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Patent Searching and Data


Title:
STUD WITH LENGTHWISE INDENTED RIBS AND METHOD
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2007/082366
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A steel stud member (10) for use in supporting structures and having reduced thickness as compared with conventional studs, and having a web (12) having side edges , flanges (14) and (16) on the side edges, formed at angles to the web, the web and the flanges enclosing inside surfaces , and having outside surfaces for mounting structure, and plurality of narrow indented longitudinal ribs (20) formed in the flanges, and in the web, indented inwardly from the outside to the inside of the flanges , providing greater load bearing capacity for a given gauge of steel. Also disclosed is a method of making such a steel member.

Inventors:
BODNAR ERNEST R (CA)
Application Number:
PCT/CA2007/000044
Publication Date:
July 26, 2007
Filing Date:
January 12, 2007
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
GCG HOLDINGS LTD (BS)
BODNAR ERNEST R (CA)
International Classes:
E04C3/09; B21D7/00; B21D13/10; B21D19/00; B21K21/04; F16S3/00
Foreign References:
US5527625A1996-06-18
CA1324872C1993-12-07
US4324082A1982-04-13
US5157883A1992-10-27
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
GEORGES ROLSTON AND ASSOCIATES (Suite 900 Toronto, Ontario M2N 5W9, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:

CLAIMS;

1. A reinforced indented sheet metal stud (10) for use in construction and having a web (12) defining side edges and an axis, a first flange (14) along one side edge, and a second flange (16) along the other side edge, said web and said flanges defining inside surfaces and mounting surfaces opposite one another, and being characterized by ; longitudinal indented ribs (20) formed along at least one of said first and second flanges, parallel to said web axis and, and wherein said indented ribs in said flanges are formed as depressions from said mounting surface extending into said inside surface, to avoid obstruction of said mounting surfaces of said flanges.

2. A reinforced indented sheet metal stud (10) as claimed in Claim 1 , being further characterized by two said flanges (14,16) bent at right angles to said web (12) and longitudinal indented ribs (20) in both said flanges.

3. A reinforced indented sheet metal stud as claimed in Claim 1 being further characterized by depressions (28) formed in said web (12) at spaced intervals, and openings (30) formed in said depressions.

4. A reinforced indented sheet metal stud as claimed in Claim 1 being further characterized by having an embedment edge (16A, 34) which is formed along one said flange, for embedment in concrete .

5. A reinforced indented sheet metal stud as claimed in Claim 1 being further characterized by openings (24) through said web at spaced intervals therealong, of predetermined size and profile, at least a side portion (25) of said web displaced from said opening remaining attached integrally to said web, a first bend formed in said side portion, a second bend formed in said side portion spaced from said first bend, said first and second bends being formed along axes parallel to said web axis to define reinforcing channels.

6. A reinforced indented sheet metal stud as claimed in Claim 5 being further characterized by a cross brace member (70) having fastenings (72, 74) with a snap-in engagement for insertion into said web openings.

7. A reinforced indented sheet metal stud as claimed in Claim 5 being further characterized by depressions (28) formed in said web at spaced intervals and, openings (40) formed in said depressions to reduce heat transfer.

8. A reinforced indented sheet metal stud as claimed in Claim 5

being further characterized by openings (24) which are shaped with opposed linear side edges, side portions (46) of said web integral with said linear side edges being formed into said channel shapes.

9. A reinforced indented sheet metal stud as claimed in Claim 1 being further characterized by an embedment edge (16A, 34) on a said flange being angled at an angle to said web and a locking strip (36) formed along said embedment edge (16A, 34) for embedment in a concrete panel.

10. A reinforced indented sheet metal stud as claimed in Claim 9 being further characterized by openings (24) through said web at spaced intervals therealong, of predetermined size and profile, at least a side portion (25) of said web displaced from said opening remaining attached integrally to said web, a first bend formed in said side portion, a second bend formed in said side portion spaced from said first bend, said first and second bends being formed along axes parallel to said web axis to define reinforcing channels.

11. A reinforced indented sheet metal stud as claimed in Claim 1 being further characterized by being formed of sheet metal having a gauge between 0.149 inch and .1196 inch, and a web width of between 3.625 and 14.00 inch , and flange width of between 1.25 and 3.0 inch, and wherein the indented ribs have a depth of between .125 and.50 inch and a rib width of between .0625 and .50 inch.

12. A reinforced indented sheet metal stud as claimed in Claim 9 being further characterized by having a spacing between said indented ribs in said web of between .50 and .25 inch .

13. A reinforced indented sheet metal stud as claimed in Claim 12 being further characterized by having a spacing between said indented ribs in said flanges of between .50 and .25 inch .

14. A reinforced indented sheet metal stud as claimed in Claim 9 being further characterized by being formed of sheet metal having a gauge between 0.149 inch and .1196 inch, and a web width of between 3.625 and 14.00 inch , and flange width of between 1.25 and 3.0 inch, and wherein the indented ribs have a depth of between .125 and.50 inch and a rib width of between .0625 and .50 inch.

15. A reinforced indented sheet metal stud as claimed in Claim 9

being further characterized by having a spacing between said indented ribs in said web of between .50 and .25 inch .

16. A reinforced indented sheet metal stud as claimed in Claim 12 being further characterized by having a spacing between said indented ribs in said flanges of between .50 and .25 inch .

17. A method of making a reinforced indented sheet metal stud characterized by the steps of; forming sheet metal strip having a web (12) with side edges, and flanges (14, 16) along each said side edge, forming longitudinal indented ribs (20) in said web , forming longitudinal indented ribs (18) in said flanges, bending said flanges relative to said web whereby to define a mounting surface and an inside surface of said stud, said ribs being formed as depressions indented from said mounting surface into said inside surface, and, bending lips on said flanges.

18. A method of making a reinforced indented sheet metal stud as claimed in Claim 17 and further characterized by the steps of; forming main web openings (24) in said sheet metal strip at spaced intervals prior to forming said indented ribs , and subsequently forming edge flanges (26) around said openings .

19. A method of making a reinforced indented sheet metal stud as claimed in Claim 18 and further characterized by the steps of; bending said edge flanges (26) to form a reinforcement channel (25) on at least one side of each said opening (24).

20. A method of making a reinforced indented sheet metal stud as claimed in Claim 18 wherein said main web openings (24) define ribs (32) in said web between said main web openings, and further characterized by the steps of; forming further openings (28) in said web in said ribs , and forming indented edge flanges around said further openings.

Description:

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The invention relates to steel studs or structural members formed with edge formations and lengthwise indented ribs. In a particular preferred form the studs are formed with openings and edge formations along at least one side of the openings formed with at least two bends at respective first and second angles with respect to the plane of the stud.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Steel studs of a wide variety have been proposed for erecting structures. Usually such studs are used to replace wooden studs. Wood is a relatively poor heat transfer medium. Heat loss through wooden studs has not been a significant problem in the past. Metal studs having solid webs however, do create a heat loss transfer path through the exterior wall or other structure. This results in cold patches along the lines of the studs. Condensation, known as "ghosting" appears along these lines.

Such studs usually were formed as a C-section, i.e. there was a central web, and the opposite side edges of the web were formed into edge flanges. Several such bends were sometime incorporated in an effort to get greater strength, while using thinner gauge metal. However this did not overcome the heat transfer problem. Accordingly metal studs have been proposed with reduced heat transfer properties. These studs were formed with generally triangular or trapezoidal openings, in the web, while the two edges were formed with bends, as before. Heat losses were thus reduced since there was less metal through which the heat could pass.

The shape of these openings tended to restrict the size of the conduits which could be passed through the studs.

Rounded openings in the studs avoid the problems caused by the corners of the triangular or trapezoidal openings and splitting of metal, and greatly facilitates high speed manufacture of such studs because there is less stud length lost in the cut to length process.

It is now found that the load bearing capacity of a given stud of a given gauge can be increased substantially. This can be achieved by forming narrow,

longitudinal indented ribs, along the stud, and also by forming narrow longitudinal indented ribs in the web stud.

Another use of such studs is in concrete panels. Concrete panels of reduced thickness are now reinforced by a framework of metal studs partially embedded in the concrete. The studs provide great strength to the panels, and also facilitate erection and attachment of the panels to the structure.

These novel studs with longitudinal indented ribs can be made with edge formations for embedment in concrete.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

With a view to achieving the foregoing and other objectives the invention comprises a steel member for use in supporting structures and having a web defining side edges and an axis, a flange formed at an angle on at least one side edge, the flange and the web defining inside surfaces and mounting surfaces opposite to one another, and being characterized by longitudinal indented ribs formed along said at least one flange, parallel to said web axis, the indentations being formed, from said mounting surfaces into said inside surfaces.

The stud may also have longitudinal indented ribs formed along its web.

The invention further seeks to provide a steel member as described including openings formed in said web at spaced intervals, and flanges formed around said openings, being indented from said outside to said inside surfaces.

The invention further provides a steel member as described, which is particularly suited for embedment in concrete, and has a further edge flange which is formed as embedment edge.

The invention further seeks to provide a steel member as described, which is particularly suited for use in the supporting of dry wall partitions, and may incorporate a cross brace with a snap-in engagement.

The invention further provides a steel member for use in supporting structures and having reduced heat transfer characteristics as compared with solid web studs, and having a web defining side edges and an axis, a flange on at least one side edge, openings through said web at spaced intervals therealong, of

predetermined size and profile, at least a side portion of said web displaced from said opening from said outside to said inside surfaces and remaining attached integrally to said web, a first bend formed in said side portion, a second bend formed in said side portion spaced from said first bend, said first and second bends being formed along axes parallel to said web axis, and defining channel shaped reinforcements .

The invention further seeks to provide a steel member as described including depressions formed in said web at spaced intervals indented from said outside to said inside surfaces and, openings formed in said depressions to reduce heat transfer.

The invention further seeks to provide a steel member as described wherein said openings are shaped with opposed linear side edges, side portions of said web integral with said linear side edges being formed into said channel shapes along said inside surfaces .

The invention further seeks to provide a steel member as described wherein a further flange is formed on a second edge of said web, said further flange being angled at an angle to said web and an embedment lip formed along said further flange for embedment in a concrete panel.

The invention also provides a method of making steel member having a web and side edges, and an edge flange along at least one said side edge, and longitudinal indented ribs in said web and said edge flange, being characterized by the steps of, forming a strip of sheet metal with longitudinal indented ribs in a web portion and in an edge flange portion, bending edge flange portion relative to said web portion, so as to form inside and outside surfaces , and bending a lip on said edge flange portion.

The various features of novelty which characterize the invention are pointed out with more particularity in the claims annexed to and forming a part of this disclosure. For a better understanding of the invention, its operating advantages and specific objects attained by its use, reference should be made to the accompanying drawings and descriptive matter in which there are illustrated and described preferred embodiments of the invention.

IN THE DRAWINGS

Figure 1 is a perspective illustration of a stud illustrating one embodiment of the invention, with narrow longitudinal indented ribs;

Figure 2 is a side elevation of the stud of Fig 1 ;

Figure 3 is a section along line 3-3 of Fig 2;

Figure 4 is a perspective of a further embodiment of stud illustrating another embodiment of the invention for embedment in concrete in which are numerous, narrow, longitudinal indented ribs; and an embedment edge for embedment in concrete;

Figure 5 is a side elevation of the stud of Fig 4;

Figure 6 is a section along line 6 - 6 of Fig 5;

Figure 7 is a perspective of a further embodiment of stud for use in reinforcing concrete panels;

Figure 8 is a side elevation of the stud of Fig 7;

Figure 9 is a section along 9 - 9 of Fig 8;

Figure 10 is a section of a modification similar to Figure 1.

Figure 11 is a perspective of a further embodiment, and incorporating x-shaped transverse indented ribs, as well as longitudinal indented ribs;

Figure 12 is a side elevation of Fig. 11 ;

Figure 13 is a section along the line 13 - 13 of Fig. 12;

Figure 14 is a section of a modification similar to Figure 3;

Figure 15 is a perspective of a further embodiment of a stud particularly suitable for the erection of dry wall partitions;

Figure 16 is a reverse perspective of Fig. 15;

Figure 17 is a perspective illustration illustrating a cross bracing member adapted to extend transversely between two studs;

Figure 18 is a perspective illustration of a further embodiment of a dry wall stud;

Figure 19 is a illustration of a further embodiment of a dry wall stud;

Figure 20 is a schematic section illustrating the ranges of dimensions of the various indented ribs and flanges and webs of the studs;

Figure 21 is an enlarged detail of the detail 21 of Fig. 20;

Figure 22 is a table of the ranges of dimensions, which may be used for various modified forms of studs;

Figure 23 is an illustration of an indenting roll forming tool, suitable for indenting ribs according to the invention into the metal webs used manufacture of these studs; and

Figure 24 is a perspective similar to Fig. 17 showing an alternate cross bracing member.

DESCRIPTION OF A SPECIFIC EMBODIMENT

As already described the invention provides sheet metal studs, suitable for use in erecting various structures, walls, floors, roofs, and the like and also internal partition walls. The invention also provides sheet metal studs suitable for use in reinforcement of thin-shell concrete panels which are widely used in completing walls, in particular. Such thin-shell structures can also form floors, roofs and the like. The invention also provides a method of making such studs. Referring to Fig. 1 it will be seen that the invention is there illustrated in the form of a stud (10), formed of sheet metal, in this case steel. The stud (10) has a web (12) which is essentially planar, and edge flanges (14) and (16) along each side edge of the web (12). Each of the flanges (14) (16) is formed by bending side edges of the web (12) at right angles. Lips (18) are formed on each edge flange (14 -16) again at right angles.

The flanges, and the web define a generally C-shape in section, having "inside" surfaces , around the inside of the C- shape, and outer "mounting " surfaces, around the outside of the C-shape, to which other structure can be attached. Longitudinal indented ribs (20) are formed by indenting along each edge flange (14-16) for greater load bearing. Longitudinal indented ribs (22) are also formed by indenting ribs inwardly along web (12) ,(Fig. 4, 7 & 11.) The longitudinal indented ribs (20) are indented from the mounting surfaces inwardly into the inside surfaces. In this way the mounting surfaces are left clear for the attachment of other structure, which may be any form of wall material, such as outer sheathing, or for example , drywall panels, not shown. It also assists in the insertion of fastenings for such structure, as will be explained below.

This stud may be intended for external or internal use, typically in the erecting of walls or partitions between spaces in a commercial or office building, for example. Studs of larger dimensions can be used for floor, ceilings, roofs and any structure requiring greater load capacity.

This stud may also be made for embedment and would then have a flange (16A) (Fig. 4) in place of flange (16).

These two features of longitudinal ribs (20) (and in larger stud ribs (22)) enable the studs to be made of a reduced thickness or gauge of sheet metal, without sacrificing anything in the load bearing capacity of rigidity or firmness. Openings (24) are formed through the web at regular spaced intervals. Between the web openings (24), portions of the web define transverse struts (26). This form of construction substantially reduces the heat transfer from one side edge of the web to the other.

Generally circular depressions (28) are formed at each end of struts (26), and openings, such as slots (30) are formed in depressions (28). The rigidity of such studs can be further increased by transverse ribs (32) formed across the web at each end of the member. These transverse ribs (32) may simply be straight ribs running at right angles to the web axis. Diagonal ribs can also be provided, as described below.

A further form of stud is shown in Figs. 4, 5 and 6. In these Figures, similar components as in Fig 1 , 2 & 3 have the same numbers. The openings (24) are trapezoidal. The struts (26) are diagonal. Reinforced side portions (25) are formed into channels on opposite sides of the opening. Depressions (28) have circular holes in place of slots. However, the flange (16) of the Fig. 1 embodiment is replaced by the flange (16A). The flange (16A) is formed with an embedment edge (34), and a locking strip (36). Typically, the embedment edge (34) will be formed with a series of through openings punched out. The purpose of the embedment edge and the locking strip is that they can be embedded in poured concrete, when forming a composite concrete wall panel, so as to provide a secure anchoring of the concrete to the frame work of studs, all of which is known in the art. This stud may also have the flange 16 of Fig. 1 where the embedment edge is not required.

Figures 7, 8 and 9 illustrate a stud similar to the Fig. 4 embodiment , that is to say, this particular stud is designed for concrete embedment and reinforcement, in the same way as at the Fig. 4 embodiment.

It has essentially the same features as the Fig. 1 and the Fig. 4 embodiments, and has the same modified flange (16A) with embedment edge (34) and locking strip (36) in the same way as the Fig. 4 embodiment. In this case, however, additional longitudinal indented web ribs (22) are shown, extending along the web longitudinally. These web ribs add significantly to the load bearing capacity of the stud.

In this embodiment, the openings (24) are of somewhat different shape than the openings (24) in the Figures 1 and 4 embodiments, and by virtue of their different shape, the transverse struts (26) between the openings are arranged in alternating diagonal fashion rather than in the parallel fashion of the Figure 1 embodiment.

The other modification in this embodiment is that the end transverse ribs (38) are somewhat diagonal, rather than being simply transverse to the axis of the stud, at right angles.

Figure 10 illustrates the stud of Figures 7, 8 and 9, with the right angle edge flange (16) in place of the embedment flange (16A).

The embodiment of Figures 11 , 12, 13 and 14 is a further modification of the

Figure 7 embodiment, of still greater load bearing capacity. In this case, the stud has all of the same essential features as shown in Figures 1 , 4 and 7. However, in this case, there are lip ribs (40) indented in the lips (18). In addition, the transverse ribs (42) are now arranged the form a letter X. Ribs (42) are placed in pairs between each opening (24).

Depressions (28) are formed with holes (44) rather than the slots (30) of the

Figures 1 though 7 embodiments.

An additional feature is the feature of the internal reinforcement channel (46)

(also shown in Fig. 4). These are formed by turning a portion of the web (12) inwardly around two right angle bends (Fig. 13) so as to form reinforcement channels along opposite linear sides of the openings (24).

Figure 14 shows a modification of this embodiment of Fig. 11 , having an embedment flange (16A), with an embedment edge (34) and a locking strip (36) in the same manner as the embodiment of Fig. 7.

Figures 15 and 16 are front and rear perspectives of a dry wall stud indicated generally as (50).

This dry wall stud is usually formed of thinner gauge material than the heavier duty studs of Figures 1 through 14. In this case, the stud (50) has a web (52), and flanges (54) (56) with lips (58). Flange ribs (60) are formed in the flanges (54) and (56) and web ribs (62) are formed in the web (52). Openings (64) are formed through the web, and are preferably surrounded by depressions (66). Corner ribs extending transversely of the web and the flanges (54) and (56) respectively, are shown as (68). These are indented at spaced intervals along the stud so as to add further rigidity to the flanges (54) and (56). This will materially assist in the insertion of dry wall screws when dry wall panels are secured.

When erecting dry wall framing in particular, it is desirable to incorporate some form of transverse cross braces between adjacent upright studs. Such a transverse bracing is illustrated in Figure 17. In this case, the stud of Figure 15 is shown, connected with a transverse bracing member (70). This bracing member is a simple right-angular L shaped section, formed with a series of generally L shaped slots (72). The L shaped slots (72) define flexible tongues (74), which are deflected slightly out of the plane of the material. The bracing members (70) can simply be flexed slightly, and inserted through the openings (64) in the stud (50). The tongues (74) will flex slightly and allow the bracing members to spring outwardly into the original position. The slots (72) and tongues (74) will lock and capture the edges of the web (52) around the opening (64), in the manner shown in Figure 17.

Figures 18 and 19 illustrate further minor modifications for a dry wall stud. In this case, the dry wall stud is indicated as (80) having a web (82) and flanges (84) and (86). Flanges ribs (88) are formed in the flanges. Web ribs (90) arranged in a generally diagonal fashion extend across the web (82). The web ribs may simply either be alternating diagonal defining V shapes, or may define Y shapes.

Preferably, corner bracing ribs (92) are formed to assist in bracing the flanges against flexing, during insertion of the dry wall screws.

Figures 20 and 21 illustrate a schematic section of a typical stud with indented ribs such as the stud of Figure 7 or Figure 11 , for example. The dimensions of the studs may vary in terms of web width illustrated as A and in terms of flange width illustrated as B, and in terms of lip height illustrated as C. These variations may be within the range of the variations indicated in the table of Figure 22.

The thickness or gauge of the sheet material , shown as T, may vary according to the table of Figure 22.

The depth and width of the longitudinal indented ribs is indicated as D and E in

Figure 21 and their variations are illustrated in Table of Figure 22.

The spacing between the longitudinal indented ribs in the flanges and when used, in the web, may vary within the range indicated in Figure 22, by the letters

X, XX 1 Y, Z and ZZ.

Within these ranges it is found that the longitudinal indented ribs provide significant increases in load bearing capacity.

The ribs may be indented into the material by using a pair of rolls indicated schematically in Figure 23. In this case an upper roll (100) defines a groove

(102). A lower roll (104) defines a rim (106).

Within the two rolls, sheet metal material of a wide variety of thicknesses or gauge may be advantageously formed with indented ribs, the effect of the rolls varying somewhat depending on the thickness of the gauge of the material, as is indicated in phantom in Figure 23.

These studs enable the use of a reduction in thickness or gauge of sheet metal.

It is anticipated that a reduction of at least one gauge and probably two gauges can be achieved while still providing adequate support to a wall or a concrete panel. This will reduce the cost of the walls or panels. It will also reduce the heat transfer through the panel and stud, since the reduction in gauge reduces the actual mass of metal available to provide a heat transfer path.

The erecting of interior partitions is commonly completed by erecting a frame work of metal studs. Studs are erected usually on 16 inch centres. Top and bottom channels provide a means of anchoring the tops and bottoms of the

vertical studs. In order to reduce the metal required in such studs, the thickness or gauge of the steel is reduced to a minimum, compatible with providing a reasonably firm wall or partition. Reduction of metal also reduces the weight loading per floor on a building, which can also result in substantial saving in the construction of the building fabric. Such walls usually involve the completion of each side of the wall by panels of gypsum wall board, so-called dry wall. Usually, these panels are secured to the studs by screws having chisel points, which will drill through the metal of the stud and are self-tapping. It is well known, however, that the insertion of such screws can be hindered, if the metal forming the stud is made too thin. In this case, the stud flanges will simply bend when the pressure of the screw point is applied to it, and the screw will slip off. The present invention utilizes narrow longitudinal indented ribs in the edge flanges of the stud and also in the web of larger studs. These narrow longitudinal indented ribs substantially increase the rigidity of the edge flanges which facilitate the insertion of self-tapping screws. In addition, the longitudinal indented ribs provide narrow grooves for anchoring the tip of the screw so that it will not slip when pressure is applied to it to provide the drilling and self-tapping action.

Manufacture of the studs of the invention, would typically proceed by passing a continuous strip of flat sheet metal through a series of narrowly spaced a part rib roller dies (100-104). These dies can conceivably be mounted all on one shaft. Alternatively, however, they may be mounted on a series of separate shafts spaced apart along the production line. The effect of passing the flat strip through these rib roller dies will be to form narrow longitudinal indented ribs, in the portions of the strip which will eventually form the web, and the edge flanges and the lips of the stud. Once the ribs are fully formed, the strip of sheet metal will then pass through bending roller dies (not shown) which will bend the lips on the edge flanges and will then bend the edge flanges relative to the webs, thereby forming the studs. Such bending rolls are well known in the art and require no illustration or description . The studs will, of course, be cut to suitable length in a mechanism of which several types are well known in the art.

In the event that it is required to form any additional formations in the web, or transverse ribs openings or the like, then typically these will be formed in a rotary die machine, which will be located downstream of the longitudinal rib dies, but before the bending dies. Such rotary die machines are known in the art.

Alternatively, however, in some cases it is possible that flying die systems may be used, although these will generally speaking require a slower production speed.

Cutting to length will normally be performed upstream of the dies where the strip sheet is still flat and unformed. In this way each piece of sheet metal passing through the various punching and forming and roll forming sequences is already precut to the exact length required for the finished stud.

It also possible to cut to length downstream of the roller dies, in some cases.

It must be remembered that in cutting to length, provision must be left at each end of each stud to leave end portions of the stud free of openings, so that it can be placed in an eventual structure, with all of the openings in each stud aligned with one another across the structure. This will greatly facilitate the installation of services through the openings.

Suitable controls which form no part of the invention are incorporated in the rotary press so that the rotary press is timed to operate exactly where required on each stud. Where openings are not required, at each end of each stud, the controls disable the rotary press so that leading and trailing ends of the sheet metal pass through unpunched and unformed.

The term "indented" as used herein is intended to define the effect of forming the lengthwise ribs. The ribs are deflected inwardly towards the space enclosed with the shape of the C section of the stud. This leaves the exterior surface of the two flanges free to receive wall finishing panels such as dry wall or similar panels.

In these illustrations, studs are shown for explanation only, and are relatively short. Clearly in most cases the studs would be longer, as required by the particular structure for which they are required.

An alternate form of cross-bracing is shown in Fig. 24. In this case, the stud (50) has an opening (64) with one end formed linear as at (64A). Simple channels ©)

can then be used as cross bracings between the vertical studs. Such channels can be formed with cuts at intervals (not shown) similar to Fig 17, if desired to assist in gripping each vertical stud.

The foregoing is a description of a preferred embodiment of the invention which is given here by way of example only. The invention is not to be taken as limited to any of the specific features as described, but comprehends all such variations thereof as come within the scope of the appended claims.