Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
METHOD FOR SYNTHESIS OF DIAZABICYCLO[6.2.0]DECANE RELATED COMPOUNDS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2020/146568
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A method for the synthesis of diazabicyclo[6.2.0]decane compounds is provided. The synthesis proceeds by stereoselective synthesis of a chiral lactone followed by azetidine formation via a series of chemoselective reactions. Bicyclization results with the formation of diazobicyclo[6.2.0]decane related compounds.

Inventors:
FANG FRANCIS G (US)
MITASEV BRANKO (US)
YANG JIONG (US)
Application Number:
US2020/012839
Publication Date:
July 16, 2020
Filing Date:
January 09, 2020
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
EISAI R&D MAN CO LTD (JP)
FANG FRANCIS G (US)
MITASEV BRANKO (US)
YANG JIONG (US)
International Classes:
C07D487/04; C07C229/36; C07C247/10; C07D203/12; C07D205/04; C07D307/33; C07D317/28; C07D491/147
Domestic Patent References:
WO2018175385A12018-09-27
WO2015070204A12015-05-14
WO2018175385A12018-09-27
WO2015070204A12015-05-14
WO2015002755A22015-01-08
WO2016172631A22016-10-27
Foreign References:
US20160289235A12016-10-06
US20180194768A12018-07-12
Other References:
JASON T. LOWE ET AL: "Synthesis and Profiling of a Diverse Collection of Azetidine-Based Scaffolds for the Development of CNS-Focused Lead-like Libraries", JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, vol. 77, no. 17, 7 September 2012 (2012-09-07), US, pages 7187 - 7211, XP055351849, ISSN: 0022-3263, DOI: 10.1021/jo300974j
LOWE, J. T. ET AL.: "Synthesis and profiling of a diverse collection of azetidine- based scaffolds for the development of CNS-focused lead-like libraries", J. ORG. CHEM., vol. 77, 2012, pages 7187 - 7211, XP055351849, DOI: 10.1021/jo300974j
MAETANI, M. ET AL.: "Synthesis of a Bicyclic Azetidine with In Vivo Antimalarial Activity Enabled by Stereospecific, Directed C(sp3)-H Arylation", J.A.C.S., vol. 139, 2017, pages 11300 - 11306
KATO, N. ET AL.: "Diversity-oriented synthesis yields novel multistage antimalarial inhibitors", NATURE, vol. 538, 2016, pages 344 - 349, XP055645378, DOI: 10.1038/nature19804
STAHL ET AL.: "Handbook of Pharmaceutical Salts: Properties, Selection, and Use", 2002, WILEY-VCH; VERLAG HELVETICA CHIMICA ACTA
BERGE ET AL., J. PHARM. SCI., vol. 66, 1977, pages 1
PETER G. M. WUTS: "Greene's Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis", 2014, JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC.
"Greene 's Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis"
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
WALTERS, Todd R. et al. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1 A method of forming a solid compound given by Formula I:

(Formula I) wherein

Ri is -I, -Cl, -Br, or

R2 is C(0)R3;

R3 is -O and a positive counterion is ionically associated with Formula I;

Pi is a nitrogen protecting group;

comprising reacting a reactant of Formula II

(Formula ΪΪ)

with a base and resolving the racemic mixture by crystallization with a chiral reagent. 2 The method according to claim 1, wherein Ri is

3. The method according to claim 2, wherein Pi is selected from the group consisting of

-C(0)CF -C(G)0C(CH3)3, and -C(0)GCH2Ph.

4. The method according to claim 3, wherein Pi is -C(0)CF3.

5. The method of claim 4, wdierein reacting said base is lithium diisopropyl amine and is in the presence of ZnCh.

6. The method of claim 5, wherein said chiral reagent is (//}-( + )- 1 -phenyl ethyl ami ne.

A method of forming a compound given by Formula I:

(Formula I)

wherein

Ri is -I, -Cl, -Br, or

R2 is C(0)R3;

R3 is -Oalkyl;

Pi is a nitrogen protecting group;

comprising reacting a reactant of Formula III (Formula III)

with a chiral sulfmyl imine;

wherein Xi is a halogen atom.

The method according to claim 7, wherein

Ri and Xi are each -Br,

and said chiral sulfmyl imine is

wherein R4 and R5 are linear or branched alkyl.

9. The method of claim 8, wherein R4 is -C(CHs)3 and R is -CH2CH3.

10. The method of claim 9, wherein said reacting is in the presence of Zn.

1 1. A method of forming a compound given by Formula IV

Pi and P2 are the same or different and represent nitrogen protecting groups; comprising forming a lactone of Formula V

wherein R ·· is C{())R u

R.3 is -OH, -Oalkyl, -O ;

wherein when R3 is -O , a positive counterion is ionicaliy associated with Formula 1;

and Pi is a nitrogen protecting group;

reducing said lactone of Formula V into a compound of Formula VI

converting the alcoholic groups covalently attached to the unsaturated carbons of Formula VI into leaving groups to form an intermediate that reacts with a nitrogen nucleophile to generate a compound of Formula IV.

12. The method of claim 11, wherein said nitrogen nucleophile is phthalimide.

13. The method of claim 12,

wherein Ri is

14. The method of claim 13, wherein said lactone of Formula V is formed by reacting the compound of Formula I with an electropositive source of a halogen in a polar solvent.

15. The method of claim 14, wherein said electropositive source of a halogen is h and said polar solvent is an aqueous mixture of CH3CN.

16. The method of claim 13, wherein said lactone of Formula V is formed by reacting the compound of Formula I with h in a polar solvent to for a first product, and reacting the first product with Na f to form a compound of Formula V.

17. The method of claim 16, wherein said reducing is done with NaBH .

18. The method of claim 17, wherein said leaving groups are mesylate groups and said intermediate is given by one or both of the following structures:

19. The method of claim 18, wherein Pi is converted from -C(0)CF3 into the following structure:

20. The method of claim 11, wherein Ri is -Br, R2 is -C(0)0CH2CH3 and Pi is S(0)C(CH )3.

21. The method of 20, wherein Pi is converted from -S(0)C(CH3)3 to a structure as

follows:

22. The method of claim 21, wherein said lactone of Formula V is formed by reacting the compound of Formula I with an electropositive source of halide in a polar solvent to form a first product, and reacting the first product with NaN3 to form a compound of Formula V.

23. The method of claim 22, wherein said lactone of Formula V is reduced with NaBFfi to form the following compound:

24. The method of claim 23, wherein said leaving groups are mesylate groups and said intermediate is given by one or both of the following structures:

25. A method of making a compound given by the following structure

wherein

Ri is—I, -Cl, -Br, or

Re and R? are independent the same or different, and are selected from -H, alkyl, -Oalkyl, or wherein Re and R? together with the atoms to which they are attached form ring; R¾ and R9 are independently the same or different, and are selected from -H, -alkyl, - C(0)alkyl, -SiOjia!kyL or Rs and R9 together with the N to which they are attached form a monocyclic ring or bicyclie ring system;

Rio is -H, straight chain or branched alkyl, -C(0)alkyl, -C(0)0-alkyl, -C(0)NH-alkyl, - C(0)aryl, -C(0)0-aryf -C(0)NH-aryl, -C(0)heteroaryl, -C(0)0-heteroaryl, and -C(0)N- heteroaryl; wherein said alkyl, aryl and heteroaryl are optionally substituted by one or more halogens, oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms; comprising reacting a compound given by Formula IV

(Formula IV)

with a substituted g-hy dr oxy aldehyde and effecting bicyclization.

26. The method according to claim 25, wherein said g-hy dr oxy aldehyde is given by the following structure:

(Formula IX),

wherein Ru is H or an oxygen protecting group;

and R12 is -H or -CH2OH.

27. The method according to claim 26, wherein said y-hydroxyaldehyde is

and the compound of Formula VIII is made proceeding through the following intermediate:

(Formula X).

28. The method according to claim 27, comprising oxidation and the compound of Formula VIII is made proceeding through the following intermediate:

(Formula XI).

29. The method according to claim 28, comprising reduction and bicyclization and the compound of Formula VIII is made proceeding through the following intermediate:

(Formula XII).

30. The method according to claim 29, comprising further reduction and the compound of Formula VIII is made proceeding through the following intermediate:

(Formula XIII).

31 The method according to claim 30, wherein the compound of Formula XIII is reacted with 4-methoxyphenyl isocyanate and the compound of Formula VIII is given by the following structure:

(Formula XIV).

32. A method of forming a compound given by Formula IV

wherein Ri is -I, -Cl, -Br, or

Pi and P2 are the same or different and represent nitrogen protecting groups;

comprising converting the alcoholic groups covalently attached to the unsaturated carbons of Formula VI

into leaving groups to form an intermediate that reacts with a nitrogen nucleophile to generate a compound of Formula IV.

33. The method according to claim 32, wherein said leaving groups are mesylate groups and said intermediate is given by one or both of the following structures:

34. The method according to claim 33, wherein said nitrogen nucleophile is phthalimide.

35. A compound of Formula XV :

wherein Z is a substituted 4-membered nitrogen-containing heterocycle selected from the group consisting of:

wherein Pi and P2 are the same or different and are nitrogen protecting groups or -H, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof;

wherein Re and R? are independently the same or different, and are selected from -H, alkyl, -Oalkyl, or wherein Re and R? together with the atoms to which they are attached form a ring; Rg and R9 are independently the same or different, and are selected from -H, -alkyl, - C(0)alkyl, -SCOjialkyL or Rg and R9 together with the N to which they are attached form a monocyclic ring or bicyclic ring system; and Rio is -H, straight chain or branched alkyl, - C(0)alkyl, -C(0)0-alkyl, -C(0)NH-aSkyl, -C(0)aryl, -C(0)Q-aryI, -C(0)NH-aryl, - C(0)heteroaryl, -C(0)G-heteroaryl, and -C(0)N-heteroaryl, wherein the alkyl, aryl and heteroaryl are substituted by one or more halogen, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof;

wherein Rx and R9 are independently the same or different, and are selected from -H, -alkyl, -C(0)a!kyl, -S(0)2alkyl, or Rx and R9 together with the N to which they are attached form a monocyclic ring or bicyclic ring system, wherein the alkyl is substituted by one or more halogen, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof;

wherein Rx and R9 are independently the same or different, and are selected from -H, -alkyl, -C(0)alkyl, -S(0)2alkyl, or Rx and R together with the N to which they are attached form a monocyclic ring or bicyclic ring system, wherein the alkyl is substituted by one or more halogen, hydrogen oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof;

wherein Rx and R are independently the same or different, and are selected from -H, -alkyl, -C(0)alkyl, -S(0)2alkyl, or Rx and R together with the N to which they are attached form a monocyclic ring or bicyclic ring system, wherein the alkyl is substituted by one or more halogen, hydrogen oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof; and

wherein Rs and R9 are independently the same or different, and are selected from -H, -alkyl, -C(0)alkyl, -S(0)2alkyl, or R« and R9 together with the N to which they are attached form a monocyclic ring or bicyclic ring system, wherein the alkyl is optionally substituted by one or more halogen, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

36 The compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt of claim 35, wherein the compound is compound of Formula IV:

are the same or different and are nitrogen protecting groups or -H;

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof

37. The compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt of claim 35, wherein the compound is a compound of Formula VIII:

are independently the same or different, and are selected from -H, alkyl, -Oalkyl, or wherein Re and R? together with the atoms to which they are attached form a ring; Rs and R9 are independently the same or different, and are selected from -H, -alkyl, -C(0)alkyl, - S(0)2alkyl, or Rs and R9 together with the N to which they are attached form a monocyclic ring or bicyclic ring system; and Rio is -H, straight chain or branched alkyl, -C(0)alkyl, - C(0)0-alkyl, -C(0)NH-alkyl, -C(0)aryl, -C(0)0-aryl, -C(0}NH-aryS, -C(0)heteroaryl, - C(0)0-heteroaryl, and -C(0)N-heteroaryl, wdierein the alkyl, aryl and heteroaryl are substituted by one or more halogen, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms;

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

38. The compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt of claim 35, wherein said compound is a compound of Formula X:

are independently the same or different, and are selected from H, -alkyl, -C(0)alkyl, - S(0)2alkyl, or Rs and R9 together with the N to which they are attached form a monocyclic ring or bicyclic ring system, wherein the alkyl is substituted by one or more halogen, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms;

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

39 The compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt of claim 35, wherein the compound is A compound of Formula XI:

are independently the same or different, and are selected from -H, -alkyl, -C(0)alkyl, - S(0)2aikyi, or Rg and R9 together with the N to which they are attached form a monocyclic ring or bicyclic ring system, wherein the alkyl is substituted by one or more halogen, hydrogen oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms;

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

40. The compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt of claim 35, wherein the compound is a compound of Formula XII:

and R9 are independently the same or different, and are selected from -H, -alkyl, -C(0)alkyl, -S(0)2alkyl, or Rg and R9 together with the N to which they are attached form a monocyclic ring or bicyclic ring system, wherein the alkyl is substituted by one or more halogen, hydrogen oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms;

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

41. The compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt of claim 35, wdierein the compound is a compound of Formula XIII:

are independently the same or different, and are selected from -H, -alkyl, ~C(Q)alkyl, - S(0)2alkyl, or Rg and R9 together with the N to which they are attached form a monocyclic ring or bicyclic ring system, wherein the alkyl is optionally substituted by one or more halogen, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms;

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

42. A compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof wherein the compound has Formula XV: wherein Z is selected from the group consisting of:

wherein R2 is C(0)R3; Rs is -O and a positive counterion is ionicaliy associated with Formula XVI, or R3 is -OH; and Pi is a nitrogen protecting group or -H;

wherein Pi is a nitrogen protecting group or -H;

wherein Pi is a nitrogen protecting group or -H; and

wherein Pi is a nitrogen protecting group or -H; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

43 The compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt of claim 42, wherein the compound is a compound of Formula I:

wherein -O and a positive counterion is ionically associated with Formula I, or R3 is -OH; and Pi is a nitrogen protecting group or -H;

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

44. The compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt of claim 42, wherein the compound is a compound of Formula V:

nitrogen protecting group or -H;

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

45. The compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt of claim 42, wherein the compound is a compound of Formula VI:

nitrogen protecting group or -H;

or a phar aceutically acceptable salt thereof.

46. The compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt of claim 42, wherein the compound is a compound of Formula VII:

nitrogen protecting group or -H;

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

47. The compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt of claim 42, wherein the compound is a compound of Formula Vllb:

nitrogen protecting group or H;

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

Description:
METHOD FOR SYNTHESIS OF DIAZABICYCLQ[6.2.0]DECANE RELATED

COMPOUNDS

STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT

This invention was made with government support under Award Number W81XWH- 16-1-0719, awarded by the United States Department of Defense under the Peer Reviewed Medical Research Program. The government has certain rights in the invention.

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims the benefit of United States Provisional Patent App. No.

62/790,340, filed on January 9, 2019, which is incorporated by reference herein.

FIELD

The present invention relates to stereochemically defined syntheses for producing 1,6- diazahicyclo[6.2.0]decanes.

BACKGROUND

Malaria is an infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium The eradication of malaria has been difficult due to the complex life cycle of Plasmodium and the emergence of parasite resistance. Diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS) has been used to identify antimalarial compounds. For example, phenyl alanyl-tRN A synthetase inhibitor BRD7929 has been identified. BRD7929 exhibits activity in all stages of the parasite life cycle.

BRD7929, which has the chemical name (8/i,95,105)-10-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-7V- (4-methoxyphenyl)-9-[4-(2-phenylethynyl)phenyl]-l,6-diazabic yclo[6.2.0]decane-6- carboxamide, is reported in United States Patent Application Publication No. US2016/0289235, which is incorporated by reference herein. BRD7929 has the following structure: Likewise, the compound given by the following structure (Formula XIV, or compound 22) has also been identified as useful in the treatment and/or prophylaxis of diseases spread by parasites, including malaria and cryptosporidiosis:

(Formula XIV, Compound 22)

See WO 2018/175385, which is relied upon and incorporated herein in its entirety.

Additional related compounds also described as useful in therapies to combat diseases spread by parasites (including, for example, malaria and cryptosporidiosis) and their syntheses may be found in WO 2018/175385; Lowe, J. T. et al. Synthesis and profiling of a diverse collection of azetidine- based scaffolds for the development of CNS-focused lead-like libraries, J. Org. Chem 77, 7187 -7211 (2012); Maetani, M. et al. Synthesis of a Bicyclic Azetidine with In Vivo Antimalarial Activity Enabled by Stereospecific, Directed C(sp 3 )-H Arylation, J.A.C.S. 139, 11300-11306 (2017); and Kato, N. et al. Diversity-oriented synthesis yields novel multistage antimalarial inhibitors. Nature 538, 344-349 (2016); all of which are relied upon and incorporated herein in their entirety.

Additional references relevant to the preparation of compounds for and treatment of parasitic diseases include the following: WO 2015070204, WO 2015002755, WO 2016172631, and US 2018/0194768; all of which are relied upon and incorporated by reference herein in their entirety.

However, a lengthy, low-yielding and/or costly synthetic route limits the usefulness of this compound. While BRD7929, Formula XIV and related compounds are known to have therapeutic value, improved synthetic routes to their production could simultaneously afford further medicinal chemistry exploration of this class of compounds and reduce their cost of production thereby making development and/or widespread delivery of these therapeutics more feasible. Thus, there is a need for improved syntheses for making these potential antimalarial compounds.

BRIEF SUMMARY

One embodiment is directed to a method of forming a solid compound given by Formula I:

(Formula I).

In Formula

is -O ; and a positive counterion is ionically associated with Formula Ϊ; and Pi is a nitrogen protecting group. The method includes reacting a reactant of Formula II (Formula II)

with a base and resolving the racemic mixture by crystallization with a chiral reagent.

In one embodiment,

In another embodiment, Pi is selected from a group that consists of consisting of - ( ' (())( ' ] ; -C(0)0C(CH 3 ) 3 , and -C(0)0CH 2 Ph.

In another embodiment, Pi is -C(0)CF 3.

In another embodiment, the reacting base is lithium diisopropyl amine and is in the presence of ZnC h .

In another embodiment, the chiral reagent is (f?)-(+)-l-phenylethylamine.

In another embodiment of forming a compound given by Formula I, Ri is -I, -Cl, -Br, or

R 2 is C(0)R 3 ; R 3 is -Oalkyl; and Pi is a nitrogen protecting group. The method includes reacting a reactant of Formula III

In one embodiment, Ri and Xi are each -Br, and the chiral sulfmyl imine is

r branched alkyl

In another embodiment, R 4 is -CiCHiji and R 5 is -CH 2 CH 3 . In another embodiment, the reacting is in the presence of Zn.

Another embodiment may be directed to a method of forming a compound given by Formula IV:

same or different and represent nitrogen protecting groups. The method includes forming a lactone of Formula V:

wherein R 2 is C(0)R 3 ; R 3 is -OH, -Oalkyl, -O ; and when R 3 is -O , a positive counterion is ionically associated with Formula I; and Pi is a nitrogen protecting group; reducing the lactone of Formula V into a compound of Formul a VI:

and converting the alcoholic groups covalently attached to the unsaturated carbons of Formula VI into leaving groups to form an intermediate that reacts with a nitrogen nucleophile to generate a compound of Formula IV.

In one embodiment, the nitrogen nucleophile is phthalimide.

is -C(0)CF .

In another embodiment, the lactone of Formula V is formed by reacting the compound of Formula I with an electropositive source of a halogen in a polar solvent.

In another embodiment, electropositive source of a halogen is h and the polar solvent is an aqueous mixture of CPI 3 CN. The skilled artisan would readily recognize the variety of polar solvents that may be used, including without limitation water, aqueous solutions of THF, DMF, or other polar protic or polar aprotic water miscible solvents.

In another embodiment, the lactone of Formula V is formed by reacting the compound of Formula I with h in a polar sol vent to form a first product, and reacting the fi rst product with NaNs to form a compound of Formula V.

In another embodiment, reducing is done with NaBFLt.

In another embodiment, the leaving groups are mesylate groups and the intermediate is given by one or both of the following structures:

In another embodiment, Pi is converted from -C(0)CF 3 into the following structure: bodiment, Ri is -Br, R2 is - OjOCHiCFF and Pi is -S(0)C(CH3) 3. bodiment. Pi is converted from -S(0)C(CH 3 ) 3 to a structure as follows:

In another embodiment, the lactone of Formula V is formed by reacting the compound of Formula I with an electropositive source of hali de in a polar solvent to form a first product, and reacting the first product with NaN to form a compound of Formula V.

In another embodiment, the lactone of Formula V is reduced with NaBHa to form the following compound:

(Formula VI).

In another embodiment, the leaving groups are mesylate groups and the intermediate is given by one or both of the following structures:

Another embodiment may be directed to a method of making a compound given by the structure of Formula VIII:

are independent the same or different, and are selected from -H, alkyl, -Oa!kyl, or wherein Re and R ? together with the atoms to which they are attached form ring; Rx and R are independently the same or different, and are selected from -H, -alkyl, -C(0)alkyl, - S(0) 2 aikyi, or Rx and R9 together with the N to which they are attached form a monocyclic ring or bicyclic ring system; Rio is -H, straight chain or branched alkyl, -C(0)alkyl, -C(0)0- alkyl, -C(0)NH-alkyl, -C(0)aryl, -C(0)0-aryl, -C(0)NH-aryl, -C(0)heteroaryl, -C(0)0- heteroaryl, and -C(0)N-heteroaryl; wherein the alkyl, aryl and heteroaryl are optionally- substituted by one or more halogens, oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms. The method includes reacting a compound given by Formula IV:

effecting bicyclization.

In one embodiment, the g-hydroxyaldehyde is given by the following structure:

(Formula IX), wherein Rn is -H or an oxygen protecting group; and Ri2 is -H or Cl )1 1

In another embodiment, the g-hydroxya!dehyde is

and the compound of Formula VIII is made proceeding through the following intermediate:

(Formula X).

In another embodiment, the method further includes oxidation and the compound of

Formula VIII is made proceeding through the following intermediate:

In another embodiment, the method further includes reduction and bicyclization, and the compound of Formula VII I is made proceeding through the following intermediate:

In another embodiment, the method includes further reduction and the compound of

Formula VIII is made proceeding through the following intermediate:

(Formula XIII). In another embodiment, the compound of Formula XIII is reacted with 4- methoxyphenyi isocyanate and the compound of Formula VIII is given by the following staicture:

(Formula XIV).

Another object of the present invention is directed to a method of forming a compound given by Formula IV

(Formula IV). In Formula I ¾ are the same or different and represent nitrogen protecting groups. The method includes converting the alcoholic groups covalently attached to the unsaturated carbons of Formula VI

(Formula VI) into leaving groups to form an intermediate that reacts with a nitrogen nucleophile to generate a compound of Formula IV.

In one embodiment, the leaving groups are mesylate groups and the intermediate is given by one or both of the following structures:

(Formula VII) or

In another embodiment, the nitrogen nucleophile is phthalimide.

One beneficial discovery of the present invention is the chemoselective tandem process to prepare substituted azeti dines. This may be the first or one of the first exampl es of a tailored nucleophilic aziridine opening in preference to an oxygen leaving group displacement and underscores the importance of ring-strain energy relief in governing chemical reactivity. Another beneficial discovery of the present invention is application of an aza-Wittig/reduction sequence to construct an eight-membered ring, directly from an azido-aldehyde.

Another embodiment is directed to a compound given by Formula I:

is ionically associated with Formula I or R 3 is -OH; and Pi is a nitrogen protecting group or -H.

Another embodiment is directed to a compound given by Formula IV:

are the same or different and represent nitrogen protecting groups or -H.

Another embodiment is directed to a compound given by Formula V:

nitrogen protecting group or -H.

Another embodiment is directed to a compound given by Formula VI:

nitrogen protecting group or -H.

Another embodiment is directed to a compound given by Formula VII:

I

nitrogen protecting group or -H.

Another embodiment is directed to a compound given by Formula Vllb:

nitrogen protecting group or -H.

Another embodiment is directed to a compound given by Formula VIII:

are independently the same or different, and are selected from -H, alkyl, -Oalkyl, or wherein R G and R ? together with the atoms to which they are attached form a ring; Rs and R 9 are independently the same or different, and are selected from -H, -alkyl, -C(0)alkyl, - S(0) 2 aikyi, or Rg and R9 together with the N to which they are attached form a monocyclic ring or bieyclic ring system; and Rio is -H, straight chain or branched alkyl, -C(0)alkyl, - C(0)0-alkyl, -C(Q)NH-a!kyl, -C(0)aryl, -C(0)0-aryl, -C(0)NH-aryl, -C(0)heteroaryl, - C(0)0-heteroaryl, and -C(0)N-heteroaryl, wherein the alkyl, ary! and heteroaryl are substituted by one or more hydrogen, halogen, oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms.

Another embodiment is directed to a compound given by Formula X:

are independently the same or different, and are selected from -H, -alkyl, -C(0)alkyl, - S(0) 2 alkyl, or Rg and R9 together with the N to which they are attached form a monocyclic ring or bicyclic ring system, wherein the alkyl is substituted by one or more hydrogen, halogen, oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms.

Another embodiment is directed to a compound given by Formula XI:

are independently the same or different, and are selected from H, -alkyl, -C(0)aikyl, - S(0) 2 alkyl, or Rg and R9 together with the N to which they are attached form a monocyclic ring or bicyclic ring system, wherein the alkyl is substituted by one or more hydrogen, halogen, oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms.

Another embodiment is directed to a compound given by Formula XII:

are independently the same or different, and are selected from -H, -alkyl, -C(0)alkyl, - S(0) 2 alkyl, or Rg and R 9 together with the N to which they are attached form a monocyclic ring or bicyclic ring system, wherein the alkyl is substituted by one or more halogen, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms.

Another embodiment is directed to a compound given by Formula XIII:

are independently the same or different, and are selected from -H, -alkyl, -C(0)alkyl, - S(0) 2 alkyl, or Rx and Rg together with the N to which they are attached form a monocyclic ring or bicyclic ring system, wherein the alkyl is substituted by one or more halogen, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms.

Another embodiment is directed to a compound given by Formula XV :

In Formula

Z is a 4-membered nitrogen-containing heterocycle selected from one of the following:

Pi and P2 are the same or different and are nitrogen protecting groups or -H;

Re and R ? are independently the same or different, and are selected from -H, alkyl, - Oalkyl, or wherein Re and R ? together with the atoms to which they are attached form a ring; R¾ and R9 are independently the same or different, and are selected from -H, -alkyl, - C(0)alkyl, -StOjialkyL or Rs and R9 together with the N to which they are attached form a monocyclic ring or bicyclie ring system; and Rio is -H, straight chain or branched alkyl, - C(0)alkyl, -C(0)0-alkyl, -C(0)NH-alkyl, -CiOjaryf -C(0)0-aiyl, -C(0)NH-aryl, - C(0)heteroaryl, -C(0)0-heteroaiy4, and -C(0)N-heteroaryl, wherein the alkyl, aryl and heteroaryl are substituted by one or more halogen, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms;

Rg and Rg are independently the same or different, and are selected from H, -alkyl, - C(0)alkyl, -S(0) 2 aikyi, or Rg and Rg together with the N to which they are attached form a monocyclic ring or bicyclic ring system, wherein the alkyl is substituted by one or more halogen, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms;

Rs and Rg are independently the same or different, and are selected from -H, -alkyl, - C(0)alkyl, -S(0) 2 aikyl, or Rg and Rg together with the N to which they are attached form a monocyclic ring or bicyclic ring system, wherein the alkyl is substituted by one or more halogen, hydrogen oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms;

Rg and R9 are independently the same or different, and are selected from -H, -alkyl, - C(0)alkyl, -S(0) 2 alkyl, or Rg and R9 together with the N to which they are attached form a monocyclic ring or bicyclic ring system, wherein the alkyl is substituted by one or more halogen, hydrogen oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms; and

Rx and R9 are independently the same or different, and are selected from -H, -alkyl, - C(0)alkyl, -S(0) 2 alkyl, or Rg and R9 together with the N to which they are attached form a monocyclic ring or hicyclic ring system, wherein the alkyl is optionally substituted by one or more halogen, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms. Another embodiment is directed to a compound given by Formula XV:

wherein in Formula XV, Z is selected from one of the following:

R. 2 is C(0)R. 3 ; R 3 is -O and a positive counterion is ionically associated with Formula XVI, or R 3 is -OH; and Pi is a nitrogen protecting group or -H;

Pi is a nitrogen protecting group or -H;

Pi is a nitrogen protecting group or -H;

Or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof

Compounds provided herein, including but not limited to compounds of Formulas I, IV, V, VI, VII, Vllb, VIII, X, XI, XII, XIII, and XV may be provided as pharmaceutically acceptable salts.“Pharmaceutically acceptable salt” as used herein refer to acid addition salts or base addition salts of the compounds in the present disclosure. A pharmaceutically acceptable salt is any salt which retains the activity of the parent compound and does not impart any unduly deleterious or undesirable effect on a subject to whom it is administered and in the context in which it is administered. Pharmaceutically acceptable salts include, but are not limited to, metal complexes and salts of both inorganic and carboxylic acids.

Pharmaceutically acceptable salts also include metal salts such as aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese and complex salts. In addition, pharmaceutically acceptable salts include, but are not limited to, acid salts such as acetic, aspartic, alkylsulfonic, arylsulfonic, axetil, benzenesulfonic, benzoic, bicarbonic, bisulfuric, bitartaric, butyric, calcium edetate, camsylic, carbonic, chlorobenzoic, citric, edetic, edisylic, estolic, esyl, esylic, formic, fumaric, gluceptic, gluconic, glutamic, glycolic, glycolylarsanilic, hexamic, hexylresorcinoic, hydrabamic, hydrobromic, hydrochloric, hydroiodic, hydroxynaphthoic, isethionic, lactic, lactobionic, maleic, malic, malonic, mandelic, methanesulfonic, methylnitric, methylsuifurie, mucic, muconic, napsylic, nitric, oxalic, p-nitromethanesulfonic, pamoic, pantothenic, phosphoric, monohydrogen phosphoric, dihydrogen phosphoric, phthalic, polygalactouronic, propionic, salicylic, stearic, succinic, sulfamic, sulfanlic, sulfonic, sulfuric, tannic, tartaric, teoclic, toluenesulfonic, and the like. Pharmaceutically acceptable salts may be derived from amino acids including, but not limited to, cysteine. Methods for producing compounds as salts are known to those of skill in the art (see, e.g., Stahl et a!., Handbook of Pharmaceutical Salts: Properties, Selection, and Use, Wiley-VCH; Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta, Zurich, 2002; Berge et al., J. Pharm. Sci. 66: 1, 1977).

Other aspects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description, drawings and the appended claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1, FIG. 1 show's an ORTEP projection for Compound 5

FIG. 2. FIG. 2 show's an ORTEP projection for Compound 32.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

While the terms used herein are believed to be well understood by one of ordinary- skill in the art, definitions are set forth herein to facilitate explanation of the subject matter disclosed herein.

Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which the subject matter disclosed herein belongs. Although any methods, devices, and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can be used in the practice or testing of the presently disclosed subject matter, representative methods, devices, and materials are described herein.

All combinations of method or process steps as used herein can be performed in any order, unless otherwise specified or clearly implied to the contrary by the context in which the referenced combination is made. The methods and devices of the present disclosure, including components thereof, can comprise, consist of, or consist essentially of the essential elements and limitations of the embodiments described herein, as well as any additional or optional components or limitations described herein or otherwise useful.

Unless otherwise indicated, all numbers expressing physical dimensions, quantities of ingredients, properties such as reaction conditions, and so forth used in the specification and claims are to be understood as being modified in all instances by the term “about”. Accordingly, unless indicated to the contrary, the numerical parameters set forth in this specification and claims are approximations that can vary depending upon the desired properties sought to be obtained by the presently disclosed subject matter.

The term “alkyl” includes branched, straight chain and cyclic, substituted or unsubstituted saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon groups. Alkyl groups can comprise about 1 to about 24 carbon atoms (“C1-C24”), about 7 to about 24 carbon atoms (“C7-C24”), about 8 to about 24 carbon atoms (“C8-C24”), or about 9 to about 24 carbon atoms (“C9-C24”). Alkyl groups can also comprise about 1 to about 8 carbon atoms (“C1-C8”), about 1 to about 6 carbon atoms (“C1-C6”), or about 1 to about 3 carbon atoms (“C1-C3”). Examples of C1 -C6 alkyl groups include, but are not limited to, methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, pentyl, isopentyl, neopentyl, hexyl, isohexyl, cyclohexyl, cyclohexylmetbyl, cyclopropyl methyl and neohexyl radicals.

The term“aryl” includes a 6- to 14-membered monocyclic, bicyclic or tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ring system. Examples of an aryl group include phenyl and naphthyl.

The ter “heteroaryl” includes an aromatic heterocycle ring of 5 to 14 members and having at least one heteroatom selected from nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur, and containing at least 1 carbon atom, including monocyclic, bicyclic, and tricyclic ring systems. Representative heteroar ls are triazolyl, tetrazolyl, oxadiazoiyl, pyridyl, fury!, benzofuranyl, thiophenyl, benzothiophenyl, quinolinyl, pyrrolyl, indolyl, oxazolyl, benzoxazolyl, imidazolyl, benzimidazolyl, thiazolyl, benzothiazolyl, isoxazolyl, pyrazolyl, isothiazolyl, pyridazinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyi, triazinyi, cinnolinyl, phthalazinyl, quinazolinyl, pyrimidyl, oxetanyl, azepinyl, piperazinyl, morpholinyl, dioxanyl, thietanyl and oxazolyl.

Oxygen protecting groups include, without limitation for example, benzyl or substituted benzyl, silyl or substituted silyl groups, acetyl or other ester protection groups, m ethoxy methyl or other methoxy ethers. The skilled artisan would recognize other acceptable protecting groups such as those identified in Greene’s Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis , Fifth ed., Peter G. M. Wuts, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2014), fully incorporated by reference herein.

The skilled artisan would recognize a wide variety of nitrogen protecting groups that may be used according to embodiments of the invention. See also Greene’s Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis , Fifth ed., which is fully incorporated by reference herein. Useful nitrogen protecting groups may include, for example, but are not limited to 9- fluorenylmethyf carbamate; /-butyl carbamate; 2-nitrobenzenesulfonyl; 4- nitrobenzenesulfonyl; benzyl carbamate; acetamide; trifluoroacetamide; phthalimide; benzyl amine; triphenylmethylamine; henzylideneamine; and /Mo! uenesul fonam i de

Abbreviations. XPhos-Pd-G3 (XPhos G3) is i2-Dicyciohexyiphospbino-2',4',6'- triisopropyl- 1 , 1 '-biphenyl)[2-(2 '-amino- 1 , 1 -biphenyl)]palladium(II) methanesulfonate,

XPhos-G3-Palladacycie (Sigma-Aldrich). Dess Martin periodinane is l, i,l-Tris(acetyloxy)- l,l-dihydro-l,2-benziodoxol-3-(lH)-one (Sigma-Aldrich). MTBE is methyl tertiary-butyl ether. As used herein,“Ns” or“nosyi” refers to a 2-nitrophenylsulfonyl group;“Ms” or “mesyl” refers to a methanesulfonyl group; and“TFA” refers to a trifluoracetyl group.

While only certain stereoisomers may be represented in any given claim, the skilled artisan would appreciate that the enantiomer or other stereoisomers could be made through manufacture of the appropriate corresponding chiral starting material or intermediate.

If there is a discrepancy between a depicted structure and a name given that structure, the depicted structure control s. In addition, if the stereochemistry of a structure or a portion of a structure is not indicated with, for example, bold or dashed lines, the structure or portion of the structure is to be interpreted as encompassing all stereoisomers of it.

Route A Synthesis

Esterification of 4-bromocinnamoic acid to give (methyl (E)-3-(4~bromophenyI)acryIate) 1

Thionyl chloride (176 mL, 2422 mmol) was added dropwise to a white suspension of 4-bromocinnamoic acid (500 g, 2202 mmol) in methanol (3000 mL) over 20 min during which the reaction temperature remained below 40 °C. The mixture was then heated to reflux for 1 h, during which it became homogeneous. The solution was sfowiy allowed to room temperature to give a white suspension. It was filtered and the filter cake washed two times with cold methanol to give 1 as white solid. The filtrate was concentrated to half of the original volume and was again filtered and the filter cake washed with cold methanol. The procedure was repeated two more times to give additional 1 (523 g combined, 98% yield).

! H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 7.62 (d, J = 16.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.52 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2 H), 7.38 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2 H), 6.43 (d, J = 16.0 Hz, 1 H), 3.81 (s, 3 H); 13 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCb) d 167.1, 143.4, 133 2, 132.1, 129.4, 124.5, 1 18.5, 51.8.

Sonogashira reaction of 1 to give (methyl (E)-3-(4-(phenylethynyi)phenyi)acryIate) 2

1 2

1 (285 g, 1180 mmol) was dissolved in di isopropyl amine (2500 ml) to give a clear, homogeneous solution. It was sparged with nitrogen gas for 30 min before copper(I) iodide (0.169 g, 0.885 mmol), bis(benzonitrile)pal!adium(II) chloride (0.453 g, 1.18 mmol), and tri- /e'/7-hutyl phosphoni um tetrafluoroborate (0.685 g, 2.36 mmol) were added. The mixture was heated to 80 °C before phenylacetylene (136 mL, 1239 mmol) was added in portions to firstly initiate the reaction, as indicated by increase of the internal temperature till reflux and formation of precipitate, and then maintain reflux of the exothermic reaction. After the addition had been complete, the mixture was stirred at 80 °C for an additional hour, and then slowly allowed to 50 °C when the reaction was quenched with water (2000 mL). The mixture was allowed to room temperature with stirring and then filtered. The filter cake was washed with water (200 mL x 3), and then dried under vacuum at 40 °C to give 2 (296 g, 96%) as white solid, which is pure based on NMR spectra.

! H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 7 69 (d, J = 16.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.56 - 7.50 (m, 6 H), 7.38 - 7.35 (m, 3 H), 6.46 (d, J = 16.0 Hz, 1 H), 3.83 (s, 3 H); 13 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCI3) d 167.2, 143.9, 134 1 , 132.0, 131.6, 128.5, 128.4, 128.0, 125.2, 122.9, 118.4, 91.6, 89.0, 51.7. Reduction of 2 to give ((E)-3-(4-(phenyIethynyl)phenyl)prop-2-en-l-ol) 3

A clear, colorless solution of 2 (210 g, 801 mmol) in dichloromethane (3150 mmol) was cooled in a dry ice-acetone bath to - 78 °C, during which the solution turned into a white suspension. A solution of diisobutylaluminum hydride (25 wt.% in toluene, 934 g, 1641 mmol) was slowly added and then the mixture slowly allowed to - 20 °C over 12 h. The reaction was carefully quenched with a solution of potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate (926 g, 3282 mmol) in water (4200 mL) and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 12 h. The two phases were separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with dichloromethane (1700 mL x 4). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated to give 3 (184 g, 98%) as white solid, which is pure based on NMR spectra.

Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCh) 6 7 55 - 7.48 (m, 4 H), 7.39 - 7 34 (m, 5 H), 6.63 (d, J = 16.1 Hz, 1 H), 6.41 (dt, J = 16.0, 5.4 Hz, 1 H), 4.36 (dd, J = 5.5, 1.6 Hz, 2 H); 13 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCh) d 136.6, 131.8, 131.6, 130.4, 129.5, 128.3, 128.3, 126.4, 123.2, 122.4, 90.1, 89.4, 63.6.

Esterification of 3 with iV-(trifluoroacetyl)glycine to give ((E)-3-(4-

(pheny!ethynyl)phenyl)al!y! (2,2,2-trif!uoroaeetyI)gIyciiiate) 4

A mixture of 3 (184 g, 785 mmol), /V-(trifluoroacetyl)glycine (136 g, 793 mmol) and 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (9.59 g, 78.5 mmol) was taken into dichloromethane (1840 mL) to give a yellow suspension. It was cooled in an ice bath till 10 °C when N,N’~ diisopropylcarbodiimide (128 mL, 825 mmol) was added in portions while the internal temperature was maintained below 15 °C. The mixture was slowly allowed to room temperature and stirred overnight. The mixture was filtered and the filter cake was washed with methylene chloride (50 mL x 3). The filtrate was taken into a mixed solvent of ethyl acetate/methyl tert-butyl ether (1 : 1, 3680 mL), washed with aqueous sodium bicarbonate (400 mL x 2) and brine (400 mL). The organic phase was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was crystal! zed in isopropanol to give 4 (240 g, 79%) as white solid.

! H NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 7.56 - 7.50 (m, 4 H), 7.40 - 7 34 (m, 5 H), 6 90 (br s, 1 H), 6. 6.69 (d, J = 15.6 Hz, 1 H), 6.31 (dt, J = 16.0, 6.6 Hz, 1 H), 4.88 (dd, J = 6.6, 1.1 Hz, 2 H), 4.19 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1 H); 13 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCb) d 168.0, 135.5, 134.9, 131 9, 131.6, 128.4, 126.6, 123.3, 123.1, 122.5, 90.5, 89.1, 66.6, 41.4.

C!aisen rearrangement of 4 and chiral reso!ntion using (l?)-(+)-l-phenyIethy!amine to give ((R)-l-phenylethan-l-aminium (2S,3S)-3-(4-(phenyIethynyl)pheny!)-2-(2,2,2- triflnoroacetamido)pent-4-enoate) 5

Preparation of lithium diisopropylamide (LDA): A solution of diisopropylamine (22.8 mL, 160 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (130 ml.) was cooled in an ice bath and treated with a solution of w-butyliithium (2.5 M in hexanes, 62.0 mL, 155 mmol) slowly while maintaining the internal temperature below 20 °C. The ice bath was removed and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min.

In a separate vessel, a solution of 4 (20.0 g, 51.6 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (140 mL) was cooled in a dry ice-acetone bath to give a yellow suspension. It was treated with a solution of zinc chloride (1.9 M in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, 40.8 mL, 77.4 mmol) while maintaining the internal temperature below - 60 degree. To this mixture was slowly added the LDA solution while maintaining the internal temperature below- - 65 °C, during which the mixture turned into a dark blue homogeneous solution toward the end of the addition. The reaction mixture was maintained at the temperature for 60 min. The cooling bath was removed and the reaction mixture slowly allowed to room temperature during which it turned dark orange. The reaction was quenched with hydrochloric acid (1 M, 336 mL, 336 mmol) during which the internal temperature rise to 35 °C. The two phases were separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with methyl fert-butyl ether (160 mL x 2). The combined organic phases were concentrated and the residue taken into methyl fert-butyl ether (160 mL). The mixture was heated to reflux temperature to give a mostly clear solution. It was treated with (/?)-(+)-! -phenyl ethyl amine (12.5 g, 103 mmol) to give a clear solution from which precipitate soon started to form. With agitation, the mixture was slowly allowed to room temperature, and then cooled in an ice bath. The product was filtered, washed with methyl ter-butyl ether (20 mL x 2) and dried under vacuum to give 5 (10.7 g, 40.8 % yield, e.r. = 16.8 : 1) as white solid.

Ή NMR (400 MHz, MeOH-di) d 7.52 - 7.49 (m, 2 H), 7.46 - 7.39 (m, 7 H), 7.39 - 7.34 (m, 3 H), 7.28 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2 H), 6.24 - 6.14 (m, 1 H), 5.13 - 5.09 (m, 2 H), 4.70 (d, 8.2 Hz, 1 H), 4.44 (q, J = 7.0 Hz, 1 H), 3.86 (t, J = 8.2 Hz, 1 H), 1.63 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 3 H); i C NMR (75 MHz, MeOH-d 4 ) d 175.5, 142.2, 140.1, 139.1, 132.7, 132.6, 130.5, 130.3, 130.0, 129.7, 129.5, 127.7, 124.9, 123 2, 117.4, 90.2, 90.1, 61.0, 54.3, 52.5, 21.0.

lodolactonization of 5 and substitution with sodinin azide to give (N-((3S,4S,5S)-5- (azidomethyl)-2-oxo-4-(4-(pheny!ethynyl)pheny!)tetrahydrofur an-3-y!)-2,2,2- trif!noroacetamide) 7

A white, milky suspension of 5 (30.9 g, 60.8 mmol) in acetonitrile (494 mL) and water 124 mL) was cooled to 0 °C and treated with iodine (30.8 g) to give a dark red solution, which was stirred at the temperature for 1 h. The reaction was quenched by treating the mixture with sodium thiosulfate (28.8 g, 182 mmol) and stirring for 10 min during which it turned light yellow. The mixture was taken into methyl tert-butyl ether (500 mL) and the two phases were separated. The organic phase was washed with 1 M hydrochloric acid (150 mL) and brine (150 mL). The aqueous phase was back extracted with methyl tert-butyl ether. The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated to give crude (2,2,2-trifluoro-N-((3S,4S,5S)-5-(iodomethyi)-2-oxo-4-(4-

(phenylethynyl)phenyl)tetrahydrofuran-3-yl)acetamide) 6 as a red gum.

The above crude 6 was taken into ALV-dimethylforrnamide (185 mL) and treated with sodium azide (15.8 g, 243 mmol). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 12 h, then heated to 45 °C and stirred for an additional 12 h. The mixture was taken into methyl tert- butyl ether (400 mL), washed with water (300 mL) and brine (300 mL). The aqueous phase was back extracted with methyl tert-butyi ether (300 mL x 2). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The crude was passed through a short pad of silica gel (130 g) eluting with 50% ethyl acetate in heptane (100 mL). The filtrate was concentrated to give 7 as light yellow foamy solid, which was used without purification.

Preparation of amino diet 9 from azidolactone ((2S,3S,4S)-2-amino-5-azido-3-(4-

The above crude 7 (26.0 g, 60.8 mmol) was taken into ethanol (260 raL) to give a colorless solution. It was cooled in an ice bath and treated with sodium borohydride (2.76 g, 73.0 mmol). The mixture was stirred at the temperature for 2 h to give a white suspension. The ice bath was removed and then mixture was allowed to rt, and it was then brought to 45 °C until bubbles cease to form and the mixture became homogeneous. The solution was treated with potassium carbonate (25.2 g, 182 mmol) and water (13 mL), and stirred at the temperature for 24 h. The mixture was concentrated and the residue was taken into methylene chloride (390 mL). It was treated with celite (26 g) and filtered through a pad of celite, rinsing with methylene chloride (260 mL x 2). The filtrate was concentrated to give an orange solid, which was filtered through a pad of silica gel (160 g) eluting with 20% methanol in di chi orom ethane (conditioned with 1% aqueous ammonia, 2000 mL). The filtrate was concentrated and the residue crystalized (in isopropyl acetate/isopropanol=3 : 1, mother liquor concentrated and further crystalized acetonitrile, then ethyl acetate) to give 9 as white solid (7.01 g). Another fraction of 9 was obtained as crude in the mother liquor (7.84 g, based on 9.8 g of concentrate with 80% purity as shown by ELSD, 73% combined yield from 5).

Ή NMR (400 MHz, MeOH-d 4 ) d 7.53 - 7.49 (m, 4 H), 7.40 - 7.36 (m, 3 H), 7.30 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2 H), 4.31 (ddd, J = 9 8, 6.2, 2 7 Hz, 1 H), 3.49 - 3.45 (m, 1 H), 3.40 (dd, J

10.6, 6.3 Hz, 1 H), 3.33 - 3.32 (m, 1 H), 3.29 (dd, J = 10.5, 7.4 Hz, 1 H), 3.15 (dd, J = 12.7, 3.0 Hz, 1 H), 3.03 (dd, J = 12.5, 6.6 Hz, 1 H), 3.00 (dd, J = 9.7, 3.5 Hz, 1 H); 13 C NMR (75 MHz, MeOH-d 4 ) d 138.4, 131.2, 131.1 , 129.4, 128.1, 128.0, 123.1, 122.0, 88.9, 88.4, 70.8,

64.4.55.6, 52.4, 50.1.

One-pot iV-nosylation and bis-O-mesy!ation of 9; tandem L-nndeophiIic substitutions to give azetidine (2-(((2S,3S,4R)-4-(azidomethyI)-l-((2-nitrophenyI)sulfonyi)- 3-(4-

(phenylethynyl)phenyl)azetidin-2-yl)methyl)isoindoline-l, 3-dione) 12

9 10 1 12

A suspension of 9 (2.00 g, 5.95 mmol) and triethylamine (4.97 mL, 35.7 mmol) in dichloromethane (20 mL) was cooled in an ice bath, and treated with a solution of 2- nitrobenzenesulfonyl chloride (1.98 g, 8.92 mmol) in dichloromethane (10 mL) wTiile maintaining an internal temperature below 6 °C. The mixture was stirred at the temperature for 30 min during which it turned homogeneous. The solution was then treated with methanesulfonyl chloride (1.39 mL, 17.8 mmol) and stirred at the temperature for 30 min. The reaction was quenched with aqueous sodium hydroxide (1 M, 100 mL) and the mixture was taken into ethyl acetate (300 mL). The organic phase was separated, washed with brine

(50 mL), and concentrated to give a crude consisting of ft/.v-rnesyiaie 11 and the aziridine intermediate.

The above crude was taken into N, A/-di rn ethyl form am i de (20 L), treated with potassium carbonate (2.47 g, 17.8 mmol), potassium phthalimide (1.65 g, 8.92 mmol), and stirred at room temperature for 60 h. The reaction mixture was taken into ethyl acetate (400 mL), washed with vrater (100 mL), brine (100 mL), and concentrated. The residue was taken into isopropanol (30 mL) and boiled to give a homogeneous solution, which was slowly allowed to room temperature, with agitation, during which the product precipitated. The product was filtered, washed with isopropanol (10 mL x 2), and dried under vacuum to give 12 (3.14 g, 83% yield) as off-white solid.

Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCh) d 8.15 (dd, J = 7.8, 1.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.85 - 7.75 (m, 4 H), 7.72 - 7 69 (m, 3 H), 7 61 (d, J = 8 6 Hz, 2 H), 7.57 - 7.54 (m, 2 H), 7.45 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2 H), 7 39 - 7.35 (m, 3 H), 4.93 (dt, J = 8.2, 6.7 Hz, 1 H), 4.55 (dt, J = 9.3, 3.9 Hz, 1 H), 4.23 (dd, J = 14.4, 6.2 Hz, 1 H), 3.79 (t, J = 8.6 Hz, 1 H), 3.75 (dd, J = 14.4, 6.6 Hz, 1 H), 3.71 (dd, J = 12,9, 5.1 Hz, 1 H), 3.60 (dd, J = 12 8, 9.3 Hz, 1 H); 13 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCh) d 167.6,

149.3, 134.8, 134.0, 132.6, 132.2, 132.0, 131.8, 131.7, 131.6, 130.5, 128.4, 128.3, 127.4,

124.3, 123.5, 123.3, 123.1, 90.4, 88.8, 62.5, 61 9, 48 7, 42.4, 37.5.

Preparation of (2-(((2S,3S,4R)-4-(azidomethyl)-l-(((4S,5R)-5-((R)-l,2-dihyd roxyethyl)-

2 5 2-dimethyi-l,3-diosolan-4-yi)methyi)-3-(4-(phenylethyH !)phenyl)azetidin-2- yi)methyI)isoindoIine-l,3-dione) 15 by deprotection and reductive animation of 12

A clear, colorless solution of 12 (5.84 g, 9.23 mmol) and i-dodecanethiol (2.65 mL, 11.1 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (70 mL) was cooled in an ice bath to an internal temperature of 4 °C. A solution of potassium tert-butoxide (1 M in THF, 1 1 .1 mL, 11.1 mmol) was added dropwise while maintaining the internal temperature below 10 °C, during which the mixture turned dark red. The ice bath was removed and the mixture was allowed to room temperature. The mixture was stirred at the temperature for 1 h, then quenched with aqueous sodium bicarbonate (100 mL) and was taken into ethyl acetate (200 mL). The two phases were separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (150 mL x 3). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and then concentrated to give crude 13 as yellow gum. The crude 13 was combined with 14 (2.11 g, 11.1 mmol) and taken into methanol (70 mL) to give a yellow solution, which was treated with acetic acid (2.64 mL, 46.2 mmol) and sodium cyanoborohydride (0.696 g, 11.1 mmol). The solution veas stirred at room temperature for 24 h before treating with additional acetic acid (2.64 mL, 46.2 mmol) and sodium cyanoborohydride (0.300 g, 4.78 mmol). After 12 h, the third portion of sodium cyanoborohydride (0.300 g, 4.78 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred for an additional 6 h. The reaction mixture was taken into ethyl acetate (200 mL) and washed with 1 M sodium hydroxide (100 mL). The aqueous phase was separated and back extracted with ethyl acetate (200 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (100 mL) and concentrated. The residue was filtered through a silica gel (140 g) column rinsing with methylene chloride (700 mL) and then ethyl acetate (700 mL). The ethyl acetate filtrate was concentrated to give 15 (5.34 g, 93%) as light yellow foamy solid, which was used without further purification.

Oxidative cleavage of 1,2-dioI of 15 to give ((4S,5S)-5-(((2R,3S,4S)-2-(azidomethyl)-4- ((l,3-dioxoisoindolm-2-yl)methyl)-3-(4-(phenylethynyl)phenyl )azetidiii-l-yl)methyl)-2,2- dimethy!-l,3-dioxolane-4-carhaIdehyde) 16

A dear, colorless solution of 15 (5 34 g, 8.59 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (64 mL) and water (6.4 mL) was treated with sodium periodate (2.76 g, 12.9 mmol). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 h during which it turned into a white, milky suspension. It was taken into ethyl acetate (500 mL), and washed with aqueous sodium thiosulfate (50 L) and brine (50 mL) successively. The organic phase was separated and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. It was concentrated to give 16 as white foamy solid, v/hi ch was used without purification.

Converting 16 to (2-(((3aR,6aR,7R,8S,10aS)-2,2-dimethyI-7-(4-

(pheny!ethyny!)pheny!)oetah dro-5H-azeto [1 ,2-a] [1,3] dioxolo [4,5-fj [ 1 ,4] diazoein-S- yl)methyi)isoindoIine-l,3-dione) 18 using aza-Wittig reaction followed by reduction

The above crude 16 was taken into methanol (30 niL) to give a clear, colorless solution. It was added slowly to a stirring white suspension of triphenylphosphine (2.70 g, 10.3 mmol) in methanol (50 mL) at room temperature over 8 h during which the mixture turned into a colorless, homogeneous solution. The solution was further stirred at the temperature for 6 h before acetic acid (2.46 mL, 43.0 mmol) and sodium cyanoborohydride (0.648 g, 10.3 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred at the temperature for 4 h and then concentrated. The residue was taken into ethyl acetate (400 mL), washed with 1 M sodium hydroxide (40 mL) and brine (40 mL). The organic phase was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated to give crude 18 as colorless gum.

Converting 18 to ((3aR,0aR,7S,8S,10aS)-8-((l,3-diGxoisoindoIin-2-yl)methyI)~N -(4~ methoxypIieny!)-2,2-dimethyl-7-(4-(pheiiyIethyiiyI)phenyI)oc tahydro-5H-azeto[l,2- a][l,3]dioxo!o[4,5-fj l,4]diazocine--5--carboxaniide) 19

18 19

The above crude 18 was taken into dichloromethane (57 mL) and treated with 4- methoxyphenyl isocyanate (1.34 mL, 10.3 mmol). The mixture was maintained at room temperature for 30 min and then concentrated. The residue was crystalized in a mixed solvent of isopropanoi/acetonitrile (1 : 1, 100 mL) to give 19 (1.60 g) as white solid. The mother liquor was concentrated and purified using silica gel column chromatography eluting with 50 to 60 % ethyl acetate in heptane to give additional 19 (1.0 g, combined 43% yield from 12).

Ή NMR (400 MHz, DMF-d 7 ) d 8.44 (s, 1H), 7.88 (s, 4H), 7.74 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H), 7 64 - 7.61 (m, 4 H), 7.51 - 7.44 (m, 3 H), 7.37 - 7.33 (m, 2 S I), 6.87 - 6.83 (m, 2 H), 4.50 4.47 (m, 1 H), 4.34 - 4.29 (m, 1 H), 4.08 (br dd, J = 16.0, 5.0 Hz, 1 H), 3.97 (br dd, J = 16.0, 2.8 Hz, 1 H), 3.87 - 3.65 (m, 6 H), 3.75 (s, 3 H), 3.52 (dd, J = 14.0, 4.6 Hz, 1 H), 3.48 (s, 1 H), 3.10 (br t, J = 2.1 Hz, 1 H), 1.39 (s, 3 H), 1.37 (s, 3 H); ] 3 C NMR (75 MHz, DMF-d 7 ) d 168.9, 163.3, 157.5, 156 1, 138.5, 135.5, 135 0, 133.1, 132.6, 132 4, 132 3, 129.9, 129.8, 124.1, 124 1 , 122.4, 122.1, 1 14 8, 108.1, 90.5, 90.5, 78.9, 77 4, 68.0, 66.5, 59.0, 56.1, 50.7, 47.4, 45.0, 39.7, 28.9, 26.3.

Hydrolysis of the phthalimkle of 19 to give ((3aR,6aR,7S,8S,10aS)-8-(aminomethyl)-N- (4-methoxyphenyl)-2,2-dimethyI-7-(4-(phesiylethynyl)phesiyl) oetahydro-5H-azeto[l,2- a] [l,3]dioxoIo[4,5-i] [l,4]diazociiie-5-carboxamide) 20

A white suspension of 19 (2.30 g, 3.30 mmol) in methanol (23 mL) was treated with ethanolamine (2.00 mL, 33.0 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 55 °C for 12 h and then refluxed for 12 h during which it turned into a homogeneous solution. It was treated with ethanolamine (1.50 mL, 24.8 mmol) and refluxed for 24 h. The solution was concentrated to give a colorless gum, which was taken into di chi orom ethane (300 mL), washed with water (50 mL x 2), brine (50 mL), and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. It was concentrated to give crude 20 as white waxy solid, which was used without purification.

Reductive animation and aeetouide removal of 20 to give ((3S,4R,8R,9S,10S)-1Q-

((dimethylamino)methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-N-(4-methoxyphenyl) -9-(4-

(phenylethyuyI)phenyI)-l,6-diazabicycIo[6.2,0]decane-6-ca rboxamide) 22

The above crude 20 was taken into methanol (18.7 mL) to give a suspension, which was treated with formaldehyde (37%, 3.69 mmol, 49.5 mmol), acetic acid (1.13 mL, 19.8 mmol) and sodium cyanoborohydride (0.622 g, 9.90 mmol). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 h before it was taken into ethyl acetate (150 mL), washed with aqueous sodium bicarbonate (10 mL), brine (10 mL), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated. The residue was passed through a pad of silica gel eluting with 15% methanol in dichloromethane, and concentrated to give caide ((3aR,6aR,7S,8S, 10aS)-8-

((dimethylamino)methyl)-N-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2,2-dimethyl- 7-(4-

(phenyl ethynyl jpheny 1 )octahydro-5 H-azeto[ 1 ,2-a] [ 1 , 3 ] di oxol o[4, 5 -t] [1,4] di azocine-5 - carboxamide) 21 as colorless gum, which was used without further purification.

The above crude 21 was taken into a mixed solvent of tetrahydrofuran (14 mL) and 1 M hydrochloric acid (14 mL, 14 mmol ) to give a colorless solution, wiiich was stirred at 50 °C for 12 h. It was taken into ethyl acetate (300 mL), washed with 1 M sodium hydroxide (50 mL), brine (50 mL), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography eluting with 20-30 % methanol in dichloromethane (conditioned with 0.1% of 7 M ammonia in methanol) to give 22 (0.86 g, 52%) as white waxy solid.

4 1 NMR (400 MHz, MeOH-d 4 ) 6 7.56 -7 51 (m, 6 H), 7.42 - 7.36 (m, 3 H), 7 16 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2 H), 6.84 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 2 H), 4.19 (dd, J = 15.6, 6.6 Hz, 1 H), 4.14 - 4.10 (m, 1 H),3.83 - 3.78 (m, 2 H), 3.76 (s, 3 H), 3.65 (dd, J = 14.4, 7.6 Hz, 1 H), 3.60 (br t, J = 7.1 Hz, 1 H), 3.40 (br t, J = 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 3.30 (d, J = 10.5 Hz, 1 H), 2 84 (dd, J = 13.5, 9.2 Hz, 1 H), 2.75 (dt, J = 15.2, 3.0 Hz, 1 H), 2.55 (dd, J = 13.3, 8.6 Hz, 1 H), 2.45 (dd, J = 13.3, 2.4 Hz, 1 H), 2.05 (s, 6 H); 13 C NMR (75 MHz, MeOH-d 4 ) d 160.2, 157.3, 138.7, 134.2, 132.7, 132.5, 132.3, 129.7, 129.6, 124.8, 123.5, 123.3, 115.1, 90.5, 90.2, 77.0, 74.0, 71.3, 66.8, 58.2, 57.7, 56 0, 53.0, 52.1, 46.9, 46.0

Route B Synthesis

Reduction of methyl 4-bromocinnamate 1 to give 4-bromocinnamyl alcohol 23

1 23

A 3 L three-neck round bottom flask was charged with methyl 4-bromocinnamate (1, 100 g, 414 mmol) and dichloromethane (1.1 L) to give a clear solution. It was cooled in a dry ice-acetone bath to give a milky mixture. It was treated with a solution of diisobutylaluminum hydride (25 wt% in toluene, 586 mL, 871 mmol) light greenish solution. The mixture was slowly allowed to - 5 °C and carefully quenched with a solution of potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate (351 g, 1.24 mol) in water (800 mL) in an ice bath. The mixture w¾s stirred at rt overnight, treated with water ( 2 L), and extracted with methyl tert-butyl ether (1 L x 3). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated to give 4-bromocinnamyl alcohol (23, 87.5 g, 99%) as white solid.

¾ NMR (400 MHz, CDCh) 6 7 46 - 7.44 (m, 2 H), 7.27 - 7. 25 (m, 2 H), 6 58 (d, J 16.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.37 (dt, J = 15.6, 5.5 Hz, 1 H), 4.33 (dd, J = 5.8, 1.5 Hz, 2 H)

Bromination of 4-bromocinnamyl alcohol 23 to give 4-bromocinnamyl bromide 24

A 5 L three-neck round bottom flask was charged with 4-bromocinnamyl alcohol (23, 329 g, 1.54 mol) and diethyl ether (3 L). It was cooled to 5 °C using an ice bath during which the solution turned slightly cloudy. A solution of tribromophosphane (72 6 mL, 772 mmol) in diethyl ether (200 mL) was added dropwise this mixture while maintaining the internal temperature below 12 °C to give, at the end of addition, a mostly clear solution. The mixture was stirred for one hour in the ice bath before it was quenched by slow addition of a solution of sodium bicarbonate (133 g, 1.57 mol) in water (1.5 L). The organic phase was separated and washed with brine (300 mL). The aqueous phase was extracted with methyl tert-butyl ether (1 L x 2). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated to give pure 24 (404 g, 95%) as white solid.

¾ NMR (400 MHz, CDCh) d 7.48 - 7. 45 (m, 2 H), 7.25 - 7.24 (m, 2 H), 6.59 (d, J = 15.6 Hz, 1 H), 6.40 (dt, J = 15.6, 7.4 Hz, 1 H), 4 15 (dt, J = 7.8, 0.7 Hz, 2 H)

Preparation of (ethyl (S,E)-2-((tert-butylsulfinyl)imino)acetate) 25

Zinc-mediated erotylation of 25 to give (ethyl (2S,3S)-3-(4-bromopheny!)-2-(((S)-tert- butyisu!finyI)ammo)pent-4-enoate) 26

A 5 L three-neck round bottom flask was charged with 4-bromocinnamyl bromide (24, 175 g, 6363 mmol), 25 (87 g, 424 mmol) and /V, A/-di rn e thy 1 form am i d e (1.3 L). The solution was sparged with nitrogen gas with stirring for 30 min. Zinc dust (55.4 g, 848 mmol) was added in portions wirile maintaining the internal temperature below 48 degree. The mixture turned green initially and then brown toward the end of addition. It was stirred at ambient temperature for 2 h before the reaction w¾s quenched with water (1.3 L). The mixture was filtered through a pad of celite, rinsing with methyl tert-butyl ether. The filtrate was taken into water (1.3 L) and the aqueous phase was extracted with methyl tert-butyl ether (870 mL X 2). The combined organic phases were concentrated and the concentrate was filtered through a pad of celite rinsing with small amount of methyl tert-butyl ether. The filtrate was concentrated and the residue ' as purified by silica gel column chromatography eluting with ethyl acetate in heptane to give 26 (1 1 1 g, 65.2%) as light yellow oil.

¾ NMR (400 MHz, CDCh) d 7.44 - 7.40 (m, 2 H), 7.05 - 7.03 (m, 2 H), 6.05 - 5.96 (m, 1 H), 5.17 - 5.11 (m, 2 H), 4.20 - 4.12 (m, 3 H), 3.91 (d, J = 9.4 Hz, 1 H), 3.67 (t, J = 7.8 Hz, 1 H), 1.25 (s, 3 H)

Converting snlfinamide 26 to (ethyl (2S,3S)-3-(4-bromophenyI)-2-((2- nitrophenyl)snIfonamido)pent-4-enoate) 27

26 27

A solution of 26 (2.48 g, 5.30 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (21 mL) was treated with concentrated hydrogen chloride (37%, 2.18 mL, 26.5 mmol) and stirred at room temperature for 2 h. The reaction was quenched with aq sodium bicarbonate (20 mL), followed by solid sodium bicarbonate till the mixture was no longer acidic. The mixture was extracted with methyl tert-butyl ether (200 mL x 3), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated to give a thick yellow oil.

It was taken into di chi orom ethane (16 mL), treated with 2-nitrobenzenesulfonyl chloride (1.29 g, 5.83 mmol) and tri ethyl amine (1.11 mL, 7.95 mmol) to give an orange solution, which was stirred at room temperature overnight. The mixture was taken into methyl tert-butyl ether (200 mL) and washed with 1 M sodium hydroxide (30 mL). The aqueous phase was extracted with methyl tert-butyl ether (50 mL). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography eluting with 15-40% ethyl acetate in heptane to give 27 (2.29 g, 89%) as light yellow gum.

4 1 NMR (400 MHz, MeOH-d 4 ) d 7 50 - 7.32 (m, 3 H), 7.23 - 7.19 (m, 2 H), 7.10 - 7.07 (m, 2 H), 5.97 - 5.88 (m, 1 H), 5.01 (dd, J = 17.0, 1.0 Hz, 1 H), 4.95 (dd, J = 10.1, 1.3 Hz, 1 H), 4.06 (d, J = 10.5 Hz, I H), 4.03 - 3.92 (m, 2 H), 3.58 (t, J = 9.8 Hz, I H), 1.76 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3 H) lodolactomzation of 27 and azide-substitution to give (N-((3S,4S,5S)-5-(azidomethyl)-4- (4-brofflophesiy!)-2-oxotetrahydrofuran-3-yI)-2-nitrobenzene si!lfonaffiide) 29

A solution of 27 (10.0 g, 20.7 mmol) in acetonitrile (80 raL) and water (3.2 raL) was treated with iodine (10.5 g, 41.3 mmol) to give a dark red solution, which was stirred at rt till all the starting material has been consumed. The reaction was quenched with excess aq sodium thiosulfate and stirred at rt till the mixture became light yellow. The mixture was taken into methyl tert-butyl ether, washed with brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated to give crude (N-((3S,4S,5S)-4-(4-bromophenyl)-5-(iodomethyl)-2- oxotetrahydrofuran-3-yl)-2-nitrobenzenesulfonamide) 28 (12 g) as white solid.

Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 7.89 (dd, J = 8.1, 1.4 Hz, 1 H), 7.81 (dd, J = 8.0, 1.4 Hz, 1 H), 7 72 (dt, J = 7 8, 1 5 Hz, 1 H), 7 62 (dt, J = 7.8, 1.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.44 - 7.41 (m, 2 H), 7.15 - 7.12 (m, 2 H), 6.25 (d, 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 4.81 (dd, J = 12.1, 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 4.27 - 4.22 ( m, 1 H), 3.48 3 41 (m, 2 H), 3.24 (dd, J = 11.9, 4.9 Hz, 1 H)

The crude 28 was taken into A(/V-dimethylformamide (65 mL) and treated with sodium azide (2.02 g, 31.0 mmol) to give a yellow suspension, which was stirred at rt overnight. The mixture was taken into methyl tert-butyl ether, washed with water, brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated. The residue was purified using silica gel column chromatography eluting with ethyl acetate in heptane to give 29 (7.90 g, 77%) as white solid.

4 1 NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 7.84 (dd, J = 8.0, 0.9 Hz, 1 H), 7.75 (dd, J = 7.8, 1.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.69 (dt, J = 7.6, 1.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.57 (dt, J = 7.6, 1.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.34 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2 H), 7.09 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2 H), 6.46 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 4.79 (dd, J = 12.1, 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 4.58 - 4 53 (m, 1 H), 3 63 - 3.53 (m, 2 H), 3.38 (dd, .1 = 13.9, 4.9 Hz, 1 H)

Reduction of 29 to give (N-((2S,3S,4S)~5-azidG-3-(4~bromop!ienyI)~l,4~dii!iydroxypen tan~ 2~yl)~2-nitrobenzenesidfonamide) 30

A yellow solution of 29 (9.10 g, 18.3 mmol) in ethanol (80 mL) was treated with sodium borohydride (1.04 g, 27.5 mmol) in portions during which the mixture turned dark purple. The reaction was stirred at rt for 1 h before it was quenched with 1 M HC1. The mixture taken into methyl tert-butyl ether, washed with water, brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified using silica gel column chromatography eluting with 50-80% ethyl acetate in heptane to give 30 (8.20 g, 89%) as white solid. Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 8.17 - 8.15 (m, 1 H), 7.92 - 7.89 (m, 1 H), 7.80 - 7.75 (m, 2 H), 7.48 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2 1 1). 7.10 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2 1 1), 5.45 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 4.41 4.37 (m, 1 H), 4.16 - 4.11 (m, 1 H), 3.72 (brs, 1 H), 3.44 (dd, J = 11.4, 5.5 Hz, 1 H), 3.30 (dd, J = 1 1.3, 7.0 Hz, 1 H), 3.23 (dd, J = 12 9, 2 7 Hz, 1 H), 3 00 - 2.91 (m, 2 H)

Converting 30 to azetidine (2-(((2S,3S,4R)-4-(azidomefhyI)-3-(4-bromophenyI)-l-((2- mtropheny!)su!fonyi)azetidm-2-y!)methyI)isoindoIme-l,3-dione ) 32 by ftis-mesy!ation and tandem A-nucleophilic substitution

A solution of 30 (5 37 g, 10.7 mmol) and tri ethyl amine (5.98 mL, 42 9 mmol) in dichloromethane (50 mL) was cooled to 0 °C and treated with methanesulfonyl chloride (2.08 mL, 26 8 mmol) dropwise. The light yellow cloudy mixture was stirred at the temperature for 2 h before the reaction was quenched with aqueous sodium bicarbonate. The mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate, washed with water and brine. The organic phase was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated to give a caide consisting of 31 and the aziridine intermediate.

The residue was taken into A'kA-dimethylformamide (35 mL), treated with potassium carbonate (4.45 g, 32.2 mmol), potassium phthalimide (2.39 g, 12.9 mmol), and stirred at rt for 84 h. The mixture was taken into ethyl acetate, washed with water, brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated. The residue was purified using silica gel column chromatography eluting with ethyl acetate in heptane to give 32 (4.92 g, 75%) as white solid.

! H NMR (400 MHz, CDCh) d 8.14 (dd, J = 7.9, 1.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.83 - 7.70 (m, 7 H), 7.58 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2 H), 7.33 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2 H), 4.91 (dd, J = 14.9, 6.7 Hz, 1 H), 4.56 - 4.50 (m, 1 H), 4.18 (dd, J = 17.7, 6.0 Hz, 1 H), 3 77 - 3.68 (m, 3 H), 3 55 (dd, J = 12.7, 9.6 Hz, 1 H)

Converting 32 to (2-(((2S,3S,4R)-4-(azidoniethyi)-3-(4-bromopheny!)-l-(((4S,5 R)-5-((R)- l,2-dihydroxyethyl)-2,2-dimethyl-l,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methyl)az etidin-2- yl)methyI)isomdoIine-l,3-dioiie) 35 by deprotection and reductive amination

A solution of 32 (1.35 g, 2.21 mmol) and 1-dodecanethiol (0.635 mL, 2.65 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (10 mL) was treated with a solution of potassium tert-butoxide (1 M in tetrahydrofuran, 2.65 mL, 2.65 mmol) dropwise at room temperature and then stirred for 5 h. The mixture was taken into ethyl acetate, washed with brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated to give crude (2-(((2S,3S,4R)-4-(azidomethyi)-3-(4- bromophenyl)azetidin-2-yl)methyl)isoindoline-l,3-dione) 33 as yellow gum.

A mixture of crude 33 (0.469 g, 1.10 mmol) and ((3aR,6R,6aR)-6-(hydroxymethyl)- 2,2-dimethyltetrahydrofuro[3,4-d][l,3]dioxol-4-ol) 34 (0.29 g, 1.53 mmol) was taken into methanol (5 mL), treated with acetic acid (0.315 mL, 5.50 mmol), sodium cyanoborohydride (0.104 g, 1.65 mmol), and stirred at rt till the reaction was complete. The mixture was taken into ethyl acetate, washed with 1 M sodium hydroxide, brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified using silica gel column chromatography eluting with methanol in dichloromethane to give 35 (365 mg, 55%) as colorless oil.

4 1 NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 7.77 - 7.74 (m, 2 H), 7.71 - 7.67 (m, 2 H), 7.52 (d, J

8.2 Hz, 2 H), 7.19 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2 H), 6.1 1 (brs, 1 H), 4.53 - 4.48 (m, 1 H), 4.31 (dd, J = 9.3,

6.2 Hz, 1 H), 3.93 - 3 75 (m, 7 H), 3.58 (dd, J = 13.9, 7.3 Hz, 1 H), 3.51 -3.46 (m, 1 H), 3 32 - 3.24 (m, 2 H), 2.77 (dd, J = 12.5, 3.9 Hz, 1 H), 2.49 (brs, 1 H), 1.41 (s, 3 H), 1.33 (s, 3 H)

Reductive amination of 33 with ((3aR,6aR)-2,2-dimethyltetrahydrofuro[3,4- d][l,3]dioxo!-4-oI) 36 to give (2-(((2S,3S,4R)-4-(azidomethyl)-3~(4-bromopheny!)-l- (((4S,5R)-5-(hydroxymethyI}-2,2-dimethyS-l,3-dioxoIan-4-yl)m ethyi)azetidm-2- yl)methyl)isoindoline-l,3~dione) 37

Crude 35 (2.72 g, 6.38 mmol) and 36 (1.53 g, 9.57 mmol) were taken into methanol (40 raL), acetic acid (1.83 mL, 31.9 mmol), and treated with sodium cyanoborohydride (0.601 g, 9.57 mmol). The mixture was stirred at rt till the reaction was complete. The mixture was taken into methyl tert-butyl ether (500 mL), washed with 1 M sodium hydroxide (50 mL) and brine (50 mL). The aqueous phase was back extracted with methyl tert-butyl ether (100 mL x 2). The combined organic phase was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified with silica gel column chromatography eluting with methanol in di chi orom ethane (conditioned with 70 M of ammonia) to give 37 (2.34 g, 64%) as white foamy solid.

¾ NMR (400 MHz, CDCi 3 ) d 7.75 - 7.71 (m, 2 H), 7.68 - 7.64 (m, 2 H), 7.48 - 7.45 (m, 2 H), 7.23 - 7.21 (m, 2 H), 4.43 - 4 34 (m, 2 H), 4.01 (brs, 1 H), 3 81 - 3 66 (m, 6 H), 3.50 (dd, J = 13.7, 6.6 Hz, 1 H), 3.42 (dd, J = 12.7, 6.5 Hz, 1 H), 3.21 (dd, 12.7, 6.5 Hz, 1 H), 3 08 (dd, 12.9, 7 8 Hz, 1 H), 2 76 (dd, J = 12.9, 5.1 Hz, 1 H), 1.41 (s, 3 H), 1.31 (s, 3 H)

Oxidative cleavage of 35 to give ((4S,5S)-5~(((2R,3S,4S)-2-(azkIomethyl)-3-(4~ bromopheiiyI)-4-((l,3-dioxoisoiiido!iii-2-yl)methyl)azetidis i-l-yI)methyI)-2, 2-dimethyl- 1 ,3-dioxoSane-4-carbaldehyde) 38

A solution of 35 (2.73 g, 4.55 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (33 mL) and water (3.6 mL) was treated with sodium periodate (1.46 g, 6.82 mmol) and stirred at ri for 2 h to give a white suspension. The mixture was taken into methyl tert-butyl ether (500 mL), washed with aqueous sodium thiosulfate (100 mL) and aqueous sodium bicarbonate (100 mL). The combined aqueous phases were back extracted with methyl tert-butyl ether (150 mL x 2). The combined organic phase was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated to give 38 as colorless gum, which was used without purification.

¾ NMR (400 MHz, CDCh) d 9.79 (d, J = 2.7 Hz, 1 H), 7.78 - 7.75 (m, 2 H), 7.71 - 7.68 (m, 2 1 1). 7 52 - 7.49 (m, 2 H), 7.31 - 7.29 (m, 2 H), 4.54 - 4.51 (m, 1 H), 4.47 - 4.44 (m, 2 H), 3.79 - 3.3.61 (m, 4 H), 3.46 - 3.40 (m, 2 H), 3.21 - 3.19 (m, 1 H), 2.96 (dd, J = 13 7, 4.7 Hz, 1 H), 2.80 (dd, J = 13.7, 5.5 Hz, 1 H), 1.60 (s, 3 H), 1.41 (s, 3 H)

Oxidation of 37 to give 38

A solution of 37 (900 g, 1.58 mmol) in dichloromethane (10 mL) was treated with Dess Martin periodinane (803 mg, 1.89 mmol) and stirred at rt for 3 h. The mixture was taken into ethyl acetate, washed with aq sodium thiosulfate, 1 M sodium hydroxide, brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated to give 38 as colorless gum, which was used without purification.

Aza-Wittig reaction of 38 and subsequent redaction to give (2-(((3aR,6aR,7R,8S,10aS)- 7-(4-bromophenyi)-2,2-diniethyloctahydro-5H-azeto[l,2-a][l,3 Jdioxoio[4,5- f| i,4]diazodn-8-yl)fflethyl)isoindoIine-l,3-dione) 40

To a suspension of triphenylphosphane (1.79 g, 6.82 mmol) in methanol (13 mL) was slowly added a solution of the crude 38 in methanol (39 mL) and tetrahydrofuran (7.8 mL) over 12 h to give a clear solution. After an additional 3 h, the solution was treated with acetic acid (0.78 mL, 13.6 mmol) and sodium cyanoborohydride (0.343 g, 5.46 mmol), and stirred for 3 h. The mixture was taken into methyl teri-butyl ether, washed with 1 M sodium hydroxide, brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography eluting with ethyl acetate to give 40 (1.88 g, 79%) as white solid.

Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) d 7.81 - 7.77 (m, 2 H), 7.71 - 7.64 (m, 2 H), 7.46 - 7.44

(m, 2 H), 7.40 - 7.38 (m, 2 H), 4.87 (brs, 3 H), 4.39 - 4.34 (m, 1 H), 4.28 - 4.24 (m, 1 H), 3.75 (dd, J = 14.0, 5.5 Hz, 1 H), 3.70 - 3.65 (m, 1 H), 3.60 - 3.55 (m, 2 H), 3.47 (dd, J =

14.2, 5. 3 Hz, 1 H), 3.28 (dd, J = Hz, 1 H), 3.27 (dd, J = 14.6, 9.8 Hz, H), 3 08 (dd, J = 14.7, 2.2 Hz, 1 H), 2.90 (dd, J = 13.2, 4.3 Hz, 1 H), 2.79 (dd, J = 13.6, 8.6 Hz, 1 H), 2.71 - 2.60 (m, 2 H), 1.36 (s, 3 H), 1 32 (s, 3 S I)

Converting 40 to ((3aR,6aR,7S,8S,10aS)-7-(4-bromopheisyl)-8-((l,3-dioxoisoind olm-2- yI)methyI)-N-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2,2-dimethy!octahydro-5H-azet o[l,2- a][l,3]dioxo!o 4,5-f| l,4]diazocine-5-carboxaiiiide) 41

40 41 A solution of 40 (70 mg, 0.133 mmol) in dichloromethane (1.5 mL) was treated with 4-methoxyphenyl isocyanate (0.026 mL, 0.199 mmol), triethylamine (0.028 mL, 0.199 mL), and maintained at rt for 2 h. The mixture was concentrated and the residue was purified using silica gel column chromatography eluting with -60% ethyl acetate in heptane to give 41 (67 mg, 75%) as white solid.

Ή NMR (400 MHz, CDCh) 6 8.35 (s, 1 H), 7.85 - 7.80 (m, 2 H), 7.73 - 7.69 (m, 2 H), 7 51 - 7.45 (m, 4 H), 7.23 - 7.19 (m, 2 H), 6.85 - 6.80 (m, 2 H), 4.38 id. J = 16.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.29 (brs, 2 H), 4.16 - 4.10 (m, 1 H), 3.86 - 3.77 (m, 2 H), 3.77 (s, 3 H), 3.65 - 3.47 (m, 4 H), 2.79 - 2 73 (m, 1 H), 2 64 - 2.61 (m, 2 H), 1.44 (s, 3 H), 1 .41 (s, 3 H)

Hydrolysis of acetonide 41 to give ((3S,4R,8R,9S,10S)-9-(4-bromophenyl)-10-((l,3- dioxoisoindoiin~2-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-N-(4~methoxypheny l)-l 5 6- diazabkydo [6.2,0] deeaiie-6-earboxamide) 42

A solution of 41 (5.0 mg, 0.0074 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (1 mL) and 1 M HC1 (1 ml.) was stirred at 50 °C for 3 h. The solution was concentrated and the residue purified by reverse phase preparative HPLC to give 42 (3.8 mg, 81%) as white solid.

! 1 1 NMR (400 MHz, CDsOD) d 7.79 - 7.73 (m, 4 H), 7.52 - 7.46 (m, 4 H), 7.1 1 - 7.07 (m, 2 H), 6.80 - 6.76 (m, 2 H), 4.14 (dd, J = 15.5, 6.5 Hz, 1 H), 4 08 - 4 07 (m, 1 H), 3.82 - 3.68 (m, 4 H), 3.71 (s, 3 H), 3.33 - 3.27 (m, 2 H), 2.82 - 2.73 (m, 2 H), 2.82 - 2.73 (m, 2 H), 2.67 - 2.63 (m, 1 H)

42 can be converted into compound 22 according to previously described procedures. See, e.g., pages 53-55 of WO 2018/175385, wholly incorporated by reference herein. This process is shown in brief form as follows:

The structures for compounds 5 and 32 were confirmed by X-ray crystallography. ORTEP projections for compounds 5 and 32 are provided in FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, respectively. ORTEP is an acronym for Oak Ridge Thermal Ellipsoid Plot, which is a representation of molecular structure as determined by X-ray diffraction.

Further procedures that may be combined with the above procedures or used independently are presented below.

Hydrolysis of o-nitrophenylsulfonamide of 12 using thioglycolic add to give 13

12

Charge a reactor with 12 (1.0 w/w, 1.0 eq), methanol (12 v/w) and tetrahydrofuran (4 v/w) at room temperature. Add thioglycolic acid (0.221 v/w, 0.291 w/w, 2.0 eq) and potassium carbonate (0.874 w/w, 4.0 eq), each in one portion. Heat the mixture to an internal

temperature of 50 °C and stir for 3 h. Monitor for complete consumption of 12 using

LCMS/UV of aliquot of the reaction. Pour the reaction mixture into a separatory vessel with ethyl acetate (25 v/w) and water (18 v/w) for extraction. Back extract the aqueous phase with ethyl acetate (12 v/w) twice. Combine the organic phases, wash with aqueous sodium bicarbonate (12 v/w) and then with 50% brine (12 v/w). Dry the organic phase with anhydrous sodium sulfate. Filter the organic phase and concentrate using a rotary evaporator under house vacuum (T bath = 37 °C) to give crude 13 (-0.8 v/w, quant.) as yellow gum.

Reaction volume: 17 v/w

Work-up volume: 65 v/w

Expected yield (%): quantitative

Maximum scale: 20 g of 12

'l l NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 7.84 - 7.82 (m, 2 H), 7.72 - 7.67 (m, 2 H), 7.62 - 7 52 (m, 6 H), 7.39 - 7.32 (m, 3 FI), 4.50 (dt, J = 7 6, 4 5 Hz, 1 H), 4 25 (dd, J = 14.1, 7.0 Hz, 1 FI), 3.91 (dd, J = 14.3, 7.8 Hz, 1 H), 3.79 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 1 H), 3.53 (dd, J = 14.2, 4.4 Hz, 1 H), 3.35 (dd, J = 12.6, 7 1 Hz, 1 FI), 3.20 (dd, J = 12.6, 6.6 FIz, 1 H); 13 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCb) d 168.2, 135.6, 134 3, 134.0, 132.0, 131.6, 131.6, 130 6, 128.4, 128.3, 123.3, 122.5, 89.9, 89.2, 57.5, 57.2, 52.0, 46.7, 40.2

Reductive animation of 13 using 14 to give 15*HCI (HC! Salt of 15)

Charge a reactor with crude 13 (prepared as above, 1.0 w/w, 1.0 eq), 14 (0.850 w/w, 2.0 eq) and ethanol (10 v/w). Add to this mixture acidic acid (0.640 v/w, 0.671 w/w, 5.0 eq) and then sodium cyanoborohydride (0.281 w/w, 2.0 eq), all in one portion at room temperature. 1 Stir the mixture at room temperature for 12-18 h. Monitor for complete consumption of 13 using LCMS/UV of aliquot of the reaction. Quench the reaction using saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate (18 v/w), 2 followed by ethyl acetate (35 v/w), and stir the mixture at room temperature for 10 minutes. Separate the two phases using a separator} ' vessel, back extract the aqueous phase with ethyl acetate (15 v/w) twice. Combine the organic phases, wash with brine (18 v/w) and dry with anhydrous sodium sulfate. Filter and then concentrate the organic phase using a rotary evaporator under house vacuum (T bath = 37 °C) Take the residue into ethyl acetate (35 v/w) and filter through a plug of silica gel to remove insolubles. Cool the clear filtrate on an ice-bath/ slowly add a 4 M HCi-dioxane solution (0.071 v/w, 1.05 eq) over 10 minutes. Stir the white suspension on ice-bath for 10 min, then stop stirring and maintain the mixture still for 20 min to allow precipitation of the white solid. 4 Filter the mixture, firstly the clear supernatant and then the suspension of the white solid. Wash the filter cake with ethyl acetate. Dry the filter cake in a house vacuum drying oven at 40 °C to give 15 » HC1 (0.813 w/w, 55%) as 'hite solid.

Expected yield (%): > 55%

Maximum scale: 20 g of 12

¾ NMR (400 MHz, MeOH-dfi d 7.83 - 7.78 (m, 4 H), 7.57 - 7.51 (m, 6 H), 7.40 - 7.38 (m, 3 H), 5.4208 (dt, J = 9.7, 6.6 Hz, 1 H), 4.93 - 4. 85 (m, 1 H), 4.59 (dd, 8.5, 6.5 Hz, 1 H), 4.45 - 4 34 (m, 2 H), 4 21 (dd, J = 8.7, 6.4 Hz, 1 H), 4.14 - 3.94 (m, 3 FI), 3.76 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 3.69 - 3.58 (m, 4 H), 1.48 (s, 3 H), 1.08 (s, 3 H); 13 C NMR (75 MHz, MeOH-d 4 ) d 168.9, 135.7, 133.1, 133.1, 132.6, 132.5, 131.9, 131.8, 129.8, 129. 6, 125.2, 124.4, 124.2, 111.6, 91.5, 89.2, 77.5, 74.4, 71.0, 69 2, 68 9, 65 0, 59 3, 43.7, 37.5, 28.1, 25.2

Oxidative cleavage of 1,2-diol 15*H€1 using sodium periodate

Charge a reactor with Compound 15*HC1 (1.0 w/w, 1.0 eq), tetrahydrofuran (15 v/w, 13.2 w/w) and water (5 v/w, 5 w/w). Add sodium periodate (0 650 w/w, 2.0 eq) in one-portion.

Stir the mixture at room temperature for 1-2 h. Monitor for complete consumption of 15 using LCMS/UV of aliquot of the reaction mixture. Pour the mixture into ethyl acetate (36 v/w, 32.4 w/w), wash with aqueous sodium bicarbonate (12 v/w) and then with 50% brine (12 v/w). Dry the organic phase over anhydrous sodium sulfate and filter. Concentrate the filtrate using a rotary evaporator under house vacuum (T bat = 37 °C) to give crude 16 (~ 0.9 w/w, quant.) as colorless oil.

Expected yield (%): 100%

Maximum scale: 8.3 g of 15*HC1

' l l NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) d 9.82 (d, J = 2.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.79 - 7.76 (m, 2 1 1 ), 7.71 - 7 67 (m, 2 H), 7.58 - 7 53 (m, 4 H), 7.44 - 7.42 (m, 2 H), 7.39 - 7.35 (m, 3 H), 4.55 (dd, J = 1 1.9, 5.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.48 (dd, J = 7.2, 2.8 Hz, 1 H), 3.82 - 3.67 (m, 3 H), 3.50 - 3.41 (m, 2 H), 3.27 - 3.22 (m, 1 H), 2.98 (dd, J = 13.6, 4.7 Hz, 1 H), 2.82 (dd, J = 13.6, 5.7 Hz, 1 H), 1.61 (s, 3 H), 1.42 (s, 3 H); 13 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCb) d 199.9, 167.8, 135.3, 134 0, 131.8, 131.7, 131.6, 130.6, 128 3, 128.2, 123.3, 123.2, 122.4, 1 10.9, 89 8, 89 2, 81.4, 66.7, 66.4, 56.9, 50.2, 44.2, 38.1, 27.3, 22.7

Tandem Staiidinger/aza-Wittig/reduetion to convert 16 to 18·HO

Charge a reactor with triphenyiphosphine (0.128 w/w, 1.2 eq) and ethanol (7 v/w, 5 52 w/w). To this mixture slowly add a solution of the crude 16 (prepared as above, 1.0 w/w, 1.0 eq) in ethanol (10 v/w, 7.89 w/w) and tetrahydrofuran (5 v/w, 4.40 w/w) at room temperature over 1.5 h. Further stir the reaction mixture at room temperature for 12 h and monitor for completie consumption of 16 using LCMS/UV of aliquot of the reaction mixture. Add sodium cyanoborohydride (0.128 w/w, 1.2 eq) and acetic acid (0.291 v/w, 0.306 w/w, 3.0 eq), each in one-portion, 1 at room temperature. Stir the mixture at the temperature for 0.5-1 h and monitor for complete consumption of the imine intermediate (not shown) using LCMS/UV of aliquot of the reaction mixture. Quench the reaction with aqueous sodium bicarbonate (30 v/w) and extract with ethyl acetate (30 v/w). Further extract the aqueous phase with ethyl acetate (12 v/w) twice. Combine the organic phases, wash with brine (12 v/w) and dry over anhydrous sodium sulfate. Filter the organic phase and concentrate using a rotary evaporator under house vacuum (T bath = 37 °C). Take the residue into ethyl acetate (35 v/w) and filter to remove insolubles. Cool the solution on an ice-bath. Slowly add, with stirring, a 4 M HC1- dioxane solution (0.054 v/w, 0.065 w/w, 1.05 eq) over 10 min. Further stir the resulting white suspension on the ice-bath for 10 min, then stop stirring and keep the mixture still for 20 min to allow precipitation of the white solid. 2 Filter the mixture and wash the filter cake with ethyl acetate. Dry the filter cake in a house vacuum drying oven at 40 °C to give 18*HC1 (0.81 w/w, 82%) as white solid.

Expected yield (%): 80%

Maximum scale: 8.3 g of 18*HC1

1) Additional Spectral Data

18

Compound 18: ¾ NMR (400 MHz, CDCh) d 7.82 - 7.78 (m, 2 H), 7.71 - 7.65 (m, 2 H), 7.55 - 7.49 (m, 6 H), 7.38 - 7.31 (m, 3 H), 4.40 - 4.35 (m, 1 H), 4.23 - 4.19 (m, 1 H), 3.79 (dd, J = 14.2, 5 5 Hz, 1 H), 3.70 (dd, J = 1 1.7, 6.0 Hz, 1 H), 3.51 (dd, J = 14.2, 5.2 Hz, 1 H), 3.28 (dd, J = 14.6, 8.5 Hz, 1 H), 3.09 (dd, J = 14.6, 2.4 Hz, 1 H), 2.87 - 2.68 (m, 3 H), 2.59 (brd, J = 13.3 Hz, 1 H), 1.74 (brs, 1 H), 1.39 (s, 3 H), 1.33 (s, 3 H); 13 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCh) 6 167.9, 136.6, 133.9, 131 .9, 131.5, 131 2, 130.8, 128.3, 128.1, 123.3, 123 2, 121.8, 106.8, 89.5, 89.3, 77 7, 68 2, 65.1 , 57.7, 48.7, 45.5, 44.7, 38.5, 27.8, 25.1

Compound 21: ' l l NMR (400 MHz, CDCh) 6 8.32 (brs, 1 I I ). 7.56 - 7.53 (m, 2 S i ), 7.52 - 7.50 (m, 2 S i ), 7.45 - 7.43 (m, 2 I S ), 7.39 - 7.33 (m, 3 I S), 7.25 - 7.21 (m, 2 I S ). 6.85 - 6 82 (m, 2 H), 4.36 (dd, J = 16.8, 2.7 Hz, 1 H), 4.30 - 4.28 (m, 1 H), 4.23 - 4.18 (m, 1 H), 4.13 - 4.09 (m, 1 H), 3.78 (s, 3 H), 3.69 - 3.65 (m, 1 H), 3.63 - 3.54 (m, 3 H), 2.79 (brd, J = 8.0 Hz, 2 H), 2.63 (dd, J = 13.7, 10.5 Hz, 1 H), 2.44 (dd, J = 13 3, 8.2 Hz, 1 H), 2.34 (dd, J = 13.1, 3.7 Hz, 1 H), 2.05 (s, 6 H), 1.52 (s, 3 H), 1.44 (s, 3 H); i3 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCh) d 156.9,

155.2, 136.9, 133.1, 131.5, 131.1, 130.7, 128.3, 128.2, 123.2, 121.6, 121.0, 114.1, 107.7,

89.6, 89.1, 78.2, 77.0, 68.2, 66.2, 57.9, 57.4, 55.5, 51 .5, 45.6, 44.7, 28.4, 26 1

Although embodiments of the present invention have been described in terms of specific exemplary embodiments and examples, it will be appreciated that the embodiments disclosed herein are for illustrative puiposes only and various modifications and alterations might be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in the following claims