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Title:
A PROCESS FOR POLY ALPHA OLEFIN SYNTHESIS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2020/202207
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present disclosure relates to a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, the process comprising: (a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCl3) and ferric chloride (FeCl3), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; and (b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins.

Inventors:
RAMACHANDRARAO BOJJA (IN)
NARESH KOTTARI (IN)
SIVA KESAVA RAJU CHINTALAPATI (IN)
ESWARARAO DONI (IN)
SUBHASH KUMAR (IN)
RAMKUMAR MANGALA (IN)
VENKAT CHALAPATHI RAO PEDDY (IN)
VENKATESWARLU CHOUDARY NETTEM (IN)
SRIGANESH GANDHAM (IN)
Application Number:
PCT/IN2020/050311
Publication Date:
October 08, 2020
Filing Date:
March 31, 2020
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION LTD (IN)
International Classes:
C10M101/02; B01J21/02; B01J23/745; B01J27/10; C07C2/22; C10B55/00; C10B57/04; C10G9/00; C10G50/02; C10G73/02; C10M107/02
Foreign References:
GB479632A1938-02-09
US20170203286A12017-07-20
US20110004038A12011-01-06
GB1308211A1973-02-21
US5714661A1998-02-03
US6184429B12001-02-06
Other References:
HOLMBERG ET AL., FRICTION, vol. 5, no. 3, 2017, pages 263 - 284
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
LAKSHMIKUMARAN, Malathi et al. (IN)
Download PDF:
Claims:
I/We Claim:

1) A process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, the process comprising:

(a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCb) and ferric chloride (FeCh), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; and

(b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins.

2) The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the at least one feed stream is selected from a group consisting of delayed coker heavy naphtha (DCHN) stream, wax cracking stream, pure linear alpha olefin stream, and combinations thereof.

3) The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the at least one feed stream is a combination of delayed coker heavy naphtha (DCHN) stream, wax cracking stream and pure linear alpha olefin stream.

4) The process as claimed in claim 2, wherein the combination of delayed coker heavy naphtha stream and the wax cracking stream has a weight ratio in the range of 1:0.1 to 1:10.

5) The process as claimed in claim 2, wherein the combination of delayed coker heavy naphtha stream and the pure linear alpha olefin stream has a weight ratio in a range of 1:0.05 to 1:0.25.

6) The process as claimed in claim 2, wherein the combination of wax cracking stream and the pure linear alpha olefin stream has a weight ratio in the range of 1 :0.05 to 1 :0.25.

7) The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the catalyst composition has an AlCb to the FcCl i weight ratio in a range of 1:0.33 to 1:3.

8) The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein heating the reaction mixture is carried out at a temperature in a range of 50°C - 100°C for a period in a range of 60 - 100 minutes to obtain the poly alpha olefins.

9) The process as claimed in claim 8, wherein heating the reaction mixture is carried out at a temperature in a range of 50°C - 80°C for a period in a range of 60 - 80 minutes to obtain the poly alpha olefins. 10) The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein said process further comprises processes selected from a group consisting of cooling, solvent extraction, drying, filtering, vacuum evaporation, and combinations thereof.

11) The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the poly alpha olefins has a sulphur content in a range of 10 ppm - 30 ppm.

12) The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the poly alpha olefins comprises dimer, trimer, tetramer, and combinations thereof.

Description:
A PROCESS FOR POLY ALPHA OLEFIN SYNTHESIS

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] The present disclosure is in the field of lubricants. In particular, it pertains to process of poly alpha olefin synthesis.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] The modem industrial era is heavily reliant on uninterrupted throughput and in this regard, internal quality audits to prevent failures are common place. In most industries, such as petrochemicals, an unforeseen failure or breakdown of machinery can have catastrophic effects. Frictional failure is cited as one of the most common reason for breakdown of machinery in the industry. For e.g. it is reported that -20% of the total energy produced by tribological contacts is lost due to friction and another 3% is lost due to mechanical wear (Holmberg et al, Friction, 2017, 5(3), 263-284).

[0003] Therefore, concentrated efforts are made to ensure smooth running of machinery and in this regard, industrial grade lubricants are known to be of immense importance. Industrial grade lubricants are typically high molecular weight oils, greases or waxes that have appreciable thermal resistance. Most common greases or waxes are obtained as aby-product of petroleum cracking and related down-stream processes. Of particular importance, are synthetic lubricants such as poly alpha olefins (PAO), which are typically obtained from refined feed streams (olefin or ethylene-rich stream).

[0004] Well known synthetic strategies involve the use of lewis acid catalysts for Friedel-crafts alkylation-type synthesis. A number of applications are noted to list modifications of said strategy- US5714661 and US6184429. However, a major drawback of such approaches is noted to be the requirement of post as well as pre-processing of input and output stream. For instance, the input feed stream obtained from cracking processes, is found to be rich in Sulphur, which is found to contaminate the oligomer output stream obtained. Further multiple oligomerization steps may be required to yield PAOs with acceptable viscosity. Additionally, PAO synthesis typically relies on purified or refined feed streams. [0005] Therefore, considering the importance of PAO’s, energy and cost-effective methodologies to manufacture PAO are of utmost importance. Processes which rely on low- value streams would accordingly be of utmost importance.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0006] The instant disclosure relates to a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, the process comprising: (a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCb) and ferric chloride (FeCh), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; and (b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins.

[0007] These and other features, aspects and advantages of the present subject matter will be better understood with reference to the following description and appended claims. This summary is provided to introduce a selection of concepts in a simplified form. This summary is not intended to be used to limit the scope of the claimed subject matter.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0008] The detailed description is described with reference to the accompanying figures. In the figures, the left-most digit(s) of a reference number identifies the figure in which the reference number first appears. The same numbers are used throughout the drawings to reference like features and components.

[0009] Figure 1 depicts the graphical representation of oligomer ratio of commercial PAO grades, in accordance with an implementation of the present subject matter.

[0010] Figure 2 depicts the conversion versus various catalysts comprising FeChiAlCb (having various ratios) at 50 °C to 100 °C, in accordance with an implementation of the present subject matter.

[0011] Figure 3 depicts the dimer percentage versus various catalysts comprising FeChiAlCb (having various ratios) in the 1-decene oligomerization reaction at 50 °C to 100 °C, in accordance with an implementation of the present subject matter.

[0012] Figure 4 depicts the trimer percentage versus various catalysts comprising FcCFcAlCh (having various ratios) in the 1-decene oligomerization reaction at 50 °C to 100 °C, in accordance with an implementation of the present subject matter. [0013] Figure 5 depicts the tetramer percentage versus various catalysts comprising FeCbiAlCb (having various ratios) in the 1-decene oligomerization reaction at 50 °C to 100 °C, in accordance with an implementation of the present subject matter.

[0014] Figure 6 depicts the higher oligomer (greater than tetramer) percentage versus various catalysts comprising FeCbiAlCb (having various ratios) in the 1-decene oligomerization reaction at 50 °C to 100 °C, in accordance with an implementation of the present subject matter.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0015] Those skilled in the art will be aware that the present disclosure is subject to variations and modifications other than those specifically described. It is to be understood that the present disclosure includes all such variations and modifications. The disclosure also includes all such steps, features, compositions and compounds referred to or indicated in this specification, individually or collectively and any and all combinations of any or more of such steps or features.

Definitions

[0016] For convenience, before further description of the present disclosure, certain terms employed in the specification, and examples are collected here. These definitions should be read in the light of the remainder of the disclosure and understood as by a person of skill in the art. The terms used herein have the meanings recognized and known to those of skill in the art, however, for convenience and completeness, particular terms and their meanings are set forth below.

[0017] The articles“a”,“an” and“the” are used to refer to one or to more than one (i.e., to at least one) of the grammatical object of the article.

[0018] The terms“comprise” and“comprising” are used in the inclusive, open sense, meaning that additional elements may be included. Throughout this specification, unless the context requires otherwise the word“comprise”, and variations, such as“comprises” and“comprising”, will be understood to imply the inclusion of a stated element or step or group of element or steps but not the exclusion of any other element or step or group of element or steps.

[0019] The term“including” is used to mean“including but not limited to”.“Including” and “including but not limited to” are used interchangeably.

[0020] The term“delayed coker heavy naphtha stream” refers to naphtha range feed obtained from a coker unit. A coker takes the lowest value bottoms material (vacuum resid) and cracks it to the point that all of the resid is eliminated, yielding only lighter fractions and solid carbon. Coker naphtha is typically hydrotreated to saturate the relatively high level of olefins and then fed to the reformer for upgrading to reformate. Typically, the olefin content of said stream is noted to be 20-35%. The boiling point range of said stream is in the range of about 75 to about 220 °C.

[0021] The term“wax cracking stream” refers to the thermal cracking stream of wax yielding lighter products. The boiling point range of said stream is in the range of about 75 to about 220 °C.

[0022] The term“pure linear alpha olefin” refers to purified/refined alpha olefin stream. For instance, the pure linear alpha olefin stream may comprise 100% 1-decene. In another embodiment of the present disclosure, the pure linear alpha olefin stream comprises an olefin selected from the group consisting of 1-decene, 1 -octane, 1-nonene, 1-undecene, and combinations thereof. Typically, the pure linear alpha olefins are C8 to C12 hydrocarbons.

[0023] The terms“catalyst” and“catalyst formulation” have been used interchangeably in the present disclosure to define the oil-soluble metal carboxylate formulations that have been employed for thermal cracking process described herein.

[0024] Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood to one of ordinary skill in the art to which this disclosure belongs. Although methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can be used in the practice or testing of the disclosure, the preferred methods, and materials are now described. All publications mentioned herein are incorporated herein by reference.

[0025] Molar equivalent ratios of metals and organic agents may be presented herein in a range format. It is to be understood that such range format is used merely for convenience and brevity and should be interpreted flexibly to include not only the numerical values explicitly recited as the limits of the range, but also to include all the individual numerical values or sub-ranges encompassed within that range as if each numerical value and sub-range is explicitly recited. For example, a temperature range of about 50°C to about 100°C should be interpreted to include not only the explicitly recited limits of about 50°C to about 100°C, but also to include sub ranges, such as 55°C to 95°C, 60°C to 80°C, and so forth, as well as individual amounts, including fractional amounts, within the specified ranges, such as 52.2°C, 60.6°C, and 61.3°C, for example. [0026] The present disclosure is not to be limited in scope by the specific embodiments described herein, which are intended for the purposes of exemplification only. Functionally equivalent products, compositions, and methods are clearly within scope of the disclosure, as described herein.

[0027] With regards to the problems discussed in the background section, the present disclosure furnishes an improved process involving the use of a bimetallic catalyst, which allows the input feed stream to be selectable from the crude and low value petroleum feed streams such as delayed coker heavy naphtha stream and wax cracking stream. Herein, the catalyst is noted to comprise a combination of AlCb and FcCh.

[0028] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, the process comprising: (a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCb) and ferric chloride (FeCb), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; and (b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins.

[0029] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) as described herein, wherein the at least one feed stream is selected from a group consisting of delayed coker heavy naphtha (DCHN) stream, wax cracking stream, pure linear alpha olefin stream, and combinations thereof.

[0030] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, the process comprising: (a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCb) and ferric chloride (FeCb), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; and (b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins, wherein the at least one feed stream is selected from a group consisting of delayed coker heavy naphtha (DCHN) stream, wax cracking stream, pure linear alpha olefin stream, and combinations thereof.

[0031] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) as described herein, wherein the at least one feed stream is a combination of delayed coker heavy naphtha (DCHN) stream, wax cracking stream and pure linear alpha olefin stream.

[0032] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, the process comprising: (a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCb) and ferric chloride (FeCb), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; and (b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins, wherein the at least one feed stream is a combination of delayed coker heavy naphtha (DCHN) stream, wax cracking stream and pure linear alpha olefin stream.

[0033] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) as described herein, wherein the combination of delayed coker heavy naphtha stream and the wax cracking stream has a weight ratio in the range of 1:0.1 to 1: 10. In another embodiment of the present disclosure the combination of delayed coker heavy naphtha stream and the wax cracking stream has a weight ratio in the range of 1 :0.1 to 1 :5. In yet another embodiment of the present disclosure the combination of delayed coker heavy naphtha stream and the wax cracking stream has a weight ratio in the range of 1:0.1 to 1:2. In an alternate embodiment of the present disclosure the combination of delayed coker heavy naphtha stream and the wax cracking stream has a weight ratio of 1:0.17.

[0034] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, the process comprising: (a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCb) and ferric chloride (FeCh), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; and (b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins, wherein the at least one feed stream is a combination of delayed coker heavy naphtha (DCHN) stream and wax cracking stream and the combination of delayed coker heavy naphtha stream and the wax cracking stream has a weight ratio in the range of 1 :0.1 to 1 : 10.

[0035] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) as described herein, wherein the combination of delayed coker heavy naphtha stream and the pure linear alpha olefin stream has a weight ratio in a range of 1:0.05 to 1:0.25. In another embodiment of the present disclosure the combination of delayed coker heavy naphtha stream and the pure linear alpha olefin stream has a weight ratio in a range of 1:0.07 to 1:0.20. In yet another embodiment of the present disclosure the combination of delayed coker heavy naphtha stream and the pure linear alpha olefin stream has a weight ratio in a range of 1:0.08 to 1:0.15. In an alternate embodiment of the present disclosure the combination of delayed coker heavy naphtha stream and the pure linear alpha olefin stream has a weight ratio of 1:0.01.

[0036] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, the process comprising: (a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCb) and ferric chloride (FeCh), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; and (b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins, wherein the at least one feed stream is a combination of delayed coker heavy naphtha (DCHN) stream and pure linear alpha olefin stream and the delayed coker heavy naphtha stream to the pure linear alpha olefin stream weight ratio is in the range of 1:0.05 to 1:0.25.

[0037] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) as described herein, wherein the combination of wax cracking stream and the pure linear alpha olefin stream has a weight ratio in the range of 1 :0.05 to 1:0.25. In another embodiment of the present disclosure the combination of wax cracking stream and the pure linear alpha olefin stream has a weight ratio in the range of 1:0.07 to 1:0.20. In yet another embodiment of the present disclosure the combination of wax cracking stream and the pure linear alpha olefin stream has a weight ratio in the range of 1:0.08 to 1:0.15. In an alternate embodiment of the present disclosure the combination of wax cracking stream and the pure linear alpha olefin stream has a weight ratio of 1:0.1.

[0038] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, the process comprising: (a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCb) and ferric chloride (FeCh), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; and (b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins, wherein the at least one feed stream is a combination of wax cracking stream and pure linear alpha olefin stream and the combination of wax cracking stream and the pure linear alpha olefin stream has a weight ratio in the range of 1:0.05 to 1:0.25.

[0039] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) as described herein, wherein the catalyst composition has an AlCb to the FcCl i weight ratio in a range of 1:0.33 to 1:3. In another embodiment of the present disclosure the catalyst composition has an AlCb to the FcCl i weight ratio in a range of 1:0.36 to 1:2.8. In yet another embodiment of the present disclosure the catalyst composition has an AlCb to the FcCl i weight ratio in a range of 1:0.4 to 1:2.5. In an alternate embodiment of the present disclosure the catalyst composition has an AICI3 to the FcCh weight ratio of 1:0.43. In an alternate embodiment of the present disclosure the catalyst composition has an AICI3 to the FcCl i weight ratio of 1: 1. In an alternate embodiment of the present disclosure the catalyst composition has an AICI3 to the FcCl i weight ratio of 1:2.3.

[0040] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, the process comprising: (a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AICI3) and ferric chloride (FcCl i), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; and (b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins, wherein the catalyst composition has an AICI3 to the FcCl i weight ratio in a range of 1:0.33 to 1:3.

[0041] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, the process comprising: (a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AICI3) and ferric chloride (FcCl i), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; and (b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins, wherein the at least one feed stream is selected from a group consisting of delayed coker heavy naphtha (DCHN) stream, wax cracking stream, pure linear alpha olefin stream, and combinations thereof and the catalyst composition has an AICI3 to the FcCl i weight ratio in a range of 1:0.33 to 1:3.

[0042] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, the process comprising: (a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AICI3) and ferric chloride (FcCl i), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; and (b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins, wherein the at least one feed stream is a combination of delayed coker heavy naphtha (DCHN) stream, wax cracking stream and pure linear alpha olefin stream and the catalyst composition has an AICI3 to the FcCl i weight ratio in a range of 1:0.33 to 1:3.

[0043] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, the process comprising: (a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCb) and ferric chloride (FeCb), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; and (b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins, wherein the delayed coker heavy naptha stream to the wax cracking stream weight ratio is in the range of 1:0.1 to 1: 10 and the catalyst composition has an AlCb to the FcCh weight ratio in a range of 1:0.33 to 1:3.

[0044] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, the process comprising: (a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCb) and ferric chloride (FeCb), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; and (b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins, wherein the combination of delayed coker heavy naphtha stream and the pure linear alpha olefin stream has a weight ratio in a range of 1:0.05 to 1 :0.25 and the catalyst composition has an AlCb to the FcCh weight ratio in a range of 1:0.33 to 1:3.

[0045] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, the process comprising: (a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCb) and ferric chloride (FcCh), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; and (b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins, wherein the combination of wax cracking stream and the pure linear alpha olefin stream has a weight ratio in the range of 1:0.05 to 1 :0.25 and the catalyst composition has an AlCb to the FcCh weight ratio in a range of 1 :0.33 to 1:3.

[0046] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) as described herein, wherein heating the reaction mixture is carried out at a temperature in a range of 50°C - 100°C for a period in a range of 60 - 100 minutes to obtain the poly alpha olefins. In another embodiment of the present disclosure heating the reaction mixture is carried out at a temperature in a range of 55°C - 90°C for a period in a range of 60 - 90 minutes to obtain the poly alpha olefins.

[0047] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, the process comprising: (a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCb) and ferric chloride (FcCh), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; and (b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins, wherein heating the reaction mixture is carried out at a temperature in a range of 50°C - 100°C for a period in a range of 60 - 100 minutes to obtain the poly alpha olefins.

[0048] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, the process comprising: (a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCb) and ferric chloride (FeCh), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; and (b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins, wherein the at least one feed stream is selected from a group consisting of delayed coker heavy naphtha (DCHN) stream, wax cracking stream, pure linear alpha olefin stream, and combinations thereof heating the reaction mixture is carried out at a temperature in a range of 50°C - 100°C for a period in a range of 60 - 100 minutes to obtain the poly alpha olefins.

[0049] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) as described herein, wherein heating the reaction mixture is carried out at a temperature in a range of 50°C - 80°C for a period in a range of 60 - 80 minutes to obtain the poly alpha olefins. In another embodiment of the present disclosure heating the reaction mixture is carried out at a temperature in a range of 55°C - 80°C for a period in a range of 60 - 80 minutes to obtain the poly alpha olefins. In another embodiment of the present disclosure heating the reaction mixture is carried out at a temperature of 75°C for a period in a range of 62 - 78 minutes to obtain the poly alpha olefins.

[0050] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, the process comprising: (a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCb) and ferric chloride (FeCh), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; and (b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins, wherein heating the reaction mixture is carried out at a temperature in a range of 50°C - 80°C for a period in a range of 60 - 80 minutes to obtain the poly alpha olefins.

[0051] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, the process comprising: (a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCb) and ferric chloride (FeCh), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; and (b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins, wherein the at least one feed stream is selected from a group consisting of delayed coker heavy naphtha (DCHN) stream, wax cracking stream, pure linear alpha olefin stream, and combinations thereof heating the reaction mixture is carried out at a temperature in a range of 50°C - 80°C for a period in a range of 60 - 80 minutes to obtain the poly alpha olefins.

[0052] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) as described herein, wherein said process further comprises processes selected from a group consisting of cooling, solvent extraction, drying, filtering, vacuum evaporation, and combinations thereof. In another embodiment of the present disclosure the process is a combination of cooling, solvent extraction, drying, filtration and vacuum evaporation. In another embodiment of the present disclosure the vacuum distillation is carried out using a rotary evaporator at a temperature below 190 °C. In yet another embodiment of the present disclosure drying is carried out using treating poly alpha olefins with anhydrous sodium sulphate.

[0053] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, the process comprising: (a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCb) and ferric chloride (FeCh), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; (b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins; and (c) processing by a process selected from a group consisting of cooling, solvent extraction, drying, filtering, vacuum evaporation, and combinations thereof.

[0054] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, the process comprising: (a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCb) and ferric chloride (FeCh), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; (b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins; and (c) processing by a process selected from a group consisting of cooling, solvent extraction, drying, filtering, vacuum evaporation, and combinations thereof, wherein heating the reaction mixture is carried out at a temperature in a range of 50°C - 80°C for a period in a range of 60 - 80 minutes to obtain the poly alpha olefins.

[0055] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, the process comprising: (a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCb) and ferric chloride (FeCh), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; (b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins; and (c) processing by a process selected from a group consisting of cooling, solvent extraction, drying, filtering, vacuum evaporation, and combinations thereof, wherein the at least one feed stream is selected from a group consisting of delayed coker heavy naphtha (DCHN) stream, wax cracking stream, pure linear alpha olefin stream, and combinations thereof heating the reaction mixture is carried out at a temperature in a range of 50°C - 80°C for a period in a range of 60 - 80 minutes to obtain the poly alpha olefins.

[0056] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) as described herein, wherein the poly alpha olefins has a sulphur content in a range of 10 ppm - 30 ppm. In another embodiment of the present disclosure the poly alpha olefins has a sulphur content in a range of 10 ppm - 28 ppm. In another embodiment of the present disclosure the poly alpha olefins has a sulphur content in a range of 10 ppm - 25 ppm.

[0057] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) as described herein, wherein the at least one feed stream has a sulphur content in the range of 100 ppm to 2% of total weight.

[0058] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, the process comprising: (a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCb) and ferric chloride (FeCh), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; and (b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins, wherein the poly alpha olefins has a sulphur content in a range of 10 ppm - 30 ppm.

[0059] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, the process comprising: (a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCb) and ferric chloride (FeCh), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; (b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins; and (c) processing by a process selected from a group consisting of cooling, solvent extraction, drying, filtering, vacuum evaporation, and combinations thereof, wherein the poly alpha olefins has a sulphur content in a range of 10 ppm - 30 ppm.

[0060] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) as described herein, wherein the poly alpha olefins comprises dimer, trimer, tetramer, and combinations thereof. In another embodiment of the present disclosure the poly alpha olefins comprises a combination of dimer, trimer, and tetramer.

[0061] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, the process comprising: (a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCb) and ferric chloride (FeCh), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; and (b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins, wherein the poly alpha olefins comprises dimer, trimer, tetramer, and combinations thereof.

[0062] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, the process comprising: (a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCb) and ferric chloride (FeCh), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; and (b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins, wherein the poly alpha olefins comprises dimer, trimer, tetramer, and combinations thereof and has a sulphur content in a range of 10 ppm - 30 ppm.

[0063] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, the process comprising: (a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCb) and ferric chloride (FeCh), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; (b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins; and (c) processing by a process selected from a group consisting of cooling, solvent extraction, drying, filtering, vacuum evaporation, and combinations thereof, wherein the poly alpha olefins comprises dimer, trimer, tetramer, and combinations thereof and has a sulphur content in a range of 10 ppm - 30 ppm.

[0064] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a poly alpha olefin obtained by the process for synthesizing poly alpha olefins (PAO) from at least one feed stream, wherein the process comprising: (a) contacting at least one feed stream, a catalyst composition comprising a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCb) and ferric chloride (FeCh), and water to obtain a reaction mixture; and (b) heating the reaction mixture to obtain the poly alpha olefins.

[0065] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a poly alpha olefin for use as industrial grade lubricant. In another embodiment of the present disclosure, the poly alpha olefin is useful as air compressor oil, gear oil, hydraulic oil and the like.

[0066] Although the subject matter has been described in considerable details with reference to certain preferred embodiments thereof, other embodiments are possible.

EXAMPLES

[0067] The following examples are given by way of illustration of the present disclosure and should not be construed to limit the scope of the present disclosure. It is to be understood that both the foregoing general description and the following detailed description are exemplary and explanatory only and are intended to provide further explanation of the claimed subject matter.

Materials and methods

[0068] The delayed coker heavy naphtha (DCHN) stream was characterized and was found to contain 29% olefin. The 1 H NMR analysis if DCHN revealed distinct alpha olefins peaks. The analysis is provided hereinbelow in Table 1-

[0069] The 1 H NMR was carried out using Joel 500 MHz NMR instrument. The simulated distillation (SIMDIS) by gas chromatography is a tool often used in the petrochemical industry to analyze the composition of an oil or gas sample by measuring the boiling point range distribution of the sample components. The same was carried out using AC analytical control systems. Example 1

[0070] DCHN (1000 mL) was added to a round bottom flask containing overhead stirrer in it. To this flask, AlCL/FeCL (90: 10) (15 g) followed by catalytic amount of de-ionized water (500 pL) were added. This flask was quickly set-up with condenser and the reaction was continued at 100 °C (using silicon oil bath) for 6 hours. After the reaction stopped, reaction was cooled to room temperature and it was transferred into separating funnel which was then quenched with water. The organic layer was collected separately and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and then filtered. Collected filtrate was concentrated using rotary evaporator (>190 °C) to afford desired poly alpha olefin product. Yield: 300 mL.

[0071] The obtained product (poly alpha olefin) was found to be good characteristics in terms of viscosity (Viscosity at 100 °C: 2.08 and Viscosity index: 148).

Example 2

[0072] The paraffin wax (representative of wax cracking stream) was subjected to cracking at 390 to 410 °C for a period of 45 minutes to 1 hour. The formed olefins were distilled out from the reaction vessel. The distilled liquid contains the olefins >50 % in the carbon number of C6 to Cl 5, which was added to a round bottom flask containing magnetic stirrer bar in it. To this flask, AlCh/FcCh (90: 10) (2 mol %) followed by catalytic amount of de-ionized water (200 pL) were added. This flask was quickly set-up with condenser and the reaction was continued at 100 °C (using silicon oil bath) for 6 h. After the reaction stopped, reaction was cooled to room temperature and it was transferred into separating funnel which was then quenched with water. The organic layer was collected separately and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and then filtered. Collected filtrate was concentrated using rotary evaporator (> 190 °C) to afford desired poly alpha olefin product. Yield: 85 %.

[0073] The obtained product (poly alpha olefin) was found to be good characteristics in terms of viscosity (Viscosity at 40 °C: 6.08; Viscosity at 100 °C: 2.08 and Viscosity index: 166).

Example 3

[0074] DCHN (300 mL, 90 ml olefins) along with the 1-decene (pure linear alpha olefin; 30 mL, 25 % olefin feed) was added to a round bottom flask containing magnetic stirrer bar in it. To this flask, AlCh/FcCh (50:50) (1 mol %) followed by catalytic amount of de-ionized water (200 pL) were added. This flask was quickly set-up with condenser and the reaction was continued at 100 °C (using silicon oil bath) for 6 hours. After the reaction stopped, reaction was cooled to room temperature and it was transferred into separating funnel which was then quenched with water. The organic layer was collected separately and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and then filtered. Collected filtrate was concentrated using rotary evaporator (>190 °C) to afford desired poly alpha olefin product. Yield: 85 %.

[0075] The obtained product (poly alpha olefin) was found to be good characteristics in terms of viscosity (viscosity at 100 oC: 4.8 cst, Viscosity index: 161 and C p : -50 °C).

Example 4

[0076] Delayed coker naphtha (heavy naphtha) (DCN-HN) (60 mL, 20 mL olefins) along with the wax cracking stream (10 mL, (50 % olefins) 5 ml olefins) was added to a round bottom flask containing magnetic stirrer bar in it. To this flask, AlCh/FcCh (90: 10) ( 1 mol %) followed by catalytic amount of de-ionized water (200 pL) were added. This flask was quickly set-up with condenser and the reaction was continued at 100 °C (using silicon oil bath) for 6 hours. After the reaction stopped, reaction was cooled to room temperature and it was transferred into separating funnel which was then quenched with water. The organic layer was collected separately and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and then filtered. Collected filtrate was concentrated using rotary evaporator (> 190 °C) to afford desired polyalphaolefin product. Yield: 87 %.

[0077] The obtained product (poly alpha olefin) was found to be good characteristics in terms of viscosity (2 cst at 100 °C grade, Viscosity index: 167 and C p : -54).

[0078] Overall the examples 1-4 were noted to provide good viscosity index, wherein cut off of 130 was established. Therefore, a viscosity index of 167, as shown by example 4 was indeed impressive. Furthermore, based on requirement, the viscosity was identified to be tunable, i.e. the same could be increased with an addition of 1-decene.

Example 5

[0079] A series of catalysts comprising of the catalyst composition, i.e. AlCb/FeCb in different molar ratios [A1C13, AlC13/FeC13 (0.7:0.3), AlCb/FeCb (0.5:0.5), AlC13/FeC13 (0.3:0.7), FeC13] were chosen for the 1-decene (pure linear alpha olefin stream) oligomerization catalysis. The analysis of commercially available PAO is provided in Figure 1, clearly indicating percentage of various oligomers. Herein, the remarkable near complete conversion of monomers is clearly identifiable in Figure 3. The oligomer ratio was found to shift towards higher oligomers upon increasing the Lewis acid strength. In this regard, the catalyst compositions comprising AlCb to the FeCb weight ratio of 0.7:0.3, 0.5:0.5 and 0.3:0.7 (i.e. within the range of 1:0.33 to 1:3) were found to result in an impressive conversion towards higher olefins, especially at relatively low temperatures (even at 50 °C). Furthermore, for a particular catalyst, with increase in temperature, the ratio is shifting towards lower oligomer side. The same may be clearly observable from the results depicted in the Figures 2-6 (wherein conditions used are: 1 mol % of catalyst, 120 min reaction time).

[0080] It was surprisingly noted that the catalyst combination of iron chloride- aluminium chloride yielded the PAO (2 cst grade) lubricants without the necessity of distillation of high boiling oligomer products. Furthermore, it was found that the feedstock can be separated easily from the product and the remaining residue can be used for PAO (2 cst grade) base oil. Therefore, with a variation in the Lewis acid strength, it was possible to obtain different grades of low viscosity PAO base stocks (refer Figures 2-6).

[0081] Effect of Sulphur compounds in oligomerization reaction: It was hypothesized that sulphur impurities get impregnated into the PAO matrix. In the presence of nucleophilic thiol or FbS compounds, the carbonium ion formed in the oligomerization reaction can be trapped by Sulphur compounds to form the alpha olefin oligomers containing Sulphur in their backbone. Or thiol-ene reaction with the alkene above 75 °C can also lead to PAO with sulphur compounds. The presence of the catalyst composition of the present disclosure was found to successfully trap sulphur contaminants, thus preventing their incorporation into PAOs. The results of same are enlisted the Table 2 below-

SCD data: Table 2

Table 3: 0.7 % in wax cracked LAOs 0.7 % in wax cracked LAOs 0.34 % <20 ppm

[0082] Further it was noted that the process was equally effective when using wax cracking stream (refer Table 3 above), wherein the PAO was found to have < 20 ppm content of Sulphur compound.

Advantages of the present disclosure

[0083] The process of the present disclosure provides an efficient route for obtaining PAOs from low value crude petroleum streams such as DCHN, wax cracking stream. The process also provides an added advantage of ensuring removal of sulphur contamination, thus requiring no additional Sulphur-removal step. The process of the present disclosure utilizing a catalyst combination comprising AlCb and FcCh was found to thus found to be both cost and energy efficient.

[0084] Although the subject matter has been described in considerable details with reference to certain examples and embodiments, this description is not meant to be construed in a limiting sense. Various modifications of the disclosed embodiments, as well as alternate embodiments of the subject matter, will become apparent to persons skilled in the art upon reference to the description of the subject matter. It is therefore contemplated that such modifications can be made without departing from the present subject matter as defined.