of the present invention also strikes a balance between sufficient plasticity, sufficient ducticity and suitable firmness at reduced temperature, such as from 5 °C to 15 °C, such that the lipid composition would not be susceptible to flaking, breaking and/or crumbling during and post extrusion.

[0041] In another aspect of the present invention, the lipid composition of the present invention has a C12:0 content of from 0.37wt% to 7wt%; or C12:0 content of from 0.4wt% to 6.5wt%; or C12:0 content of from 0.5wt% to 6wt%.

[0042] Without intending to be bound by theory, it is believed that the specific lauric fatty acid content in the lipid composition provides the composition with suitable firmness at reduced temperature (e.g., from 5 °C to 15 °C), such that the step of warming up the lipid composition before extrusion may be eliminated or shortened. Also, the specific lauric fatty acid content provides the lipid composition with sufficient ducticity for the composition to withstand the extrusion process. Further, the specific lauric fatty acid content in the lipid composition would not have a deleterious effect on the plasticity of the lipid composition.

[0043] In a further aspect of the present invention, the first lipid component has a Cl 2:0 content of from 0.3wt% to 15wt%; or C12:0 content of from 0.4wt% to 14wt%; or C12:0 content of from 0.45wt% to 13.5wt%.

[0044] In another aspect of the present invention, the lipid composition of the present invention has a C18:0 content of from 4.5wt% to 9wt%; or C18:0 content of from 4.7wt% to 8.5wt%; or C18:0 content of from 5wt% to 7.5wt%. [0045] In a further aspect of the present invention, the lipid composition of the present invention has a C22:0 content of from 0.1wt% to 1.5wt%; or C22:0 content of from 0.3wt% to 1.3wt%; or C22:0 content of from 0.4wt% to l.lwt%.

[0046] Without intending to be bound by theory, it is believed that the SFA content (especially the C18:0 content or the content of fully saturated fatty acids with longer carbon chain) contributes to the temperature-tolerance of the lipid composition of the present invention in terms of the firmness and plasticity of the composition. Meanwhile, the presence of the C12:0 content in the lipid composition imparts the composition with suitable firmness and ducticity for extrusion at reduced temperature, without compromising the plasticity thereof. In a specific example of the present invention, the first lipid component is used to provide the lipid composition with sufficient C12:0, such that the lipid composition may have suitable firmness and ducticity at reduced temperature.

[0047] In an aspect of the present invention, the sweetening substance is selected from the group consisting of a sugar, a sugar substitute, high-intense sweeteners and a combination of two or more thereof. It may be selected from the group consisting of acesulfame potassium, alitame, aspartame, cyclamate, saccharin, sucralose, thaumatin, neotame, stevia, stevia derivatives, glucose, sucrose, fructose, isomalt, lactitol, mannitol, maltitol, xylitol, sorbitol, maltodextrin, polydextrose, and a combination of two or more thereof. A person skilled in the art will appreciate that the addition of sweetening substance and the specific selection thereof can be determined based on actual needs. For instance, for a bakery product targeting health-conscious consumers, a skilled person may determine to not add any high-calorie sweetener at all, or to add sweeteners derived from a specific natural source only.

[0048] In an aspect of the present invention, the lipid composition includes at least lwt% fully saturated fatty acids with a carbon chain longer than 16 carbons derived from the second lipid component; or at least 1.5wt% fully saturated fatty acids with a carbon chain longer than 16 carbons derived from the second lipid component; or at least 2wt% fully saturated fatty acids with a carbon chain longer than 16 carbons derived from the second lipid component.

[0049] In an aspect of the present invention, the content of the first lipid component is from 40wt% to 60wt%; or from 45wt% to 60wt%, by weight of the lipid composition. In another aspect of the present invention, the content of the second lipid component in the lipid composition of the present invention is from 1.5wt% to 10wt%; or from 1.5wt% to 7wt%, by weight of the lipid composition.

[0050] Without intending to be bound by theory, it is believed that the specific SFA content of the first and second lipid components helps contribute to the consistently good firmness and plasticity thereof across a broad temperature range, even at reduced temperature.

[0051] In an aspect of the present invention, the lipid composition of the present invention has a hardness of from 550g to 1500g, or from 570 to 1300g, or from 600g to 1100g at 15 °C by texture analysis as measured using a 5 mm cylinder probe to penetrate 75% of original height of the lipid composition at 2 mm/s. In another aspect of the present invention, the lipid composition of the present invention has a hardness of from 600g to 1900g, or from 700g to 1800g, or from 800g to 1700g, at 5 °C by texture analysis as measured using a 5 mm cylinder probe to penetrate 75% of original height of the lipid composition at 2 mm/s. Without intending to be bound by theory, it is believed that the desirable hardness/firmness of the lipid composition of the present invention is directly related to the SFA content of the second lipid component in the composition. As such, a balance is struck between suitable hardness and sufficient plasticity and ducticity at a temperature range of from 5 °C to 15 °C. In other words, the lipid composition of the present invention is particularly suitable for industrial continuous production of bakery products, especially those made from a laminated dough, at from 5 °C to 15 °C. This is because the lipid composition has a hardness which makes it neither too firm nor too soft for the extrusion process. Meanwhile, the composition still displays sufficient plasticity and ducticity such that it can be extruded into a continuous sheet for subsequent processing (e.g., the automated preparation of a laminated dough).

[0052] In an aspect of the present invention, the first lipid component is selected from the group consisting of an oil derived from a plant source, a fat derived from a plant source, an oil derived from an animal source, a fat derived from an animal source, and an oil derived from a microorganism source, a fat derived from a microorganism source and a combination of two or more thereof. [0053] In an aspect of the present invention, the oil and/or fat derived from a plant source may be selected from the group consisting of coconut oil, com oil, canola oil, cottonseed oil, olive oil, palm oil, peanut oil, rapeseed oil, safflower oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, almond oil, beech nut oil, brazil nut oil, cashew oil, hazelnut oil, macadamia oil, mongongo nut oil, pecan oil, pine oil, pistachio oil, walnut oil, pumpkin seed oil, grapefruit seed oil, lemon oil, orange oil, bitter gourd oil, bottle gourd oil, buffalo gourd oil, butternut squash seed oil, egusi seed oil, watermelon seed oil, acai oil, black seed oil, blackcurrant seed oil, borage seed oil, evening primrose oil, flaxseed oil, amaranth oil, apricot oil, apple seed oil, argan oil, avocado oil, babassu oil, ben oil, borneo tallow nut oil, cape chestnut oil, carob pod oil, cocklebur oil, cohune oil, coriander seed oil, date seed oil, dika oil, false flax oil, grape seed oil, kapok seed oil, kenaf seed oil, lallemantia oil, mafura oil, marula oil, meadowfoam seed oil, mustard oil, niger seed oil, nutmeg butter, okra seed oil, papaya seed oil, perilla seed oil, persimmon seed oil, pequi oil, pili nut oil, pomegranate seed oil, poppyseed oil, pracaxi oil, virgin pracaxi oil, prune kernel oil, quinoa oil, ramtil oil, rice bran oil, royle oil, sacha inchi oil, sapote oil, seje oil, shea butter, taramira oil, tea seed oil, thistle oil, tigernut oil, tobacco seed oil, tomato seed oil, wheat germ oil and a combination of two or more thereof.

[0054] In an aspect of the present invention, the oil and/or fat derived from an animal source may be selected from the group consisting of oil or fat derived from a pig, a chicken, a cow, a duck, a goose, cheese, butter, milk and a combination of two or more thereof. A person skilled in the art will understand that the addition or omission of an oil and/or fat derived from an animal source may be determined based on, for instance, the target consumer group of the bakery product using the lipid composition of the present invention. In the case of a bakery product developed for vegan consumers, such oil and/or fat should be avoided.

[0055] In an aspect of the present invention, the oil and/or fat derived from a microorganism source may be selected from oil and/or fat produced by a bacteria, a yeast, a fungus, an algae, and a combination of two or more thereof. For instance, oils produced by Mortierella alpina, Crypthecodinium cohnii and Schizochytrium spp may be used.

[0056] In an aspect of the present invention, the first lipid component is an oil selected from the group consisting of soy bean oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, palm olein, palm stearin, sunflower oil, canola oil, coconut oil and a combination of two or more thereof. In a specific aspect of the present invention, the first lipid component is an oil selected from the group consisting of soy bean oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil and a combination of two or more thereof. The oil may optionally be processed by a technique selected from the group consisting of fractionation, interestification, blending and a combination of two or more thereof. In a specific example, the first lipid component is a combination of soy bean oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil. The palm kernel oil therein may be from 0.3 wt% to 15wt%; or from 0.4wt% to 14.5wt%; or from 0.5wt% to 14wt%, by weight of the first lipid component. A person skilled in the art should understand that the palm oil and/or palm kernel oil may be replaced with one or more other oils derived from palm oil, such as palm olein and palm stearin..

[0057] In an aspect of the present invention, the first lipid component has a SFA content of from 35wt% to 60wt%; or from 40wt% to 55wt%. In another aspect of the present invention, the first lipid component has a C18:0 content of from 3wt% to 5wt%; or from 3.3wt% to 4.7wt%; or from 4wt% to 4.6wt%. In a further aspect of the present invention, the average molecular weight of the first lipid component is from 700 g/mol to 900 g/mol; from 755 g/mol to 820 g/mol; or from 760 g/mol to 815 g/mol; or from 790 g/mol to 815 g/mol.

[0058] Without intending to be bound by theory, the inventors of the present application have discovered that, an oil or oil combination may be used as the first lipid component in the present invention, to the extent that the specific SFA content and the average molecular weight of the first lipid component required by the present invention is met. As such, a person skilled in the art should understand that, whilst the present application only mentions a few specific combinations of oils derived from a plant source, other combinations of oils derived from various sources fulfilling the specific SFA content and average molecular weight set forth in the present application would also fall within the scope of the present invention.

[0059] In an aspect of the present invention, the lipid composition may further include an additive. The additive may be selected from the group consisting of calcium carbonate, acetic acid, potassium acetate, sodium acetate, calcium acetate, lactic acid, carbon dioxide, malic acid, ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate, a fatty acid ester of ascorbic acid, tocopherol-rich extract, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, delta- tocopherol, lecithin, sodium lactate, potassium lactate, calcium lactate, citric acid, sodium citrate, potassium citrate, calcium citrate, tartaric acid, sodium tartrate, potassium tartrate, sodium potassium tartrate, sodium malate, potassium malate, calcium malate, calcium tartrate, triammonium citrate, alginic acid, sodium alginate, potassium alginate, ammonium alginate, calcium alginate, agar, carrageenan, processed euchema seaweed, locust bean gum, guar gum, tragacanth, gum Arabic, xanthan gum, tara gum, gellan gum, sorbitol, mannitol, glycerol, konjac, pectin, cellulose, methyl cellulose, ethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxpropyl methyl cellulose, ethyl methyl cellulose, sodium carboxy methyl cellulose and cellulose gum, enzymatically hydrolysed carboxy methyl cellulose and cellulose gum, sodium/potassium/calcium salt of a fatty acid, magnesium salt of a fatty acid, an acetic acid ester of mono- and diglyceride of fatty acids, a lactic acid ester of mono- and diglyceride of fatty acids, a citric ester of mono- and diglyceride of fatty acids, a tartaric acid ester of mono- and diglyceride of fatty acids, mono and diacetyl tartaric acid ester of mono- and diglyceride of fatty acids, mixed acetic and tartaric acid ester of mono- and diglyceride of fatty acids, sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, ammonium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, hydrochloric acid, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, sulphuric acid, sodium sulphate, potassium sulphate, calcium sulphate, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, fatty acid, gluconic acid, glucono-delta-lactone, sodium gluconate, potassium gluconate, calcium gluconate, glutamic acid, monosodium glutamate, monopotassium glutamate, magnesium diglutamate, guanylic acid, disodium guanylate, dipotassium guanylate, calcium guanylate, inosinic acid, disodium inosinate, dipotassium inosinate, calcium inosinate, calcium 5 ’-ribonucleotides, disodium 5 ’-ribonucleotides, glycine and sodium salt thereof, L-cysteine, argon, helium, nitrogen, nitrous oxide, oxygen, hydrogen, isomalt, maltitol, lactitol, xylitol, erythritol, invertase, polydextrose, oxidized starch, monostarch phosphate, distarch phosphate, phosphate distarch phosphate, acetylated distarch phosphate, acetylated starch, acetylated distarch adipate, hydroxy propyl starch, hydroxyl propyl distarch phosphate, starch sodium octenyl succinate, acetylated oxidized starch, sorbic acid, potassium sorbate, sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, phosphoric acid, sodium phosphate, potassium phosphate, calcium phosphate, magnesium phosphate, a diphosphate, a triphosphate, a polyphosphate, propionic acid, sodium propionate, calcium propionate, potassium propionate, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (polysorbate 20), polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (polysorbate 80), polyoxyethylene sorbitan monopalmitate (polysorbate 40), polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate (polysorbate 60), polyoxyethylene sorbitan tristearate (polysorbate 65), a sucrose ester of a fatty acid, a sucroglyceride, a poly glycerol ester of a fatty acid, a propane- 1,2-diol ester of a fatty acid, sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate, calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate, sorbitan monostearate, sorbitan tristearate, sorbitan monolaurate, sorbitan monooleate, sorbitan monopalmitate, silicon dioxide, calcium silicate, magnesium silicate and talc, a riboflavin, chlorophyl, chlorophyllin, a copper complex of chlorophyl, a copper complex of chlorophyllin, plain caramel, caustic sulphite caramel, ammonia caramel, sulphite ammonia caramel, vegetable carbon, carotene, paprika extract, capsanthin, capsorubin, beetroot red, betanin, anthocyanin, titanium dioxide, iron oxide, a hydroxide and a combination of two or more thereof.

[0060] In a further aspect of the present invention, the additive is selected from the group consisting of an antioxidant, a nutrient enhancer, a flavoring substance, a preservative, a pigment and a combination of two or more thereof.

[0061] In an aspect of the present invention, the nutrient enhancer provides the lipid composition with additional nutrient value selected from the group consisting of protein, carbohydrate, vitamin, mineral, fat (saturated and unsaturated) and a combination of two or more thereof.

[0062] In aspect of the present invention, the preservative is a natural preservative. For instance, the natural preserve may be a plant extract (e.g., rosemary extract, oregano extract, hops extract, forthysia extract, perilla leaves extract), tea polyphenols, salt, sugar, vinegar, alcohol, citric acid, diatomaceous earth, allicin, protamine, propolis or extract thereof, chitosan, clove oil, castor oil and a combination of two or more thereof. In another aspect of the present invention, the preservative is an artificial preservative. For instance, the artificial preservative may be a benzonate, a nitrite, a sulphate, a phenol derivative, a glycerol derivative and a combination of two or more thereof. A person skilled in the art would understand that the specific selection of a preservative may be based on factors such as cost, target consumers of the end product, health benefit, solubility, flavor, etc.

[0063] In an aspect of the present invention, the flavoring substance is selected from the group consisting of a vanilla extract, vanillin, a banana flavoring oil, a banana flavoring extract, an almond flavoring oil, an almond flavoring extract, a coconut flavoring oil, a coconut flavoring extract, a coffee flavoring oil, a coffee flavoring extract, a hazelnut flavoring oil, a hazelnut flavoring extract, a cinnamon flavoring oil, a cinnamon flavoring extract, a tea flavoring oil, a tea flavoring extract, a pecan flavoring oil, a pecan flavoring extract, a caramel flavoring oil, a caramel flavoring extract, a turmeric flavoring oil, a turmeric flavoring extract, a soy flavoring oil, a soy flavoring extract, and a combination of two or more thereof. In another aspect of the present invention, the flavoring substance imparts the lipid composition with butter-like taste, and may include milk powder, cream or other dairy products. A person skilled in the art should understand that in certain situations exclusion of dairy products may be preferable, for instance, for consumers with lactose intolerance.

[0064] In an aspect of the present invention, the pigment is selected from the group consisting of titanium dioxide, calcium carbonate, a carotenoid and derivative thereof, a retinol and derivative thereof, and a riboflavin and derivative thereof. A person skilled in the art will appreciate that certain types of food pigments may carry additional health benefits other than providing the lipid composition with a desirable color. For instance, carotenoids are known to potentially boost the immune system and have inflammatory properties. Also, a skilled person should understand that the pigments listed herein is not an exhaustive list; the use of a specific pigment may be determined by a skilled person based on one or more factors such as the desired color, its health benefit and food regulation of a specific jurisdiction etc.

[0065] In a further specific aspect of the present invention, the pigment is betacarotene.

[0066] In an aspect of the present invention, the antioxidant may be a carotenoid, which is discussed above. Suitable antioxidants may also include a retinol (e.g., vitamin A) and/or a riboflavis (e.g., vitamin B). Other possible antioxidants may be selected from the group consisting of tertiary butylhydroquinone, a tea polyphenol, berberine, silymarin, a flavonoid, a flavonoid derivative, ascorbic acid (e.g., vitamin C), an ascorbic acid derivative, retinol (e.g., vitamin A), a retinol derivative, a butylated hydroxyanisole, a butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, guaiac resin, isopropyl citrate, stannous chloride, thiodipropionate (e.g., dilauryl thiodipropionate) and a combination of two or more thereof. The antioxidant may also have beneficial health effects, such as boosting the immune system, etc.

[0067] In an aspect of the present invention, the molar amount of the second lipid component accounts for from 2.6mol% to 15mol% of the total molar amount of the first lipid component, the emulsifier and the second lipid component; or from 3mol% to 14.5mol%; or from 3.2mol% to 14.4mol%; or from 3.3mol% to 14mol%; or from 3.4mol% to 13.5mol% of the molar amount of the first lipid component, the emulsifier and the second lipid component. In another aspect of the present invention, the average molecular weight of the second lipid component is from 400 g/mol to 1650 g/mol; or from 500 g/mol to 1400 g/mol; or from 550 g/mol to 1300 g/mol; or from 600 g/mol to 1250 g/mol. In a yet further aspect of the present invention, the average molecular weight of the first lipid component, the emulsifier and the second lipid component is from 700 g/mol to 900 g/mol; or from 750 g/mol to 850 g/mol; or from 770 g/mol to 840 g/mol. Without intending to be bound by theory, it is believed that a balance is to be struck between the average molecular weight of the second lipid component and its content in the composition, such that the molar amount of the second lipid component accounts for from 2.6mol% to 15mol% of the total molar amount of the first lipid component, second lipoid component and emulsifier. Such a balance helps contribute to the desirable hardness and sufficient plasticity of the lipid composition at reduced temperature.

[0068] As discussed above, the average molecular weight of the first lipid component may be from 700 g/mol to 900 g/mol; from 755 g/mol to 820 g/mol; or from 760 g/mol to 815 g/mol; or from 790 g/mol to 815 g/mol. In an aspect of the present invention, the average molecular weight of the emulsifier may be 600 g/mol to 1300 g/mol; or from 700 g/mol to 1200 g/mol; or from 800 g/mol to 1100 g/mol. Without intending to be bound by theory, it is believed that the average molecular weight of the first lipid component and/or the emulsifier and the content thereof in the lipid composition also helps contribute to the desirable hardness of the lipid composition at reduced temperature.

[0069] In an aspect of the present invention, the emulsifier may be from 0.2wt% to lwt%; or from 0.4wt% to 0.6wt%, by weight of the lipid composition. Without intending to be bound by theory, it is believed that the specific amount of the emulsifier used in the lipid composition is at least partly related to the average molecular weight of the emulsifier.

[0070] Another aspect of the present invention relates to a food product containing a lipid composition according to the present invention. More specifically, the present invention relates to a food product comprising the lipid composition of the present invention and at least one other nutrient, which is not a lipid or a lipid composition. The at least one other nutrient is selected from the group consisting of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and water. The specific amounts of at least one other nutrient in the food composition is adjusted based on the type of the food composition. The food product may be a bakery product. Preferably the bakery product has a laminated structure. Typically the bakery products may be made from a laminated dough. Specifically, the bakery product may be selected from the group consisting of a bread, a croissant, a puff pastry, a Danish pastry and a galette. The bread may, for instance, be a hand-torn bread, a toast bread or an enriched white bread.

[0071] Without intending to be bound by theory, the bakery product using the lipid composition of the present invention has the desired moist and flaky texture without the use of butter. Also, the lipid composition of the present invention has suitable firmness and sufficient plasticity and ducticity at reduced temperature, and is thus particularly suitable for industrial continuous production of bakery products.

[0072] Another aspect of the present invention relates to a process of making a food product. In the process, the lipid composition of the present invention is extruded as a continuous sheet at 5 °C to 15 °C.

[0073] A further aspect of the present invention relates to a process of making a lipid composition according to the present invention. The process includes the steps of: mixing, by weight of the lipid composition, from 30wt% to 70wt% a first lipid component, from 1.5wt% to 1 lwt% a second lipid component and from 0.1 wt% to 1.2wt% an emulsifier, to produce a lipid phase; mixing, by weight of the lipid composition, from 5wt% to 20wt% water and from 10wt% to 40wt% a sweetening substance, to produce an aqueous phase; mixing the lipid phase and the aqueous phase to produce a water-in-oil emulsion; and cooling the water-in-oil emulsion with a cooling apparatus to produce a crystallized emulsion. The emulsifier has a SFA content of less than 90wt%. The second lipid component has a SFA content of at least 90wt%, and fully saturated fatty acids with a carbon chain of more than 16 carbons comprise C22:0 and account for at least 33.3wt% of the SFA content of the second lipid component by weight. The lipid composition has a SFA content of at least 40wt%, and fully saturated fatty acids with a carbon chain of more than 16 carbons account for at least 12.5wt% of the SFA content of the lipid composition by weight. The lipid composition has a C12:0 content of from 0.35wt% to 12wt%, and a hardness of from 500g to 2000g at from 5 °C to 15 °C by texture analysis as measured using a 5 mm cylinder probe to penetrate 75% of original height of the lipid composition at 2 mm/s. The lipid composition contains less than 2wt% TFA. The lipid composition has a C22:0 content of from 0.1 wt% to 1.5wt%. [0074] In an aspect of the present invention, the process further includes adding a lipophilic additive to the lipid phase before mixing with the aqueous phase. The lipophilic additive may be selected from the group consisting of a lipophlic antioxidant, a lipophlic nutrient enhancer, a lipophlic flavoring substance, a lipophilic preservative, a lipophlic pigment and a combination of two or more thereof. In a specific example, the lipophlic additive is a lipophlic antioxidant. In another aspect of the present invention, the process further includes adding a water-soluble additive to the aqueous phase before mixing with the lipid phase. The water-soluble additive may be selected from the group consisting of a water- soluble antioxidant, a water-soluble nutrient enhancer, a water-soluble flavoring substance, a water-soluble preservative, a water-soluble pigment and a combination of two or more thereof.

[0075] The addition of the antioxidant prevents oxidation of the lipid composition, thereby extending the shelf life thereof. Further, as noted above, some antioxidant carries additional health benefits, and the addition thereof may thus add to the appeal of the lipid composition of the present invention or a food product using the same to health-conscious consumers. The nutrient enhancer may provide the lipid composition with additional nutrient value to appeal to the desires of health-conscious consumers. Flavoring substance and/or pigment may be added to the lipid composition, for the purpose of improving the appearance thereof.

[0076] In a further aspect of the present invention, the process further includes the step of subjecting the crystallized emulsion to one or more of: resting, extrusion, and tempering. Without intending to be bound by theory, resting allows the crystal network of fats to sufficiently develop prior to any subsequent processing. Through extrusion, the lipid composition of the present invention may be made into various shapes, depending on the specific bakery products to which the composition is to be applied. For instance, for a bakery product made of a laminated dough, a lipid composition in sheets may be particularly suitable, and the lipid composition of the present invention is particularly suitable for a continuous production process wherein the composition is extruded into a continuous sheet. Without intending to be bound by theory, it is believed that the tempering process has an impact on the crystal form of fats, which in turn affects the textual properties (e.g., hardness) thereof. As such, a suitable tempering process may improve the textual properties of the lipid composition of the present invention. [0077] A yet further aspect of the present invention relates to use of the lipid composition according to the present invention for improving a property of a food product by a method including adding the lipid composition of the present invention to the food product. As discussed above, the lipid composition can deliver desirable textual properties while providing butter-like taste and mouthfeel. Further, as discussed above, the lipid composition may contain one or more additives that provide additional nutritional value and/or health benefits. In a specific example, the lipid composition of the present invention may improve one or more of the following properties of the food product to which it is added: nutritional profile, texture, color, taste, aroma and appearance.

[0078] In an aspect of the present invention, the food product the property of which is improved by the lipid composition of the present invention is selected from the group consisting of a bread, a croissant, a puff pastry, a Danish pastry and a galette. In another aspect of the present invention, the lipid composition of the present invention is added to the food product as a laminating fat. For instance, the lipid composition may be rolled and folded into dough layers to make a laminated dough.

[0079] A yet further aspect of the preset invention relates to a method of making a continuous lipid composition sheet. The method includes subjecting the lipid composition according to the present invention to extrusion. As discussed above, the lipid composition of the present invention exhibits suitable firmness and sufficient plasticity and ducticity at a temperature range of from 5 °C to 15 °C (or from 5 °C to 10 °C), and is thus particularly suitable for extrusion in an industrial continuous production process of bakery products. In an aspect of the present invention, the extruded lipid composition is subject to a process selected from the group consisting of folding, sheeting, rolling and a combination of two or more thereof. In another aspect of the present invention, the extrusion and/or subsequent processing takes place at a temperature of from 5 °C to 15 °C; or from 5 °C to 10 °C.

[0080] Figure 1 illustrates an exemplary continuous production process of a bakery product. At step 1, a dough is formed and is made into a continuous sheet. At step 3, margarine is fed into extrusion machine in blocks, and is extruded into a continuous sheet which is subsequently placed onto the dough sheet. At step 5, the dough sheet and the margarine sheet go through a dough sheeter for thickness adjustment. At step 7, the sheeted dough with margarine goes through freezing and relaxation. At step 9, the dough is shaped. [0081] At step 3, margarine generally has to go through a warmup step prior to being fed into the extrusion machine. This is because in the food industry margarine is often stored at a temperature of from 0 °C to 5 °C, and conventional margarine at such temperature is too firm and brittle for the extrusion process. As such, the lipid composition of the present invention may be particularly suitable for such a production process, as it exhibits suitable firmness and sufficient plasticity and ducticity at a temperature range of from 5 °C to 15 °C (or even from 5 °C to 15 °C). Thus, the warmup step which is generally required for conventional margarine may be shortened or even eliminated, thereby reducing production cost and improving production efficiency.

Illustrative Examples

[0082] The following examples are conducted to explore the technical effects of various ingredients and the content thereof in the lipid composition of the present invention.

[0083] In all examples, first lipid components 1-10 are a blend of the following oils, followed by chemical interesterification.

Ingredient/wt %

First Lipid

Soy Bean Oil Palm Olein Palm Stearin Palm Kernel Palm Oil Component

Oil

1 12.5wt% 76wt% l lwt% 0.5wt% N/A

2 6wt% N/A N/A 30wt% 64wt%

3 l lwt% N/A N/A 12wt% 77wt%

4 11.5wt% N/A N/A 12.5wt% 76wt%

5 16.8wt% N/A N/A 17.5wt% 65.7wt%

6 8.1wt% N/A N/A 10wt% 81.9wt%

7 21.8wt% N/A N/A 8.3wt% 69.9wt%

8 12.5wt% N/A N/A 0.5wt% 87wt%

9 9wt% N/A N/A 10wt% 81wt%

[0084] The first lipid components, emulsifiers and second lipid components have the following SFA content and average molecular weight. Ingredient Total SFA C12:0/wt% C18:0/wt% C22:0/wt% Average

Conte nt/wt% Molecular Weigh t/g/mol

First Lipid 44.7% 0.5% 4.4% 0.1% 815

Component 1

First Lipid 65.8% 13.1% 4.3% 0.1% 761

Component 2

First Lipid 51.6% 5.4% 4.3% 0.1% 795

Component 3

First Lipid 50.2% 5.6% 4.4% 0.1% 794

Component 4

First Lipid 55.0% 7.6% 4.3% 0.1% 790

Component 5

First Lipid 51.1% 4.5% 4.4% 0.1% 796

Component 6

First Lipid 52.7% 3.7% 4.5% 0.1% 809

Component 7

First Lipid 44.7% 0.5% 4.4% 0.1% 815

Component 8

First Lipid 49.6% 4.5% 4.4% 0.1% 797

Component 9

First Lipid 52.2% 6.2% 4.3% 0.1% 790

Component 10

Emulsifier 1 27.2% 0.0 4.1% 0.5% 1075

Emulsifier 2 32.0% 0.0 13.6% 0.4% 825

Second Lipid 99.5% 0.2% 37.4% 27.7% 823

Component 1

Second Lipid 99.6% 0.4% 42.2% 40.3% 1278

Component 2

Second Lipid 99.7% 0.9% 38.0% 0.1% 1177

Component 3

Second Lipid 99.7% 0.2% 37.4% 0.0 570

Component 4

Second Lipid 98.7% 0.2% 39.1% 0.1% 845

Component 5

[0085] The fatty acid composition is determined from their methyl esters by gas liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry in accordance with ISO 15304 (ISO, 2002). The SFC is determined based on NMR results, according to the AOCS Cdl6/81 (Firestone, 1989) at 40 °C. The melting point is determined according to AOCS Cc 3-25. The average molecular weight of the lipid components and the emulsifiers is determined by gel permeation chromatography.

[0086] The hardness of the lipid compositions is determined by measuring “work of penetration” and “adhesiveness” (penetration tests) at 5 °C and 25 °C respectively, using a Texture Analyzer. A 5 mm cylinder probe is used to penetrate sample lipid compositions to 75% of their original height at 2 mm/s.

[0087] The lipid compositions tested in the following examples are made by a process commonly used for producing water-in-oil emulsions. Specifically, the first lipid component(s), second lipid component(s), emulsifier(s) and optionally anti-oxidant(s) are added into a lipid phase tank. Heat is applied such that the lipid phase ingredients melt. The lipid phase ingredients are vigorously stirred and mixed, forming the lipid phase. The lipid phase is then pumped into the emulsion tank and is continuously stirred at a temperature of 50-70 °C. Water, sweetening substance, and optionally milk powder and salt for flavoring, are added to the aqueous phase tank and are heated and stirred at a temperature of 50-60 °C until the solid ingredients dissolve, forming the aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is subsequently pumped into the emulsion tank to mix with the lipid phase under stirring at a temperature of 50-60 °C, affording a water-in-oil emulsion. In this example, salt is also used as a natural preservative. Optionally, additional flavoring substance, antioxidant, nutrient enhancer, preservative and/or pigment may be added to the emulsion or the individual lipid/aqueous phase.

[0088] The emulsion is subject to a plate heat exchanger at a temperature of 65-85 °C for 10-40 minutes for sterilization, and then cooled to 50-60 °C. The emulsion is then pumped into a cooling apparatus such as a scraped surface heat exchanger by Kombinator®, Votator® or Prefector® for crystallization. The crystallized emulsion is subject to a resting tube, followed by extrusion as sheet or strip at 10-30 °C. The extruded sheets or strips are packaged and tempered for 1-5 days, and stored at a temperature of 0-10 °C.

[0089] Whilst the present application only describes one production process, a person skilled in the art should understand that any production process suitable for producing water- in-oil emulsions may be used to produce the lipid composition of the present invention. [0090] In all examples, the extrusion performance of each lipid composition is evaluated as follows.

Symbol Evaluation Extrusion Performance

* Good Extrusion goes smoothly; the continuous sheet extruded has suitable firmness, plasticity and ducticity unsatisfactory Extrusion goes smoothly; the continuous sheet extruded has poor plasticity or ducticity, is susceptible to breaking/flaking/crumbling, and/or is too soft/viscous etc. unusable Extrusion goes unsuccessfully

Example 1

[0091] In this example, the effect of SFA content on the melting point of a lipid composition is tested. The experimental results are summarized below.

M4 M5 M6 M7

First Lipid

97.54wt% 95.67wt% 93.87wt% 92.14wt% 90.48wt% 88.86wt% 87.32wt%

Component 1

Emulsifier 1 0.82wt% 0.81wt% 0.79wt% 0.78wt% 0.76wt% 0.75wt% 0.74wt%

Second Lipid

1 ,64wt% 1.61wt% 1.58wt% 1.55wt% 1.52wt% 1.5wt% 1.47wt%

Component 1

Second Lipid

N/A 1.91wt% 3.76wt% 5.53wt% 7.24wt% 8.89wt% 10.47wt% Component 4

SFA Content

45.5wt% 46.3wt% 47.1wt% 47.9wt% 48.6wt% 49.4wt% 50.0wt% of Lipid Phase

C12:0 Content

0.5wt% 0.5wt% 0.5wt% 0.5wt% 0.5wt% 0.5wt% 0.5wt% of Lipid Phase

Cl 8:0 Content

4.9wt% 5.4wt% 6.0wt% 6.5wt% 6.9wt% 7.5wt% 7.9wt% of Lipid Phase

C22:0 Content

0.5wt% 0.5wt% 0.5wt% 0.5wt% 0.5wt% 0.5wt% 0.5wt% of Lipid Phase

SFC of Lipid

5.2wt% 4.1wt% 5.7wt% 7.3wt% 8.9wt% 10.8wt% 12.9wt%

Phase at 40 °C

TFA Content 1.2wt% 1.2wt% 1.2wt% 1.1 wt% l.lwt% 1.1 wt% 1.0wt% of Lipid Phase Melting Point

40.4°C 40.6°C 41.7°C 42.7°C 43°C 44.1°C 48.1°C of Lipid Phase

[0092] It can be seen from the above that where the content of the second lipid component(s) is higher than 1 lwt%, the melting point of the lipid phase is higher than 48 °C. Also, the SFC of the lipid phase of such an example at 40 °C is higher than 12wt%, which is not beneficial to producing a good mouthfeel when the lipid phase is used in baked goods such as a Danish pastry. This is because, as noted above, SFC relates to the plasticity of a lipid. As such, with the SFC being too high, the lipid composition is expected to be too firm to work with. Also, it is expected that the lipid composition would have a waxy mouthfeel.

Example 2

[0093] In this example, the effect of the content of the second lipid component on the melting point of the lipid phase of the composition is tested.

Hl H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H7

Bareh

Ingredients

First Lipid Component 97.54wt% 95.67wt% 93.87wt% 92.14 wt% 90.48wt% 88.86wt% 87.32wt% 1

Emulsifier 1 0.82wt% 0.81wt% 0.79wt% 0.78wt% 0.76wt% 0.75wt% 0.74wt%

Second Lipid Component 1.64wt% 1.61wt% 1.58wt% 1.55wt% 1.52wt% 1.5wt% 1.47wt% 1

Second Lipid Component N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 4

Second Lipid Component N/A 1.91wt% 3.76wt% 5.53wt% 7.24wt% 8.89wt% 10.47wt% 5

SFA Content of Lipid 45.5wt% 46.8wt% 47.6wt% 48.4wt% 49.3wt% 50.3wt% 51.1wt%

Phase C12:0

Content of 0.5wt% 0.5wt% 0.5wt% 0.5wt% 0.5wt% 0.5wt% 0.5wt%

Lipid Phase

C18:0

Content of 4.9wt% 5.8wt% 6.2wt% 6.8wt% 7.4wt% 7.9wt% 8.4wt%

Lipid Phase

C22:0

Content of 0.6wt% 0.6wt% 0.6wt% 0.6wt% 0.6wt% 0.6wt% 0.6wt%

Lipid Phase

SFC of Lipid

Phase at 40 5.0wt% 5.6wt% 7.1wt% 8.4wt% 9.9wt% 11.2wt% 12.6wt%

°C/wt%

TFA Content of Lipid 1.2wt% 1.2wt% 1.1 wt% 1.1 wt% 1.1 wt% l.lwt% l.lwt%

Phase

Melting

Point of 40.5°C 41.1°C 42.6°C 43.7°C 45.0°C 46.0°C 46.8°C

Lipid Phase

[0094] It can be seen from the above that, where the content of second lipid components is higher than 1 lwt%, the melting point of the lipid phase is higher than 46 °C. Once again, the SFC of the lipid phase in such an example at 40 °C is higher than 12wt%, which is not beneficial to providing a good mouthfeel for baked goods. As discussed above, a high SFC is also expected to compromise the operability of the lipid composition.

Example 3

[0095] In this example, the effect of C12:0 content on the hardness of the lipid composition and its extrusion performance is explored.

Pl P2 P3

First Lipid Component 2

51.87wt% N/A N/A

First Lipid Component 3

N/A 51.87wt% N/A First Lipid Component 4

N/A N/A 49.80wt%

Water

9wt% 9wt% 9wt%

Sugar

20wt% 20wt% 20wt%

Fructose syrup

17wt% 17wt% 17wt%

Emulsifier 1 0.4wt% 0.4wt% 0.4wt%

Emulsifier 2 0.8wt% 0.8wt% 0.8wt%

Second Lipid Component 1 N/A N/A N/A

Second Lipid Component 2 N/A N/A N/A

Second Lipid Component 3 N/A N/A N/A

Second Lipid Component 4 0.8wt% 0.8wt% 2.9wt%

Antioxidant 0.005wt% 0.005wt% 0.005wt%

Flavor 0.12wt% 0.12wt% 0.12wt%

Beta-carotene 0.0045wt% 0.0045wt% 0.0045wt%

SFA Content of Lipid Phase 65.2wt% 51.4wt% 52.1wt%

C12:0 Content of Lipid Phase 12 7wt% 5.1wt% 5.3wt%

Cl 8:0 Content of Lipid Phase 4 7wt% 4.7wt% 5.7wt%

C22:0 Content of Lipid Phase 0.1wt% 0.1wt% 0.1wt%

Second Lipid Component

0.8wt% 0.8wt% 2.9wt%

Content of Lipid Composition

C22:0 Content of Second Lipid

0 0 0

Component

Molar Amount of Second Lipid

Component/Total Molar 1.98mol% 2.06mol% 7.36mol%

Amount of Lipid Phase

TFA content of Lipid Phase 0.7wt% l.lwt% l.lwt%

Hardness of Lipid Composition 932g 1083g at 5 °C by TA analysis

Hardness of Lipid Composition

1045g 460g 616g at 15 °C by TA analysis

Extrusion Performance Lipid composition too Extrusion goes Extrusion goes hard to feed for smoothly, yet the smoothly, yet the extrusion at 5 °C-15 °C extruded lipid sheet is extruded lipid sheet is viscous and viscous and significantly lacks significantly lacks ducticity ducticity

P4 P5 P6 P7 P8

First Lipid Component 5

59.37wt% N/A N/A N/A N/A

First Lipid Component 6

N/A 59.37wt% N/A N/A N/A

First Lipid Component 7

N/A N/A 59.37wt% N/A N/A

First Lipid Component 8

N/A N/A N/A 59.37wt% 59.37wt%

Water

15wt% 15wt% 15wt% 15wt% 15wt%

Sugar

24wt% 24wt% 24wt% 24wt% 24wt%

Fructose syrup

0 0 0 0 0

Emulsifier 1 0.5 wt% 0.5wt% 0.5wt% 0.5 wt% 0.5wt%

Emulsifier 2 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

Second Lipid Component 1 lwt% lwt% lwt% lwt% N/A

Second Lipid Component 2 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1.0wt%

Second Lipid Component 3 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

Second Lipid Component 4 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

Antioxidant 0.005wt% 0.005wt% 0.005wt% 0.005wt% 0.005wt%

Flavor 0.12wt% 0.12wt% 0.12wt% 0.12wt% 0.12wt%

Beta-carotene 0.0045wt% 0.0045wt% 0.0045wt% 0.0045wt% 0.0045wt%

SFA Content of Lipid Phase 54.90wt% 51.60wt% 53.10wt% 44.90wt% 45.30wt%

C12:0 Content of Lipid Phase 7.30wt% 4.40wt% 3.60wt% 0.40wt% 0.50wt%

Cl 8:0 Content of Lipid Phase 4.80wt% 4.70wt% 5.10wt% 4.80wt% 4.90wt%

C22:0 Content of Lipid Phase 0.50wt% 0.50wt% 0.50wt% 0.50wt% 0.80wt% Second Lipid Component

1.0wt% 1.0wt% 1.0wt% 1.0wt% 1.0wt% Content of Lipid Composition C18:0 Content of Second Lipid

37.4wt% 37.4wt% 37.4wt% 37.4wt% 42.2wt%

Component

C22:0 Content of Second Lipid

27.7wt% 27.7wt% 27.7wt% 27.7wt% 40.3wt% Component

Molar Amount of Second Lipid Component/Total Molar 1.58mol% 1.59mol% 1.62mol% 1.63mol% 1.06mol% Amount of Lipid Phase

TFA Content of Lipid Phase l.lwt% l.lwt% ,l.lwt% 1.2wt% 1.3wt% Hardness of Lipid Composition

1444g 1248g 1401g 813g 561g at 5 °C by TA analysis

Hardness of Lipid Composition at 15 °C by TA analysis

Extrusion Performance

Extrusion goes smoothly, yet the extruded lipid sheet is slightly viscous and lacks ducticity

[0096] It can be seen from the above that the C12:0 content in the lipid composition is relevant to the hardness of the composition. Specifically, where C18:0 content and C22:0 content are given, the hardness of the composition increases as the C12:0 content increases. Likewise, when the C12:0 content deceases, the hardness of the composition also decreases.

[0097] Also, the C12:0 content in the lipid composition is relevant to the extrusion performance of the composition. The above shows that too high a C12:0 content (greater than 12wt%) makes the lipid composition too hard to extrude. On the other hand, too low a C12:0 content could make the lipid composition post-extrusion viscous and lack ducticity, which is not good for subsequent processing.

Example 4

[0098] In this example, the relationship between the various parameters (e.g., C12:0, Cl 8:0 and C22:0 content) and the textual properties and extrusion performance of the lipid composition is further explored.

G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7

First Lipid

51.87wt% 51.07wt% 50.37wt% N/A N/A N/A N/A

Component 3

First Lipid

N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 49.87wt% N/A

Component 8

First Lipid

N/A N/A N/A 49.87wt% 50.87wt% N/A 46.87wt%

Component 9

Water 9wt% 9wt% 9wt% 9wt% 9wt% 9wt% 9wt%

Sugar 20wt% 20wt% 20wt% 20wt% 20wt% 20wt% 20wt%

Fructose Syrup 17wt% 17wt% 17wt% 17wt% 17wt% 17wt% 17wt%

Emulsifier 1 0.5wt% 0.5wt% 0.5wt% 0.5wt% 0.5wt% 0.5wt% 0.5wt%

Emulsifier 2 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

Second Lipid

1.5wt% 0.8wt% 1.5wt% N/A N/A N/A N/A

Component 1

Second Lipid

N/A N/A N/A 1.0wt% 1.0wt% 1.0wt% 1.5wt%

Component 2

Second Lipid

N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

Component 3

Second Lipid

N/A 1.50wt% 1.50wt% 2.50wt% 1.50wt% 2.50wt% 5.00wt%

Component 4

Second Lipid

N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

Component 5

Antioxidant 0.005wt% 0.005wt% 0.005wt% 0.005wt% 0.005wt% 0.005wt% 0.005wt%

Flavor 0.12wt% 0.12wt% 0.12wt% 0.12wt% 0.12wt% 0.12wt% 0.12wt%

Beta-carotene 0.0045wt 0.0045wt 0.0045wt 0.0045wt 0.0045wt 0.0045wt 0.0045wt

% % % % % % %

SFA Content of

52.20wt% 53.10wt% 54wt% 51.90wt% 51.20wt% 47.40wt% 53.50wt%

Lipid Phase

C12:0 Content

5.20wt% 5.00wt% 4.90wt% 4.20wt% 4.20wt% 0.50wt% 3.90wt% of Lipid Phase

Cl 8:0 Content

5.10wt% 5.80wt% 6.20wt% 6.10wt% 5.60wt% 6.20wt% 7.10wt% of Lipid Phase

C22:0 Content

0.70wt% 0.60wt% 1.00wt% 0.80wt% 0.80wt% 0.80wt% 1.30wt% of Lipid Phase

Second Lipid

Component

1.50wt% 2.30wt% 3.00wt% 3.50wt% 2.50wt% 3.50wt% 6.50wt% Content of Lipid

Composition Cl 8:0 Content of Second Lipid 37.4wt% 37.4wt% 37.4wt% 38.77wt% 39.32wt% 38.77wt% 38.51wt%

Component

C22:0 Content of Second Lipid 27.7wt% 9.63wt% 13.85wt% 11.51wt% 16.12wt% 11.51wt% 9.3wt%

Component

Molar Amount of Second Lipid

Component/Tot 14.38mol

2.7mol% 5.28mol% 6.52mol% 7.58mol% 5.04mol% 7.73mol% al Molar %

Amount of

Lipid Phase

TFA Content of l.lwt% 1.1 wt% 1.0wt% 1.0wt% 1.0wt% l.lwt% 1.0wt%

Lipid Phase

Hardness of

Lipid

Composition at 1328g 1022g 1178g 1068g 1205g 1482g 863g

5 °C by TA analysis

Hardness of

Lipid

Composition at 752g 721g 716g 658g 728g 782g 613g

15 °C by TA analysis

Extrusion

Performance

Extrusion goes smoothly at 5 °C-15 °C; the continuous sheet extruded has suitable firmness and sufficient plasticity and ducticity

G8 G9 G10 Gil G12 G13

First Lipid Component 8 56.87wt 56.37wt 56.87wt 56.87wt

N/A 58wt%

% % % %

First Lipid Component 9 53.87wt

N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

%

Water

15wt% 15wt% 15wt% 15wt% 15wt% 15wt%

Sugar

24wt% 24wt% 24wt% 24wt% 24wt% 24wt%

Fructose syrup 0 0 0 0 0 0 Emulsifier 1 0.50wt% 0.50wt% 0.50wt% 0.50wt% 0.50wt% 0.50wt%

Emulsifier 2 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

Second Lipid Component 1 N/A N/A 1.00% N/A N/A N/A

Second Lipid Component 2 I.00wt% 1.50wt% N/A 1.00wt% 0.50wt% 0.50wt% Second Lipid Component 3 N/A N/A I.50wt% 3.00wt% 3.00wt% 2.00wt% Second Lipid Component 4 2.50wt% 5.00wt% N/A N/A N/A 1.00wt% Antioxidant 0.005wt 0.005wt 0.005wt 0.005wt 0.005wt 0.005wt

% % % % % %

Flavor 0.12wt% 0.12wt% 0.12wt% 0.12wt% 0.12wt% 0.12wt%

Beta-carotene 0.0045w 0.0045wt 0.0045wt 0.0045wt 0.0045wt 0.0045wt t% % % % % %

SFA Content of Lipid Phase 47.10wt 53.52wt 46.50wt 48.30wt 47.20wt 46.90wt % % % % % %

C12:0 Content of Lipid Phase 0.40wt% 3.90wt% 0.60wt% 0.60wt% 0.50wt% 0.50wt%

Cl 8:0 Content of Lipid Phase 5.90wt% 7.10wt% 5.70wt% 6.70wt% 6.40wt% 6.20wt%

C22:0 Content of Lipid Phase 0.80wt% 1.30wt% 0.50wt% 0.80wt% 0.50wt% 0.50wt% Second Lipid Component

3.50wt% 6.50wt% 2.50wt% 4.00wt% 3.50wt% 3.50wt% Content of Lipid Composition Cl 8:0 Content of Second 38.77wt

38.51wt% 37.76wt% 39.05wt% 38.6wt% 38.42wt% Lipid Component %

C22:0 Content of Second II.51wt

9.3wt% II.14wt% 10.15wt% 5.84wt% 5.81wt% Lipid Component %

Molar Amount of Second

6.85mol 12.31mol 3.37mol 4.57mol 4.02mol 5.19mol Lipid Component/Total Molar % % % % % % Amount of Lipid Phase

TFA Content of Lipid Phase 1.2wt% 1.0wt% l.lwt% l.lwt% 1.2wt% l.lwt%

Hardness of Lipid Composition at 5 °C by TA 1421g 1232g 1532g 1277g 1517g 1575g analysis

Hardness of Lipid Composition at 15 °C by TA 1000g 745g 960g 918g 815g 1060g analysis

Extrusion Performance ★

Extrusion goes smoothly at 5 °C-15 °C; the continuous sheet extruded has suitable firmness and sufficient plasticity and ducticity G14 G15 G16 G17 G18 G19

First Lipid Component 3

N/A N/A N/A 48.87wt% N/A N/A

First Lipid Component 8

46.37wt% 46.87wt% 46.9wt% N/A N/A N/A

First Lipid Component

N/A N/A N/A N/A 48.37wt% 47.37wt%

10

Water

9wt% 9wt% 9wt% 9wt% 9wt% 9wt%

Sugar

20wt% 20wt% 20wt% 20wt% 20wt% 20wt%

Fructose syrup 20wt% 20wt% 20wt% 20wt% 20wt% 20wt%

Emulsifier 1 0.50wt% 0.50wt% 0.50wt% 0.50wt% 0.50wt% 0.50wt%

Emulsifier 2 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

Second Lipid

N/A N/A N/A lwt% 1.00wt% 1.00wt%

Component 1

Second Lipid

1.00wt% 1.00wt% 1.00wt% N/A N/A N/A

Component 2

Second Lipid

3.00wt% 2.50wt% N/A 0.50wt% 1.00wt% 1.00wt%

Component 3

Second Lipid

N/A N/A 2.50wt% N/A N/A 1.00wt%

Component 4

Antioxidant 0.005wt% 0.005wt% 0.005wt% 0.005wt% 0.005wt% 0.005wt%

Flavor 0.12wt% 0.12wt% 0.12wt% 0.12wt% 0.12wt% 0.12wt%

Beta-carotene 0.0045wt% 0.0045wt% 0.0045wt% 0.0045wt% 0.0045wt% 0.0045wt%

SFA Content of Lipid

48.10wt% 47.70wt% 46.60wt% 52.40wt% 53.70wt% 54.10wt%

Phase

C12:0 Content of Lipid

0.50wt% 0.50wt% 0.50wt% 5.00wt% 6.00wt% 5.60wt%

Phase

C18:0 Content of Lipid

7.00wt% 6.70wt% 6.10wt% 5.30wt% 5.50wt% 6.00wt%

Phase

C22:0 Content of Lipid

0.90wt% 0.90wt% 0.90wt% 0.60wt% 0.60wt% 0.60wt%

Phase

Second Lipid

Component Content of 4.00wt% 3.50wt% 3.50wt% 1.50wt% 2.00wt% 3.00wt%

Lipid Composition C18:0 Content of Second

39.05wt% 39.2wt% 38.77wt% 37.6wt% 37.7wt% 37.6wt%

Lipid Component

C22:0 Content of Second

10.15wt% 11.58wt% 11.51wt% 18.50wt% 13.90wt% 9.27wt%

Lipid Component

Molar Amount of

Second Lipid

5.49mol% 4.77mol% 8.19mol% 2.60mol% 3.24mol% 5.94mol%

Component/Total Molar Amount of Lipid Phase TFA Content of Lipid

1.2wt% 1.0wt% 1.2wt% 1.0wt% 0.9wt% 0.9wt% Phase

Hardness of Lipid

Composition at 5 °C by 1429g 1403g 1569g 1483g 1597g 1179g TA analysis

Hardness of Lipid

Composition at 15 °C by 849g 862g 891g 787g 903g 709g TA analysis

Extrusion Performance ★

Extrusion goes smoothly at 5 °C-15 °C; the continuous sheet extruded has suitable firmness and sufficient plasticity and ducticity

[0099] It can be seen from the above that if the content of second lipid components is from 1.5wt% to llwt% and the Cl 2:0 content is from 0.35wt% to 12 wt%, then the textual quality of the lipid composition can be significantly improved. The data of Example 4, when compared with that of Example 3, also shows the presence of C22:0 is required for good extrusion performance. The ratio of between the molar amount of the second lipid components and the total molar amount of the lipid phase (i.e., first and second lipid components and emulsifier(s)) may also help contribute to the desirable extrusion performance. Specifically, where the molar amount of the second lipid components accounts for at least 2.6mol% of the total molar amount of the lipid phase, the lipid composition exhibits good extrusion performance.

[00100] The afforded lipid composition has suitable firmness and sufficient plasticity and ducticity at from 5 °C to 15 °C, and is thus particularly suitable for industrial continuous production of bakery products involving extrusion of the lipid composition.

[00101] Unless otherwise defined, all terms (including technical and scientific terms) used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which the aspects of the invention belong. It will be further understood that terms, such as those defined in commonly used dictionaries, should be interpreted as having a meaning that is consistent with their meaning in the context of the relevant art and the present disclosure, and will not be interpreted in an idealized or overly formal sense unless expressly so defined herein.

[00102] While the disclosure has been described with reference to an exemplary aspect, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes may be made and equivalents may be substituted for elements thereof without departing from the scope of the disclosure. In addition, many modifications may be made to adapt a particular situation or material to the teachings of the disclosure without departing from the essential scope thereof. Therefore, it is intended that the disclosure not be limited to the particular aspect disclosed as the best mode contemplated for carrying out this disclosure, but that the disclosure will include all aspects falling within the scope of the appended claims.

[00103] All references specifically cited herein are hereby incorporated by reference in their entireties. However, the citation or incorporation of such a reference is not necessarily an admission as to its appropriateness, citability, and/or availability as prior art to/against the present invention.

Clauses

Clause 1. A lipid composition, comprising:

(a) from 30wt% to 70wt% a first lipid component, by weight of the lipid composition;

(b) from 10wt% to 40wt% a sweetening substance, by weight of the lipid composition;

(c) from 5wt% to 20wt% water, by weight of the lipid composition;

(d) from 0.1 wt% to 1.2wt% an emulsifier, by weight of the lipid composition, wherein the emulsifier has a SFA content of less than 90wt% ; and

(e) from 1.5wt% to llwt% a second lipid component, by weight of the lipid composition, wherein the second lipid component has a SFA content of at least 90wt%, wherein fully saturated fatty acids with a carbon chain of more than 16 carbons comprise C22:0 and account for at least 33.3wt% of the SFA content of the second lipid component by weight, wherein the lipid composition has a SFA content of at least 40wt%, wherein fully saturated fatty acids with a carbon chain of more than 16 carbons account for at least 12.5 wt% of the SFA of the lipid composition by weight, wherein the lipid composition has a C12:0 content of from 0.35wt% to 12wt%, wherein the lipid composition has a hardness of from 500g to 2000g at from 5 °C to 15 °C by texture analysis as measured using a 5 mm cylinder probe to penetrate 75% of original height of the lipid composition at 2 mm/s, wherein the lipid composition comprises less than 2wt% TFA, and wherein the lipid composition has a C22:0 content of from 0.1wt% to 1.5wt%.

Clause 2. The lipid composition according to clause 1, wherein the lipid composition has a SFA content of from 40wt% to 60wt%; or SFA content of from 43wt% to 57wt%; or SFA content of from 45wt% to 55wt%.

Clause 3. The lipid composition according to clause 1 or 2, wherein the lipid composition has a C12:0 content of from 0.37wt% to 7wt%; or C 12:0 content of from 0.4wt% to 6.5wt%; or C12:0 content of from 0.5wt% to 6wt%.

Clause 4. The lipid composition according to any one of the preceding clauses, wherein the lipid composition has a C18:0 content of from 4.5wt% to 9wt%; or C18:0 content of from 4.7wt% to 8.5wt%; or C18:0 content of from 5wt% to 7.5wt%.

Clause 5. The lipid composition according to any one of the preceding clauses, wherein the lipid composition has a C22:0 content of from 0.3wt% to 1.3wt%; or C22:0 content of from 0.4wt% to l.lwt%.

Clause 6. The lipid composition according to any one of the preceding clauses, wherein the average molecular weight of the first lipid component is from 700 g/mol to 900 g/mol; from 755 g/mol to 820 g/mol; or from 760 g/mol to 815 g/mol; or from 790 g/mol to 815 g/mol.

Clause 7. The lipid composition according to any one of the preceding clauses, wherein the second lipid component has a C18:0 content of from 30wt% to 50wt%; or C18:0 content of from 35wt% to 45wt%. Clause 8. The lipid composition according to any one of the preceding clauses, wherein the second lipid component is from 1.5wt% to 10wt%; or from 1.5wt% to 7wt%, by weight of the lipid composition.

Clause 9. The lipid composition according to any one of the preceding clauses, wherein the lipid composition has a hardness of from 600g to 1900g, or from 700g to 1800g, or from 800g to 1700g at 5 °C by texture analysis as measured using a 5 mm cylinder probe to penetrate 75% of original height of the lipid composition at 2mm/s.

Clause 10. The lipid composition according to any one of the preceding clauses, wherein the lipid composition has a hardness of from 550g to 1500g, or from 570 to 1300g, or from 600g to 1100g at 15 °C by texture analysis as measured using a 5 mm cylinder probe to penetrate 75% of original height of the lipid composition at 2mm/s.

Clause 11. The lipid composition according to any one of the preceding clauses, wherein the first lipid component is an oil selected from the group consisting of soy bean oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil and a combination thereof.

Clause 12. The lipid composition according to clauses 11, wherein the oil is processed by a technique selected from the group consisting of fractionation, interesterification, blending and a combination thereof.

Clause 13. The lipid composition according to clauses 11 or 12, wherein the palm kernel oil is from 0.3wt% to 15wt%; or from 0.4wt% to 14.5wt%; or from 0.5wt% to 14wt%, by weight of the first lipid component.

Clause 14. The lipid composition according to any one of the preceding clauses, wherein the lipid composition further comprises an additive selected from the group consisting of an antioxidant, a nutrient enhancer, a flavoring substance, a preservative, a pigment and a combination thereof.

Clause 15. The lipid composition according to any one of the preceding clauses, wherein the molar amount of the second lipid component accounts for from 2.6mol% to 15mol% of the total molar amount of the first lipid component, the emulsifier and the second lipid component; or from 3mol% to 14.5mol% of the total molar amount of the first lipid component, the emulsifier and the second lipid component; or from 3.2mol% to 14.4mol% of the total molar amount of the first lipid component, the emulsifier and the second lipid component; or from 3.3mol% to 14mol% of the total molar amount of the first lipid component, the emulsifier and the second lipid component; or from 3.4mol% to 13.5mol% of the total molar amount of the first lipid component, the emulsifier and the second lipid component.

Clause 16. The lipid composition according to any one of the preceding clauses, wherein the lipid composition comprises no partially hydrogenated lipid.

Clause 17. A food product comprising a lipid composition according to any one of the preceding clauses.

Clause 18. A food product comprising the lipid composition of the present invention and at least one other nutrient, which is not a lipid or a lipid composition.

Clause 19. The food product according to clause 17 or 18, wherein the food product is a bakery product made from a laminated dough.

Clause 20. The food product according to clause 19, wherein the bakery product is selected from the group consisting of a bread, a croissant, a puff pastry, a Danish pastry and a galette.

Clause 21. A process of making a food product according to any one of clauses 17-20, wherein the lipid composition is extruded as a continuous sheet at 5 °C to 15 °C.

Clause 22. A process of making a lipid composition according to any one of clause 1-16, comprising the steps of:

(A) mixing, by weight of the lipid composition:

(i) from 30wt% to 70wt% a first lipid component;

(ii) from 1.5wt% to llwt% a second lipid component, wherein the second lipid component has a SFA content of at least 90wt%, wherein fully saturated fatty acids with a carbon chain of more than 16 carbons comprise C22:0 and account for at least 33.3wt% of the SFA content of the second lipid component by weight; and (iii) from 0.1wt% to 1.2wt% an emulsifier, wherein the emulsifier has a

SFA content of less than 90wt%, to produce a lipid phase;

(B) mixing, by weight of the lipid composition:

(i) from 5wt% to 20wt% water; and

(ii) from 10wt% to 40wt% a sweetening substance, to produce an aqueous phase;

(C) mixing the lipid phase and the aqueous phase to produce a water-in-oil emulsion; and

(D) cooling the water-in-oil emulsion with a cooling apparatus to produce a crystallized emulsion, wherein the lipid composition has a SFA content of at least 40wt%, and wherein fully saturated fatty acids with a carbon chain of more than 16 carbons account for at least 12.5 wt% of the SFA content of the lipid composition by weight, wherein the lipid composition has a C12:0 content of from 0.35wt% to 12wt%, wherein the lipid composition has a hardness of from 500g to 2000g at from 5 °C to 15 °C by texture analysis as measured using a 5 mm cylinder probe to penetrate 75% of original height of the lipid composition at 2 mm/s, wherein the lipid composition comprises less than 2wt% TFA, and wherein the lipid composition has a C22:0 content of from 0.1wt% to 1.5wt%.

Clause 23. The process according to clause 22, further comprising adding a lipophilic additive to the lipid phase before mixing with the aqueous phase.

Clause 24. The process according to clause 22 or 23, further comprising adding a water- soluble additive to the aqueous phase before mixing with the lipid phase.

Clause 25. The process according to clause 23 or 24, wherein the additive is selected from the group consisting of an antioxidant, a nutrient enhancer, a flavoring substance, a preservative, a pigment and a combination thereof.

Clause 26. The process according to any one of clauses 22-25, further comprising subjecting the crystallized emulsion to one or more of the following steps:

(A) resting; (B) extrusion; and

(C) tempering.

Clause 27. Use of the lipid composition of claims 1-6 for improving a property of a food product by a method comprising adding the lipid composition to the food product

Clause 28. The use of clause 27, wherein the property is selected from the group consisting of nutritional profile, texture, color, taste, aroma, appearance, and a combination thereof.

Clause 29. The use of clause 27 or 28, wherein the food product is selected from the group consisting of a bread, a croissant, a puff pastry, a Danish pastry and a galette.

Clause 30. The use of clause 27 or 28, wherein the lipid composition is added as a laminating fat.

Clause 31. A method of making a continuous lipid composition sheet, comprising subjecting the lipid composition according to any one of clauses 1-16 to extrusion.

Clause 32. The method of clause 31, wherein the extruded lipid composition is subject to a process selected from the group consisting of folding, sheeting, rolling and a combination thereof.

Clause 33. The method of clause 31 or 32, wherein the extrusion and/or subsequent process takes place at a temperature of from 5 °C to 15 °C; or from 5 °C to 10 °C.