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Title:
PHENOXYPROPANOL DERIVATIVES AND THEIR USE IN TREATING CARDIAC AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2012/004549
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A compound of formula I-0, and its pharmaceutically acceptable salt or salts and physiologically hydrolysable derivatives in free form or salt form: wherein Z1 is C1-C4 linear or branched alkyl or alkenyl; R4 is selected from unsubstituted and substituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, C1-C8 linear or branched alkyl, C2-5 alkenyl, C6-C10 heteroaryl or aryl, or C3-C8 heterocyclyl which may be part unsaturated, and combinations thereof; is linear C2-3 alkylene,; X1 is selected from NH and O; X2 is selected from unsaturated C and unsaturated S; and X3 is selected from NH and CH2; or one of X1 and X3 is a single bond; or X1 is O and X2 and X3 together are a single bond; and R7 is selected from oxo, F, Cl, Br, CN, NH2, NR9 2, NO2, CF3, OR9, COR9, OCOR9, COOR9, NR9COR9, CONR9 2 SO2NR9 2, NR9SO2R9; and R8 is selected from C1-5 alkyl, C1-5 alkoxyl, C2-5 alkenyl or alkynyl, C6-10) aryl and C3-8 cycloalkyl and combinations thereof, which may be unsubstituted or f urther substituted by one or more F, Cl, Br, CN, NH2, NR3 2, NO2, CF3; and R9 is selected from H and a group R8 as hereinbefore defined; n7 and n8 and the sum thereof are independently selected from zero and the whole number integer 1 to 4; processes for the preparation thereof, compositions and uses.

Inventors:
MISTRY SHAILESH (GB)
DARAS ETIENNE (GB)
FROMONT CHRISTOPHE (GB)
JADHAV GOPAL (GB)
FISCHER PETER MARTIN (GB)
KELLAM BARRIE (GB)
HILL STEPHEN JOHN (GB)
BAKER JILLIAN GLENDA (GB)
Application Number:
GB2010/051106
Publication Date:
January 12, 2012
Filing Date:
July 05, 2010
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
UNIV NOTTINGHAM (GB)
MISTRY SHAILESH (GB)
DARAS ETIENNE (GB)
FROMONT CHRISTOPHE (GB)
JADHAV GOPAL (GB)
FISCHER PETER MARTIN (GB)
KELLAM BARRIE (GB)
HILL STEPHEN JOHN (GB)
BAKER JILLIAN GLENDA (GB)
International Classes:
C07C275/40; A61K31/16; A61K31/17; A61P9/04; C07C235/34; C07C275/28; C07C335/20
Domestic Patent References:
WO2008083054A22008-07-10
WO1997013744A11997-04-17
Foreign References:
EP0052072A11982-05-19
GB2132611A1984-07-11
EP0052072A11982-05-19
US4363651A1982-12-14
US4497813A1985-02-05
GB2132611A1984-07-11
CH664559A51988-03-15
EP0400519A11990-12-05
US5135932A1992-08-04
Other References:
DATABASE WPI Week 198221, Derwent World Patents Index; AN 1982-41862E, XP002638419
KLEPZIG M ET AL: "CGP 17582 - a beta-1-selective beta blocker without negative inotropic effect?", HERZ, KREISLAUF, PFLAUM, MUENCHEN, DE, vol. 18, no. 9, 1 January 1986 (1986-01-01), pages 439 - 442, XP009147192, ISSN: 0046-7324
REZMANN-VITTI LINDA A ET AL: "Role of Tyr(356(7.43)) and Ser(190(4.57)) in antagonist binding in the rat beta(1)-adrenergic receptor", J. MED.CHEM., vol. 49, 2006, pages 3467 - 3477, XP002638420
BAKER, BR. J PHARMACOL, vol. 144, 2005, pages 317 - 22
J MED CHEM, vol. 49, no. 12, 2006, pages 3467 - 3477
B J CLIN PHARM, vol. 27, no. 5, 1989, pages 553 - 561
S.E.DENMARK; J. P. EDWARDS, JOC, vol. 56, 1991, pages 6974 - 6981
SHARPLESS, JOC, vol. 54, no. 6, 1989, pages 1295 - 1304
GARDINER; BENNETT, AM J PHYSIOL., vol. 255, October 1988 (1988-10-01), pages H813 - 24
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ALLEN, Philippa (15 Clare Road, Halifax HX1 2HY, GB)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1 . A compound of formula I-0, and its pharmaceutically acceptable salt or salts and physiologically hydrolysable derivatives in free form or salt form:

wherein R is selected from unsubstituted and substituted C3-C8 cycloalkyi, CrC8 linear or branched alkyl, C2_5 alkenyl, C6-C10 heteroaryl or aryl, or C3-C8 heterocyclyl which may be part unsaturated, and combinations thereof;

z1 is C1-C4 linear or branched alkylene or alkenylene;

z is linear C alkylene;

is selected from NH and O;

is selected from unsaturated C and unsaturated S;

is selected from NH and CH2; or

one of X1 and X3 is a single bond;

X1 is O and X2 and X3 together are a single bond; and

R7 is selected from F, CI, Br, CN, NH2, NRS2, N02, CF3, ORs, CORs, OCORs,

COOR9, NR9COR9, CONR92 S02NR92, NR9S02R9; and

Ft' is selected from d alkyl, d alkoxyl, C2.5 alkenyl or alkynyl, C6.10 aryl and C3.8 cycloalkyi and combinations thereof, which may be unsubstituted or further substituted by one or more F, CI, Br, CN, NH2, NR92, N02, CF3; and

Ra is selected from H and a group R8 as hereinbefore defined;

n7 and n8 and the sum thereof are independently selected from zero and the whole number integer 1 to 4;

with the proviso that it is not a compound as listed in the following Tables:

Table A1 -0

may form a cyclic moiety.

2. Compound as claimed in Claim 1 wherein R4 is selected from unsubstituted and substituted C3.7 cycloalkyl, C3.7 cycloalkyl - C0.3 alkyl, d.3 alkyl, C6.10 aryl - C0.3 alkyl, d-salkoxy C6-i0aryl - C0-3 alkyl.

3. Compound as claimed in Claim 1 or 2 wherein X2 is selected from CO, CS, S02 and a single bond.

4. Compound as claimed in any of Claims 1 to 3 wherein R7 and R8 are selected from R4OZ10 as hereinbefore defined, m-,p-(OCH3)2 or 0-, m- or p- OH, F, CI, Br, NH2, R3, OR3, or or a combination thereof.

5. A compound of formula IA° and its pharmaceutically acceptable salt or salts and physiologically hydrolysable derivatives:

ein all integers are as hereinbefore defined; and

X1A is NH;

X2A is selected from unsaturated C and unsaturated S; and

X3A is selected from NH and CH2; or

one of X1A and X3A is a single bond;

with the proviso that it is not a compound as listed in Table A1 A-0:

Table A1 A-0 p-OCH3PhCH2 CH2CH2 CH2CH2 NH CO NH -

6. A compound of formula la-0 and its pharmaceutically acceptable salt or salts and physiologically hydrolysable derivatives:

wherein all integers are as hereinbefore defined; and

R4a"° is optionally substituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl; more preferably is cyclopentyl.

7. A compound of formula lb-0 and its pharmaceutically acceptable salt or salts and physiologically hydrolysable derivatives:

OH

wherein all integers are as hereinbefore defined; and

X1 0 is NH, X2 0 is CO and X3 0 is selected from NH and CH2 or one of X1 0 and X3 0 is a single bond;

R4b"° is C1 -C4 linear or branched alkyl - C3-C8 cycloalkyl; preferably is cyclopropylmethyl, more preferably remaining integers are as defined for formula 1 A

with the proviso that it is not a compound as shown in the following table:

Table A1 b-0

8. A compound of formula lc-0 and its pharmaceutically acceptable salt or salts and physiologically hydrolysable derivatives:

wherein all integers are as hereinbefore defined; and

R4c-° is ethyl.

9. A compound of formula ld-0 and its pharmaceutically acceptable salt or salts and physiologically hydrolysable derivatives: OH

(Id-0) R4D-°OZ ' 0

wherein all integers are as hereinbefore defined; and

R4d"° is optionally substituted C6-C10 aralkyl; more preferably is PhCH2CH2; most preferably substituted by one or more R7 as hereinbefore defined, for example F.

10. A compound of formula le-0 and its pharmaceutically acceptable salt or salts and physiologically hydrolysable derivatives:

wherein all integers are as hereinbefore defined; and

X1 is NH, X2 is CO and X3 is selected from NH and CH2 or one of X1 and X3 is a single bond;

R7e"° is p-OH and n7e-0 is 1 .

1 1 . A compound of formula l-O or subformulae as claimed in any of Claims 1 to 10, defined in the following Table 1 -0:

Table 1 -0

12. A process for the preparation of a compound of formula l-O or subformulae as defined in any of Claims 1 to 10. 13. Novel intermediates of formula Lla, Lib, Lie, Rla, Rib, or of formula Rlla, Rllb, Rlld, LIVa or LIVb as hereinbefore defined.

14. A composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of formula l-O or subformulae or its pharmaceutically acceptable salt and physiologically hydrolysable derivative as defined in any of Claims 1 to 10 in association with one or more pharmaceutical carriers or diluents.

15. The use of a compound of formula l-O or subformulae or pharmaceutically acceptable salt or composition as defined in any of Claims 1 to 10 and 14 in the prevention or treatment of a condition selected from ischaemic heart disease, hypertension and heart failure, more preferably with concomitant respiratory disease, in particular asthma or COPD.

16. A method of treating a condition selected from ischaemic heart disease (also known as myocardial infarction or angina), hypertension and heart failure, restenosis and cardiomyopathy, more preferably with concomitant respiratory disease, in particular asthma or COPD, said method comprising administering to a subject in need thereof, a compound of formula l-O or subformulae or pharmaceutically acceptable salt or composition thereof as defined in any of Claims 1 to 10 and 14 in an amount sufficient to treat the condition.

Description:
PHENOXYPROPANOL DERIVATIVES AND THEIR USE IN TREATING CARDIAC AND CARDIOVASCULAR

DISEASES

This invention relates to novel compounds and their preparation and use in treating cardiac and cardiovascular disease.

5

BACKGROUND

Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (beta-blockers) are one of the most important therapies in the management of symptoms of, and for prolonging life in, cardiovascular disorders e.g. ischaemic heart disease and cardiac arrhythmias. They work by blocking the betal -adrenoceptors in the 10 heart and thus prevent the endogenous hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline from increasing

heart rate and force of contraction. Beta-blockers are also widely used in the management of hypertension, and (although the mechanism of action is not yet understood) they prolong life in patients with heart failure.

15 However, they are contraindicated in patients with respiratory disease (especially asthma and

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD) because antagonism of the beta2-adrenoceptors in the airways results in bronchoconstriction and a loss of action of the important beta2-agonist bronchodilators. Thus, currently many people (about 0.6% of the total adult population in the UK) with cardiovascular disease are unable to take beta-blockers that would prolong their life and

20 improve their cardiovascular symptoms, because of their concomitant respiratory disease. This is because the best betal -selective beta-antagonist currently available for clinical use binds to the human betal -adrenoceptor with only 14 fold higher affinity than the human beta2-adrenoceptor (Baker, 2005; Br. J Pharmacol: 144, 317-22).

25 Accordingly there is a need for beta blockers which are selective for just heart disease, ie have a high beta ! / beta 2 selectivity. Classes of phenoxypropanolamine compounds are known which are extended beyond the amine group and are substituted in the phenol ring. One particular class of phenoxypropanolamine compounds comprises a substituted ethylene dioxy substituent para to the phenyl moiety. This class which has never entered into clinical use includes the development

30 compound LK-204545 with an phenyl(alkylurea) substituent to the amine moiety and with 1 ,778- fold rselectivity:

and D-140S with a phenyl alkyl substituent to the amine moiety and with 4,400-fold βϊ -selectivity: WO2008083054 discloses beta-1 adrenoreceptor selective ligands that find use as imaging agents within nuclear medicine applications. Compounds include an imaging moiety such as a radioactive moiety. The broadly disclosed class of compounds includes compounds having the core 1 -phenoxy, 2-hydroxy propan-3-amine with extensive substitution of the phenoxy and amine moieties.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE DISCLOSURE

We have now applied a multidisciplinary approach to beta receptor agonist and antagonist design to provide novel compounds which have significant selectivity for beta-1 adrenoceptors and which have potential for clinical use.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Embodiments of the invention are further described hereinafter with reference to the

accompanying drawings, in which:

Schemes 1 and 2 illustrate the preparation of intermediate compounds and

Schemes 3 and 4 illustrate the preparation of compounds of formula I.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

In accordance with the present invention there is provided a compound of formula I, and its pharmaceutically acceptable salt or salts and physiologically hydrolysable derivatives in free form or salt form:

wherein R 4 is selected from unsubstituted and substituted C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl which may be part unsaturated, C r C 8 linear or branched alkyl, C 2 -5 alkenyl, C 6 -C 10 heteroaryl or aryl, and C 3 -C 8 heterocyclyl which may be part unsaturated, and combinations thereof;

Z ' is CrC 4 branched or linear alkyl or alkenyl;

n1 and n2 and the sum thereof are independently selected from zero and the whole

integer 1 to 4, and;

R is selected from F, CI, Br, CN, NH 2 , N0 2 , CF 3 , OR 3 , COR 3 , OCOR 3 , COOR 3 ,

NR 3 COR 3 , CONR 3 2 S0 2 NR 3 2 , NR 3 S0 2 R 3 ; and

is selected from Ci_ 5 alkyl, d.5 alkoxyl, C 2 . 5 alkenyl or alkynyl, C 5 . 10 aryl and C 3 . 8 cycloalkyl and combinations thereof any of which may comprise one or more carbonyl units or heteroatoms selected from O, S and N, and which may be part unsaturated, and which may be unsubstituted or further substituted by any of the foregoing substituents R 1 as hereinbefore defined; and R 3 is selected from H and a group R 2 as hereinbefore defined;

Z is linear C2-3 alkylene, optionally substituted by OH;

X 1 is selected from NH and O;

X 2 is selected from unsaturated C and unsaturated S; and

X 3 is selected from NH and CH 2 ; or

one of X 1 , X 2 and X 3 is a single bond; or

X 2 and X 3 are each a single bond; and

R 7 is selected from F, CI, Br, CN, NH 2 , NR 9 2 , N0 2 , CF 3 , OR 9 , COR 9 , OCOR 9 ,

COOR 9 , NR 9 COR 9 , CONR 9 2 S0 2 NR 9 2 , NR 9 S0 2 R 9 ; and

R 8 is selected from Ci_ 5 alkyl, d.5 alkoxyl, C 2 . 5 alkenyl or alkynyl, C 6 . 10 aryl and C 3 . 8 cycloalkyi and combinations thereof, which may be unsubstituted or further substituted by one or more F, CI, Br, CN, NH 2 , NR 9 2 , N0 2 , CF 3 ; and R 9 is selected from H and a group R 8 as hereinbefore defined;

n7 and n8 and the sum thereof are independently selected from zero and the whole number integer 1 to 4;

with the proviso that it is not a compound as listed in the following Tables:

Table A1

Table A2

Table A5

In the above Tables:

Table A1 refers to EP52072 & CAPLUS Registry compounds

Table A2 refers to J Med Chem 2006 49(12)3467-3477(CGP20712A)

Table A3 refers to US4363651 1 , (=US4497813) & US4363651 1 & a CAPLUS Registry compound Table A4 refers to GB213261 1 , W097/13744 and CAPLUS Registry Compounds

Table A5 refers to CAPLUS Registry compounds

Table A6 refers to B J Clin Pharm (1989) 27(5), 553-561 (trigevolol) and CH664559 and CAPLUS Registry compounds

In the tables and hereinbelow alternative substituents are indicated on sequential lines without intervening punctuation and combinations of substituents are indicated on a single line separated by a comma; where more than one integer are shown as having alternative substuituents, as in Table A1 first entry, then all combinations are included, eg R 1 n1 , R 2 n2 is absent and X 3 is NH, and R 1 m , R 2 n2 is absent and X 3 is a single bond; and abbreviations have the following meanings c. is cyclo; i. is iso; pr. is propyl; bu is butyl; pent is pentyl; halo is F, CI, Br or I; Ph is phenyl and Bz is benzyl; 0, m and p are ortho, meta and para. ; subst. is substituted; o.s. is optionally substituted; - is unsubstituted.

Preferably

cyclopentyloxyethoxyphenyl, p-cyclopropyloxy ethoxyphenyl, p-cyclopropylmethoxy ethoxyphenyl, p-ethoxyethoxyphenyl and p-(p-F-phenyl)ethoxyethoxyphenyl. Preferably n 1 and n2 are both zero and the compound is of formula l-O

(1-0) R 4 OZ O

wherein all interegers are as hereinbefore defined.

Reference hereinbelow to formula I is taken as reference to formula 1-0 and subformulae. Preferably Z 1 is methylene, linear ethylene or linear propylene.

Preferably R 4 is selected from C 3 -C 7 cycloalkyl such as C 3 and C 5 cycloalkyl, unsubstituted and substituted C- \ -C 3 linear alkyl, C 6 . 10 aryl, and combinations thereof, wherein substituents are as hereinbefore defined for R 1 and R 2 ;

more preferably R 4 is selected from unsubstituted and substituted C 3 . 7 cycloalkyl, d.3 alkyl, C 3 . 7 cycloalkyl - C0-3 alkyl, C 6 . 10 aryl - C 0 -3 alkyl, d-salkoxy - C 6 . 10 aryl - C 0 -3 alkyl;

most preferably R 4 is selected from cyclopentyl, cyclopropyl, c.prCH 2 , Ph, CH 3 OPhCH 2 ,

PhCH 2 CH 2 , wherein Ph is optionally substituted by F, CI or OH.

Preferably X 1 and X 3 are as hereinbefore defined or X 3 is a single bond. Preferably X 2 is selected from CO, CS and S0 2 .

Preferably n 7 is 0, 1 or 2 and n 8 is 0 or 1 and the sum thereof is 0, 1 or 2, more preferably at least one of n 7 and n 8 is 0;

Preferably R 7 and R 8 are selected from R 4 OZ 1 0 as hereinbefore defined, m-,p-(OCH 3 ) 2 and from

0-, m- or p- OH, F, CI, Br, NH 2 , N0 2 , OC,. 2 alkyl optionally substituted by halo or phenyl, COOH, COOC^alkyl, CONH 2 , CF 3 , C 2 alkyl, phenyl and a combination thereof.

Preferably compounds of formula I do not include an imageable entity selected from 18 F, 76 Br, 124- 5 I, 131 l, metal chelator or metal chelate complex for an MRI, a ligand for the complexation of a metal for SPECT, a lipid for incorporation into a liposome or the lipid itself. Preferably a compound as hereinbefore or hereinbelow defined does not include an imageable entity selected from 18 F, 76 Br, 124-5 1, 131 1, metal chelator or metal chelate complex for an MRI, a ligand for the complexation of a metal for SPECT, a lipid for incorporation into a liposome or the lipid itself.

More preferably there is provided a compound of formula IA and its pharmaceutically acceptable salt or salts and physiologically hydrolysable derivatives:

wherein all integers are as hereinbefore defined; and

X 1A is selected from O and NH;

X 2A is selected from unsaturated C and unsaturated S; and

X 3A is selected from NH and CH 2 ; or

one of X 1A , X 2A and X 3A is a single bond;

with the proviso that it is not a compound as listed in Tables A1 , A2 and A5 above.

In one preferred selection embodiment there is provided a compound of formula la and its pharmaceutically acceptable salt or salts and physiologically hydrolysable derivatives:

OH

wherein all integers are as hereinbefore defined; and

R 4a is optionally substituted C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl; more preferably is cyclopentyl with the proviso that it is not a compound as shown in the following table :

Table Α4'

In a further preferred selection embodiment there is provided a compound of formula lb and its pharmaceutically acceptable salt or salts and physiologically hydrolysable derivatives:

wherein all integers are as hereinbefore defined; and

R 4b is C r C 4 linear or branched alkyl - C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl; preferably is cyclopropylmethyl, more preferably remaining integers are as defined for formula 1 A

with the proviso that it is not a compound as shown in the following Tables A1 to A6 above:

In a further preferred selection embodiment there is provided a compound of formula Ic and its pharmaceutically acceptable salt or salts and physiologically hydrolysable derivatives:

wherein all integers are as hereinbefore defined; and

R 4c is ethyl. In a further preferred selection embodiment there is provided a compound of formula Id and its pharmaceutically acceptable salt or salts and physiologically hydrolysable derivatives:

wherein all integers are as hereinbefore defined; and

R 4d is optionally substituted C 6 -C 10 aryl - C 0 -3 alkyl; more preferably is PhCH 2 CH 2 ; most preferably substituted by one or more R 7 as hereinbefore defined, for example F.

In a further preferred selection embodiment there is provided a compound of formula le and its pharmaceutically acceptable salt or salts and physiologically hydrolysable derivatives:

wherein all integers are as hereinbefore defined; and

R 7e is p-OH and n7e is 1 ,

with the proviso that it is not a compound as shown in Tables A1 to A6 above: In further embodiments, a compound of formula I is not a compound as listed in the following Tables A1 B - A4B:

Table A4B

For the avoidance of doubt, formula I and subformulae as hereinbefore defined do not include any of the following compounds:

Table A7 WO2008/083054

For the avoidance of doubt, R 7 is not a heteroaromatic or heterocyclic moiety (EP400519, US5135932).

Preferably a compound of formula I is not as in the following:

Table A8 - CAPLUS Registry compounds

Schemes 3 - 8 in the figures and Table 1 below present a sample of representative compounds of formula I and subformulae and their key precursors. The schemes and tables are illustrative only and are not intended to be exclusive:

Table 1

54e c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 NH C(=0) - m-OH

54f c.pent CH2CH2 - CH2CH2 NH C(=0) - p-OH

54g c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 NH C(=0) - o-F

54h c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 NH C(=0) - m-F

54i c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 NH C(=0) - P-F

54j c.pent CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 NH C(=0) CH 2 m-OH

60a c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 NH C(=0) NH 0-NH 2

60b c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 NH C(=0) NH m-NH 2

60c c.pent CH2CH2 - CH2CH2 NH C(=0) NH p-NH 2

62a c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 NH C(=0) - -

62b c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 NH C(=0) - 0-NH 2

62c c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 NH C(=0) - m-NH 2

62d c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 NH C(=0) - p-NH 2

62e c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 NH C(=0) - p-OAc

62f c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 NH C(=0) - m-OMe, p-OH

62g c.pent CH2CH2 - CH2CH2 NH C(=0) CH 2 o-F

62h c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 NH C(=0) CH 2 m-F

62i c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 NH C(=0) CH 2 P-F

62j c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 NH C(=0) CH 2 o-CI

62k c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 NH C(=0) CH 2 m-CI

621 c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 NH C(=0) CH 2 p-CI

62m c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 NH C(=0) CH 2 0-CF3

62n c.pent CH2CH2 - CH2CH2 NH C(=0) CH 2 m-CF 3

62o c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 NH C(=0) CH 2 P-CF 3

62p c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 NH C(=0) CH 2 0-CH3

62q c.pent CH2CH2 - CH2CH2 NH C(=0) CH 2 m-CH 3

62r c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 NH C(=0) CH 2 P-CH 3

62s c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 NH C(=0) CH 2 m-OMe

62t c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 NH C(=0) CH 2 p-OMe

62u c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 NH C(=0) CH 2 o-OH

62v c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 NH C(=0) CH 2 p-OH

62w c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 NH C(=0) CH 2 p-OAc

65a c.pent CH2CH2 - CH2CH2 0 - - m-CI

65c c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 0 - - o-Ph

65d c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 0 - - p-Ph

65e c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 0 - - p-OH

65f c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 0 - - p-OH

67a c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 0 - - o-(C=0)NH 2

67b c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 0 - - m-(C=0)NH 2

67c c.pent CH2CH2 - CH2CH2 0 - - p-(C=0)NH 2

67d c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 0 - - p-F

67e c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 0 - - p-OMe

72 c.pent CH 2 CH 2 - CH 2 CH 2 0 - - o-(C=0)NH 2 , p- OH

A compound as hereinbefore defined may be in free form, i.e. normally as a base, or in any suitable salt or ester form. Free forms of the compound may be converted into salt or ester form and vice versa, in conventional manner. Suitable salts include hydrochloride, dihydrochloride, hydroformate, amide, succinate, half succinate, maleate, acetate, trifluoroacetate, fumarate, phthalate, tetraphthalate, benzoate, sulfonate, sulphate, phosphate, oxalate, malonate, hydrogen malonate, ascorbate, glycolate, lactate, malate, tartarate, citrate, aspartate or glutamate and variants thereof. Suitable acids for acid addition salt formation include the corresponding acids, i.e. hydrochloric, formic, amino acid, succinic, maleic, acetic, trifluoroacetic, fumaric, phthalic, tetraphthalic, benzoic, sulfonic, sulphuric, phosphoric, oxalic, malonic, ascorbic, glycolic, lactic, malic, tartaric, citric, aspartic or glutamic acids and the like.

Suitable esters include those obtained with the above acids, with hydroxides such as sodium, potassium, calcium or the like, or with alcohols.

The compounds of formula I and subformulae are optically active and may be prepared as one or both enantiomeric or tautomeric forms, or stereo or geometric isomeric forms, where relevant. Such forms may be identified and prepared or isolated by methods known in the art. Reference herein to compounds of formula I also encompasses reference to crystalline forms, polymorphs, hydrous and anhydrous forms and prodrugs thereof.

In a further aspect of the invention there is provided a process for the preparation of a compound of formula I or subformulae as hereinbefore defined comprising contacting a compound of formula Lla

R 4 OZ 1 OPhOCH 2 oxirane (Lla)

with a compound of formula Rla where X is NH

HNHZX 1 X 2 X 3 Ph or salt thereof (Rla) or contacting a compound of formula Lib

R 4 OZ 1 OPhOH (Lib)

with a compound of formula Rib where X is CH 2

oxirane - CH 2 NHZX 1 X 2 X 3 Ph (Rib) or contacting a compound of formula Lie or Llc(pg)

R 4 OZ 1 OPhOCH 2 CH(OH)CH 2 N(CH 2 Ph)ZX 1 X 2 OtBu (Lie)

with a compound of formula RIVa or RIVb

X 2 =NPh (RIVa) X 2 is C=0

LX 2 X 3 Ph (RIVb) where L is OH, eg X 2 is C=0, X 3 is CH 2

wherein Z, X 1 , X 2 and X 3 are as hereinbefore defined and pg is CH 2 Ph protecting the propanolamine N.

In the process above and hereinbelow, reference to Ph is, where appropriate and where not shown, to R 4 OZ 1 OPh or PhR 7 n 7 R 8 n 8 where R 7 and R 8 are protected with a protecting group (pg) if appropriate. Suitably Lla is prepared by reaction of Lib with epichlorohydrin. Suitably Lib is prepared by reduction of LI la

R 4 OZ 1 OPhOCH 2 Ph (Llla).

Suitably Llla is prepared by reaction of Lllla with PhOCH 2 Ph

R 4 OZ 1 OH (Lllla)

Suitably Lie is prepared by reaction of CI with Lla

(pg1 )NHZX 1 X 2 0(pg2) (CI) where pg1 is CH 2 Ph and pg2 is tBu.

Suitably CI is prepared by t-butoxy carbonylation of CM

(pg1 )NHZX 1 H (CM).

Suitably Rla is prepared by reaction of Rlla with acid

tBuOCONHZX 1 X 2 X 3 Ph (Rlla)

or by reaction of Rllb with hydrazine monohydrate

dioxoisoindolineZX 1 X 2 X 3 Ph (Rllb)

or by reaction of Rile with RIVa

HNHZX 1 H (Rile) (eg 1 ,2 ethanediamine, commercially available)

X 2 =NPhR 7 (RIVa) eg where X 2 is CO and R 7 is o-tolyl or benzyloxy, forming X 3 is NH or by interchange of Rla where R 7 ' 8 has one value to Rla where R 7 ' 8 has another value.

Suitable acid may be selected from any acid, for example TFA (trifluoroacetic acid), HCI or eOH/HCI.

Interchange of Rla may be in the case that R 7 ' 8 is p-OH, interchanged from R 7 ' 8 is p-CH 2 OH Where X 1 X 2 X 3 is O, Lla is prepared by reaction of tBuOCONHZOH (Rile) with R 7 ' 8 PhOH.

Suitably Rlla is prepared by reaction of a compound of formula Rllla

tBuOCONHZX 1 H (Rllla) eg where X 1 is NH

with a compound of formula RIVa-b

X 2 =NPh (RIVa) eg X 2 is C=0 or C=S, forming X 3 is NH

LX 2 X 3 Ph (RIVb) where L is CI or OH, eg X 2 is C=0 or S0 2 , X 3 is CH 2 or O or by reaction of a compound of formula Rlllb

tBuOCONHZX^OH (Rlllb) where X 1 is NH and X 2 is CO.

with a compound of formula RIVc

HX 3 Ph (RIVc) eg where X 3 is NH, RIVc is aniline (PhNH 2 , commercially available) or analogues, where X 3 is O, RIVc is phenol or nitrophenol.

Suitably Rllb is prepared by reaction of a compound of formula Rlllc

dioxoisoindolineZCOOH (Rlllc) with a compound of formula RIVc above, eg where X 3 is NH, RIVc is aminophenol NH 2 PhOH (commercially available) or analogues,

or by reaction of a compound of formula Rllld

dioxoisoindolineZOH (Rllld)

with a compound of formula RIVa above, where X 2 is C=0 above forming X 3 is NH.

Suitably Rllla is prepared by reaction of a compound of formula Rile above

with Boc 2 0 (di-tert-butyl dicarboxylate). Suitably Rlllb is prepared by reaction of a compound of formula RVa

HNHZX 1 X 2 OH (RVa) with Boc 2 0 (di-tert-butyl dicarboxylate)

Suitably Rlllc or Rllld is prepared by reaction of a compound of formula RVb or RVc with phthalic anhydride

HNHZCOOH (RVb)

HNHZOH (RVc) eg 2-amino ethanol

Suitably RIVc where X 3 is NH is prepared by reduction of the corresponding RVIa

N0 2 Ph (RVIa).

Suitably Rib is prepared by reaction of a compound of formula Rl Id where X is CH 2

CH 2 = CHCH 2 NHZX 1 X 2 X 3 Ph (Rlld)

with peroxyacid, eg 3-chloro peroxy benzoic acid. Suitably Rlld is prepared by reaction of a compound of formula Rllle

CH 2 = CHCH 2 NHZCOOH (Rllle)

with DPPA, diphenylphosphoryl azide, triethylamine and toluene

Suitably Lllla is prepared by reaction of LIVa with base, eg pyridinium para toluene sulphonate and EtOH

R 4 OZ 1 0-tetrahydro-2H-pyran (LIVa)

or by reduction of LIVb or LIVc

R 4 OCH 2 COOH (LIVb)

cyclopentanone ethylene ketal (LIVc).

Suitably LIVa or b is prepared by reaction of LVa with tetrahydro-2H-pyran, eg 2-chloro ethoxytetrahydro-2A7-pyran or with acetic acid, eg chloro acetic acid

R 4 OH (LVa).

Suitably a process is as hereinbefore defined or as hereinbelow illustrated in the drawings. In a further aspect of the invention there is provided a novel intermediate as hereinbefore defined. Preferably a novel intermediate is of formula Lla, Lib, Lie, Rla, Rib, Rlla, Rllb, Rlld, LIVa or LIVb as hereinbefore defined. Novel intermediates include compounds 41 a, b, c, d, e, f, g; 61 ; 40a, b, c, d; 59; 1 1 ; 12; 13; 16a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, I, j, k, I, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u; 18, 18a, 18b, 18c; 20; 22; 22a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, 22i; 26, 26a, b, c; 30a, b; 34; 38; 38a, b, c, d; 57; 58; 15a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, I, j, k, I, m, n, o, p, q, r; 17; 19; 21 ; 25; 29a, b; 64a, c, d, e, f; 66a, b, c, d, e; 71 ; 33; 37; 8c and 8g; as hereinbelow defined. In a further aspect of the invention there is provided a process as hereinbefore defined for the preparation of a novel intermediate as hereinbefore defined or as hereinbelow illustrated in the figures.

THERAPEUTIC USE

In a further aspect of the invention there is provided the use of a compound of formula I or subformulae as hereinbefore defined in the prevention or treatment of a condition selected from ischaemic heart disease (also known as myocardial infarction or angina), hypertension and heart failure, restenosis and cardiomyopathy, more preferably with concomitant respiratory disease, in particular asthma or COPD.

In a further aspect of the invention there is provided the use of a compound of formula I or subformulae as hereinbefore defined in the manufacture of a medicament for prevention or treatment of a condition selected from ischaemic heart disease (also known as myocardial infarction or angina), hypertension and heart failure, restenosis and cardiomyopathy, more preferably with concomitant respiratory disease, in particular asthma or COPD.

In a further aspect of the invention there is provided a method of treating a condition selected from ischaemic heart disease (also known as myocardial infarction or angina), hypertension and heart failure, restenosis and cardiomyopathy, more preferably with concomitant respiratory disease, in particular asthma or COPD, said method comprising administering to a subject in need thereof, a compound of formula I or subformulae or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof as hereinbefore defined in an amount sufficient to treat the condition.

The use of a compound of the invention in the manufacture of a medicament as hereinbefore defined includes the use of the compound directly, or in any stage of the manufacture of such a medicament, or in vitro in a screening programme to identify further agents for the prevention or treatment of the hereinbefore defined diseases or conditions.

A further aspect of the invention relates to the use of a compound of formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate or physiologically hydrolysable, solubilising or immobilising derivative thereof, in an assay for identifying candidate compounds capable of treating one or more disorders or diseases as hereinbefore defined.

PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITIONS

In a further aspect of the invention there is provided a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of formula I or subformulae or its pharmaceutically acceptable salt or physiologically hydrolysable derivative as hereinbefore defined in association with one or more pharmaceutical carriers, excipients or diluents. Suitable carriers, excipients or diluents may be selected having regard to the intended mode of administration and standard practice. The pharmaceutical compositions may be for human or animal usage in human and veterinary medicine, preferably for treatment of a condition, disease or disorder as hereinbefore defined

Examples of suitable carriers include lactose, starch, glucose, methyl cellulose, magnesium stearate, mannitol, sorbitol and the like.

A composition or compound of the invention is suitably for any desired mode of administration including oral, rectal, vaginal, parenteral, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, intraarterial, intrathecal, intrabronchial, subcutaneous, intradermal, intravenous, nasal, buccal or sublingual and the like. An indicated daily dosage is from about 1 mg to about 500mg and compositions for oral administration generally contain from about 0.25mg to about 250 mg of the compound together with solid or liquid carriers and diluents. A therapeutically effective amount is any amount from 0.1 % to 99.9% w/w.

A composition for oral administration is suitably formulated as a compressed tablet, tablet, capsule, gel capsule, powder, solution, dispersion, suspension or the like. Such forms may be produced according to known methods and may include any suitable binder, lubricant, suspending agent, coating agent or solubilising agent or combinations thereof.

A composition for administration by means of injection is suitably formulated as a sterile solution or emulsion from a suitable solution or powder. Alternatively a composition may be in the form of suppositories, pessaries, suspensions, emulsions, lotions, creams, ointments, skin patches, gels, solgels, sprays, solutions or dusting powders.

A composition may include one or more additional active ingredients or may be administered together with compositions comprising other active ingredients for the same or different condition. An additional active ingredient is suitably selected from a diuretic, calcium channel antagonist, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, angiotensin receptor antagonist and the like.

In a further aspect of the invention there is provided the use of a compound of formula I or subformulae or a composition as hereinbefore defined in the prevention or treatment of a condition selected from ischaemic heart disease (also known as myocardial infarction or angina), hypertension and heart failure. In a particular advantage a compound or composition of the invention may be administered to a subject with, or used in the prevention or treatment of a subject suffering from one of the above conditions and from respiratory disease, in particular from asthma or COPD. In a further advantage a compound or composition of the invention may be administered to a subject with, or used in the prevention or treatment of a subject suffering from one of the above conditions and intolerant to a side effect associated with known beta blockers. In a further advantage a compound or composition of the invention has good oral bioavailability.

We have found that the compounds and compositions of the invention block beta-1 mediated responses but have substantially no affect on beta-2 mediated responses in a conscious animal. The beta-1 mediated responses include tachycardia, reflex heart rate response etc and the like, and are implicated in the above conditions. The beta-2 mediated responses include peripheral vascular conductance, hypotension and the like and are implicated in respiratory conditions. Throughout the description and claims of this specification, the words "comprise" and "contain" and variations of the words, for example "comprising" and "comprises", means "including but not limited to", and is not intended to (and does not) exclude other moieties, additives, components, integers or steps. Throughout the description and claims of this specification, the singular encompasses the plural unless the context otherwise requires. In particular, where the indefinite article is used, the specification is to be understood as contemplating plurality as well as singularity, unless the context requires otherwise. Experimental - Abbreviationsl °, primary; 4°, quaternary; Ar, aromatic ring; Bn, benzyl; BnBr, benzyl bromide; Boc, tert-butylcarbonate; Boc 2 0, di-tert-butyl dicarboxylate; br, broad; brine, saturated sodium chloride solution; C, carbon; cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate; CDCI 3 , deuterated chloroform ; m-CPBA, mefa-chloroperoxybenzoic acid; COMFA, comparative molecular field analysis; COSY, correlation spectroscopy; d, doublet; D 2 0, deuterated water; DBAD, di-fe/t- butyl azodicarboxylate; DCC, dicyclohexylcarbodiimide; DCM, dichloromethane; dd, doublet of doublets; DEAD, diethyl azodicarboxylate; def, deformation; DEPT, distortionless enhanced polarisation transfer; DIAD, diisopropyl azodicarboxylate; DMF, N,N - dimethylformamide; DMSO, dimethyl sulphoxide; DMSO-d 6 , deuterated dimethyl sulphoxide; DPPA, Diphenylphosphoryl azide; dt, doublet of triplets; EDC, 1 -ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride; EDTA, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid; eq, molar equivalents; ES, electrospray; Et 2 0, diethyl ether; EtOAc, ethyl acetate; EtOH, ethanol; FA, formic acid; FT-IR, fourier transform - Infrared; H 2 , hydrogen gas; HCI, hydrochloric acid; HFIP, 1 , 1 , 1 ,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol; HMBC, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation; HPLC, high performance liquid chromatography; HSQC, heteronuclear single quantum correlation; J, Coupling constant; J C F, Carbon-Fluorine coupling constant; K 2 C0 3 , Potassium carbonate; KHS0 4 , potassium hydrogen sulfonate; KMn0 4 , potassium permanganate; lit, literature; m, multiplet; MeCN, acetonitrile; MeOH, methanol; MgS0 4 , anhydrous magnesium sulphate; Mp, melting point/°C; MS, mass spectrometry; MW, microwave; m/z, observed ion ; NaH, sodium hydride; NaHC03, Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate; NaOH, sodium hydroxide; NH 3 , Aqueous ammonia solution (35%); NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Pd, palladium; PDE, phosphodiesterase; PE, petroleum ether 40-60; phth, phthalimide; PLC, preparative layer chromatography; PMA, phosphomolybdic acid; ppm, parts per million; PPTS, pyridinium para-tolueunesulphonate; c Pe, cyclopentyl; c Pr, cyclopropyl; p- TsCI, para-toluene sulfonylchloride; q, quadruplet; R t , retention time; rt, room temperature; s, singlet; str, stretch ; t, triplet; TBME, ieri-butyl methyl ether; TEA, triethylamine; TFA, trifluoroacetic acid; THF, tetrahydrofuran; THP, tetrahydropyran; TMS, tetramethylsilane; TOF, time of flight.

General Chemistry

Chemicals and solvents were purchased from standard suppliers and used without further purification. Merck Kieselgel 60, 230-400 mesh, for flash column chromatography was supplied by Merck KgaA (Darmstadt, Germany) and deuterated solvents were purchased from Goss International Limited (England) and Sigma-Aldrich Company Ltd (England).

Unless otherwise stated, reactions were carried out at ambient temperature. Reactions were monitored by thin layer chromatography on commercially available precoated aluminium backed plates (Merck Kieselgel 60 F 254 ). Visualisation was by examination under UV light (254 and 366 nm). General staining carried out with Ninhydrin, KMn0 4 or PMA. All organic extracts after aqueous work-up procedures were dried over MgS0 4 before gravity filtering and evaporation to dryness. Organic solvents were evaporated under reduced pressure at < 40 °C (water bath temperature). Purification using preparative layer chromatography was carried out using Fluka silica gel 60 PF 25 containing gypsum (200 mm x 200 mm x 1 mm). Flash chromatography was performed using Merck Kieselgel 60 (0.040-0.063 mm).

Melting points were recorded on a Reichert 7905 apparatus, Mettler Toledo Melting Point System MP50, or Perkin Elmer Pyris 1 differential scanning calorimeter and were uncorrected. FT-IR spectra were recorded as thin films or KBr discs in the range of 4000 - 500 cm "1 using and Avatar 360 Nicolet FT-IR spectrophotometer. Optical rotation was measured on a Bellingham-Stanley ADP220 polarimeter.

Mass spectra (TOF ES +/-) were recorded on a Waters 2795 separation module/micromass LCT platform.

1 H NMR spectra were recorded on a Bruker-AV 400 at 400.13 MHz. 13 C NMR spectra were recorded at 101 .62 MHz. Chemical shifts (δ) are recorded in ppm with reference to the chemical shift of the deuterated solvent/an internal TMS standard. Coupling constants (J) are recorded in Hz and the significant multiplicites described by singlet (s), doublet (d), triplet (t), quadruplet (q), broad (br), multiplet (m), doublet of doublets (dd), doublet of triplets (dt). Spectra were assigned using appropriate COSY, DEPT, HSQC and HMBC sequences. Unless otherwise stated all spectra were recorded in CDCI 3 .

Analytical HPLC to confirm purity was performed using two different conditions from the following list . All retention times are quoted in minutes.

System 1 (s1 ) : Phenomenex Onyx Monolithic reverse phase C 18 column (100 x 4.6 mm), a flow rate of 5.00 mL/min (system 1 a) or 3.00 mL/min (system 1 b) and UV detection at 287 nm. Linear gradient 5% - 95% solvent B over 10 minutes. Solvent A: 0.1 % FA in water; solvent B: 0.1 % FA in MeCN.

System 2 (s2): Vydac reverse phase C 8 column (150 x 4.6 mm), a flow rate of 1 .00 mL/min and UV detection at 287 nm. Linear gradient 5% - 95% solvent B over 24 minutes. Solvent A: 0.06% TFA in water; solvent B: 0.06% TFA in MeCN.

System 3 (s3): Waters symmetry reverse phase Ci 8 column (75 x 4.6 mm), a flow rate of 1 .00 mL/min and UV detection at 287 nm. Linear gradient 5% - 95% solvent B over 20 minutes. Solvent A: 0.1 % FA in water; solvent B: 0.1 % FA in MeOH.

System 4 (s4): Shimadzu UFLCXR system coupled to an Applied Biosystems API2000. Gemini-NX 3u-1 10A, 50 x 2 mm column thermoregulated at 40°C. Flow rate 0.5ml/min. UV detection at 220 and 254nm. Gradient: Pre-equilibration run for one minute at 10% solvent B, 10 to 98% solvent B in 2 minutes, 98% solvent B for 2 minutes, 98 to 10% solvent B in 0.5 minutes, then 10% solvent B for one minute. Solvent A: 0.1 % Formic Acid in water; Solvent B: 0.1 % Formic Acid in MeCN. System 5: Shimadzu UFLCXR system coupled to an Applied Biosystems API2000. Luna 3u (PFP2) 1 1 OA, 50 x 2 mm column thermoregulated at 40°C. Flow rate 0.5ml/min. UV detection at 220 and 254nm. Gradient: Pre-equilibration run for one minute at 10% solvent B, 10 to 98% solvent B in 2 minutes, 98% solvent B for 2 minutes, 98 to 1 0% solvent B in 0.5 minutes, then 10% solvent B for one minute. Solvent A: 0.1 % Formic Acid in water; Solvent B: 0.1 % Formic Acid in MeCN.

Preparative HPLC was performed using a Phenomenex Onyx Monolithic reverse phase C 18 column (100 x 10 mm), a flow rate of 14.1 0 mL/min and UV detection at 287 nm. Samples were run in 5% - 95% solvent B over 10 minutes. Solvent A: 0.1 % FA in water; solvent B: 0.1 % FA in MeCN.

PREPARATION OF INTERMEDIATES - Scheme 1 and 2

2-(2-(Cyclopropylmethoxy)ethoxy)-tetrahydro-2H-pyran (2)

NaH 60% suspension in mineral oil (6.659 g, equivalent to 3.995 g of NaH, 0.166 mol, 1 .2 eq) was weighed into a flame-dried flask and washed with hexanes (2 x 50 mL) under nitrogen atmosphere. Residual hexanes were allowed to evaporate under nitrogen flow before suspending the NaH in dry THF and cooling to 0 °C. 1 (10.000 g, 0.139 mol) was dissolved in dry THF (20 mL) and dry DMF (30 mL) before adding dropwise over 30 minutes to the suspended NaH with stirring. The mixture was brought to rt before dropwise addition of 2-chloroethoxytetrahydro--?/-/- pyran (30.71 mL 0.208 mol 1 .5 eq) in dry THF (20 mL) over 30 minutes. The mixture was stirred at rt overnight before quenching with MeOH (20 mL). All solvents were removed before dissolving the residue in Et 2 0 (200 mL) and washing with water (2 x 150 mL) and brine (150 mL). After removal of solvent, the resulting crude oil was purified by flash column chromatography (eluent DCM) to give 5.878 g colourless oil. 2-(Cyclopropylmethoxy)ethanol (3)

2 (1 .800 g, 8.99 mmol) was diluted in EtOH (60 mL). PPTS (226 mg, 0.90 mmol, 0.1 eq) in EtOH (15 mL) was added and the solution stirred at 55 °C for 4 h. Excess solvent was removed and on dilution of the residue with pet ether 40 °-60 °C/Et 2 0 (15:85), PPTS precipitated out. Following filtration of PPTS the remaining crude product was purified by flash column chromatography (eluent pet ether 40 °-60 °C/Et 2 0 15:85) to afford 670 mg colourless oil.

2-(4-Fluorophenethyloxy)acetic acid (5)

NaH 60% suspension in mineral oil (2.400 g, equivalent to 1 .440 g of NaH, 60 mmol, 2 eq) was weighed into a flame-dried flask and suspended in dry D F (60 mL) with stirring, under a nitrogen atmosphere. To this was added 4 (4.205 g, 3.751 mL, 30 mL) and the temperature raised to 60 °C with stirring for 15 minutes. Chloroacetic acid (2.835 g, 30 mmol, 1 eq) was added to the flask and the mixture allowed to stir at 60 °C for a further 2.5 h. After cooling and removal of solvent, the residue was suspended in Et 2 0 (30 mL) and extracted with water (2 x 30 mL). The combined aqueous layers were acidified with aqueous 2 HCI (to around pH 3) before extraction with EtOAc (3 x 30 mL). After removal of solvent, the crude solid was recrystallised from cyclohexane to yield 3.000g of pink crystals.

2-(4-Fluorophenethyloxy)ethanol (6)

Lithium Aluminium Hydride (472 mg, 12.45 mmol, 1 eq) suspended in anhydrous THF (15 mL) over ice with stirring. 5 (2.467 g, 12.45 mmol) in anhydrous THF (15 mL) was slowly dripped in the suspension over 10 minutes and the resulting mixture stirred overnight at rt under a nitrogen atmosphere. After quenching carefully with water, the suspension was filtered (gravity) and the filtrate concentrated to an oil. Purification was achieved by flash column chromatography (eluent EtOAc/Hexanes 60:40), yielding 1 .52 g of clear, colourless oil.

2-(Cyclopentyloxy)ethanol (8)

Zirconium chloride (10.021 g, 43 mmol, 1 .1 eq) was dissolved in dry THF (100 mL) under a nitrogen atmosphere. To this was added sodium borohydride (6.507 g, 172 mmol, 4.4 eq) in portions at rt with stirring, resulting in hydrogen gas evolution and formation of a cream suspension. A solution of 7 (5.000 g, 4.85 mL, 39 mmol) in dry THF (50 mL) was added slowly whilst maintaining the vessel temperature between 0 - 5 °C. After stirring at rt for 4 h, the mixture was quenched with cautious addition of aqueous 2 HCI over an ice bath. All organic solvent was removed under vacuum and the remaining aqueous slurry extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (1 x 30 mL) before concentration to a crude oil. This was purified by flash column chromatography (eluent EtOAc/hexanes 50:50) to give 4.1 14 g of clear colourless oil.

1 -(2-(Allyloxy)ethoxy)-4-(benzyloxy)benzene (8b)

8a (1 0g, 98 mmol), triphenylphosphine (30.8g, 1 17 mmol, 1 .2 eq), and 4-(benzyloxy)phenol (23.8g, 1 17 mmol, 1 .2 eq) were dissolved in DC (350 mL). DIAD (23.14 mL, 1 17 mmol, 1 .2 eq) in DCM (50 mL) was added dropwise to the reaction mixture and allowed to stir overnight. The mixture was concentratwed to a slurry before redissolving in Et 2 0 (300 mL) and filtering any precipitated triphenylphosphine oxide. The filtrate was washed with aq. 2M NaOH (2 x 100 mL), water (100 mL) and brine (100 mL), before concentration to give an oily residue. This was further purified by FCC (eluent Et 2 0/PE 10:90 for 2 column volumes, followed by 1 :4 to elute) to give 25.8g (93%) of 8b as a cream coloured solid.

1 -(Benzyloxy)-4-(2-propoxyethoxy)benzene (8c)

8b (25.8g, 90.73 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous DCM (400 mL) under an atmosphere of nitrogen. Diethylzinc (91 mL, 90.73 mmol, 1 .1 eq) was added, followed by CH 2 I 2 (8.77 mL, 108.88 mmol, 1 .2 eq). The mixture was stirred at rt overnight. Further additions of Simmons-Smith reagents did not cause the reaction to proceed to toal completion. After 10 days of stirring, the reaction mixture was poured on to aq. Sat NH 4 CI (200 mL) in ice, before extracting with DCM (3 x 150 mL). Initial shaking caused an emulsion, which was separated by passing through a bed of celite. The combined organic layers were then washed aq. Sat NaHC0 3 (100 mL). After drying with Na 2 S0 4 , the combined organic layers were passed once more through a bed of celite, followed by a plug of celite. After concentration, 24.6 g of a yellow crystalline solid was obtained. 1 H-nmr analysis indicated between 5-10% starting material was still present, with the remainder being the cyclopropanated product. The crude product was dissolved in THF (400 mL), before addition of 1 0% Pd/C (2.5 g) and hydrogenation at rt. After overnight stirring, no change from the starting material was noted by TLC analysis, so cone. HCI (5 mL) was added and hydrogenation continued for a further 10 days. The mixture was then filtered througha bed of celite, to give a brown crystalline solid. This was redissolved in DCM (100 mL) and washed with aq. sat. EDTA/sat. NaHC0 3 (1 :1 ) (100 mL). The aqueous layer was washed with DCM ( 2 x 200 mL). The combined organic layers were filtered through a bed of celite and concentrated to give a clear colourless oil, purified by FCC (eluent TBME/PE 0:100 to 30:70) to give 8c as white crystalline solid (1 .569 g, 6%) and 39a (19.017g, 70%).

4-(2-(Vinyloxy)ethoxy)phenyl benzoate (8e)

8d and 4-hydroxyphenyl benzoate underwent Mitsunobu coupling in a similar manner to that described for the synthesis of 8b.

4-(2-Cyclopropoxyethoxy)phenyl benzoate (8f)

Cyclopropanation of 8e was adapted from S.E.Denmark, J. P. Edwards, JOC, 1991 , 56, 6974- 6981 .

4-(2-Cyclopropoxyethoxy)phenol (8g)

Saponification of 8f was carried out in 1 ,2-dioxane/water using NaOH, according to standard textbook protocol.

Table 2 lists the 1 H NMR spectral data for selected compounds from Figure 1 : Cpd m.p n H N R

2 δ 98.88 (CH THP group), 75.92 (OCH 2 c Pr), 69.65 (CH 2 OCH 2 c Pr), 66.66 (THPOCH 2 ), 62.16 (OCH 2 THP group), 30.53 (OCHCH 2 THP group), 25.41 (OCH 2 CH 2 THP group), 19.46 (OCH CH 2 CH 2 THP group), 10.54 ( c Pr CH), 3.00, 2.91 ( c Pr CH 2 ).

3 δ 3.73 - 3.77 (m, 2H, CH^OH), 3.58 (t, J = 4.9 Hz, 2H, CH 2 CH 2 OH), 3.33 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H, "PrCH^O), 2.06 (t, J = 6.6 Hz, 1 H, OH), 1 .08 (m, 1 H, CH), 0.53 - 0.58 (m, 2H, c Pr CH 2 )*, 0.20 - 0.24 (m, 2H, c Pr CH 2 )*. *Refers to cis-protons of c Pr ring.

5 84 δ 8.5 - 10.4 (br s, 1 H, C0 2 H), 7.19 (dd, J = 8.6/5.7 Hz, 2H, aryl 3-H and 5-H), 6.99

(dd, J = 8.6/8.6 Hz, 2H, aryl 2-H and 6-H), 4.12 (s, 2H, CH 2 C0 2 H), 3.76 (t, J = 6.8 Hz, 86 2H, CH 2 0), 2.92 (t, J = 6.8 Hz, 2H, ArCH 2 ).

6 δ 7.15 (dd, J = 8.6/5.5 Hz, 2H, aryl 3-H and 5-H), 6.95 (dd, J = 8.8/8.8 Hz, 2H, aryl 2-H and 6-H), 3.65 - 3.72 (m, 2H, CH 2 OH), 3.65 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H, ArCH 2 CH 2 ), 3.53 (t, J = 4.8 Hz, 2H, OCH 2 CH 2 OH), 2.85 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H, ArCH 2 ), 2.38 (br s, 1 H, OH).

8 δ 3.84 - 3.89 (m, 1 H, CH), 3.60 - 3.63 (m, CH^OH), 3.41 (t, J = 4.9 Hz, 2H, c PeOCH 2 ), 2.84 (t, J = 5.6 Hz, 1 H, OH), 1 .51 - 1 .72 (m, 6H, c Pe CH 2 ), 1 .38 - 1 .50 (m, 2H, c Pe CH 2 ).

1 -(2-Aminoethyl)-3-(4-(benzyloxy)phenyl)urea (12)

A solution of 4-(benzyloxy)phenylisocyanate (3.739g 16.61 mmol) in anhydrous DCM (30 mL) was dripped into a flask containing vigourously stirred 10 (6 mL, 89.80 mmol, 5.4 eq) under nitrogen. Instant precipitation of a white solid was noted and the reaction was allowed to stir for a further 3 h. After removal of all volatiles, the crude solid was washed with Et 2 0, before drying to give 4.472 g of white solid.

1 -(2-Aminoethyl)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)urea (13)

12 (1 13 mg, 0.40 mmol) was stirred overnight in a solution of concentrated HCI (1 0 mL). All solvent was removed under vacuum and the residue redissolved in water (10 mL) before neutralisation with 0.5 M aqueous NaOH. After removal of water under reduced pressure, the residue was dissolved in the minimum amount of MeOH and filtered (gravity) before purification by PLC (eluent NH 3 /MeOH/DCM 2:25:73). This gave 56 mg of brown semi-solid.

ferf-Butyl 2-aminoethylcarbamate (14)

10 (50 mL, 927 mmol, 8.75 eq) was diluted in DCM (200mL) with vigourous stirring. Di-ferf-butyl dicarbonate (23.2 g, 106 mmol) was dissolved in DCM (1 .3 L) and then added dropwise to the solution of 1 ,2-ethanediamine over 24 hours. After removal of all volatiles, the remaining residue was partitioned between water (250 mL) and DCM (250 mL). The aqueous layer was washed again with DCM (250 mL) before combining the organic solvents and concentrating. The residue was dissolved in aqueous 0.5 M KHS0 4 (250 mL) and washed with DCM (2 x 100 mL). The aqueous layer was then basified with aqueous 2 M NaOH before final extraction with DCM (4 x 100 mL). The combined organic extracts were dried and concentrated to give 12.98g of viscous translucent oil.

Table 3 lists the 1 H NMR spectral data for selected compounds from Figure 2:

General procedure for synthesis of phenyl substituted ferf-butyl 2-13- phenylureidotethylcarbamates

14 (1 eq) was dissolved in dry DC (10 mL per 500mg) and cooled to 0 °C with stirring under a nitrogen atmosphere. To this was added dropwise, a solution of the desired substituted phenylisocyanate (500 mg) in dry DCM (5 mL). In the case of 4-nitrophenylisocyanate, the amine solution was not cooled prior the isocyanate addition. The mixture was stirred overnight at rt, before addition of hexanes or petroleum ether 40-60, until precipitation occurred. The solid mass was collected by filtration (vacuum) and washed with hexanes before drying in vacuo to give the following compounds:

Table 4 lists the 1 H NMR spectral data for selected compounds from Figure 2:

f 102 δ 8.31 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.27 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2H, aryl 2-H and 6-H), 6.85 (t, J = 4.6 Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 6.80 (d, J =9.0 Hz, 2H, aryl 3-H and 5-H), 6.04 (t, J = 104 5.6 Hz, 1H, 0(C=0)NH) 3.68 (s, 3H, OCH 3 ), 3.10 (dt, J = 6.4/6.4 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 2.98 (dt, J = 5.8/5.8 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)0), 1.37 (s, 9H, C(CH 3 ) 3 ).

g 181 δ 8.32 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 8.11 (dd, J = 7.2 Hz, aryl 5-H), 7.16 (ddd, J =

11.8/8.2/1.4 Hz, 1H, aryl 3-H), 7.06 (dd, J = 7.9/7.9 Hz, 1H, aryl 4-H), 6.85 - 6.93 183 (m, 2H, NH(C=0)NHAr, aryl 6-H), 6.66 (t, J = 5.5 Hz, 1H, 0(C=0)NH), 3.12 (dt, J = 6.3/6.3 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 2.99 (dt, J = 5.8/5.8 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)0), 1.37 (s, 9H, C(CH 3 ) 3 ).

h 114 δ 8.78 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.45 (ddd, J = 12.3/2.2/2.2 Hz, 1H, aryl 2-H), 7.22

(ddd, J = 8.2/8.2/8.2 Hz, 1H, aryl 5-H), 7.01 (dd, J = 8.2/1.1 Hz, 1H, aryl 6-H), 6.86 116 (t, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 6.68 (dd, J = 8.7/2.5 Hz, 1H, aryl 4-H), 6.22 (t, J = 5.5 Hz, 1H, 0(C=0)NH), 3.12 (dt, J = 6.4/6.44 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 3.00 (dt, J = 5.8/5.8 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)0), 1.37 (s, 9H, C(CH 3 ) 3 ).

i 152 δ 8.56 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.38 (dd, J = 7.0/5.0 Hz, 2H, aryl 2-H and 6-H), 7.04

(dd, J = 8.9/8.9 Hz, 2H, aryl 3-H and 5-H), 6.86 (t, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 154 6.13 (t, J = 5.5 Hz, 1H, 0(C=0)NH), 3.11 (dt, J = 6.4/6.44 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 2.99 (dt, J = 5.8/5.8 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)0), 1.37 (s, 9H, C(CH 3 ) 3 ).

j 167 δ 8.14 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H, aryl 6-H), 8.03 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.38 (dd, J =

8.0/1.4 Hz, 1 H, aryl 3-H), 7.23 (ddd, J = 7.8/7.8/1.4 Hz, 1 H, aryl C-H), 7.07 (t, J = 5.3 169 Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 6.94 (dd, J = 7.8/1.5 Hz, 1H, aryl C-H), 6.87 (t, J =5.2 Hz, 1H, 0(C=0)NH), 3.13 (dt, J= 6.3/6.3 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 3.00 (dt, J= 5.8/5.8 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)0), 1.38 (s, 9H, C(CH 3 ) 3 ).

k 117 δ 8.76 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.66 (s, 1H, aryl 2-H), 7.21 (dd, J= 7.9/7.9 Hz, 1H, aryl 5-H), 7.17 (d, J= 8.2 Hz, 1H, aryl C-H), 6.92 (d, J= 7.7 Hz, 1H, aryl C-H), 6.87 119 (t, J= 5.1 Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 6.23 (t, J=5.3 Hz, 1H, 0(C=0)NH), 3.11 (dt, J = 6.1/6.1 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 3.00 (dt, J = 5.8/5.8 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)0), 1.37 (s, 9H, C(CH 3 ) 3 ).

1 165 δ 8.70 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.41 (d, J= 8.9 Hz, 2H, aryl C-H), 7.25 (d, J= 8.9

Hz, 2H, aryl C-H), 6.86 (t, J= 5.3 Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 6.20 (t, J= 5.5 Hz, 1H, 167 0(C=0)NH), 3.11 (dt, J= 6.4/6.4 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 2.99 (dt, J= 5.8/5.8 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)0), 1.37 (s, 9H, C(CH 3 ) 3 ).

m 136 δ 8.06 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H, aryl 6-H), 7.85 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.54 (dd, J =

8.0/1.4 Hz, 1H, aryl 3-H), 7.27 (ddd, J= 7.8/7.8/1.4 Hz, 1H, aryl C-H), 7.14 (t, J =5.4 138 Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 6.85 - 6.90 (m, 2H, aryl C-H, 0(C=0)NH), 3.12 (dt, J = 6.4/6.4 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 3.01 (dt, J = 5.8/5.8 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)0), 1.38 (s, 9H, C(CH 3 ) 3 ).

n 122 δ 8.76 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.81 (dd, J= 1.8/1.8 Hz, 1H, aryl 2-H), 7.21 (ddd, J =

8.5/1.4/1.4 Hz, 1H, aryl C-H), 7.16 (dd, J = 7.8/7.8 Hz, 1H, aryl 5-H), 7.05 (ddd, J = 124 7.7/1.2/1.2 Hz, 1 H, aryl C-H), 6.86 (t, J = 5.3 Hz, 1 H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 6.24 (t, J = 5.5 Hz, 1H, 0(C=0)NH), 3.11 (dt, J= 6.3/6.3 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 3.00 (dt, J = 5.8/5.8 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)0), 1.37 (s, 9H, C(CH 3 ) 3 ).

o 192 δ 8.70 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.37 (s, 4H, aryl C-H), 6.86 (t, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H,

NH(C=0)NHAr), 6.20 (t, J= 5.5 Hz, 1 H, 0(C=0)NH), 3.11 (dt, J= 6.3/6.3 Hz, 2H, 194 CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 2.99 (dt, J = 5.8/5.8 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)0), 1.37 (s, 9H, C(CH 3 ) 3 ).

p 149 δ 7.96 (d, J= 8.2 Hz, 1H, aryl C-H), 7.80 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.60 (d, J= 7.9

Hz, 1H, aryl C-H), 7.56 (dd, J= 8.1/8.1 Hz, 1H, aryl C-H), 7.17 (dd, J= 7.4/7.4 Hz, 151 1H, aryl C-H), 7.03-7.10 (m, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 6.82-6.90 (m, 1H, 0(C=0)NH), 3.08-3.18 (m, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 2.95 -3.06 (m, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)0), 1.38 (s, 9H, C(CH 3 ) 3 ). 15q 102 δ 8.93 (s, 1 H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.97 (s, 1 H, aryl 2-H), 7.49 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 1 H, aryl 6- H), 7.43 (dd, J = 7.6/7.6 Hz, 1 H, aryl 5-H), 7.21 (d, J = 7.4 Hz, 1 H, aryl 4-H), 6.87 (t, J 103 = 5.1 Hz, 1 H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 6.28 (t, J = 5.2 Hz, 1 H, 0(C=0)NH), 3.13 (dt, J = 6.3/6.3 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 3.01 (dt, J = 5.8/5.8 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)0), 1 .37 (s, 9H, C(CH 3 ) 3 ).

15r 194 δ 8.99 (s, 1 H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.59 (d, J = 9.1 Hz, 2H, aryl C-H), 7.55 (d, J = 9.1 Hz,

2H, aryl C-H), 6.88 (t, J = 5.3 Hz, 1 H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 6.31 (t, J = 5.5 Hz, 1 H, 196 0(C=0)NH), 3.13 (dt, J = 6.3/6.3 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 3.01 (dt, J = 5.8/5.8 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)0), 1 .37 (s, 9H, C(CH 3 ) 3 ).

21 a δ 8.81 (s, 1 H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.62 (ddd, J = 13.7/7.5/2.6 Hz, 1 H, aryl 2-H), 7.26 (ddd, J = 10.6/9.5/9.2 Hz, 1 H, aryl 5-H), 6.98 - 7.05 (m, 1 H, aryl 6-H), 6.84 (t, J = 4.6 Hz, 1 H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 6.24 (t, J = 5.8 Hz, 1 H, 0(C=0)NH), 3.1 1 (dt, J = 6.2/5.8 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 2.99 (dt, J = 6.2/5.8 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)0), 1 .37 (s, 9H, C(CH 3 ) 3 ).

19 138 (CDCI 3 ): 6 7.85 (br s, 1 H, NH(C=S)NHPh), 7.42 (dd, J = 7.7/7.7 Hz, 2H, 3-H and 5-H phenyl ring), 7.29 (dd, J = 7.3/7.3 Hz, 1 H, 4-H phenyl ring), 7.22 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 2H, 2- 140 H and 6-H phenyl ring), 6.85 (br s, 1 H, 0(C=0)NH), 4.90 (br s, 1 H, NH(C=S)NHPh), 3.74 (dt, J = 5.9/5.2 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=S)NH), 3.32 (dt, J = 6.3/5.6 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)0), 1 .34 (s, 9H, C(CH 3 ) 3 ).

General procedure for synthesis of phenyl substituted 1 -(2-aminoethyl)-3-(phenyl)urea hydrochlorides

The desired phenyl substituted Boc-protected phenylurea (compounds 15a-15r) was dissolved in MeOH (6 mL) with the aid of sonication and heat if necessary. This was then added to vigorously stirred concentrated aqueous HCI (5 mL) and stirred for 3 hours. All solvents were removed under vacuum and the resulting hydrochloride salts of the desired compounds were freeze-dried.

1 -(2-aminoethyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)urea hydrochlorides (16s)

15s (1 .66g, 5.12 mmol) was dispersed in DCM/THF (1 :1 , 10 mL), with addition of MeOH to complete dissolution. To this stirred solution was added 4M HCI/dioxane (15 mL) and stirring continued at rt for 1 hour. Addition of excess petroleum ether 40-60 coused precipitation of the desired compound as a yellow amorphous solid, which was collected by filtration (vacuum) to give 1 .123g (84%) of 16s.

Methyl 3-(3-(2-aminoethyl)ureido)benzoate hydrochloride (16t)

15t (2.343g, 6.94 mmol) was dispersed in 3N HCI in MeOH (30 mL) and stirred at rt for 2 hours during which time the initially white suspension turned to a clear solution. LC-MS analysis indicated the reaction was complete. The mixture was concentrated to give 16t in quantitative yield as an off-white amorphous solid.

Methyl 4-(3-(2-aminoethyl)ureido)benzoate hydrochloride (16u)

15u underwent deprotection as described in the synthesis of 16t to give 16u as a white

amorphous solid in quantitative yield.

Table 5 lists the 1 H NMR spectral data for selected compounds from Scheme 2:

16c δ 8.95 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 8.01 (br s, 3H, NH 3 + ), 7.29 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 2H, aryl 2-H and

214- 6-H), 7.02 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 2H, aryl 3-H and 5-H), 6.63 (t, J= 5.8 Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr),

216 3.31 (dt, J = 6.2/6.2 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 2.86 (t, J = 6.2 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH 3 + ), 2.20 (s, 3H, CH 3 ).

16d δ 8.05 (dd, J = 7.8/1.8 Hz, 1H, aryl 6-H), 8.03 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 8.00 (br s, 3H,

156- NH 3 + ), 7.19 - 7.26 (m, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 6.96 (dd, J= 7.9/1.6 Hz, 1H, aryl 3-H), 6.88

158 (ddd, J= 7 A/7 ΑΙλ.8 Hz, 1H, aryl C-H), 6.84 (ddd, J= 7.8/7.8/1.7 Hz, 1H, aryl C-H), 3.82 (s, 3H, CH 3 ), 3.31 (dt, J = 6.1/6.1 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 2.87 (tq, J = 5.8/5.8 Hz, CH 2 NH 3 + ).

16e δ 9.03 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.95 (br s, 3H, NH 3 + ), 7.16 (dd, J = 2.212.2 Hz, 1H, aryl 2-

183- H), 7.11 (dd, J = 8.1/8.1 Hz, 1 H, aryl 5-H), 6.89 (dd, J = 8.1/1.7 Hz, 1 H, aryl 6-H), 6.61 (t, J

188 = 5.7 Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 6.48 (dd, J= 8.1/2.4 Hz, 1H, aryl 4-H), 3.69 (s, 3H, CH 3 ), 3.32 (dt, J = 6.2/6.2 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 2.87 (tq, J = 5.9/5.9 Hz, CH 2 NH 3 + ).

16f δ 8.75 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.93 (br s, 3H, NH 3 + ), 7.30 (d, J= 9.1 Hz, 2H, aryl 2-H and

180- 6-H), 6.81 (d, J= 9.1 Hz, 2H, aryl 3-H and 5-H), 6.47 (t, J= 5.8 Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr),

182 3.69 (s, 3H, CH 3 ), 3.33 (dt, J = 6.1/6.1 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 2.86 (tq, J = 5.8/5.8 Hz, CH 2 NH 3 + ).

16g δ 8.57 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 8.05 -8.10 (m, 4H, aryl C-H, NH 3 + ), 7.11 -7.21

208- (m, 2H, aryl 3-H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.08 (dd, J = 7.8/7.8 Hz, 1 H, aryl C-H), 6.90 - 6.96 (m,

210 1H, aryl C-H), 3.34 (dt, J = 6.0/6.0 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 2.88 (t, J = 6.2 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH 3 + ).

16h δ 9.42 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 8.00 (br s, 3H, NH 3 + ), 7.46 (ddd, J= 12.3/2.2/2.2 Hz, 1H,

184- aryl 2-H), 7.23 (ddd, J= 8.2/8.2/7.0 Hz, 1H, aryl 5-H), 7.06 (dd, J = 8.2/1.8 Hz, 1H, aryl 6-

186 H), 6.76 (t, J = 5.8 Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 6.69 (ddd, J= 8.7/8.7/2.5 Hz, 1H, aryl 4-H), 3.33 (dt, J= 6.2/6.2 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 2.87 (tq, J= 5.4/5.4 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH 3 + ).

16i δ 9.17 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 8.02 (br s, 3H, NH 3 + ), 7.42 (dd, J = 9.2/5.0 Hz, 2H, aryl 2-H

203- and 6-H), 7.05 (dd, J = 8.9/8.9 Hz, 2H, aryl 3-H and 5-H), 6.62 - 6.73 (m, 1H,

205 NH(C=0)NHAr), 3.27 - 3.38 (m, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 2.86 (tq, J = 5.7/5.7 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH 3 + ).

16j δ 8.44 (br s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 8.12 (dd, J= 8.3/1.5 Hz, 1H, aryl C-H), 8.07 (br s, 3H,

205- NH 3 + ), 7.52 (t, J= 5.6 Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.40 (dd, J= 8.0/1.5 Hz, 1H, aryl C-H), 7.24

207 (dd, J= 7.8/1.4 Hz, 1H, aryl C-H), 6.96 (dd, J = 7.8/1.5 Hz, 1H, aryl C-H), 3.31 -3.39 (m, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 2.89 (br s, 2H, CH 2 NH 3 + ).

16k δ 9.25 (s, 1 H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.86 (br s, 3H, NH 3 + ), 7.66 - 7.70 (m, 1 H, aryl 2-H), 7.20 -

193- 7.27 (m, 2H, aryl C-H), 6.94 (ddd, J= 6.7/2.2/2.2 Hz, 1H, aryl C-H), 6.62 (t, J= 5.8 Hz, 1H,

195 NH(C=0)NHAr), 3.32 (dt, J= 6.2/6.2 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 2.88 (tq, J= 5.8/5.8 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH 3 + ).

161 δ 9.25 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.95 (br s, 3H, NH 3 + ), 7.45, 7.27 (d, J= 8.9 Hz, 2 x 2H, aryl

223- C-H), 6.67 (t, J = 5.8 Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 3.32 (dt, J = 6.2/6.2 Hz, 2H,

225 CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 2.87 (tq, J= 5.7/5.7 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH 3 + ).

16m 8.09 (br s, 3H, NH 3 + ), 7.99 - 8.06 (m, 2H, NH(C=0)NHAr, aryl C-H), 7.54 - 7.60 (m, 2H,

195- NH(C=0)NHAr, aryl C-H), 7.28 (dd, J= 7.8/1.4 Hz, 1H, aryl C-H), 6.91 (dd, J = 8.0/1.6 Hz,

197 1H, aryl C-H), 3.29 - 3.38 (m, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 2.89 (tq, J = 5.6/5.6 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH 3 + ).

16n δ 9.41 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.98 (br s, 3H, NH 3 + ), 7.82 (dd, J= 1.9/1.9 Hz, 1H, aryl 2-

196- H), 7.28 (ddd, J= 8.2/1.9/0.9 Hz, 1H, aryl C-H), 7.17 (dd, J= 8.0/8.0 Hz, 1H, aryl 5-H), 7.06

198 (ddd, J = 7.9/1.9/1.0 Hz, 1H, aryl C-H), 6.76 (t, J= 5.8 Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 3.32 (dt, J = 6.3/6.3 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 2.87 (t, J= 5.8 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH 3 + ).

16o δ 9.30 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.98 (br s, 3H, NH 3 + ), 7.37 - 7.43 (m, 4H, aryl C-H), 6.71 (t,

229- J= 5.8 Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 3.32 (dt, J= 6.3/6.3 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 2.87 (t, J =

231 5.6 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH 3 + ).

16p 8.09 (br s, 3H, NH 3 + ), 8.01 (s, 1 H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.94 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 1 H, aryl 6-H), 7.62

153- (d, J= 7.9 Hz, 1H, aryl 3-H), 7.58 (dd, J= 8.1/8.1 Hz, 1H, aryl C-H), 7.46 (t, J=5.5 Hz, 1H,

155 NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.21 (dd, J = 7.6/7.6 Hz, 1H, aryl C-H), 3.32 - 3.39 (m, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 2.89 (t, J= 6.3 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH 3 + ).

16q 9.59 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.92 - 8.04 (m, 4H, aryl 2-H, NH 3 + ), 7.55 (d, J= 8.5 Hz, 1H,

175- aryl 6-H), 7.45 (dd, J= 7.8/7.8 Hz, 1H, aryl 5-H), 7.22 (d, J= 7.6 Hz, 1H, aryl 4-H), 6.80 (t,

177 J= 5.7 Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 3.30-3.40 (m, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 2.89 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH 3 + ). 16r δ 9.66 (s, 1 H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 8.02 (br s, 3H, NH 3 + ), 7.62 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 2H, aryl 2-H and 203- 6-H), 7.57 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 2H, aryl 3-H and 5-H), 6.87 (t, J = 5.8 Hz, 1 H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 206 I 3.35 (dt, J = 6.1 /6.1 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH(C=0)NH), 2.89 (t, J = 6.2 Hz, 2H, CH g NH 3 + ). ferf-Butyl 2-(2-phenylacetamido)ethylcarbamate (17)

14 (1 g, 6.25 mmol) and TEA (958 μί, 6.88 mmol, 1 .1 eq) were dissolved in dry DCM (20 mL) and cooled to 0 °C under a nitrogen atmosphere. Phenyl acetyl chloride (826 μΙ_, 6.25 mmol, 1 eq) was added and the mixture stirred at rt for 2 hours. The TEA.HCI salt was filtered before concentration of the filtrate under reduced pressure. The crude residue was dissolved in EtOAc (50 mL) and washed with acidified water (25 mL, pH 4 adjusted using aqueous 1 KHS0 4 ), aqueous 2M NaOH (25 mL) and water (25 mL). The organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure to give 1 .460 g of white solid requiring no further purification.

General procedure for synthesis of ferf-butyl 2-(2-

(hvdroxyphenyl)acetamido)ethylcarbamates (17a-c)

2-, 3- or 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (2.59 g, 17.02 mmol) was dissolved in DCM (40mL) with the aid of sonication and heat where necessary. To this was added DCC (3.86g, 18.73 mmol, 1 .1 eq) and the mixture was stirred for 30 min. 14 (3.00g, 18.73 mmol, 1.1 eq) was then added and the mixture was stirred for 48h. The reaction mixture was filtered under vacuum and the filtrate washed with DCM (3 x 20mL). The combined organic filtrates were washed with acidified water (acidified using aqueous 1 M KHS0 4 , 2 x 20mL) before concentration under reduced pressure. After solvent removal, 17a-c were purified using column chromatography (eluent EtOAc/Pet Ether).

Table 6 lists the 1 H NMR spectral data for selected compounds from Scheme 2:

2-(2-Phenylacetamido)ethylammonium trifluoroacetate (18)

17 (1 .310 g, 4.71 mmol) was dissolved in TFA/DCM (20 mL 1 :1 ) and stirred for 2 hours at rt. Removal of volatiles under reduced pressure gave 1 .518 g of semi-solid requiring no further purification. General procedure for synthesis of phenyl substituted A -(2-aminoethyl)-2- (hvdroxyphenyl)acetamide hydrochlorides and M-(4-amino) hvdroxyphenylbutanamine hydrochlorides (18a-c. 26 a-c)

17a-c or 25a-b were dissolved in the minimum required volume of eOH, with the aid of sonication and heat where necessary. The methanolic solution was then added to an equivalent volume of stirred 4 HCI in dioxane. The reaction mixture was stirred for 3 h, before removal of solvent under reduced pressure. The resulting hydrochloride salts of the amines were freeze dried and required no further purification.

Table 7 lists the 1 H N R spectral data for selected compounds from Scheme 2:

ferf-Butyl 2-(3-phenylthioureido)ethylcarbamate (19) - see Table 4

1 -(2-Aminoethyl)-3-phenylthiourea hydrochloride (20)

19 (882 mg, 2.99 mmol) was stirred overnight in 4 HCI in dioxane (20 mL). Removal of all volatiles under reduced pressure gave 592 mg of cream crystalline solid requiring no further purification, listed in Table 7 below:

ferf-Butyl 2-(benzylsulfonamido)ethylcarbamate (21 )

14 (500 mg, 3.12 mmol) and TEA (478 μί, 3.43 mmol, 1 .1 eq) were dissolved in dry DC (10 mL) under a nitrogen atmosphere. Phenylmethanesulfonyl chloride (595 mg, 3.12 mmol, 1 eq) in DCM (5 mL) was added dropwise whilst cooling the mixture over an ice bath. After stirring at rt overnight, the crude mixture was diluted to 30 mL with DCM before washing with aqueous 1 M KHS0 4 (20 mL), aqueous 1 M NaOH (20 mL) and water (20 mL). Removal of all volatiles under reduced pressure gave 761 mg of white solid requiring no further purification, listed in Table 8 below:

21 a - see Table 4

Phenyl-2-(ferf-butyloxycarbonyl)aminoethylcarbamate (21 b)

14 (1 .000 g, 6.25 mmol) and TEA (759 mg, 1.045 mL, 7.5 mmol, 1 .2 eq) were dissolved in dry DCM (20 mL) under a nitrogen atmosphere. Phenylchloroformate (1.076 g, 862 μί, 6.87 mmol, 1 .1 eq) was added and the mixture stirred for 1 hour. After confirmation of total amine consumption by TLC, the mixture was diluted to 50 mL with DCM before washing with aqueous 1 M NaOH (1 x 50 mL), and water (1 x 50 mL). Removal of all volatiles gave 1 .521 g of cream solid which was used without any further purification, listed in Table 9 below:

General procedure for the synthesis of phenyl substituted ferf-butyl 2- ((phenylcarbonyl)amino)ethylcarbamates (21 c-h)

14 (1 eq) and the appropriate substituted benzoic acid (1 eq) were dissolved in DCM, before cooling to 0 °C. EDC (1 .5 eq) in DCM (2mL) was added and the mixture stirred vigorously overnight at rt. The reaction mixture was diluted to 25 mL with DCM before washing with acidified water (20 mL, acidified with aqueous KHS0 4 solution to pH4), and distilled water (20 mL). Concentration of the organic layer and subsequent purification via FCC (eluent EtOAc/PE, various compositions) gave the desired compounds listed in Table 9:

ferf-Butyl 2-(3-(3-chloro-4-methoxyphenyl)ureido)ethylcarbamate (21 i)

Refer to the general procedure for synthesis of phenyl substituted ferf-butyl 2-(3- phenylureido)ethylcarbamates.

Table 9 lists the 1 H NMR spectral data for selected compounds from Figure 2:

A -(Aminoethyl)benzylsulfonamide hydrochloride (22)

Ddeprotection of 21 (704 mg, 2.24 mmol) was achieved as decribed for 19, giving 552 mg of cream solid requiring no further purification.

1 -(2-Aminoethyl)-3-(3,4-difluorophenyl)urea hydrochloride (22a)

21 a (1 .966 g, 6.23 mmol) was dissolved in eOH (1 0 mL) with vigorous stirring. To this was added 4 HCI/dioxane (40 mL) and the solution stirred for 4 hours. After removal of all solvents in vacuo, the crude residue was triturated with toluene and dried to give a beige solid in quantitative yield.

Phenyl 2-aminoethylcarbamate hydrochloride (22b)

21 b was dissolved in Et 2 0 (15 mL) and 4 HCI / dioxane (15 mL). After 10 minutes the formed precipitate was filtered (suction) and washed with Et 2 0 to give a white solid in quantitative yield.

Table 10 lists the 1 H NMR spectral data for selected compounds from Figure 2:

General procedure for synthesis of phenyl substituted A -(2-aminoethyl)benzamide hydrochlorides (22c-h)

Each phenyl substituted ieri-butyl 2-((phenylcarbonyl)amino)ethylcarbamate (0.7 - 1 .5 mmol) (21 c-h) was dissolved in distilled water (3 mL) before adding cone. HCI (2 mL) with care. The reaction mixture was then stirred for 2 hours. Where precipitates formed (fluorine containing analogues) these were collected by filtration (vacuum). In other cases, products were isolated by drying overnight in a freeze-drier.

1 -(2-aminoethyl)-3-(3-chloro-4-methoxyphenyl)urea hydrobromide and 1 -(2-aminoethyl)-3- (3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)urea hydrobromide (mixture of compounds) (22 i)

21 i (500 mg, 1 .45 mmol) was dissolved in dry DC (8 mL) under an atmosphere of nitrogen, and cooled over an ice bath. 1 BBr 3 in DCM (7.6 mL, 5.2 eq) was added with care, before allowing the mixture to warm to rt and stir for 40 minutes. LCMS analysis indicated two product peaks had formed, so the mixture was stired for a further 20 minutes before quenching with eOH (over an ice bath) and concentrating under reduced pressure. The crude product was passed through a silica plug with DCM, followed by 1 M NH 3 in MeOH/DCM (1 :3). The product was found to be a mixture of both the methoxy and demthylated compounds, with no Boc group present. The mixed product was redissolved in dry DCM (25 mL), and 1 M BBr 3 in DCM added (3.5 mL), with overnight stirring at rt. Final after quenching and concentrating as before the crude mixture was used without further purification,

Table 1 1 lists the 1 H NMR spectral data for selected compounds from Figure 2:

Cpd m.p n H N R (D SO-d 6 )

22c δ 12.40 (br s, 1 H, OH), 9.09 (t, J = 5.9 Hz 1 H, NH(C=0)), 8.10 (br s, 3H, NH 3 + ), 7.95 (dd, J = 8.0/1 .4 Hz, 1 H, aryl 6H), 7.41 (ddd, J = 7.7/7.7/1 .6 Hz, 1 H, aryl 4H), 6.86-6.95 (m, 2H, aryl 3H, 5H), 3.57 (dt, J = 6.1/6.6 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH), 3.01 (dt, J = 5.9/ 5.9 Hz, 2H, NH 3 + CH 2 ).

22d δ 8.60 (t, J = 5.7 Hz, 1 H, NH(C=0)), 8.05 (br s, 3H, NH 3 + ), 7.33 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 1 H, aryl 6H), 7.28 (dd, J = 2.0/2.0 Hz, 1 H, aryl 2H), 7.24 (dd, J = 8.2/8.2 Hz, 1 H, aryl 5H), 6.93 (m, 1 H, aryl 4H), 3.49 (dt, J = 6.1 /5.7 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH), 2.96 (tq, J = 6.1 /5.7 Hz, 2H, NH 3 + CH 2 ).

22e 222 - δ 10.06 (br s, 1 H, OH), 8.49 (t, J = 5.5 Hz, 1 H, NH(C=0)), 8.00 (br s, 3H, NH 3 + ), 223 7.78 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H, aryl 2H, 6H), 6.82 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H, aryl 3H, 5H), 3.48 (dt, J = 6.1 / 5.8 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH), 2.90 - 3.03 (m, 2H, NH 3 + CH 2 ).

22f 167 - δ 8.52 (br s, 1 H, NH(C=0)), 8.16 (br s, 3H, NH 3 + ), 7.74 (dt, J = 7.2/7.2/1 .8 Hz, 1 H, 168 aryl 6H), 7.51 - 7.59 (m, 1 H, aryl 4H), 7.26 - 7.33 (m, 2H, aryl 3H, 5H), 3.53 (dt, J = 6.2/5.9 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH), 2.90 - 3.01 (m, 2H, NH 3 + CH 2 ).

22g 189 - δ 8.88 - 8.99 (m, 1 H, NH(C=0)), 8.15 (br s, 3H, NH 3 + ), 7.72-7.83 (m, 2H, aryl 2H, 190 6H), 7.58 - 7.57 (m, 1 H, aryl 4H or 5H), 7.35 - 7.42 (m, 1 H, aryl 4H or 5H), 3.53 (dt, J = 6.1/ 5.6 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH), 2.94 - 3.05 (m, 2H, NH 3 + CH 2 ).

22h 213 - δ 8.85 (t, J = 5.4 Hz, 1 H, NH(C=0)), 8.15 (br s, 3H, NH 3 + ), 8.01 (dd, J = 8.8/5.6 Hz, 214 2H, aryl 2H, 6H), 7.30 (dd, J = 8.8/8.8 Hz, 2H, aryl 3H, 5H), 3.53 (dt, J = 6.1 / 5.9 Hz, 2H, CH 2 NH), 2.93 - 3.04 (m, 2H, NH 3 + CH 2 ). ferf-Butyl 3-carboxypropylcarbamate (24)

23 (3.946 g, 38.27 mmol) and NaHC0 3 (7.07 g, 84.19 mmol, 2.2 eq) were dissolved in water/THF (4:1 , 100 mL). Boc 2 0 (9.186 g, 42.09 mmol, 1 .1 eq) was added and the mixture stirred at rt for 48 hours. THF was removed under reduced pressure before washing the remaining aqueous mixture with DCM (2 x 50 mL). The aqueous layer was then acidified using 2M aqueous HCI to pH 4 before extraction with DCM (4 x 30 mL). The organic layers were combined and concentrated to give 6.71 1 g of clear colourless oil requiring no further purification.

ferf-Butyl 3-(phenylcarbamoyl)propylcarbamate (25)

24 (921 mg, 4.53 mmol) and DCC (1 .028 g, 4.98 mmol, 1 .1 eq) were dissolved in DCM (25 mL) and stirred for 30 minutes. Aniline (454 μί, 4.98 mmol, 1 .1 eq) was added and the mixture stirred at rt for 48 hours. The reaction mixture was diluted to 50 ml with DCM before washing with acidified water (30 ml, pH 4 adjusted using aqueous 1 M KHS0 4 ), saturated aqueous NaHC0 3 (30 mL) and brine (30 mL). The organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure and the crude residue purified via column chromatography (eluent EtOAc/Hexanes 10:90 to 80:20 over 10 column volumes). 25 was recrystallised from MeCN as 700 mg of crystalline white solid.

General procedure for synthesis of ferf-butyl 3;

(hvdroxyphenylcarbamoyl)propylcarbamates (25a-b)

24 (3.00g, 14.76mmol) was dissolved in DCM (40mL). DCC (3.35g, 16.24mmol, 1 .1 eq) was added, and the mixture was stirred for 30 mins. 2- or 3- aminophenol (1 .77g, 16.24mmol, 1 .1 eq) in

DCM (10mL) was then added, and the reaction mixture stirred for 48 h. After isolation of the precipitate by filtration (suction), and washing with DCM (3 x 20mL), the combined filtrates were washed with extracted with acidified water (acidified using aqueous 1 M KHS0 4 , 2 x 20mL) before concentration of the organic layer under reduced pressure. After solvent removal, the products were purified using column chromatography (eluent EtOAc/Pet Ether).

ferf-Butyl 3-(phenoxycarbonyl)propylcarbamate (25c)

24 (2.000 g, 9.84 mmol) and DCC (2.232 g, 10.82 mmol, 1 .1 eq) were dissolved in DCM (30 mL) and stirred for 30 minutes. Phenol (1 .018 g, 10.82 mmol, 1 .1 eq) was added and the mixture stirred for 48 hours. TLC monitoring indicated slow progression of the reaction, thus D AP (122 mg, 1 mmol, 0.1 eq) was added and the reaction left to stir for a further 24 hours. The precipitated Λ/,Λ/'-dicyclohexylurea was filtered (suction) and the filtrate diluted to 50 mL with DC before washing with acidified water (1 x 30 mL, water acidified to pH 4 with aqueous 1 KHS0 4 solution) and aqueous 0.5 NaOH (1 x 30 mL). After concentrating the organic layer, FCC (eluent EtOAc/hexanes 20:80) was required to afford 1 .894 g of white crystalline solid.

Table 12 lists the 1 H N R spectral data for selected compounds from Figure 2:

3- (Phenylcarbamoyl)propylammonium trifluoroacetate (26)

25 (653 mg, 2.35 mmol) was dissolved in TFA/DCM (20 mL 1 :1 ) and stirred for 2 hours at rt. Removal of volatiles under reduced pressure gave 773 mg of semi-solid requiring no further purification.

4- amino-W-(2-hydroxyphenyl)butanamide hydrochloride (26a) and 4-amino-W-(3- hydroxyphenyl)butanamide hydrochloride (26b)

Refer to general procedure for synthesis of phenyl substituted /V-(2-aminoethyl)-2- (hydroxyphenyl)acetamide hydrochlorides and /V-(4-amino) hydroxyphenylbutanamine hydrochlorides.

Phenyl 4-aminobutanoate hydrochloride salt (26c)

25c was deprotected in a similar fashion to 21 b as described in the method for 22b, to give 1 .289 g 26c as a yellow semi-solid. Table 13 lists the 1 H NMR spectral data for selected compounds from Figure 2: Cpd Ή N R (D SO-d 6 )

26 (D SO-d 6 ): 6 10.03 (s, 1 H, NH), 7.87 (br s, 3H, NH 3 + ), 7.59 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H, phenyl 2-H and 6-H), 7.29 (dd, J = 7.6/7.6 Hz, 2H, phenyl 3-H and 5-H), 7.02 (dd, J = 7.4/7.4 Hz, 1 H, phenyl 4-H), 2.80 - 2.91 (m, 2H, CH 2 NH 3 + ), 2.42 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H, COCH 2 ), 1 .85 (tt, J = 7.3 Hz, 2H, CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 ).

26a δ 9.38 (s, 1 H, (C=0)NH), 8.06 (s, 3H, NH 3 + ), 7.72 (dd, J = 8.1 /1 .2 Hz, 1 H, aryl 6H), 6.82- 6.97 (m, 2H, aryl C-H), 6.74 (ddd, J = 7.5/1 .8 Hz, 1 H, aryl C-H), 5.75 (s, 1 H, OH), 2.69 - 2.89 (m, 2H, NH 3 + CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 (C=0)), 1 .81 - 1 .94 (m, 2H, NH 3 + CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 (C=0)), 1 .16 - 1 .32 (m, 2H, NH 3 + CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 (C=0)).

26b δ 10.04 (s, 1 H, (C=0)NH), 8.07 (s, 3H, NH 3 + ), 7.18 (t, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H, (C=0)NH), 6.94 - 7.09 (m, 2H, aryl 2H, 6H), 6.75 - 6.88 (m, 1 H, aryl 5H), 6.37 - 6.50 (m, 1 H, aryl 4H), 5.75 (s, 1 H, OH), 2.71 - 2.88 (m, 2H, NH 3 + CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 (C=0)), 2.41 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H, NH 3 + CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 (C=0)), 1 .80 - 1 .92 (m, 2H, NH 3 + CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 (C=0)).

26c δ 8.22 (br s, 3H, NH 3 + ), 7.42 (ddd, J = 7.6/7.6/2.0 Hz, 2H, aryl 3-H and 5-H), 7.26 (ddd, J = 7.6/7.6/1 .0 Hz, 1 H, aryl 4-H), 7.14 (dd, J = 8.5/1 .4 Hz, 2H, aryl 2-H and 6-H), 2.82 - 2.92 (m, 2H, CH 2 NH 3 + ), 2.74 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H, CH 2 C=0), 1 .93 (tt, J = 7.6/7.6 Hz, 2H,

CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 ).

3-Phthalimidopropanoic acid (28)

Phthalic anhydride (14.8 g, 0.1 mol) and 27 (8.9 g, 0.1 mol, 1 eq) were heated at 150 °C with stirring under a condenser for 2 hours. After cooling to rt, the crude solid was dispersed in water (150 mL) and collected by filtration (suction) before drying to give 20.7 g of white crystalline solid requiring no further purification.

1 -(2-Hydroxyphenyl)-3-(2-phthalimidoethyl)urea (29a)

A solution of 28 (2.000 g, 9.12 mmol), DPPA (1 .966 mL, 9.12 mmol, 1 eq) and TEA (2.543 ml, 2 eq, 1 8.25 mmol) in dry toluene (60 mL) was stirred at rt, under a nitrogen atmosphere. After disappearance of starting materials by TLC (approximately 1 hour), the mixture was refluxed to promote conversion to the isocyanate. After evolution of nitrogen gas had ceased, the reaction mixture was split into half (by volume). 2-aminophenol (747 mg, 1.5 eq, 6.84 mmol) was added to one half of the isocyanate solution and stirred under reflux for 16 hours. On cooling to rt a yellow precipitate formed, which was collected by filtration (suction) and washed with EtOAc. On drying, 867 mg of pale yellow solid was obtained requiring no further purification.

1 -(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-3-(2-phthalimidoethyl)urea (29b)

Isocyanate solution was prepared as described for 29a. To the remaining half portion was added 3-aminophenol (747 mg, 1 .5 eq, 6.84 mmol) and stirred under reflux for 16 hours.

After cooling and removal of solvent, the crude residue was dispersed in EtOAc (50 mL) and washed with aqueous 2 HCI (2 x 30 mL). Concentration of the organic layer gave 1 .134 g of pale yellow solid.

1 -(2-Aminoethyl)-3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)urea hydrochloride (30a)

A solution of 29a (700mg, 2.13 mmol) and hydrazine monohydrate (232 μΙ, 4.5 mmol, 2.1 eq) in EtOH (20 mL) was stirred under reflux for 2 hours. After cooling to rt, solvent was removed under reduced pressure. The crude residue was dispersed in EtOAc (30 mL) and washed with aqueous 2 HCI (2 x 30 mL). The combined aqueous layer were concentrated under reduced pressure to give 296 mg of yellow solid requiring no further purification. 1 - (2-Aminoethyl)-3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)urea hydrochloride (30b)

Deprotection of 29b (700 mg, 2.13 mmol) was carried out as described for 29a to give 252 mg of yellow solid requiring no further purification.

2- (2-Hydroxyethyl)isoindoline-1 ,3-dione (32)

Phthalic anhydride (12.125 g, 81 .86 mmol) and 31 (4.94 mL, 81 .86 mmol, 1 eq) were heated to 175 °C with stirring, under a water condenser for 2 hours. On cooling, the crude solid was crushed before collecting by filtration (suction) and washing with water to give 13.010 g of beige crystalline solid.

2-Phthalimidoethyl phenylcarbamate (33)

32 (2.000 g, 10.46 mmol) was dissolved in dry DC (30 mL) under a nitrogen atmosphere.

Phenyl isocyanate (1 .137 ml, 10.46 mmol, 1 eq) was added and the mixture stirred for 48 hours.

Hexanes were added to the mixture until a precipitation of a solid was observed. After collection by filtration (suction), this crude solid was purified by column chromatography (eluent

EtOAc/Hexanes 30:70 to 50:50 over 10 column volumes to give 400 mg of white solid.

2-Aminoethyl phenylcarbamate hydrochloride (34)

Deprotection of 33 (348 mg, 1 .13 mmol) was carried out as described for 29a to give 1 80 mg of white solid requiring no further purification.

4-Amino-2-fluorophenol (36)

35 (1 .19g, 7.57mmol) was dissolved in methanol (40mL) and hydrogenated over 10% Pd/C (125 mg), at rt and atmospheric pressure. The suspension was filtered over celite and washed with excess eOH. Removal of excess solvent under reduced pressure afforded 867 mg of light brown solid.

1 -(3-Fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(2-phthalimidoethyl)urea (37)

Isocyanate solution was prepared as described for 29a via curtius reaction starting with 28 (1 .000 g, 4.56 mmol). To this was added 36 (830 mg, 6.53 mmol, 1 .4 eq) and stirred with heating under reflux overnight. After cooling, the formed precipitate was collected by filtration (suction) and washed with EtOAc, which on drying gave 866 mg of solid.

1 -(2-Aminoethyl)-3-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)urea hydrochloride (38)

Deprotection of 37 (800 mg, 2.33 mmol) was carried out as described for 29a to give 487 mg of white solid requiring no further purification.

ferf-Butyl 2-(3-(4-(benzyloxy)phenyl)ureido)ethylcarbamate (38a)

4-Benzyloxyphenyl isocyanate (14.95 g, 66 mmol) was dissolved in DCM and the solution was cooled to 0 °C (ice bath). 14 (1 .1 eq, 73 mmol, 1 1 .7 g) was added drop-wise to the solution. At the end of the addition the ice bath was removed and the solution was allowed to stir at rt overnight. A large excess of PE was added to precipitate the product urea, which was then filtered off and further purified by column chromatography, eluent 50/50 PE/EtOAc.

ferf-Butyl 2-(3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ureido)ethylcarbamate (38b)

38a (8g, 21 mmol) was dissolved in THF (250ml) and a drop of CHCI 3 , Pd/C (10% mol "1 ) in suspension in THF was added. The suspension was degassed under vacuum (2 cycles of evacuation, followed by nitrogen filling) before placing under an atmosphere of H 2 . The suspension was stirred at rt overnight, beforefiltering through a celite ped, and concentration of the filtrate under reduced pressure. The crude residue was purified by FCC (eluent PE/DCIWEtOAc 100:0:0 to 0:100:0 over 5.5min, 0:100:0 for 8 min then 0:90:10 for 9min).

ferf-Butyl 2-(3-(4-(2-fluoroethoxy)phenyl)ureido)ethylcarbamate (38c)

38b (1 .00 g, 3.39 mmol), 2-fluoroethanol (0.239 g, 0.219 mL, 3.72 mmol, 1 .1 . eq) and PPh 3 (0.977 g, 3.72 mmol, 1 .1 eq) were dispersed in DC (20 mL) and THF (3 mL) with stirring at rt. To this, was added DIAD (0.733 mL, 3.72 ,mmol, 1 .1 eq) in DCM (5mL) followed by further washings with DCM (5 mL). This was stirred at rt for 2 days, and TLC (eluent MeOH/DCM 5:95) and LC-MS analysis indicated reaction progression, but consumption of DIAD/PPh 3 . A further 0.5 eq each of 2-fluorethanol, PPh 3 , and DIAD were added along with THF (10 mL), however solution was not achieved. Stirring was continued over the weekend. After this time, LC-MS analysis indicated the reaction had progressed further, but was not yet complete, so MeCN (1 0 mL) was added, along with a further 1 eq each of 2-fluoroethanol, triphenylphosphine and DIAD. Stirring was continued at rt overnight, after which starting material had almost disappeared by TLC, and the product spot was much stronger. The reaction was stopped, with removal of all volatiles under reduced pressure, and purified without further workup using FCC (eluent DCM/MeOH 1 :99 to 10:90 over 10 CV) to give 780 mg of beige solid (67%). In addition, fractions contained a mixture of product and triphenylphosphine oxide were retained.

1 -(2-Aminoethyl)-3-(4-(2-fluoroethoxy)phenyl)urea hydrochloride (38d)

38c (750 mg, 2.20 mmol) was dissolved in DCM (10 mL) and MeOH (a few drops) with stirring, before addition of 4M HCI/Dioxane (10 mL). The mixture was stirred for 1 hour at rt, and took on a cloudy appearance. PE was added to complete precipitation, however a biphasic system was formed. All volatiles were removed under reduced pressure to give 675 mg of a pale pink solid (quantitative yield).

Table 14 lists the 1 H NMR spectral data for selected compounds from Figure 2:

1 -(2-(Cyclopropylmethoxy)ethoxy)-4-(benzyloxy)benzene (39a)

3 (563 mg, 4.85 mmol), triphenylphosphine (1 .528 g, 5.82 mmol, 1 .2 eq) and 4-(benzyloxy)phenol (1 .166 g, 5.82 mmol, 1 .2 eq) were dissolved in dry DC (10 mL) and stirred in a flame-dried flask under nitrogen atmosphere. DEAD (0.91 7 mL, 5.82 mmol, 1 .2 eq) was diluted in dry DCM (10 mL) before dropwise addition to the reaction mixture at rt. The resulting solution was stirred overnight at rt under a nitrogen atmosphere. Approximately half the solvent was removed and the resulting slurry dissolved in hexanes (100 mL) and washed with aqueous 0.5 NaOH (2 x 50 mL), water (3 x 50 mL) and brine (1 x 50 mL). The remaining solvent was removed and the product purified by flash column chromatography (eluent EtOAc/hexanes 15:85) to give 842 mg of white waxy solid.

1 -(2-(4-Fluorophenethyloxy)ethyloxy)-4-(benzyloxy)benzene (39b)

6 (1 .4273 g, 7.78 mmol), triphenylphosphine (2.448 g, 9.33 mmol, 1 .2 eq), and 4- (benzyloxy)phenol (1.558 g, 7.78 mmol, 1 eq) were dissolved in dry DCM (30 mL) and stirred in a flame-dried flask under nitrogen atmosphere. Di-ieri-butyl azodicarboxylate (2.149 g, 9.33 mmol, 1 .2 eq) was dissolved in dry DCM (10 mL) and added dropwise over 5 minutes. The mixture was stirred for 4 h at rt under a nitrogen atmosphere. After removal of half the solvent, the resulting slurry was diluted with hexanes (30 mL) and washed with aqueous 2 M HCI (2 x 30 mL), aqueous

2 M NaOH (2 x 30 mL), water (2 x 30 mL) and brine (1 x 30 mL). The organic layer was concentrated and purified by flash column chromatography (eluent EtOAc/hexanes 15:85) to give

999 mg of white crystalline solid.

1 -(2-(Cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)-4-(benzyloxy)benzene (39c)

8 (3.751 g, 28.81 mmol), triphenylphosphine (9.448 g, 36.02 mmol, 1 .25 eq), and 4- (benzyloxy)phenol (5.769 g, 28.81 mmol, 1 eq) were dissolved in DCM (70 mL). Di-ierf-butyl azodicarboxylate (8.294 g, 36.02 mmol, 1 .25 eq) in DCM (20 mL) was added dropwise to the reaction mixture and allowed to stir overnight. After removal of approximately half of the solvent from the reaction mixture, the reulsting slurry was diluted with hexanes (100 mL) and washed with aqueous 1 M HCI (2 x 50 mL), aqueous 1 M NaOH (2 x 50 mL), water (2 x 50 mL) and brine (1 x 50 mL). The organic layer was concentrated and redissolved in DC (30 mL) before addition of hexanes a precipitate of triphenylphosphine oxide began to form. The flask was left in the freezer for 1 h before filtration of the precipitate and washing with hexanes and Et 2 0. After concentration of the filtrate, purification was achieved via column chromatography (eluent Et 2 0/hexanes 10:90) to give 6.75 g of clear colourless oil.

1 -((4-(2-Ethoxyethoxy)phenoxy)methyl)benzene (39d)

9 (901 mg, 10.00 mmol), triphenylphosphine (3.147 g, 12.00 mmol, 1 .2 eq) and 4- (benzyloxy)phenol (2.403 g, 12.00 mmol, 1 .2 eq) were dissolved in dry DCM (40 mL) under nitrogen atmosphere with stirring until complete solution was achieved. DEAD (1 .89 mL, 12.00 mmol, 1 .2 eq) was diluted in dry DCM (10 mL) before dropwise addition to the reaction mixture at rt. The resulting solution was stirred for 48 h at rt. Approximately half the solvent was removed and the resulting brown slurry dissolved in hexanes (150 mL) and washed with aqueous 2 M NaOH solution (2 x 70 mL), water (3 x 70 mL) and brine (1 x 70 mL). The remaining solvent was evaporated and the product purified by flash column chromatography (eluent EtOAc/hexanes 20:80) to give 2.324 g of white crystalline solid.

1 -((4-(2-lsopropyloxyethoxy)phenoxy)methyl)benzene (39e)

9a (21 g, 0.2 mol), triphenylphosphine (68.2 g, 0.26 mol, 1.28 eq), and 4-(benzyloxy)phenol (40 g, 0.2 mol, 1 eq) were dissolved in DCM (500 mL). DIAD (51 .5mL, 0.26 mol, 1 .28 eq) in DCM (200 mL) was added dropwise to the reaction mixture and allowed to stir overnight. Reaction monitored by TLC in diethyl ether/petroleum. Ether 40-60 (PE) (3:7) showed presence of some starting material. Stirring was continued for further 3 h after addition of further DIAD (21 .0 mL, 0.05 mole). After removal of approximately half of the solvent from the reaction mixture, the resulting slurry was diluted with PE (500 mL). Triphenylphosphine oxide precipitate, was filtered and filtrate was washed with aqueous 1 M HCI (2 x 250 mL), aqueous 1 M NaOH (3 x 250 mL), water (2 x 250 mL) and brine (1 x 300 mL). The organic layer was concentrated and re-dissolved in diethyl ether (150 mL). On addition of PE (approx 300 a precipitate of triphenylphosphine oxide began to form. The flask was left in the freezer for 1 hour before filtration of the precipitate and washing with pet ether. After concentration of the filtrate, purification was achieved via column chromatography using gradient solvent systems (500 mL -10 % ether in PE followed by 20% ether in PE) to give 48.3g (84%) of the desired product.

4-(2-(Cyclopropylmethoxy)ethoxy)phenol (40a)

39a (840 mg, 2.82 mmol) was dissolved in EtOH (40 mL) before hydrogenating over 10% Pd/C (1 19 mg) at rt and atmospheric pressure for 4 h. The suspension was filtered over celite and washed with excess EtOH. Excess solvent was removed to give amber oil. The crude oil was purified by flash column chromatography (eluent EtOAc/hexanes 30/70) to give 508 mg colourless oil.

4-(2-(4-Fluorophenethyloxy)ethyloxy)phenol (40b)

39b was hydrogenated according to the method for 40a. After filtration over celite and evaporation of volatiles, no further workup was required and the desired compound was isolated in quantitative yield as clear oil. 4-(2-(Cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenol (40c)

39c was hydrogenated according to the method for 40a. After addition of powdered charcoal and filtration over celite, no workup was required and the desired compound isolated in quantitative yield as clear oil.

4-(2-Ethoxyethoxy)phenol (40d)

39d (904 mg, 3.32 mmol) was dissolved in EtOH (60 mL) before hydrogenating over 1 0% Pd/C (168 mg) at rt and atmospheric pressure for 48 h. The suspension was filtered over celite and washed with excess EtOH. Removal of excess solvent gave a viscous amber oil. The crude oil was dissolved in DC (20 mL) and washed with aqueous 2 NaOH solution (3 x 20 mL). The combined aqueous extracts were acidified with concentrated HCI (until the pH was below 7) to effect an emulsion, before extracting with DCM (3 x 30 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with water (1 x 30 mL) and brine (1 x 30 mL). Solvent removal afforded 413 mg of clear, colourless oil.

4-(2-lsopropyloxyethoxy)phenol (40e)

To a stirred solution of 39e (48g, 17 mmol) in THF (500 mL), was added 10 % Pd/C (2.5 g) and the solution was stirred at rt for 8 h under hydrogen gas (balloon). Reaction was monitored by TLC in PE: Ethyl acetate (6:4). To this solution again added 10 % Pd/C (1 .5 g) and the mixture was stirred further for 8 h. Mixture was then passed through celite bed and filtrate was concentrated to obtain desired phenol (33 g, 99%).

4-(2-Propoxyethoxy)phenol (40f)

8c was hydrogenated in THF in a similar manner to the procedure described for the synthesis of 40e, to give 1 .051 g (100%) of a clear colourless oil.

2-((4-(2-(Cyclopropylmethoxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)methyl)oxiran e (41 a)

40a (450 mg, 2.16 mmol) was dissolved in aqueous 2 M NaOH solution (1 .5 mL) and stirred for 10 minutes. Epichlorohydrin (507 μί, 6.481 mmol, 3 eq) was added and the mixture stirred at 60 °C for 24 h. The cooled mixture was extracted with DCM (3 x 25 mL) and the organic layers combined. After solvent removal, the product purified by flash column chromatography (eluent EtOAc/hexanes 30:70) to give 356 mg of colourless oil.

.2-((4-(2-(4-Fluorophenethyloxy)ethyloxy)phenoxy)methyl)o xirane (41 b)

NaH 60% suspension in mineral oil (13 mg, equivalent to 7.8 mg of NaH, 0.33 mmol, 1 .1 eq) was suspended in dry DMF (2 mL) with stirring, under a nitrogen atmosphere. To this was added 40b (82 mg, 0.30 mmol) in dry DMF (4 mL) and stirred until no further hydrogen gas evolutioin was visible. Epichlorohydrin (800 μί, 10.22 mmol, 34 eq) was added and the reaction stirred overnight at rt. The reaction mixture was diluted with water (30 mL) before extraction with Et 2 0 (3 x 30 mL). The combined organic extracts were concentrated before purification over a silica plug (initial wash with hexanes, followed by EtOH/DCM 5:95) to give 70 mg of clear yellow oil.

2-((4-(2-(Cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)methyl)oxirane (41 c)

NaH 60% suspension in mineral oil (863 mg, equivalent to 518 mg of NaH, 21 .58 mmol, 1 .1 eq) was suspended in dry DMF (20 mL) with stirring under a nitrogen atmosphere. After 5 minutes 40c (4.360 g, 19.61 mmol) in dry DMF (20 mL) was added dropwise with the vessel cooled over an ice bath. This was then allowed to stir at rt for 20 minutes before addition of epichlorohydrin (15.34 mL, 196.10 mmol, 10 eq). The mixture was stirred for 7 h then quenched cautiously with eOH. After removal of all volatiles, the crude residue was partitioned between water (30 mL) and Et 2 0 (30 mL) and the aqueous layer washed again with Et 2 0 (3 x 30 mL). The combined organic extracts were concentrated before purification over a silica plug (initial wash with hexanes, followed by EtOH/DC 5:95) to give 4.558 g of clear yellow oil.

2-((4-(2-Ethoxyethoxy)phenoxy)methyl)oxirane (41 d)

40d (413 mg, 2.27 mmol) was dissolved in aqueous 2 NaOH solution (4.0 mL) and stirred for 10 minutes. Epichlorohydrin (533 μί, 6.81 mmol, 3 eq) was added and the mixture stirred at 60 °C for 24 h. The cooled mixture was extracted with DC (3 x 20 mL) and the organic layers combined. After solvent removal, the product purified by flash column chromatography (eluent Et 2 0) to give 417 mg of colourless oil.

2-((4-(2-lsopropoxyethoxy)phenoxy)methyl)oxirane (41 e)

40e (32.5g, 0.16 mol ) and sodium hydroxide ( 1 .2 equiv. ; 8.0g, 0.2 mol) were dissolved in water (200 ml ). Mixture (~pH 14) was heated to 40 °C and was stirred for 30 min with stirring at 400 rpm. It was then cooled to RT and was added to epichlorohydrin (2.5 equiv., 55 mL, 0.68mol) in portions over the period of 45 min at 40 °C. The reaction was isothermally continued at 60 °C for another 24h. Completion of reaction was monitored by LCMS. Desired compound was purified by column chromatography. Yield= 12.5 g, 92% (effective). Starting material recovered was 22 g. Theoretical Yield (effective): 13.5 g

2-((4-(2-Propoxyethoxy)phenoxy)methyl)oxirane (41 f)

40f (1 .09g, 5.55 mmol), NaOH (233 mg, 5.83 mmol, 1 .05 eq) and epichlorhydrin (10 mL) were placed in a 30 mL MW vial. The mixture was heated at 120 °C in the MW reactor on a dynamic program (maximum pressure 250 psi, maximum power 300W) for 30 minutes. After cooling the reaction mixture was diluted with water (50 mL) and extracted with DCM (3 x 25 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with water (50 mL) before concentration. The crude product was purified by FCC (eluent EtOAc/PE 3:97 to 60:40 over 10 column volumes) to give 1 .202g of a clear colourless oil

2-((4-(2-Cyclopropoxyethoxy)phenoxy)methyl)oxirane (41 g)

8g was alkylated with epichlorohydrin in a similar fashion to the procedure described for the synthesis of 41 f.

Table 15 lists the 1 H NMR spectral data for selected compounds from Figure 3: COMPOUNDS OF FORMULA I

General procedure for synthesis of substituted 1 -(2-(3-(4-(2-(alkyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2- hvdroxypropylamino)ethyl)-3-(aryl)ureas (45a/d, 46a/b/d, 47a-s/v) - Figure 3 and 4

Substituted 1 -(2-aminoethyl)-3-(aryl)urea (1 eq, compounds 11 , 12, 13 or 16a-r) and epoxide (50 mg, compounds 41 a-d) were suspended in propan-2-ol (3 mL). In the case where 1 -(2- aminoethyl)-3-(aryl)ureas were hydrochloride salts, NaOH (1 .1 eq as 10 aqueous solution) was also added. The mixture was heated under reflux overnight, after which all solvent was removed under vacuum. The crude residue was purified via PLC (eluent NhVlvleOH/DCIVI 2:10:88).

Analogues with substitution meta to the urea group were purified using a weaker eluent (NH 3 /MeOH/DCM 2:5:93). The final aryloxypropanolamines were freeze-dried to give white solids.

1 -(2-(3-(4-(2-(Cyclopropylmethoxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hydroxypr opylamino)ethyl)-3-(3- chlorophenyl)urea hydroformate (46e)

41 a was opened with 16k according to the method described for 47t. Purification via PLC (eluent

Nhyi leOH/DCIVI 1 :10:89) and preparative HPLC afforded 9 mg of beige semi- solid.

1 -(2-(3-(4-(2-Ethoxyethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hydroxypropylamino)ethy l)-3-(3-chlorophenyl)urea hydroformate (46f)

41 d was opened with 16k according to the method described for 47t. Purification via PLC (eluent

NH3/ eOH/DC 1 :10:89) and preparative HPLC afforded 1 1 mg of beige semi-solid.

W-(2-(3-(4-(2-ethoxyethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hydroxypropylamino)eth yl)-2-(2- hydroxyphenyl)acetamide (46g)

41 d was opened with 18a according to the method described for 47t. Purification via PLC (eluent

NH3/ eOH/DC 1 :7.5:91 .5) and preparative HPLC afforded 22 mg of colourless semi-solid.

W-(2-(3-(4-(2-ethoxyethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hydroxypropylamino) ethyl)-2-(3- hydroxyphenyl)acetamide (46h)

41 d was opened with 18b according to the method described for 47t. Purification via PLC (eluent

NH3/ eOH/DC 1 :10:89) and preparative HPLC afforded 30 mg of colourless semi-solid.

W-(2-(3-(4-(2-(cyclopropylmethoxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2 hydroxypropylamino)ethyl)-2-(4- hydroxyphenyl)acetamide (46i)

41 a was opened with 18c according to the method described for 47t. Purification via PLC (eluent NH3/ eOH/DC 1 :7.5:91 .5) and preparative HPLC afforded 17 mg of colourless semi- solid. General method for epoxide openings in HFIP

Epoxide (0.5 to 1 mmol) and amine salt (1 .3 to 2 eq) are dissolved in HFIP 6ml at rt, and NaOH (3.75 eq) is added portion wise. Heat the solution at 70 °C. Reaction followed by HPLC. After disappearance of epoxide, stop reaction and wet load on silica (hand packed Flashmaster cartridge: 10g / 70ml) 35ml/min. gradient: DC / 1 ammonia in eOH, 2 minutes at 99:1 , 8min gradient to 90:10 then plateau for 7min at this concentration, then 8min gradient to 80:20 then plateau for 10min. Fraction Analysis by LC/ MS to identify product fractions.

1 -(2-(3-(4-(2-(lsopropyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hydroxypropylam ino)ethyl)-3-(3- chlorophenyl)urea (46k)

16k and 41 e were reacted as described in the general method for epoxide openings in HFIP. After 24h no reaction observed by HPLC, so 0.5eq. NaOH added and carried on 4 days at 70 °C. LCMS showed some product. Reaction stopped and purified by Flash master as described.

General procedure for epoxide openings in propan-2-ol/MeCN/water (7:2:1 ) Epoxide (100mg) and amine (2eq) were placed in a 10 mL MW vial. In the case of amine salts, TEA (2.1 eq) are added, and a solvent mixure consisting of propan-2-ol/MeCN/water (7:2:1 ) (3-5 mL) is added. The mixture is heated in the MW reactor for 55-60 minutes at 90 °C on a dynamic program (maximum pressure 250 psi, maximum power 300W). The reaction mixture is concentrated and purified by FCC (eluent 1 M NH 3 in MeOH/DCM 0:100 to 20:80).

1 -(2-(3-(4-(2-(lsopropyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hydroxypropylam ino)ethyl)-3-(4- hydroxyphenyl)urea (46I)

13 and 41 e were reacted according to the general procedure for epoxide openings in propan-2- ol/MeCN/water (7:2:1 ) (Yield 22%).

1 -(2-(3-(4-(2-(Propyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hydroxypropylamino )ethyl)-3-(3- chlorophenyl)urea (46m)

16k and 41 f were reacted according to the general procedure for epoxide openings in propan-2- ol/MeCN/water (7:2:1 ) (Yield 27%, white amorphous solid).

1 -(2-(3-(4-(2-(Propyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hydroxypropylamino )ethyl)-3-(4- hydroxyphenyl)urea (46n)

13 and 41 f were reacted according to the general procedure for epoxide openings in propan-2- ol/MeCN/water (7:2:1 ) (Yield 1 1 %, off-white amorphous solid).

1 -(3-Chlorophenyl)-3-(2-(3-(4-(2-cyclopropoxyethoxy)phenoxy)- 2- hydroxypropylamino)ethyl)urea (46o)

16k and 41 g were reacted as described in the general method for epoxide openings in HFIP.

1 -(2-(3-(4-(2-Cyclopropoxyethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hydroxypropylamin o)ethyl)-3-(4- hydroxyphenyl)urea (46p)

13 and 41 g were reacted as described in the general method for epoxide openings in HFIP. Table 16 lists the 1 H NMR spectral data for selected compounds from Figure 3:

a semi( eOD-d 4 ):67.09-7.16 (m, 2H, aryl C-H ortho to urea), 6.90 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, solid. 2H, aryl-dioxy ring), 6.86 (d, J = 9.4 Hz, 2H, aryl-dioxy ring), 6.70 (d, J = 9.3 R t : 2.88 Hz, 2H, aryl C-H ortho to phenol), 4.18 - 4.27 (m, 1 H, CH(OH)), 4.05 (t, J = 4.6 (S 1a), Hz, 2H, CH^OArO), 4.00 (dd, J = 9.8/4.9, 1H, ArOCH^CHfOH)), 3.95 (dd, J = 9.84 (S 9.8/5.3, 1H, ArOCH^CHfOH)), 3.79 (t, J = 4.7 Hz, 2H, OCH^CHaOArO), 3.51 (t, 3) J = 5.3 Hz, 2H, CH 2 CH 2 NH), 3.37 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 2H, "PrCH^O), 3.28 - 3.35,

3.15-3.24 (m,4H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 1.01 -1.13(m, 1H, c Pr CH), 0.50 - 0.57 (m, 2H, c Pr CH 2 )*, 0.19 - 0.26 ( c Pr CH 2 )*. 'Refers to cis-protons of c Pr ring.

b 113 (D SO-d 6 ):68.92 (br s, 1H, phenol), 8.22 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.28 (dd, J 115 = 8.3/5.8 Hz, 2H, 3-H and 5-H of fluorophenyl ring), 7.14 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H,

R t : 3.47 aryl C-H ortho to urea), 7.08 (dd, J = 8.9/8.9 Hz, 2H, 2-H and 6-H of (S 1b), flurophenyl ring), 6.82, 6.85 (d, J = 9.3 Hz, 2 x 2H, aryl-dioxy ring), 6.62 (d, J = 11.50 (S 8.8 Hz, 2H, aryl C-H ortho to phenol), 6.03 (t, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 3). 5.01 (br s, 1H, NH), 3.99 (t, J = 4.3 Hz, 2H, CH^OAr), 3.78 - 3.93 (m, 3H,

CH(OH), ArOCH 2 ), 3.69 (t, J = 4.3 Hz, 2H, CH^CHaOAr), 3.64 (t, J = 6.9 Hz, 2H, FCe^CH^H^O), 3.11 -3.19 (m, 2H, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 2.81 (t, J =6.8 Hz, 2H, FC 6 H 4 CH 2 ), 2.58-2.76 (m, 4H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH, NHCH 2 CH 2 ).d 96-98 ( eOD-d 4 ):6 7.12 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 2H, aryl C-H ortho to urea), 6.87 (d, J = 9.0 R t : 2.29 Hz, 2H, aryl-dioxy ring), 6.84 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2H, aryl-dioxy ring), 6.70 (d, J = (S 1b), 8.9 Hz, 2H, aryl C-H ortho to phenol), 4.01 -4.08 (m, 1H, CH(OH)), 4.03 (t, J = 8.72 (S 4.6 Hz, 2H, CH^OArO), 3.87 - 3.95 (m, 2H, ArOCH^CHfOH)), 3.75 (t, J = 4.7 3). Hz, 2H, OCH^CHaOArO), 3.59 (q, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H, CH 3 CH 2 ), 3.34 (t, J = 6.1 Hz,

2H, CH 2 CH 2 NH), 2.74-2.90 (m, 4H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 1.21 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H, CH 3 ).

e R t : 3.95 (D SO-d 6 ): δ 8.95 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 8.26 (br s, 1H, formate HC0 2 " ), (S 1b), 7.67 (dd, J = 2.0/2.0 Hz, 1H, aryl 2-H), 7.22 (dd, J = 7.7/7.7 Hz, 1H, aryl 5-H), 11.73 (S 7.18 (ddd, J = 8.3/1.8/1.8 Hz, 1H, aryl 6-H), 6.91 (ddd, J = 7.4/1.8/1.8 Hz, 1H, 3). aryl 4-H), 6.80 - 6.88 (m, 4H, aryl-dioxy C-H), 6.43 (t, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H,

NH(C=0)NHAr), 3.99 (t, J = 4.7 Hz, 2H, CH^OAr), 3.78 - 3.92 (m, 3H, CH(OH), ArOCH 2 ), 3.66 (t, J = 4.7 Hz, 2H, CH 2 CH 2 OAr), 3.28 (d, J= 7.1 Hz, 2H, c PrCH£>), 3.18 (dt, J = 5.9/5.6 Hz, 2H, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 2.72 (dd, J= 11.9/4.0 Hz, 1H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH), 2.66 (t, J= 6.2 Hz, 2H, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 2.61 (dd, J = 12.1/6.8 Hz, 1H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH), 1.06- 0.94 (m, 1H, c Pr CH), 0.42- 0.49 (m, 2H, c Pr CH 2 )*, 0.13 - 0.19 ( c Pr CH 2 )*. *Refers to cis-protons of c Pr ring.f R t : 3.93 (D SO-d 6 ): δ 9.02 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 8.27 (br s, 1H, formate HC0 2 " ), (S 1b), 7.67 (dd, J = 2.0/2.0 Hz, 1H, aryl 2-H), 7.22 (dd, J = 7.7/7.7 Hz, 1H, aryl 5-H), 11.69 (S 7.18 (ddd, J= 8.3/1.8/1.8 Hz, 1H, aryl 6-H), 6.91 (ddd, J = 7.4/1.8/1.8 Hz, 1H, 3). aryl 4-H), 6.86, 6.83 (d, J = 9.2 Hz, 2 x 2H, aryl-dioxy C-H), 6.51 (t, J = 5.3 Hz,

1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 3.99 (t, J = 4.7 Hz, 2H, CH^OAr), 3.78 - 3.92 (m, 3H, CH(OH), ArOCH 2 ), 3.66 (t, J = 4.7 Hz, 2H, CH 2 CH 2 OAr), 3.48 (q, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H, CH 3 CH 2 ), 3.19 (dt, J = 6.2/5.8 Hz, 2H, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 2.74 (dd, J= 12.1/4.3 Hz, 1H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH), 2.68 (t, J= 6.2 Hz, 2H, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 2.63 (dd, J = 12.1/6.6 Hz, 1H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH), 1.20 (t, J=6.6 Hz, 3H, CH 3 ).g R t : 3.17 (D SO-d 6 ): δ 7.98 (t, J = 5.5Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)), 7.00 - 7.10 (m, 2H, (S 1b), hydroxyaryl 4H, 6H), 6.85 (s, 4H, aryl-dioxy ring), 6.77 (dd, J = 7.9/0.9 Hz, 1H, 9.28 (S aryl 3H), 6.71 (ddd, J = 7.4/7.4/1.1 Hz, 1H, aryl 5H), 3.99 (t, J = 4.6 Hz, 2H, 3) CH 2 CH 2 OAr), 3.72-3.92 (m, 3H, CH(OH), ArOCH 2 ), 3.65 (t, J = 4.7 Hz, 2H,

OCH 2 CH 2 OAr), 3.48 (q, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H, CH 3 CH 2 ), 3.38 (s, 2H, NH(C=0)CH 2 ), 3.16 (dt, J = 6.3/5.9HZ, 2H, NHCH 2 CH 2 NH), 2.54 - 2.74 (m, 4H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH, NHCH 2 CH 2 NH), 1.11 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H, CH 3 )h R t : 2.95 (D SO-d 6 ): δ 9.28 (s, 1H, phenol OH), 7.99 (t, J = 5.16Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)), (S 1b), 7.04 (dd, J = 7.8.7.8 Hz, 1 H, aryl 5H), 6.85 (s, 4H, aryl-dioxy ring), 6.56 - 6.70 8.59 (S 3 (m, 3H, aryl 2H, 4H, 6H), 5.00 (s, 1H, CH(OHJ), 4.00 (t, J = 4.6Hz, 2H,

OCH 2 CH 2 OAr), 3.74 - 3.90 (m, 3H, CH(OH), ArOCH 2 ), 3.65 (t, J = 4.6Hz, 2H, OCH 2 CH 2 OAr), 3.48 (q, J = 6.9Hz, 2H, CH 3 CH 2 ), 3.30 (s, 2H, CH 2 fkx), 3.11 - 3.17 (m, 2H, NHCH 2 CH 2 NH), 2.56 - 2.80 (m, 4H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH, NHCH 2 CH 2 NH), 1.12 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H, CH 3 ). 46i R t : 3.34 (D SO-d 6 ): δ 9.19 (s, 1 H, phenol OH), 7.90 (t, J = 5.5 Hz, 1 H, NH(C=0)), 7.02 (S 1 b), (d, J = 8.5Hz, 2H, aryl 2H, 6H), 6.85 (s, 4H, aryl-dioxy ring), 6.66 (d, J = 8.5 9.53 (S Hz, 2H, aryl 3H, 5H), 5.00 (s, 1 H, CH(OHJ), 4.00 (t, J = 4.6 Hz, 2H, 3) OCH 2 CH 2 OAr), 3.76 - 3.92 (m, 3H, ArOCH 2 CA7(OH)), 3.68 (t, J = 3.4 Hz, 2H,

OCH 2 CH 2 OAr), 3.28 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H, c PrCH 2 0), 3.25 (s, 2H, NH(C=0)CH 2 ), 3.13 (dt, J = 5.8/5.8 Hz, 2H, NHCH 2 CH 2 NH), 2.55 - 2.75 (m, 4H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH, NHCH 2 CH 2 NH), 0.92 - 1 .06 (m, 1 H, c Pr CH), 0.40 - 0.50 (m, 2H, c Pr CH 2 )*, 0.10 - 0.22 (m, 2H, c Pr CH 2 )*. 'Refers to cis-protons of c Pr ring.

46k R t : 2.19 (s 4), 2.34 (s 5); 1 H nmr data not included - similar to 46I

461 R t : 1 .95 (D SO-d 6 ): δ 8.99 (s, 1 H, phenol OH), 8.51 ( 1 H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.15 (t, J = (s 4), 8.6 Hz, 2H, aryl C-H ortho to urea), 6.86 (s, 4H, aryl-dioxy ring), 6.63 (t, J = 8.6 2.13 (s Hz, 2H, aryl C-H ortho to phenol), 6.37 (t, J = 5.7 Hz, 1 H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 5) 5.80 (br, 1 H, NH), 4.18 (br, d, J = 3.9 Hz, 1 H, OCH 2 CH(OH)), 3.85 - 3.99 (m,

5H, CH 2 OAr, CH(OH), ArOCH 2 ), 3.65 (t, J = 4.7 Hz, 2H, /PrOCH 2 ), 3.38 (q, 2H, J = 5.8 Hz, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 2.94 - 3.23 (m, 5H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH, NHCH 2 CH 2 (CH 3 ) 2 CH), 1 .10 (d, 6H, (CH,) 2 CH).

46 m 127-130; R t : 2.23 (s 4), 2.44 (s 5)

46n Ft,: 1 .99 (s 4), 2.15 (s 5)

46o 107-1 1 1 ; Ft,: 2.18 (s 4), 2.34 (s 5)

46p R t : 1 .91 (s 4), 2.09 (s 5); 1 H nmr data not included - similar to 46I

General procedure for synthesis of individual enantiomers of 1 -(2-(3-(4-(2- (cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hydroxypropylamino)ethyl)- 3-(3-chlorophenyl)urea (47I)

The appropriate chiral epoxide was synthesised by alkylation of 40c with either (R)- or (S)-glycidyl nosilate according to the procedure reported by Sharpless and Al. JOC, 54(6), 1989, 1295 -1304. Subsequent confirmation of chiral purity was assessed using osher ester Fluorine NMR also described therein. Subsequently, the epoxides (1 eq) were opened using 16k (1 .3 eq) in HFIP (4 mL) at 70 °C for 24 hours, with reaction monitoring using LC-MS. Purification was achieved using FCC (eluent 1 NH 3 in eOH/DCM, gradient method).

Epoxide ee:98% for both (Ft)- and (S)- epoxides based on Mosher ester analysis

(fi)-1 -(2-(3-(4-(2-(Cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hydroxypropyl amino)ethyl)-3-(3- chlorophenyl)urea ((/7)-47l)

White, solid. Yield = 1 13mg (46%, based on (R)-epoxide 0.5 mmol), purity > 95%..

Measurement of Alpha D: temperatutre = 23 C; concentration = 10.35 mg/ml; Alpha = +0.12 / +0.1 1 ; AlphaD calc = +5.3

(S)-1-(2-(3-(4-(2-(Cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hydroxyp ropylamino)ethyl)-3-(3- chlorophenyl)urea ((S)-47l)

White solid. Yield = 132mg (40%, based on (S)-epoxide 0.67mmol), purity > 95%

Measurement of Alpha D : temperature = 23 °C; concentration = 12.0 mg/ml; Alpha= -0.13 / -0.13; AlphaD calc = -5.4.

1 -(2-(3-(4-(2-(Cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hydroxypropyl amino)ethyl)-3-(2- hydroxyphenyl)urea (47t)

To 41 c (51 mg, 0.18 mmol) was added TEA (75 μΙ, 0.53 mmol, 3 eq), 30a (83 mg, 0.36 mmol, 2 eq) and isopropyl alcohol (5 mL). The mixture was stirred under reflux for 16 hours. After removal of all volatiles under reduced pressure, the crude residue was purified by PLC (eluent NHs/MeOH/DCM 2:5:93) to give 18 mg of beige semi-solid. 1 -(2-(3-(4-(2-(Cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hydroxypropyl amino)ethyl)-3-(3- hydroxyphenyl)urea (47u)

Epoxide opening of 41 c with 30b, was carried out as decribed for 47t. Purification was achieved via PLC (eluent NrV eOH/DC 2:10:88) to give 21 mg of beige semi-solid.

1 -(2-(3-(4-(2-(Cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hydroxypropyl amino)ethyl)-3-(4- nitrophenyl)urea (47w)

41 c (100mg, 0.36 mmol), 16s (1 12 mg, 0.43 mmol, 1 .2 eq) and TEA (0.060 mL, 0.43 mmol, 1 .2 eq) were dispersed in propan-2-ol/acetonitrile/water (7:2:1 , 3 mL) and heated at 90 °C in the W reactor on a dynamic program (maximum pressure 250 psi, maximum power 300W) for 60 minutes. After removal of volatiles under reduced pressure, the crude product was purified by FCC (eluent 1 NH 3 in eOH/DC 0:100 to 15:85), to give 74 mg of pale yellow solid (41 %).

1 -(2-(3-(4-(2-(Cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hydroxypropyl amino)ethyl)-3-(4-(2- fluoroethoxy)phenyl)urea (47x)

41 c and 38d were reacted together according to the procedure described for the synthesis of 47w to give 43 mg (23%) of a white solid.

Methyl 3-(3-(2-(3-(4-(2-(cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2- hydroxypropylamino)ethyl)ureido)benzoate (47y)

41 c and 16t were reacted together according to the procedure described for the synthesis of 47w to give 44 mg (24%) of a white solid.

Methyl 4-(3-(2-(3-(4-(2-(cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2- hydroxypropylamino)ethyl)ureido)benzoate (47z)

41 c and 16u were reacted together according to the procedure described for the synthesis of 47w to give 68 mg (37%) of a white solid.

3- (3-(2-(3-(4-(2-(Cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2- hydroxypropylamino)ethyl)ureido)benzoic acid hydrochloride (47aa)

47y (38 mg) was dissolved in aq. 2 HCI (10 mL) and heated under reflux overnight. The mixture was concentrated before freeze-drying to give 32 mg of a pale yellow solid (80%).

4- (3-(2-(3-(4-(2-(Cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2- hydroxypropylamino)ethyl)ureido)benzoic acid hydrochloride (47bb)

47z (41 mg) was dissolved in aq. 2 HCI (10 mL) and heated under reflux overnight. The mixture was concentrated before freeze-drying to give 32 mg of a pale yellow solid (74%).

1 -(2-Phenoxyethylamino)-3-(4-(2-(cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenox y)propan-2-ol (48) 41 c (50 mg, 0.18 mmol) and 2-phenoxyethylamine (47 μί, 0.36 mmol, 2 eq) were dissolved in propan-2-ol (3 mL) before heating under reflux overnight. After removal of all solvent under vacuum, the crude residue was purified via PLC (eluent NH 3 /lv1eOH/DCIv1 2:5:93) to give 51 mg of white solid.

N-(2-(3-(4-(2-(Cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hydroxypropy lamino)ethyl)-2- phenylacetamide Hydroformate (49)

41 c (55 mg, 0.20 mmol) was opened with 18 according to the method described for 47t. Purification via PLC (eluent NH 3 /lv1eOH/DCIv1 2:8:90) and preparative HPLC afforded 15 mg of white solid.

4-(3-(4-(2-(Cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hydroxypropylam ino)-N-phenylbutanamide (50)

41 c (50 mg, 0.18 mmol) was opened with 26 according to the method described for 47t. Purification via PLC (eluent NH 3 /IVIeOH/DCIVI 2:8:90) and preparative HPLC afforded 19 mg of white solid.

2-(3-(4-(2-(Cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hydroxypropylam ino)ethyl phenylcarbamate (51 )

41 c (50 mg, 0.18 mmol) was opened with 34 according to the method described for 47t. Purification via PLC (eluent NhV eOH/DC 1 :5:94) afforded 66 mg of white solid.

1 -(2-(3-(4-(2-(Cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hydroxypropyl amino)ethyl)-3- phenylthiourea (52)

41 c (50 mg, 0.18 mmol) was opened with 20 according to the method described for 47t. Purification via PLC (eluent NhV eOH/DC 1 :5:94) afforded 31 mg of white solid.

W-(2-(3-(4-(2-(Cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hydroxypr opylamino)ethyl)- benzylsulfonamide (53)

41 c (50 mg, 0.18 mmol) was opened with 22 according to the method described for 47t.

Purification via PLC (eluent NhV eOH/DC 1 :5:94) afforded 79 mg of white solid.

1 -(2-(3-(4-(2-(Cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hydroxypropyl amino)ethyl)-3-(3-fluoro-4- hydroxyphenyl)urea Hydroformate (54)

41 c (50 mg, 0.18 mmol), TEA (50 μί, 0.36 mmol, 2 eq) and 38 (67 mg, 0.27 mmol, 1 .5 eq) were dissolved in EtOH (2 mL) before exposing to MW conditions (140 °C, 80W, 250 psi) for 8 minutes. Purification via PLC (eluent NH 3 /IVIeOH/DCIVI 1 :5:94) afforded 13 mg of white solid.

1 -(2-(3-(4-(2-(Cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hydroxypropyl amino)ethyl)-3-(3,4- difluorophenyl)urea (54a)

Epoxide opening of 41 c with 22a, was carried out as described for 47t. Purification was achieved via PLC (eluent NhV eOH/DC 2:10:88) to give 50 mg of yellow solid.

1 -(3-Chloro-4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(2-(3-(4-(2-(cyclopentyloxy)et hoxy)phenoxy)-2- hydroxypropylamino)ethyl)urea (54b)

22i (mixture of 4-methoxy and 4-hydroxy compounds) and 41 c were reacted as described in the general method for epoxide openings in HFIP. The title compound was isolated during FCC purification and underwent recrytallisation from ieri-butyl methyl ether and PE.

1 -(3-Chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(2-(3-(4-(2-(cyclopentyloxy)et hoxy)phenoxy)-2- hydroxypropylamino)ethyl)urea (54c)

The title compound was isolated from the FCC purification of 54b, and recrystallised from tert- butyl methyl ether and PE.

Table 17 lists the 1 H N R spectral data for selected compounds from Figure 4: Cpd m.p; HPLC Ή N R

47a 109-115 (D SO-d 6 ): δ 8.61 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.38 (dd, J= 8.7/1.1 Hz, 2H, 2-H Ft,: 3.62 (S and 6-H phenyl ring), 7.20 (dd, J = 7.4/7.4 Hz, 2H, 3-H and 5-H phenyl ring), 1b), 12.67 6.81 - 6.89 (m, 5H, 4-H phenyl ring, aryl-dioxy ring), 6.22 (t, J = 5.4 Hz, 1H, (S 3). NH(C=0)NHAr), 5.07 (br s, 1H, NH) 3.79 - 3.97 (m, 6H, CHOAr, c Pe CH,

CH(OH), ArOCH 2 ), 3.61 (t, J= 4.8 Hz, 2H, c PeOCH 2 ), 3.19 (dt, J = 5.8/5.8 Hz, 2H, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 2.75 (dd, J= 12.0/4.0 Hz, 1H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH), 2.68 (t, J= 6.0 Hz, 2H, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 2.63 (dd, J = 12.2/6.8 Hz, 1H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH), 1.52 - 1.74 (m, 6H, c Pe CH 2 ), 1.40 - 1.52 (m, 2H, c Pe CH 2 ).

47b 114-115 (D SO-d 6 ):67.80 (d, J= 7.6 Hz, 1H, aryl 6-H), 7.70 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), Ft,: 4.07 (S 7.05 - 7.11 (m, 2H, C-H tolyl ring), 6.80 - 6.87 (m, 5H, C-H aryl-dioxy ring, C-H 1b), 7.60 tolyl ring), 6.60 (t, J=5.4Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 4.95 (br s, 1H, NH), 3.77- (S 3). 4.01 (m, 6H, CH^OAr, c Pe CH, CH(OH), ArOCH 2 ), 3.61 (t, J= 4.9 Hz, 2H, cPeOCH 2 ), 3.17 (dt, J= 5.9/5.9 Hz, 2H,), 2.70 (dd, J = 11.8/4.2 Hz, 1H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH), 2.64 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H, NHCH^CH;,), 2.59 (dd, J = 11.7/6.3 Hz, CH(OH)CH 2 NH), 2.17 (s, 3H, CH 3 ), 1.52- 1.76 (m, 6H, c Pe CH 2 ), 1.40- 1.52 (m, 2H, c Pe CH 2 ).

47c Ft,: 4.25 (S 112 - 114 (D SO-d 6 ): δ 8.51 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.21 (s, 1H, aryl 2-H), 1b), 8.28 7.10 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 1H, aryl 6-H), 7.08 (dd, J = 7.6/7.6 Hz, 1H, aryl 5-H), 6.85, (S 3). 6.83 (d, J= 9.2 Hz, 2 x 2H, C-H aryl-dioxy ring), 6.46 (d, J= 7.4 Hz, 1H aryl 4- H), 6.20 (t, J =5.4 Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 5.09 (br s, 1H, NH), 3.78-4.00 (m, 6H, CH^OAr, c Pe CH, CH(OH), ArOCH 2 ), 3.61 (t, J = 4.9 Hz, 2H, c PeOCH 2 ), 3.19 (dt, J = 5.9/5.9 Hz, 2H, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 2.77 (dd, J = 11.8/3.6 Hz, 1H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH), 2.61 - 2.73 (m, 3H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 2.23 (s, 3H, CH 3 ), 1.52 - 1.75 (m, 6H, c Pe CH 2 ), 1.41 - 1.52 (m, 2H, c Pe CH 2 ).

47d 142-144 (D SO-d 6 ): δ 8.46 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.26 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 2H, aryl 2-H Ft,: 4.18 (S and 6-H), 7.01 (d, J= 8.3 Hz, 2H, aryl 3-H and 5-H), 6.82, 6.85 (d, J = 9.2 Hz, 2 1b), 13.52 x 2H, C-H aryl-dioxy ring), 6.14 (t, J= 5.5 Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 5.04 (br s, (S 3). IH, NH), 3.79 - 3.97 (m, 6H, CH^OAr, c Pe CH, CH(OH), ArOCH 2 ), 3.61 (t, J =

4.9 Hz, 2H, c PeOCH 2 ), 3.18 (dt, J = 5.8/5.8 Hz, 2H, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 2.74 (dd, J =

II.9/3.6 Hz, 1H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH), 2.59 - 2.70 (m, 3H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH, NHCH^CHa), 2.21 (s, 3H, CH 3 ), 1.52 - 1.76 (m, 6H, c Pe CH 2 ), 1.41 - 1.52 (m, 2H, c Pe CH 2 ).

47e 78-83 (D SO-d 6 ): δ 8.07 (dd, J = 7.6/2.0 Hz, 1H, aryl 6-H), 7.97 (s, 1H, Ft,: 3.77 (S NH(C=0)NHAr), 6.92-6.99 (m, 2H, C-H methoxyphenyl ring, NH(C=0)NHAr), 1b), 12.87 6.79 - 6.89 (m, 6H, C-H aryl-dioxy ring, C-H methoxyphenyl ring), 5.07 (br s, (S 3). 1H, NH), 3.76-4.00 (m, 6H, CH^OAr, c Pe CH, CH(OH), ArOCH 2 ), 3.82 (s, 3H,

CH 3 ), 3.61 (t, J = 4.8 Hz, 2H, c PeOCH 2 ), 3.18 (dt, J = 5.9/5.9 Hz, 2H, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 2.74 (dd, J = 11.9/3.9 Hz, 1H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH), 2.59 - 2.70 (m, 3H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 1.52 - 1.75 (m, 6H, c Pe CH 2 ), 1.40 - 1.51 (m, 2H, c Pe CH 2 ).

47f 103-110 (D SO-d 6 ):68.63 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.14 (dd, J = 2.2/2.2 Hz, 1H, aryl 2- Ft,: 3.40 (S H), 7.10 (dd, J= 8.1/8.1 Hz, 1H, aryl 5-H), 6.79-6.89 (m, 5H, C-H aryl-dioxy 1b), 12.42 ring, aryl 6-H), 6.46 (ddd, J = 8.2/2.4/0.6 Hz, 1 H aryl 4-H), 6.22 (t, J = 5.4 Hz, (S 3). 1 H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 5.05 (br s, 1 H, NH), 3.79 - 3.97 (m, 6H, CH^OAr, c Pe CH,

CH(OH), ArOCH 2 ), 3.69 (s, 3H, CH 3 ), 3.61 (t, J = 4.8 Hz, 2H, c PeOCH 2 ), 3.18 (dt, J = 5.9/5.9 Hz, 2H, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 2.73 (dd, J = 11.9/3.9 Hz, 1H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH), 2.50 - 2.70 (m, 3H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH, NHCH^CHa), 1.52 - 1.74 (m, 6H, c Pe CH 2 ), 1.41 - 1.52 (m, 2H, c Pe CH 2 ).

47g 121 - 125 (D SO-d 6 ): δ 8.37 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.10 (d, J= 9.0 Hz, 2H, aryl 2-H Ft,: 3.37 (S and 6-H), 6.82 - 6.87 (m, 4H, C-H aryl-dioxy ring), 6.80 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2H, aryl 1b), 12.02 3-H and 5-H), 6.07 (t, J = 5.5 Hz, 1 H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 5.00 (br s, 1 H, NH), 3.75 (S 3). - 4.00 (m, 6H, CH^OAr, c Pe CH, CH(OH), ArOCH 2 ), 3.68 (s, 3H, CH 3 ), 3.61 (t,

J = 4.7 Hz, 2H, c PeOCH 2 ), 3.15 (dt, J = 5.8/5.8 Hz, 2H, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 2.55 - 2.76 (m, 4H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH, NHCH^CH^, 1.52 - 1.74 (m, 6H, c Pe CH 2 ), 1.41 -1.52 (m,2H, c Pe CH 2 ).

47h 115-117 (D SO-d 6 ):68.38 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 8.12 (dd, J = 8.3/1.5 Hz, 1H, aryl 6- R t : 4.05 (S H), 7.16 (ddd, J= 11.8/8.2/1.4 Hz, 1H, aryl 3-H), 7.06 (dd, J= 8.2/8.2 Hz, 1H, 1b), 12.35 aryl 5-H), 6.87 - 6.94 (m, 1 H, aryl 4-H), 6.85, 6.82 (d, J = 9.3 Hz, 2 x 2H, C-H (S 3). aryl-dioxy ring), 6.70 (t, J = 5.4 Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr) 4.99 (br s, 1H, NH), 3.77 - 4.01 (m, 6H, CH^OAr, c Pe CH, CH(OH), ArOCH 2 ), 3.61 (t, J = 4.8 Hz, 2H, c PeOCH 2 ), 3.18 (dt, J= 6.0/6.0 Hz, 2H, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 2.71 (dd, J= 11.8/3.9 Hz, 1H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH), 2.56 - 2.67 (m, 3H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH, NHC-/ £ CH 2 ), 1.51 - 1.75 (m, 6H, c Pe CH 2 ), 1.41 - 1.51 (m, 2H, c Pe CH 2 ).i 108-110 (D SO-d 6 ):68.86 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.45 (ddd, J= 12.3/2.2/2.2 Hz, 1H, R t : 4.02 (S aryl 2-H), 7.22 (ddt, J= 8.2/8.2.2/8.2 Hz, 1H, aryl 5-H), 7.00 (ddd, J= 8.2/1.2 1b), 13.32 Hz, 1H, aryl 6-H), 6.79 - 6.89 (m, 4H, C-H aryl-dioxy ring), 6.68 (ddd, J = (S 3). 8.2/8.2/2.1 Hz, 1H, aryl 4-H), 6.28 (t, J = 5.4 Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 5.04 (br s, 1H, NH), 3.77 - 4.01 (m, 6H, CH^OAr, c Pe CH, CH(OH), ArOCH 2 ), 3.61 (t, J = 4.8 Hz, 2H, c PeOCH 2 ), 3.18 (dt, J = 5.8/5.8 Hz, 2H, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 2.57 - 2.79 (m, 4H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 1.52 - 1.75 (m, 6H, c Pe CH 2 ), 1.40 - 1.52 (m, 2H, c Pe CH 2 ).

j 130-133 (D SO-d 6 ): δ 8.69 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.39 (dd, J = 9.1/5.0 Hz, 2H, 2-H R t : 4.12 (S and 6-H fluorophenyl ring), 7.04 (dd, J = 8.9/8.9 Hz, 2H, 3-H and 5-H 1b), 13.20 fluorophenyl ring), 6.80 - 6.88 (m, 4H, aryl-dioxy ring), 6.23 (t, J= 5.4 Hz, 1H, (S 3). NH(C=0)NHAr), 5.13 (br s, 1H, NH), 3.78 - 4.00 (m, 6H, CH^OAr, c Pe CH,

CH(OH), ArOCH 2 ), 3.61 (t, J = 4.8 Hz, 2H, c PeOCH 2 ), 3.15 - 3.24 (m, 2H, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 2.78 (dd, J= 11.9/3.7 Hz, 1H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH), 2.61 -2.74 (m, 3H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 1.52 - 1.75 (m, 6H, c Pe CH 2 ), 1.40 - 1.52 (m, 2H, c Pe CH 2 ).

k 99-103 (D SO-d 6 ): δ 8.14 (dd, J = 8.3/1.3 Hz, 1H, aryl 6-H), 8.09 (s, 1H, R t : 3.50 (S NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.38 (dd, J = 8.0/1.4 Hz, 1H, aryl 3-H), 7.22 (ddd, J = 1b), 13.09 7.8/7.8/1.4 Hz, 1H, aryl 5-H), 7.07 (t, J = 5.2 Hz, 1 H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 6.93 (S 3). (ddd, J = 7.8/7.8/1.5 Hz, 1 H, aryl 4-H), 6.79 - 6.86 (m, 4H, C-H aryl-dioxy ring),

4.98 (br s, 1H, NH), 3.73 - 4.01 (m, 6H, CH^OAr, c Pe CH, CH(OH), ArOCH 2 ), 3.61 (t, J = 4.8 Hz, 2H, c PeOCH 2 ), 3.18 (dt, J = 5.8/5.8 Hz, 2H, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 2.57 - 2.72 (m, 4H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 1.51 - 1.74 (m, 6H, c Pe CH 2 ), 1.41 - 1.51 (m, 2H, c Pe CH 2 ).

1 102-109 (D SO-d 6 ):68.85 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.67 (dd, J = 2.0/2.0 Hz, 1H, aryl 2- R t : 3.88 (S H), 7.22 (dd, J= 8.1/8.1 Hz, 1H, aryl 5-H), 7.16 (ddd, J= 8.2/1.8/1.2 Hz, 1H, 1b), 13.87 aryl 6-H), 6.92 (ddd, J= 7.7/2.1/1.2 Hz, 1H, aryl 4-H), 6.85 (d, J= 9.3 Hz, 2H, (S 3). C-H aryl-dioxy ring), 6.82 (d, J = 9.3 Hz, 2H, C-H aryl-dioxy ring), 6.29 (t, J =

5.4 Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 5.03 (br s, 1H, NH), 3.77-4.00 (m, 6H, CH^OAr, cPe CH, CH(OH), ArOCH 2 ), 3.61 (t, J= 4.8 Hz, 2H, c PeOCH 2 ), 3.18 (dt, J = 5.9/5.9 Hz, 2H, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 2.57 - 2.77 (m, 4H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH, NHCH^CH^, 1.51 - 1.74 (m, 6H, c Pe CH 2 ), 1.40 - 1.51 (m, 2H, c Pe CH 2 ).m 133-140 (D SO-d 6 ):68.76 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.41 , 7.25 (d, J= 8.9 Hz, 2 x 2H, C- R t : 3.80 (S H of chlorophenyl ring), 6.81 - 6.86 (m, 4H, C-H aryl-dioxy ring), 7.23 (t, J = 5.4 1b), 13.73 Hz, 1 H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 5.00 (br s, 1 H, NH),

(S 3). 3.76 - 3.99 (m, 6H, CH^OAr, c Pe CH, CH(OH), ArOCH 2 ), 3.61 (t, J = 4.8 Hz,

2H, c PeOCH 2 ), 3.17 (dt, J= 5.8/5.8 Hz, 2H, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 2.57 - 2.72 (m, 4H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 1.52 - 1.74 (m, 6H, c Pe CH 2 ), 1.40 - 1.51 (m, 2H, c Pe CH 2 ).

n semi-solid. (D SO-d 6 ): δ 8.04 (dd, J = 8.3/1.5 Hz, 1H, aryl 6-H), 7.98 (s, 1H, R t : 4.09 (S NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.56 (dd, J = 8.0/1.4 Hz, 1 H, aryl 3-H), 7.22 - 7.32 (m, 2H, aryl 1b), 13.34 5-H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 6.79 - 6.94 (m, 5H, aryl 4-H, aryl-dioxy ring), 3.76 - 4.15 (S 3). (m, 6H, CH^OAr, c Pe CH, CH(OH), ArOCH 2 ), 3.61 (t, J = 4.8 Hz, 2H, cPeOCH 2 ), 3.18 - 3.56 (m, 10H, H 2 0, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 2.55 - 3.13 (m, 4H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 1.52 - 1.75 (m, 6H, c Pe CH 2 ), 1.40 - 1.52 (m, 2H, c Pe CH 2 ).

o 120-122 (D SO-d 6 ):68.83 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.81 (dd, J= 1.9/1.9 Hz, 1H, aryl 2- R t : 4.47 (S H), 7.21 (ddd, J= 8.2/1.7/1.7 Hz, 1H, aryl 6-H), 7.16 (dd, J= 7.7/7.7 Hz, 1H, 1b), 14.42 aryl 5-H), 7.05 (ddd, J= 7.7/1.2/1.2 Hz, 1H, aryl 4-H), 6.85 (d, J= 9.3 Hz, 2H, (S 3). C-H aryl-dioxy ring), 6.82 (d, J = 9.3 Hz, 2H, C-H aryl-dioxy ring), 6.29 (t, J =

5.3 Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 5.02 (br s, 1H, NH), 3.76 - 4.00 (m, 6H, CH^OAr, cPe CH, CH(OH), ArOCH 2 ), 3.61 (t, J= 4.8 Hz, 2H, c PeOCH 2 ), 3.13 - 3.21 (m, 2H, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 2.71 (dd, J = 11.7/3.7 Hz, 1H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH), 2.67 (dd, J = 6.1/6.1 Hz, 2H, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 2.60 (dd, J 11.9/6.7 Hz, 1H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH), 1.52 - 1.75 (m, 6H, c Pe CH 2 ), 1.40 - 1.52 (m, 2H, c Pe CH 2 ). 47aa 185-188; Ft,: 2.11 (s 4), 2.30 (s 5)

47bb 183-186; R t : 2.08 (s 4), 2.24 (s 5); 1 H nmr data similar to other compounds in table

48 155-157 (CDCI 3 ): δ 7.29 (dd, J= 8.7/7.5 Hz, 2H, phenoxy 3-H and 5-H), 6.96 (dd, J = R t : 4.47 (S 7.4/7.4 Hz, 1H, phenoxy 4-H), 6.91 (d, J= 7.7 Hz, 2H, phenoxy 2-H and 6-H), 1b), 12.64 6.80 - 6.86 (m, 4H, aryl-dioxy ring), 3.91 - 4.11 (m, 8H, OCHaCH^OAr, (S 3). NHCH 2 C-/ £ OAr, ArOCH^CH, CH(OH), c Pe CH), 3.72 (t, J = 5.2 Hz, 2H, cPeOCH 2 ), 3.06 (t, J= 5.1 Hz, 2H, NHC-/ £ CH 2 OAr), 2.94 (dd, J= 12.1/3.9 Hz, 1H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH), 2.84 (dd, J = 12.2/7.9 Hz, 1H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH), 1.44 - 1.84 (m, 8H, c Pe CH 2 ).

49 R t : 4.20 (S Ή NMR (DMSO-d 6 ): δ 8.08 (br s, 1H, amide NH), 7.17 - 7.32 (m, 5H, phenyl 1b), 12.14 CH), 6.85 (s, 4H, aryl-dioxy CH), 3.98 (t, J= 4.8 Hz, 2H, CH 2 OAr), 3.90 - 3.96 (S 3). (m, 1H, c Pe CH), 3.77 - 3.90 (m, 3H, ArOCH 2 , CH(OH)), 3.62 (t, J= 4.9 Hz,

2H, c PeOCH 2 ), 3.40 (s, 2H, C=OCH 2 ), 3.12 - 3.20 (m, 2H, CH 2 NHC=0), 2.56 - 2.77 (m, 4H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH, CH 2 NHCH 2 ), 1.41 - 1.76 (m, 8H, c Pe CH 2 ).

50 R t : 4.30 (S (DMSO-d 6 ): δ 9.83 (s, 1H, amide NH), 8.28 (br s, 2H, NH 2 + ), 7.58 (d, J= 7.6 1b), 12.44 Hz, 2H, phenyl 2-H and 6-H), 7.27 (dd, J= 7.8/7.8 Hz, 2H, phenyl 3-H and 5-H), (S 3). 7.01 (dd, J= 7.4/7.4 Hz, 1H, phenyl 4-H), 6.84 (s, 4H, aryl-dioxy CH), 3.98 (t, J

= 4.8 Hz, 2H, CH 2 OAr), 3.78 - 3.96 (m, 4H, ArOCH 2 , CH(OH), c Pe CH), 3.62 (t, J= 4.9 Hz, 2H, c PeOCH 2 ), 2.76 (dd, J= 11.9/4.1 Hz, 1H, CH(OH)CH 2 ), 2.61 - 2.69 (m, 3H, CH(OH)CH 2 , NHCH 2 ), 2.36 (t, J= 7.4 Hz, 2H, CH 2 C=0), 1.72 - 1.82 (m, 2H, CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 ), 1.41 - 1.72 (m, 8H, c Pe CH 2 ).

51 R t : 4.47 (S (DMSO-d 6 ):69.64 (s, 1H, carbamate NH), 7.46 (d, J= 7.3 Hz, 2H, 2-H and 6-H 1b), 12.64 phenyl ring, 7.26 (dd, J = 7.3/7.3 Hz, 2H, 3-H and 5-H phenyl ring), 6.99 (dd, J (S 3). = 7.3/7.3 Hz, 1H, 4-H phenyl ring), 6.84 (s, 4H, aryl-dioxy CH), 4.99 (br s, 1H,

OH), 4.14 (t, J= 5.7 Hz, 2H, CH 2 OC=0), 3.76-4.00 (m, 6H, CH^OAr, c Pe CH, CH(OH), ArOCH 2 ), 3.61 (t, J = 4.8 Hz, 2H, c PeOCH 2 ), 2.82 (t, J = 5.7 Hz, 2H, NHCH^CHaO), 2.71 (dd, J = 11.9/3.8 Hz, 1H, CH(OH)CH 2 ), 2.61 (dd, J = 11.5/6.1 Hz, 1H, CH(OH)CH 2 ), 1.41 - 1.75 (m, 8H, c Pe CH 2 ).

52 R t : 4.25 (S (DMSO-d 6 ): δ 9.66 (br s, 1H, NH(C=S)NHAr), 7.73 (br s, 1H, NH(C=S)NHAr), 1b), 12.02 7.42 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, 2H, 2-H and 6-H phenyl ring), 7.29 (dd, J= 7.4/7.4 Hz, 2H, (S 3). 3-H and 5-H phenyl ring), 7.08 (dd, J= 7.4/7.4 Hz, 1H, 4-H phenyl ring), 6.84

(s, 4H, aryl-dioxy ring), 4.99 (br s, 1H, OH), 3.75 - 4.03 (m, 6H, CH^QAr, c Pe CH, CH(OH), ArOCH 2 ), 3.62 (t, J = 4.9 Hz, 2H, c PeOCH 2 ), 3.55 (br s, 2H, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 2.75 (t, J = 6.3 Hz, 2H, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 2.67 - 2.73 (m, 1H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH), 2.61 (dd, J= 11.8/5.9 Hz, 1H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH), 1.39 - 1.76 (m, 8H, c Pe CH 2 ).

53 R t : 4.39 (S (DMSO-d 6 ): δ 7.29 - 7.43 (m, 5H, C-H, phenyl ring), 6.84 (s, 4H, aryl-dioxy 1b), 12.05 ring), 4.94 (br s, 1 H, OH), 4.33 (s, 2H, S0 2 CH 2 ), 3.74 - 4.02 (m, 6H, CH^OAr, (S 3). c Pe CH, CH(OH), ArOCH 2 ), 3.62 (t, J = 4.9 Hz, 2H, c PeOCH 2 ), 2.97 (t, J = 6.5

Hz, 2H, CH 2 NHS0 2 ), 2.52 - 2.69 (m, 4H, NHCH^CH^ CH(OH)CH 2 NH), 1.40 - 1.77 (m, 8H, c Pe CH 2 ).

54 semi-solid. (DMSO-d 6 ): δ 9.30 (br s, 1 H, phenolic OH), 8.60 (s, 1 H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.32 - R t : 3.82 (S 7.42 (m, 1H, phenylurea C-H), 6.75 - 6.92 (m, 6H, C-H aryldioxy ring, 1b). phenylurea C-H), 6.26 (t, J= 5.6 Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 3.75 -4.04 (m, 6H,

CHiOAr, c Pe CH, CH(OH), ArOCH 2 ), 3.61 (t, J= 4.8 Hz, 2H, c PeOCH 2 ), 3.20 - 3.27 (m, 2H, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 2.72 - 2.94 (m, 4H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH, NHCH^CH^, 1.52 - 1.75 (m, 6H, c Pe CH 2 ), 1.41 - 1.52 (m, 2H, c Pe CH 2 ).

54a 113-115 (DMSO-d 6 ):68.90 (s, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), 7.63 (ddd, J= 13.8/7.9/2.6 Hz, 1H, R t : 4.65 (S aryl 2-H), 7.26 (ddd, J = 10.4/9.2/9.2 Hz, 1 H, aryl 5-H), 6.96 - 7.06 (m, 1 H, aryl 1b), 13.70 6-H), 6.84 (s, 4H, C-H aryl-dioxy ring), 6.32 (t, J= 5.2 Hz, 1H, NH(C=0)NHAr), (S 3). 5.11 (br s, 1H, OH), 3.76 - 4.03 (m, 6H, CH^OAr, c Pe CH, CH(OH), ArOCH 2 ),

3.61 (t, J= 4.6 Hz, 2H, c PeOCH 2 ), 3.14-3.24 (m, 2H, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 2.59-2.81 (m, 4H, CH(OH)CH 2 NH, NHCH 2 CH 2 ), 1.52 - 1.75 (m, 6H, c Pe CH 2 ), 1.41 - 1.52 (m, 2H, c Pe CH 2 ).

54b R t :2.17(s 4), 2.49 (s 5)

54c R t : 2.02 (s 4), 2.34 (s 5); 1 H-nmr data similar to other compounds in table

General procedure for synthesis of phenyl substituted Λ-(2-(3-(4-(2- (cvclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hvdroxypropylamino)ethyl)b enzamides (54d-i)

Epoxide opening of 41c with the appropriate 22c-h, was carried out as described for 47t. Purification was achieved via PLC (eluent NH 3 /lvleOH/DCIvl 1:5:94). W-(2-(3-(4-(2-(cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hydroxypropy lamino)ethyl)-2-(3- hydroxyphenyl)acetamide (54j)

Epoxide opening of 41 c with 18b was carried out as described for 47t. Purification via PLC (eluent NHs/lvleOH/DC 1 :10:89). Table 18 lists 1 H NMR spectral data for compounds from Figure 4:

ferf-Butyl 2-(benzylamino)ethylcarbamate (56) 55 (15.861 g, 105.58 mmol) was dissolved in eOH at rt. To this stirred solution was added 2-(tert- butoxycarbonyloxyimino)-2-phenylacetonitrile (26.00g, 105.58 mmol, 1 eq), in portions, allowing dissolution before next addition. The resulting yellow solution was stirred at rt for 3 days (over weekend) before removal of all volatiles under reduced pressure. The crude residue was dissolved in EtOAc (300 mL) before washing with aq. 1 NaOH (2 x 100 mL). The combined aqueous layers were again washed with EtOAc (100 mL). Combining and concentrating the organic portions gave 29.8g of crude product. This was further purified by FCC (eluent DCIWPE 1 :1 to load column, continued until impurities wash off, then 100% DC , followed eOH/DC 1 :1 0). This gave 25.3g (96%) of pale yellow oil.

ferf-Butyl 2-(benzyl(3-(4-(2-(cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2- hydroxypropyl)amino)ethylcarbamate (57)

41 c (5.00g, 17.96 mmol) and 56 (4.497g, 17.96 mmol, 1 eq) were dissolved in EtOH (30 mL) and a few drops of water added, before splitting the mixture into 2 x 30 mL W vessels. Each mixture was heated at 100 °C for 30 mins in the MW reactor (dynamic program with maximum pressure 250 psi, maximum power 300W). Concentration of the reaction mixture gave approximately 10 g of crude residue. This was purified by FCC (eluent PE/DCM 1 :1 to prime/load the column, with the gradient increasing to 100% DCM over 5CV, 1 00% DCM for a further 3 CV and then raise to DCM/MeOH 99:1 over 1 CV, then to 95:5 over 3 CV, holding at this concentration to elute the desired product). This gave 7.30 (77%) g of white crystalline solid.

1 -((2-Aminoethyl)(benzyl)amino)-3-(4-(2-(cyclopentyloxy)ethox y)phenoxy)propan-2-ol dihydrochloride (58)

57 (606 mg, 1 .15 mmol) was dissolved in DCM (5 mL) with stirring before adding 4M HCI/Dioxane (5 mL) and 1 drop of water. The mixture was stirred for 15 minutes before diluting with PE and collecting the precipitate by filtration (vacuum) to give 457 mg (79%) of beige amorphous solid. General procedure for synthesis of 1 -(2-(benzyl(3-(4-(2-(cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2- hydroxypropyl)amino)ethyl)-3-(nitrophenyl)ureas (59a-b)

57 (100mg, 0.20 mmol and TEA (0.058 mL, 0.42 mmol, 2.1 eq) were dissolved in a mixture of DCM/DMF (1 :1 , 1 mL) in three Radley's tubes. The appropriate nitro-phenylisocyanate was added as a solution in DMF (0.5 mL) with washings of a further 0.5 mL of solvent. The mixtures were stirred at rt over the weekend. To each mixture was added sat. aq. NaHC0 3 (30 mL), before extracting with DCM (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic layers were then further washed with brine (10 mL). After concentration of the organic layer under reduced pressure, each crude residue was further purified by FCC ( eluent 1 N NH 3 in MeOH/DCM 1 :99 to wash out impurities, then up to 5:95 to elute).

General procedure for synthesis of 1-(aminophenyl)-3-(2-(3-(4-(2- (cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hydroxypropylamino)ethyl)u reas (60a-c)

59a-b, 47w were dissolved in MeOH (2 mL) and 10% Pd/C added under nitrogen. MeOH (1 mL) was used to wash out starting material container, before adding water/AcOH (2:1 , 1 .2 mL). The tubes were hydrogenated on a Radley's carousel at atmospheric temperature and pressure over the weekend. Each mixture was passed through a bed of celite with rinsings of MeOH, before concentration of the filtrate. The desired products were purified by FCC (eluent 1 N NH 3 in eOH/DC 0.5:99.5 to 20:80 over 10 CV). Yield 17-53%. HPLC (S 4; S 5): 60a 2.07; 2.20. 60b 1 .92; 2.04. 60c 1 .81 ; 1 .98. 1 H-nmr very similar to other urea compounds.

1 -(2-Aminoethylamino)-3-(4-(2-(cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy) propan-2-ol

dihydrochloride (61 )

57 (2.0g) was dissolved in a mixture of eOH/water/AcOH (7:2:1 , 20 mL) with 10% Pd/C (200 mg) and hydrogenated on a Parr hydrogenator at 50psi overnight to give the de-benzylated intermediate (clean and complete conversion by TLC). The reaction was repeated with a further 4.242g of 57, using 40 mL of the same solvent mixture and 420 mg of catalyst. The reaction was complete in 5 hours. The combined products were concentrated under reduced pressure and combined to give the intermediate as the Boc-protected acetate salt. This was purified and converted to the free amine by passing through a silica plug (eluent 1 NH 3 in MeOH/DCM 5:95 to 20:80), yielding 5.918g of intermediate. After dissolving in 20 mL of DCM, with vigorous stirring at rt, an equivalent volume of 4M HCI/Dioxane was added, and the mixture allowed to stir for 1 hour at which point an off-white precipitate had formed. The mixture was diluted with excess PE and the precipitate collected over a sintered funnel and further washed with PE, before drying in a dessicator under vacuum, to give the desired product as 3.71 7g (77%) of the dihydrochloride salt. General procedure for selective coupling 61 to carboxylic acids (62a-d,f-v)

61 (75-1 00 mg), HBTU (1.1 eq) and appropriate unsubstituted, mono-substituted or di-substituted benzoic acid, or mono-substituted phenylacetic acid (1 eq) were weighed into a vessel, before dissolving in DCM (5-7 mL). TEA (3.1 eq) was added, and the mixture stirred overnight at rt. All volatiles were removed under reduced pressure before being purified by FCC (eluent initially 100% DCM to load/prime column, then a gradient of 1 M NH 3 MeOH/DCM (1 :99 to 15:85 or 20:80 over 10 CV depending TLC analysis). The isolated target compound was then freeze-dried to give amorphous or hygroscopic solids (yields: 1 1 -90%).

4-(2-(3-(4-(2-(Cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2- hydroxypropylamino)ethylcarbamoyl)phenyl acetate (62e)

The title compound was synthesised according to the general procedure for selective coupling of 61 to carboxylic acids. Prior to FCC purification, the reaction mixture was diluted with DCM (20 mL) and washed with aq. Sat NaHC0 3 /brine (1 :1 ) (40 mL). The aqueous phase was extracted with a further 20 mL of DCM. The combined organic extracts were concentrated. After purification, 40 mg (33%) of white amorphous solid was obtained.

4-(2-(2-(3-(4-(2-(Cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hydroxypr opylamino)ethylamino)-2- oxoethyl)phenyl acetate (62w)

The title compound was synthesised according to the procedure described for 62e. After purification, 67 mg (54%), of white amorphous solid was obtained.

Table 20 lists the 1 H NMR spectral data for selected compounds from Scheme 5:

General method for the preparation of the aryloxyalkylamine hydrochlorides (64a, c, d).

To a stirring suspension of polystyryldiphenylphosphine resine (PS-PPh 3 ,1 g, 3 mmol, 1 .5 equiv., from Aldrich, 1 g resin equivalent to 0.78 g of PPh 3 ), 63a, b (2.4 mmol, 1.2 equiv.), and substituted phenol (2 mmol, 1 equiv.) in DC (10 mL) is added dropwise diisopropylazidocarboxylate (DIAD, 506 mg, 2.5 mmol, 1 .25 equiv.). After overnight stirring the mixture is filtered through a silica plug and washed successively with DCM and a mix DCIW eOH (1 :1 ). The filtrate is then loaded on Isolute and purified by FCC (gradient petroleum ether/Ethyl Acetate 100:0 to 50:50) to obtain the intermediate Boc-protected aryloxyalkylamine, which is solubilised in dioxane (2 mL) and stirred during 3 hours in a 4M HCI solution in dioxane (8 mL). The mixture is then evaporated under reduced pressure, dried under high vacuum, and used as crude in the epoxide alkylation step. General method for the preparation of aryloxyalkylamine hydrochlorides (64e-f).

The first step (supported Mitsunobu reaction) is described in the synthesis of 64a, c, d. The intermediate Boc-protected p-benzyloxyphenoxyalkylamine obtained is then suspended in a mix DCIWEtOH (3:1 , 10 mL) with Pd/C (10% w/w) and stirred overnight under a H 2 atmosphere. The suspension is then filtered through celite, evaporated under reduced pressure, and the residue is stirred 3 hours in a 4 HCI solution in dioxane (8 mL). The mixture is then evaporated under reduced pressure, dried under high vacuum, and used as crude in the epoxide opening step. General method for the preparation of aryloxypropanolamines (65a, c-f).

41 c (1 equiv.), crude aryloxyalkylamine hydrochloride 64a, c-f (2 equiv.), and NaOH s (2 equiv.) are suspended in hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP, 4 mL by 100 mg of epoxide), and the mixture is stirred at 70 °C over 24 hours. The whole suspension is slowly wet-loaded at the top of a silica column and purified by FCC (eluent DC /1 NH 3 in eOH 90:10) to afford the corresponding aryloxypropanolamine 65a, c-f. Yields correspond to an isolated overall yield over the itsunobu reaction, amine deprotection, epoxide alkylation, and deprotection when applicable (10-55%). Table 21 lists the 1 H N R spectral data for selected compounds from Scheme 6:

General procedure for synthesis of 2-aminoethoxybenzamide hydrochlorides (66a-c) 63a (5.343g, 33.14 mmol), the appropriate substitued hydroxybenzamide (5.00 g, 36.46 mmol, 1 .1 eq) and Ph 3 P (10.431 g, 39.77 mmol, 1 .2 eq) were dispersed in THF (80 mL). DIAD (7.830 mL, 39.77 mmol, 1 .2 eq) in THF (20 mL) was added dropwise, and the resulting mixtures stirred for 60 hours at rt. The mixtures were concentrated under reduced pressure, before dissolving in EtOAc (100 mL) and washing with aq. 2 NaOH (100 mL). The organic layer was then concentrated and further purified by FCC (gradient in DC /EtOAc) to give white amorphous solids (yields 37-81 %). The Boc-protected ethers were then dissolved or dispersed in DC (30 mL) and eOH (5-10 mL, where necessary to improve solubility) with stirring, before addition of an equal volume of 4 HCI/dioxane to solvent. After 2 hours 45 minutes of stirring at rt, the desired product was totally precipitated using excess PE, before collection by filtration (vacuum). To give the desired compounds as white amorphous solids (90-100% yield).

General procedure for preparation of aryloxypropanolamines (67a-e)

41 c and the appropriate 66a-c, 2-(4-fluorophenoxy)ethylamine hydrochloride (66d, Alfa-Aesar, UK) or 2-(4-methoxyphenoxy)ethylamine (66e, Fisher Scientific, UK) were reacted according to the procedure described for the synthesis of 47w to give white amorphous solids after FCC purification (6-41 % yield). As 66e is commercially available as the free amine, addition of tertiary base in the reaction was unnecessary. HPLC (S 4; s 5) : 67a: 2.09; 2.25. 67b: 124.5-129.5: 2.1 1 ; 2.24. 67c: 128-131 : 2.06 ;2.21. 67d: 2.28;2.50. 67e: 2.26;2.46. 72: 121 -122: 2.1 1 ;2.29. 5-Acetyl-2-(benzyloxy)benzamide (69)

5-Acetyl-2-hydroxybenzamide (8.2g, 45.76 mmol), K 2 C0 3 (9.488g, 68.65 mmol, 1 .5 eq) and BnBr (8.609g, 5.987 mL, 50.34 mmol, 1 .1 eq) were heated under reflux in eCN (100 mL) overnight. The mixture remained a white suspension throughout. After removal of MeCN under reduced pressure, the crude product was dispersed in water (100 mL), and extraction with EtOAc (50 mL) was attempted. The white precipitate was found to be insoluble in either layer, and so was collected by filtration (vacuum) to give 9.41 g of white solid. The aqueous layer was separated in the filtrate and washed with EtOAc (50 mL). Concentration of the combined organic layers gave a white solid with an odour of BnBr. This was sonicated in PE, before filtering, and washing with a small amount of DCIWPE (1 :1 ). Total recovered yield of product: 12.077 g (98%).

2-(Benzyloxy)-5-hydroxybenzamide (70)

69 (5.00g, 18.60 mmol) was dispersed in chloroform (50 mL) to give a white suspension which cleared on addition of m-CPBA 70-75% in water (6.86g, 27.8 mmol, equivalent to 4.806g). The mixture was stirred at rt for 24 hours, at which time LCMS analysis indicated partial conversion had taken place. A further 0.5 eq of m-CPBA were added and stirring was continued for a further 48 hours. The mixture was diluted with DCM (50 mL) before washing with sat. aq. NaHC0 3 (50 mL). The aqueous layer was washed with further DCM (2 x 50 mL) and the combined organic layers washed once more with NaHC0 3 (50 mL). The combined aqueous layers were found to be a yellow solution, whereas the organic layers formed a cloudy white suspension. This was solubilised by addition of a little MeOH, followed by drying with sodium sulphate. Concentration gave 7.1 g of crude product as a pale yellow oil which still contained aromatic impurities when analysed by 1 H-nmr. Subsequently, the crude oil was dissolved in the minimum amount of EtOAc, before adding PE cautiously to cause precipitation of a white solid, which was collected by filtration (vacuum) and washed further with PE. Yield: 4.133g, 78%.

The crude ester product (4.106 g, 14.49 mmol) and LiOH.H 2 0 (906 mg, 21 .59 mmol, 1 .5 eq) were weighed into a flask under an atmosphere of nitrogen gas. THF (25 mL) and water (25 mL) were added to form and initially yellow suspension, which darkens quickly). The mixture was stirred at rt for 4 hours 15 minutes, at which point a dark green solution had formed. THF was removed under reduced pressure, and the remaining aqueous slurry diluted with aq. 2 NaOH (25 mL) to form a complete solution. This was washed with EtOAc (25 mL). The basic aqueous layer was acidified with excess aq 2 HCI, before extraction with EtOAc (3 x 30 mL). After the third extraction, the aqueous layer remained dark, and the pH was found to be ~7. Further 2 HCI solution was added, and the reacidifed aqueous layer extracted further with EtOAc (30 mL) after which is decolourised. The combined organic layers were concentrated to give a brown solid which did not require any further purification. Yield 3.261 g (93%).

5-(2-Aminoethoxy)-2-(benzyloxy)benzamide hydrochloride (71 )

63a (1 .205g, 7.47 mmol), 70 (2.00g, 8.22 mmol, 1 .1 eq) and triphenylphosphine (2.156g, 8.22 mmol, 1 .1 eq) were dissolved in THF (40 mL) at rt. Diisopropylazodicarboxylate (1 .618 mL, 8.22 mmol, 1 .1 eq) was added slowly and the light brown solution became darker in colour. The mixture was stirred at rt overnight. After overnight stirring a further 1 equivalent of DIAD and PPh 3 were added. Stirring was continued for 5 days, before a further 1 eq of DIAD and PPh 3 were added. Stirring was continued overnight before stopping the reaction. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure, and redissolved in EtOAc (100 mL), before washing with aq 2 NaOH (30 mL) and water (30 mL, addition of NaCI to aid separation). The organic layer was concentrated, and redissolved in EtOAc (30 mL), with addition of PE slowly, causing precipitation of triphenylphosphine oxide. This was removed by filtration (vacuum), and the filtrate concentrated and further purified by FCC to give two fractions:

Fraction 1 : Desired compound and triphenylphosphine oxide 944 mg

Fraction 2: Same as fraction 1 with more impurity 1 .083g

Each fraction of contaminated ether product was reacted in a separate pot, being dissolved in DC (10 mL) before addition of 4 HCI/dioxane (10 mL). The mixture was stirred for 2 hours, before addition of PE. However only a sticky solid was formed. TLC analysis (eluent 1 NH 3 in eOH/DC 15:85) indicated both reaction mixtures contained two spots, so the mixtures were combined before concentration and purification by FCC (eluent 1 NH 3 in MeOH/DCM 0:1 00 to 10:90) to give 790mg of white crystalline solid (37% over 2 steps).

5-(2-(3-(4-(2-(Cyclopentyloxy)ethoxy)phenoxy)-2-hydroxypr opylamino)ethoxy)-2- hydroxybenzamide (72)

41 c and 71 were reacted according to the procedure described for the synthesis of 47w to give 90mg of white amorphous solid after FCC purification (30% yield). The benzyl protected intermediate (60 mg, 0.1 1 mmol) was dissolved in THF (5 mL) and 10% Pd/C (6 mg) added. The mixture was hydrogenated overnight before filtering through a bed of celite and washing with eOH. Concentration of the filtrate gave 52 mg of off-white amorphous solid (quantitative yield).

EXAMPLE A1 - Ligand binding studies.

Selectivity of ligands for the three beta-adrenoceptors was assessed by whole-cell binding studies using 3 H-CGP12177 in CHO cells expressing the human betal , beta2 or beta3-adrenoceptors respectively essentially as described by Baker (2005; Br. J Pharmacol: 144, 317-22). Values shown are K D values determined as described by Baker (2005). The K D values for each ligand at the human betal , beta2 and beta3 adrenoceptors are shown in Table 19. K D represents the concentration of compound required to occupy 50% of the receptors in cells or tissues.

The selectivity of a ligand is given by the ratio of beta-1 to beta-2 K D . Accordingly a difference of one in the logarithmic values thereof represents a 10-fold selectivity, a difference of 2 represents 100-fold selectivity and a difference of 3 represents 1000-fold selectivity etc.

Table 23 - 3H-CGP 12177 Whole cell binding

47η -7.11 ±0.01 5 -6.10 ±0.03 6 -4.83 ± 0.03 6

47ο -7.92 ± 0.05 6 -5.99 ± 0.04 6 -4.99 ± 0.05 6

47ρ -7.77 ± 0.04 6 -5.86 ± 0.04 6 -5.03 ±0.07 6

47q -6.94 ±0.01 6 -5.84 ± 0.02 6 -4.62 ± 0.05 6

47r -7.77 ± 0.06 6 -5.86 ± 0.06 6 -4.94 ±0.10 6

47s -7.70 ± 0.04 6 -5.76 ± 0.04 6 -4.93 ± 0.09 6

47t -6.99 ± 0.08 6 -5.96 ± 0.05 6 -5.40 ± 0.27 4

47u -7.89 ± 0.06 6 -5.85 ± 0.06 6 -5.16 ±0.12 5

47v -8.16 ±0.08 8 -5.45 ±0.10 5 -5.08 ±0.08 5

47w -7.73 ± 0.04 4 -5.75 ± 0.02 4 not tested

47x -7.75 ± 0.03 3 -5.74 ± 0.04 4 not tested

47y -7.91 ±0.04 5 -5.96 ± 0.04 5 not tested

47z -7.36 ± 0.03 4 -5.69 ± 0.02 4 not tested

47aa -7.11 ±0.02 4 -4.36 ± 0.04 4 not tested

47bb -6.98 ± 0.03 7 -4.36 ± 0.07 5 not tested

48 -7.46 ± 0.04 6 -6.04 ± 0.02 6 -5.35 ± 0.06 6

49 -8.42 ± 0.03 6 -7.27 ± 0.02 6 -5.36 ±0.12 6

51 -7.53 ± 0.07 6 -6.33 ± 0.03 7 -5.98 ±0.04 6

52 -7.09 ± 0.06 7 -6.16 ±0.04 7 -5.15 ±0.10 6

53 -7.59 ± 0.03 7 -6.03 ± 0.04 7 -4.72 ±0.10 6

54 -8.07 ±0.09 6 -5.59 ± 0.03 7 -4.99 ± 0.05 6

** 147 -149 Eur J Med Chem 200237731 -741

* incomplete inhibition of specific binding at 0.01 mM

62r -7.30 ± 0.06 4 -6.1 1 ± 0.05 4 not tested

62s -7.97 ± 0.04 4 -7.27 ± 0.01 4 not tested

62t -8.01 ± 0.04 4 -7.04 ± 0.07 4 not tested

62u -7.72 ± 0.02 4 -6.86 ± 0.04 4 not tested

62v -8.27 ± 0.02 4 -6.60 ± 0.03 4 not tested

62w -8.09 ± 0.03 4 -6.59 ± 0.02 4 not tested

65a -7.13 ± 0.06 4 -6.1 1 ± 0.04 4 not tested

65c -6.97 ± 0.04 4 -6.13 ± 0.04 3 not tested

65d -6.40 ± 0.03 4 -4.10 ± 0.06 3 not tested

65e -8.24 ± 0.04 4 -6.69 ± 0.03 4 not tested

65f -7.46 ± 0.05 4 -6.10 ± 0.04 4 not tested

67a -7.31 ± 0.07 4 -5.98 ± 0.04 4 not tested

67b -7.74 ± 0.10 4 -6.00 ± 0.03 4 not tested

67c -8.48 ± 0.07 4 -6.07 ± 0.06 4 not tested

67d -8.03 ± 0.03 4 -5.99 ± 0.04 4 not tested

67e -8.05 ± 0.10 4 -6.10 ± 0.06 4 not tested

72 -9.1 1 ± 0.07 5 -7.60 ± 0.03 5 not tested

Pindolol -8.57 ± 0.03 8 -9.23 ± 0.03 8 -7.08 ± 0.08 7

S-pindolol -9.16 ± 0.09 5 -9.55 ± 0.04 5 -7.18 ± 0.15 4

LK204-545 -8.09 ± 0.04 8 -5.20 ± 0.03 8 -4.62 ± 0.09 7

Values are mean + s.e.mean of n separate experiments.

EXAMPLE A2 - Preliminary in vivo studies.

Preliminary assessment of the action of one of the compounds of the invention was undertaken using an in vivo model for monitoring regional haemodynamics in conscious, freely-moving rats (Gardiner & Bennett, Am J Physiol. 1988 Oct;255(4 Pt 2) :H813-24). This model has the distinct advantage of enabling measurement of regional blood flow in addition to blood pressure in the fully conscious state. In this model, beta-adrenoceptor agonist administration elicits a beta2- adrenoceptor-selective hindquarters vasodilatation which, at higher doses, reduces arterial blood pressure and hence evokes a reflex tachycardia, the sympathetic component of which is betal adrenoceptor-mediated.

In atropine-treated rats (to remove the vagal component of the reflex tachycardia), pilot experiments (n=4) with 46a (1 Omg/kg i.v.), using this experimental model, showed that the reflex heart rate response to salbutamol was abolished (before +55 ± 14, after +7 ± 4 beats/min) while the hypotension (before -1 1 ± 1 , after -1 1 ± 3 mmHg) and increase in hindquarters vascular conductance (before +106 ± 20, after + 98 ± 15%) were unaffected. Similarly, isoprenaline- induced tachycardia was markedly reduced (before +74 ± 12, after +1 1 ± 4 beats/min) while the hypotension (before -1 9 ± 3, after -18 ± 2 mmHg) and increase in hindquarters vascular conductance (before +126 ± 20, after + 129 ± 19%) were unaffected. These data confirmed that 46a was highly betal -adrenoceptor selective in a conscious rat cardiovascular model.